Chapter 2
7
1 2 3
6 4
5 4
2
1
3
5 4
2
1
3
Connectivity various elements to form the network can be shown by the bus
incidence matrix A. For above system, this matrix is obtained as
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1 1 1
2 1 1 1 1
A = (2.1)
1 1
3
1 1 1
4
Element voltages are referred as v1, v2, v3, v4, v5, v6 and v7. Element currents are
referred as i1, i2, i3, i4, i5, i6 and i7. In power system network, bus voltages and bus
currents are of more useful. For the above network, the bus voltages are V 1, V2, V3
and V4. The bus voltages are always measured with respect to the ground bus.
The bus currents are designated as I1, I2, I3, and I4. The element voltages are
related to bus voltages as:
7
v1 =  V1
1 2 3 v2 =  V2
6 4
5 4 v3 =  V4
2 v4 = V4 V3
1
3
v5 = V2  V3
v6 = V1 V2
0
v7 = V2 V4
Expressing the relation in matrix form
v1 1 V1
v 1
2
v 3 1 V2 (2.2)
1 1
v 4 =
v 5 1 1 V3
v 6 1 1
V4
v 1 1
7
I2 I1 =  i1 + i6
I3
6 I4
I1
5 4
I2 =  i2 + i5 i6 + i7
2 3 4
1
2 I3 =  i4 i5
1
3
I4 =  i3 + i4 i7
0
I1 =  i1 + i6
I2 =  i2 + i5 i6 + i7
I3 =  i4 i5
I4 =  i3 + i4 i7
v1 z 11 z 12 z 13 z 14 z 15 z 16 z 17 i1
v z z 22 z 23 z 24 z 25 z 26 z 27 i
2 21 2
v 3 z 31 z 32 z 33 z 34 z 35 z 36 z 37 i 3
v
4 = z 41 z 42 z 43 z 44 z 45 z 46 z 47 i 4 (2.5)
v 5 z 51 z 52 z 53 z 54 z 55 z 56 z 57 i 5
6
v z 61 z 62 z 63 z 64 z 65 z 66 z 67 i 6
v z z 77 i
7 71 z 72 z 73 z 74 z 75 z 76 7
Here zii is the self impedance of element i and z ij is the mutual impedance
between elements i and j. In matrix notation the above can be written as
v =z i (2.6)
i=y v (2.7)
i=y v (2.7)
Here Vbus is the bus voltage vector, Ibus is the bus current vector and Zbus is the
bus impedance matrix. The inverse form of above is
Here Ybus is known as bus impedance matrix. Matrices Zbus and Ybus are inverses
of each other.
Derivation of bus admittance matrix
v = AT Vbus (2.3)
Ibus = A i (2.4)
i=y v (2.7)
Ibus = Ybus Vbus (2.9)
Substituting eq. (2.7) in eq. (2.4)
Ibus = A y v (2.10)
Ybus = A y AT (2.12)
This is a very general formula for bus admittance matrix and admits mutual
coupling between elements.
In power system problems mutual couplings will have negligible effect and often
omitted. In that case the primitive impedance matrix z and the primitive
admittance matrix y are diagonal and Ybus can be obtained by inspection. This is
illustrated through the sevenelements network considered earlier. When mutual
couplings are neglected
y 11
y 22
y 33
y y 44
(2.13)
y 55
y 66
y 77
Ybus = A y AT
y 11 1
y 22
1
y 33 1
= A y 44 1 1
y 55 1 1
y 66 1 1
y 77 1 1
y11
1 1 y22
=
y33
1 1 1 1
y44 y44
1 1
y55 y55
1 1 1 y66 y66
y77 y77
1 2 3 4
1 2 3
6 4
5 4
2
1
3
The diagonal element Yii equals the sum of the admittances directly
connected to bus i.
The offdiagonal element Yij equals the negative of the admittance
connected between buses i and j. If there is no element between buses i
and j, then Yij equals to zero.
