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Single-Plate Connections
A single-plate connection is made with a plate as illustrated in Figure 9-15. The plate is
always welded to the support on both sides of the plate and bolted to the supported
Design Checks
The design strengths of the bolts and/or welds and connected elements must be deter-
mined in accordance with the LRFD Specification; the applicable limit states are
discussed in Part 8. In all cases, the design strength Rn must equal or exceed the required
strength Ru.
Eccentricity must be considered in the design of the single-plate connection; the bolts
must be designed for the shear Ru and eccentric moment Rueb. The eccentricity on the
bolts eb depends upon the support condition present and whether standard or short-slotted
holes are used in the plate (Astaneh et al., 1989).
A flexible support possesses relatively low rotational stiffness and permits the adjacent
simply supported beam end rotation to be accommodated primarily through this support-
ing members rotation. Such an end condition may exist with one-sided beam-to-girder-
web connections or with deep beams connected to relatively light columns. For a flexible
support with standard holes:
eb = (n 1) a a
where a is the distance between the bolt line and weld line (see Figure 9-15), in., and n
is the number of bolts.
For a flexible support with short-slotted holes:

eb = a a
In contrast, a rigid support possesses relatively high rotational stiffness which constrains
the adjacent simply supported beam end rotation to occur primarily within the end
connection, such as a beam-to-column-flange connection or two concurrent beam-to-
girder-web connections. For a rigid support with standard holes:
eb = (n 1) a
For a rigid support with short-slotted holes

eb = a
When the support condition is intermediate between flexible and rigid or cannot be
readily classified as flexible or rigid, the larger value of eb may conservatively be taken
from the above equations.
For any combination of support condition and hole type, the 70 ksi electrode weld size
should be equal to three-quarters of the plate thickness tp for plate material with Fy = 36
ksi and Fu = 58 ksi. This ensures that the weld will not be the critical element in the
connection, i.e., the plate yields before the weld yields. 6<a<9 cm
The foregoing procedure is valid for single-plate connections with 212-in. a 312-in.



Recommended Plate Length and Thickness

To provide for stability during erection, it is recommended that the minimum plate length
be one-half the T-dimension of the beam to be supported. The maximum length of the
plate must be compatible with the T-dimension of an uncoped beam and the remaining
web depth, exclusive of fillets, of a coped beam. Note that the plate may encroach on the
fillet or fillets by 18-in. to 516-in., depending upon the radius of the fillets; refer to
Table 9-1. Note that if single-plate connections are used for laterally unsupported beams,
for stability under service loading, the minimum depth connection as determined above
should be increased by one row of bolts.
To prevent local buckling of the plate, the minimum plate thickness should be such
L 1
tp min = 4 in. =6mm
where L is the length of the plate as illustrated in Figure 9-15. This minimum thickness
is based on a simple conservative model which assumes that one-half the plate depth is
subjected to uniform compression from flexure. Whereas usual local buckling limits are
derived for long compression elements with plate aspect ratios approaching infinity, this
case requires consideration of much shorter compression lengths using the aspect ratio
a 2a

and elastic plate-buckling theory for assumed simple and free edges in the direction of
the flexural compression. The above minimum thickness is valid for A36 material only
and a L / 4 for values of L between 12 in. and 27 in.; material specifications with higher
yield strengths should not be used. The 14-in. absolute minimum thickness is adequate
for two- and three-bolt single plates with a = 3 in. Accordingly, Figure 9-15 lists the
minimum plate thicknesses upon which Tables 9-10 are based. To provide for rotational
ductility in the single plate, the maximum plate thickness should be such that

a L eh

Minimum Plate Thickness

1 n 1 @ 3 1

n t p min, in.
25 4=6 mm

67 /16 =8
8 8
16 =11

Figure 9-15. Single-plate connections.



tp max = + 116 in. tp min
where db is the bolt diameter, in.
Shop and Field Practices
Single-plate connections may be made to the webs of supporting girders and to the flanges
of supporting columns. Because of bolting clearances, field-bolted single-plate connections
may not be suitable for connections to the webs of supporting columns unless provision is
made to extend the plate to locate the bolt line a sufficient distance beyond the column flanges.
Such extension may require stiffening of the plate and the column web.
With the plate shop-attached to the support, side erection of the beam is permitted.
Play in the open holes usually compensates for mill variation in column flange supports
and other field adjustments. Thus, slotted holes are not normally required.
Bolted/Welded Single-Plate Connections
Tables 9-10 are design aids for single-plate connections welded to the support and bolted
to the supported beam. Separate tables are included for supported and supporting member
material with Fy = 36 ksi and Fu = 58 ksi and with Fy = 50 ksi and Fu = 65 ksi. Plate material
is assumed to have Fy = 36 ksi and Fu = 58 ksi.
Tabulated bolt and plate design strengths consider the limit states of bolt shear, bolt bearing
on the plate, shear yielding of the plate, shear rupture of the plate, block shear rupture of the
plate, and weld shear. Values are tabulated for two through nine rows of 34-in., 78-in., and 1
in. diameter A325 and A490 bolts at three inches spacing. For calculation purposes, plate
edge distances Lev and Leh are assumed to be 112-in. Weld sizes are tabulated equal to 34tp.
While the tabular values are based on a = 3 in., they may conservatively be used for
values of a between 212-in. and 3 in.; the designer may find it advantageous to recalculate
the design strength of this connection for values of a between 212-in. and 3 in. The
tabulated values are valid for laterally supported beams, in steel and composite construc-
tion, all types of loading, snug-tightened and fully-tensioned bolts, and for supported and
supporting members of all grades of steel.

Example 9-11

Given: Design a single-plate connection for a W1650 beam to a W1490

column flange.
Ru = 55 kips
tw = 0.380 in. d = 16.26 in. tf = 0.630 in.
Fy = 50 ksi, Fu = 65 ksi
tf = 0.710 in.
Fy = 50 ksi, Fu = 65 ksi
Use 34-in. diameter A325-N bolts in standard holes and 70 ksi electrode
welds. Assume single plate material with Fy = 36 ksi and Fu = 58 ksi.