Bus admittance matrix can be constructed by adding the elements one by one.
Separating the entries corresponding to the element 5 that is connected between
buses 2 and 3 the above Ybus can be written as
1 2 3 4
3 0 0 y44  y44
Ybus =
4 0 y77  y44 y33 + y44 + y77
1 2 3 4
1 6 2 3
1 0 0 0 0 4
4
2 0 y55  y55 0
2
1 3
+ 3 0  y55 y55 0
4 0 0 0 0
0
It can be inferred that the effect of adding element 5 between buses 2 and 3 is to
add admittance y55 to elements Ybus(2,2) and Ybus(3,3) and add y55 to elements
Ybus(2,3) and Ybus(3,2). To construct the bus admittance matrix Ybus, initially all the
elements are set to zero; then network elements are added one by one, each time
four elements of Ybus are modified.
Example 2.1
Consider the power network shown in Fig. 2.2. The ground bus is marked as 0.
Grounding impedances at buses 1, 2, and 4 are j0.6 , j0.4 and j0.5
respectively. Impedances of the elements 34, 23, 12 and 24 are j0.25 , j0.2 ,
j0.2 and j0.5 . The mutual impedance between elements 23 and 24 is j0.1 .
Obtain the bus admittance matrix of the power network.
4
1 2
The oriented graph of the network, with impedances marked is shown in Fig. 2.3.
j 0.5 7
1 2 3
j 0.2 j 0.1 4 4
6 5
j 0.2 j 0.25
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1 1.6667
2 2.5
3 2.0
y = j 4 4.0
5 5.5556 1.1111
6 5.0
7 1.1111 2.2222
1 1
1 1 1 1
A =
1 1
1 1 1
Bus admittance matrix Ybus = A y AT
1.6667 1
2.5
1
2.0
Ybus =  j A 1
4.0
5.5556 1.1111 1 1
5.0 1 1
1.1111 2.2222 1 1
1 1
1.6667
1 1  2.5
1 1 1 1  2.0
Ybus =  j  4.0 4.0
1 1
4.4444  5.5556 1.1111
1 1 1
5.0  5.0
1.1111 1.1111  2.2222
1 2 3 4
1  j6.6667 j5.0 0 0
Neglect the mutual impedance and obtain Ybus for the power network described in
example 2.1.
Solution
 j1.6667,  j2.5,  j2.0,  j4.0,  j5.0,  j5.0 and j2.0. They are marked blow.
 j2.0 7
1 2 3
 j 5.0 4
6 5
 j5.0  j 4.0 4
50.2
 j 1.6667  j 2.5  j 2.0
1 2
3
0
1 2 3 4
1
 j6.6667 j5.0 0 0
2
Ybus = j5.0  j14.5 j5.0 j2.0
3
0 j5.0  j9.0 j4.0
4
0 j2.0 j4.0  j8.0
Example 2.3
Solution
1
 j1.6667 0 0 0
2
0 0 0 0
Ybus =
3
0 0 0 0
4 0 0 0 0
1 2 3 4
1  j1.6667 0 0 0
Ybus = 2 0  j2.5 0 0
3 0 0 0 0
4 0 0 0 0
Add element 3: It is between 04 with admittance j2
1 2 3 4
1  j1.6667 0 0 0
Ybus = 2 0  j2.5 0 0
3 0 0 0 0
4 0 0 0  j2.0
1 2 3 4
1  j1.6667 0 0 0
Ybus = 2 0  j2.5 0 0
3 0 0  j4.0 j4.0
4 0 0 j4.0  j6.0
Add element 5: It is between 23 with admittance j5
1 2 3 4
1  j1.6667 0 0 0
Ybus = 2 0  j7.5 j5.0 0
3 0 j5.0  j9.0 j4.0
4 0 0 j4.0  j6.0
1 2 3 4
1  j6.6667 j5.0 0 0
Ybus = 2 j5.0  j12.5 j5.0 0
3 0 j5.0  j9.0 j4.0
4 0 0 j4.0  j6.0
Add element 7: It is between 24 with admittance j2.Final bus admittance matrix
1 2 3 4
1  j6.6667 j5.0 0 0
Ybus = 2 j5.0  j14.5 j5.0 j2.0
3 0 j5.0  j9.0 j4.0
4 0 j2.0 j4.0  j8.0
NETWORK REDUCTION
For a four node network, the performance equations in bus frame using the
admittance parameter can be written as:
Suppose current I4 = 0, the node 4 can be eliminated and the network equations
can be written as:
I 1 Y11
'
Y12
'
Y13
'
V1
I = Y ' Y22
' '
Y23 V
2 21 2
I 3 Y ' Y32
'
Y33
'
V3
31
Y41 Y Y
Thus, V4 =  V1  42 V2  43 V3
Y44 Y44 Y44
Y41 Y Y
Thus, V4 =  V1  42 V2  43 V3
Y44 Y44 Y44
Y41 Y Y
I1 = Y11 V1 + Y12 V2 + Y13 V3 + Y14 ( V1  42 V2  43 V3)
Y44 Y44 Y44
Y14 Y41
Y11 = Y11 
Y44
Y14 Y42
Y12 = Y12 
Y44
Y14 Y43
Y13 = Y13 
Y44
Y14 Y41
Y11 = Y11 
Y44
Y14 Y42
Y12 = Y12 
Y44
Y14 Y43
Y13 = Y13 
Y44
Yik Ykj
Yij = Yij 
Ykk where i = 1, 2, , N i k and j = 1, 2, , N jk
Example
0.625 0.5 0 0 V1 0
0.5 1.0833 0.25 0.3333 V 2
=
2
Solution
0.6 0.5 V2 2
0.5 0.5 V = 4
4
0.5 x 60
0.625 V1 0.5 V2 = 0 Thus V1 = 48
0.625
0.25 x 60 0.5 x 68
 0.25 V2 + 0.75 V3  0.5 V4 = 0 Thus V3 = 65.3333
0.75
V1 48
V 60
Thus =
2
V3 65.3333
4
V 68
Formulation of Power Flow problem
G
PD1 jQD1 PD2 jQD2
Static Capacitor
1 2
PG1 jQG1
a:1
3
5
4 V3 3
PG5 jQG5 PG3 jQG3
PD4 jQD4
G G
Given the network configuration and the loads at various buses, determine
a schedule of generation so that the bus voltages and hence line flows
remain within security limits.
A more specific statement of the problem will be made subsequently after
taking into consideration the following three observations.
1 For a given load, we can arbitrarily select the schedules of all the
generating buses, except one, to lie within the allowable limits of the
generation. The generation at one of the buses, called as the slack
bus, cannot be specified beforehand since the total generation should be
equal to the total demand plus the transmission losses, which is not
known unless all the bus voltages are determined.
2 Once the complex voltages at all the buses are known, all other
quantities of interest such as line flows, transmission losses and
generation at the buses can easily be determined. Hence the foremost
aim of the power flow problem is to solve for the bus voltages.
3 It will be convenient to use the Bus Power Specification which is
defined as the difference between the specified generation and load at a
bus. Thus for the k th bus, the bus power specification S k is given by
S PI j QI
k k k
( PG j QG ) ( PD j QD )
k k k k
( PG PD ) j ( QG QD ) (2.14)
k k k k
There are four quantities associated with each bus. They are PI, QI, V, and .
? ? ? ? ? ?
PI s , QIs Vs , s PI k , QIk Vk , k PI m , QIm Vm , m
Thus for the slack bus, both V and are specified and PI and QI are
to be determined. PI and QI can be computed at the end, when all the V s
and s are solved for.
Generator bus
to be solved for.
Load bus
1. GaussSeidel method
GaussSeidel method
a 11 x 1 a 12 x 2 a 1N x N y 1
a 21 x 1 a 22 x 2 a 2N x N y 2
a N1 x 1 a N2 x 2 a NN x N y N
Specifically
a k1 x 1 a k2 x 2 a kk x k a kN x N y k
N
Thus a kk x k y k a
m 1
km xm
mk
N
1
This gives xk yk a km x m
a kk m 1
mk
k 1,2,, N
1 k 1 N
yk a km x m a km x m
h 1 h1
x k h
(2.15)
a kk m1 mk 1
GaussSeidel method for power flow solution
First let us consider a power system without any PV bus. Later, the modification
required to include the PV busses will be discussed. This means that given the
net power injection at all the load bus, it is required to find the bus voltages at all
the load busses.
The expression for net power injection being Vk Ik*, the equations to be solved are
k 1,2,, N
Vk Ik* = PIk + j QIk for (2.16)
k s
k 1,2,, N
Vk Ik* = PIk + j QIk for (2.16)
k s
In the above equations bus currents Ik are the intermediate variables that are to
be eliminated. Taking conjugate of the above equations yields
PIk j QI k
Therefore Ik = (2.18)
Vk*
N
= Ykk Vk + Y
m 1
km Vm (2.20)
mk
N
PIk QI k
Ykk Vk Ykm Vm
m1 Vk
*
mk
1 PIk jQI k N
Thus Vk Ykm Vm
Ykk Vk* m1
m k
k 1,2,, N
ks
PI j QI k 1 N
Ykm
Vm
(2.21)
k
Ykk Vk* m 1 Ykk
mk
k 1,2,, N
ks
PI j QI k 1 N
Ykm (2.21)
Vk k
Ykk Vk*
Vm
m 1 Ykk
mk
PIk j QI k
Ak (2.22)
Ykk
Ykm
and Bkm (2.23)
Ykk
N
A
Vk k*
Vk
B
m 1
km Vm k 1,2,,N ks (2.24)
mk
k 1 N
Ak
Vh1
k h * Bkm Vm Bkm Vmh
h 1
for k 1, 2......... N; k s (2.25)
Vk m1 mk 1
Line flow equations
Knowing the bus voltages, the power in the lines can be computed as
shown below.
Ikm
ykm
k m
ykm ykm
Pkm j Q km Vk Ikm
*
(2.27)
PL P
i j
L i j
(2.31)
ov er all
the lines
Example 2.4
For a power system, the transmission line impedances and the line
charging admittances in p.u. on a 100 MVA base are given in Table 1. The
scheduled generations and loads on different buses are given in Table 2.
Taking the slack bus voltage as 1.06 + j 0.0 and using a flat start perform
the power flow analysis and obtain the bus voltages, transmission loss and
slack bus power.
Solution
Flat start means all the unknown voltage magnitude are taken as 1.0 p.u.
and all unknown voltage phase angles are taken as 0.
V1 1.06 j 0
V2(0) V3(0) V4(0) V5(0) 1.0 j 0
STEP 1
Y22 = (5 j15) + (1.6667 j5) + (1.6667 j5) + (2.5 j7.5) + j 0.03 + j 0.02 + j 0.02 + j 0.015
= 10.8334 j 32.415
Similarly Y33 = 12.9167 j 38.695 ; Y44 = 12.9167 j 38.695 ; Y55 = 3.75 j 11.21
1 2 3 4 5
Y 21 5 j15
B21 0.46263 j 0.00036
Y22 10.8334 j 32.415
Other elements of matrix B can be calculated in a similar manner.
Thus
1 
2 0.00740 + j 0.00370
A = 3 0.00698  j 0.00930
4 0.00427  j 0.00891
5 0.02413  j 0.04545
A2
V2( 1) (0) *
B 21 V1 B 23 V3( 0 ) B 24 V4( 0 ) B 25 V5( 0 )
V2
0.00740 j 0.00370
( 0.46263 j 0.00036 ) ( 1.06 j 0.0 0 )
1.0 j 0
( 0.15421 j 0.00012 ) ( 1.0 j 0.0 ) ( 0.15421 j 0.00012 ) ( 1.0 j 0.0 )
( 0.23131 j 0.00018 ) ( 1.0 j 0.0 )
1.03752 j 0.00290
This value of voltage V2( 1) will replace the previous value of voltage V2( 0 )
before doing subsequent calculations of voltages.
The rate of convergence of the iterative process can be increased by
applying an ACCELERATION FACTOR to the approximate solution
obtained. For example on hand, from the estimate V2( 1) we get the change
in voltage
V2( 1) V2( 0 ) V2
By assuming 1.4
V2( 1) ( 1.0 j 0 ) 1.4 ( 0.03752 j 0.00290 )
1.05253 j 0.00406
This new value of voltage V2( 1) will replace the previous value of the bus
voltage V2( 0 ) and is used in the calculation of voltages for the remaining
buses. In general
Vkh accld
1
Vkh ( Vkh 1 Vkh ) (2.32)
The process is continued for the remaining buses to complete one
iteration. For the next bus 3
A3
V3( 1) (0) *
B 31 V1 B 32 V2( 1) B 34 V (40 )
V3
0.00698 j 0.00930
( 0.09690 j 0.00004 ) ( 1.06 j 0 )
1.0 j 0
( 0.12920 j 0.00006 ) ( 1.05253 j 0.00406 )
( 0.77518 j 0.00033 ) ( 1.0 j 0 )
1.00690 j 0.00921
V1 1.06 j 0.0
V2( 1) 1.05253 j 0.00406
V3( 1) 1.00966 j 0.01289
V4( 1) 1.01599 j 0.02635
V5( 1) 1.02727 j 0.07374
If and are the acceleration factors for the real and imaginary
components of voltages respectively, the accelerated values can be
computed as
e hk accld
1
e hk ( e hk 1 e hk )
h1 h1
(2.33)
fk accld f (f
h
k k f )
h
k
CONVERGENCE
If 1 and 2 are the tolerance level for the real and imaginary parts of
bus voltages respectively, then the convergence criteria will be
The final bus voltages obtained after 10 iterations are given below.
V1 1.06 j 0.0
V2 1.04623 j 0.05126
V3 1.02036 j 0.08917
V4 1.01920 j 0.09504
V5 1.01211 j 0.10904
PL 1 3 0.012 j 0.019
PL 23 0.004 j 0.033
PL 24 0.004 j 0.029
PL 25 0.011 j 0.002
PL 34 0.0 j 0.019
PL 4 5 0.0 j 0.051
Ps + j Qs G
1 3
P13 + j Q13
P12 + j Q12
Ps j Q s ( P13 j Q 13 ) ( P12 j Q 12 )
( 0.407 j 0.011) ( 0.888 j 0.086 ) ( 1.295 j 0.075 )
In voltage controlled bus k net real power injection PIk and voltage
PIk j QI k
cannot be calculated. An expression for QI k can be developed
Ykk
as shown below.
N
We know Ik Y
m1
km Vm and PIk j QIk Vk Ik*
N
PIk j QI k Vk k
m 1
Yk m Vm k m m
N
Vk
m1
Vm Yk m k m k m
N
Thus QI k Vk
m 1
Vm Yk m sin ( k m k m )
(2.36)
N
Thus QI k Vk
m1
Vm Yk m sin ( k m k m ) (2.36)
Vk Vk specified
fkh
1
Adjusted voltage V Vk h
k specified where tan ( h ) taking Vk e k j fk
h
k
h
k
h h h
ek
(2.37)
Using the adjusted voltage Vkh as given in eqn. (2.37), net injected reactive
the range specified, Vkh can be replaced by the Adjusted Vkh and A k can
be computed.
In case if QI hk violates any one the limits specified, then Vkh should not be
Complete flow chart for power flow solution using GaussSeidel method is
shown in Fig. 2.7. The extra calculation needed for voltage controlled bus
is shown between X X and Y Y.
START
k:s YES
X  NO
NO k : V.C. Bus X
YES
COMPUTE kh ADJUSTED VOLTAGE, QI kh
QI kh : QI k MAX QI kh : QI k MIN
> <
h h h h
REPLACE QI k BY QI k MAX REPLACE QI k BY QI k MIN REPLACE Vk BY ADJ Vk
Y COMPUTE Ak Y

COMPUTE Vk
h 1
; COMPUTE V Vkh 1 Vkh
YES
V VMAX SET VMAX V
NO
h h 1
REPLACE Vk BY Vk
SET k = k + 1
STOP
Representation of off nominal tap setting transformer
Consider a transformer 110 / 11 kV having tap setting facility. Its nominal ratio is
10 : 1 i.e. its nominal turns OR voltage ratio = 10. Suppose the tap is adjusted so
that the turns ratio becomes 11 : 1. This can be thought of connecting two
transformers in cascade, the first one with ratio 11 : 10 and the second one with the
ratio 10 : 1 (Nominal ratio). In this case the off nominal turns ratio is 11 / 10 = 1.1.
Suppose the tap is adjusted so that the turns ratio becomes 9 : 1. This is same as
two transformers in cascade, the first with a turn ratio 9 : 10 and the second with
the ratio 10 : 1 ( Nominal ratio ). In this case off nominal turn ratio is 9 / 10 = 0.9.
A transformer with off nominal turn ratio can be represented by its impedance or
admittance, connected in series with an ideal autotransformer as shown in Fig. 2.10.
An equivalent circuit as shown in Fig. 2.11, will be useful for power flow studies.
The elements of the equivalent circuit can be treated in the same manner as the
line elements.
Let 'a ' be the turn ratio of the autotransformer. 'a ' is also called as off nominal
turns ratio. Usually 'a ' varies from 0.85 to 1.15.
a:1
p t ypq q
Ip i tq
Iq
Fig. 2.10 Representation of off nominal transformer
p t ypq q
Ip i tq
Iq
The parameters of the equivalent circuit shown in Fig. 2.11 can be derived by
equating the terminal current of the transformer with the corresponding current of
the equivalent circuit.
Ep i tq
It is to be noted that a and a (2.86)
Et Ip
itq 1 1 Ep
Ip
( Et Eq ) y p q ( Eq ) y p q
a a a a
yp q yp q
2
E p Eq (2.87)
a a
Ep
Also I q ( E q E t ) y p q ( E q ) yp q
a
(2.88)
yp q
Ep y p q Eq
a
yp q yp q yp q
Ip 2
Ep Eq Iq Ep y p q Eq
a a a
P Q
A
IP Iq
B C Parameters A,B and C
are ADMITTANCES
Fig. 2.11
I q ( Eq Ep ) A Eq C A Ep ( A C ) Eq (2.90)
yp q yp q
AB Thus A
a2 a
yp q yp q yp q 1 1
A B 2
( 1) yp q
a a a a a
A C yp q yp q 1
C yp q (1 ) yp q
a a
The equivalent circuit will then be as shown in Fig. 2.12
ypq
p
a q
I p I q
1 1 1
( 1) y p q (1 )y p q
a a a
When the off nominal turns ratio is represented at bus p for transformer
yp q 1 1 yp q
Yp p new Yp p old
( 1 ) y p q Yp p old 2
a a a a
yp q 1
Yq q new Yq q old ( 1 ) y p q Yq q old y p q
a a (2.91)
yp q
Yp q new Yp q old
a
yp q
Yq p new Yq p old
a
Obtain the bus admittance matrix of the transmission system with the following
data.
Line data
Off
Line Between
Line Impedance HLCA nominal
No. buses
turns ratio
5 43 j 0.133 0 0.909
7 65 j 0.3 0 0.976
Y66 = 0.4339 j 1.8275 + j 0.01+ 0.5541 j 2.3249 + j0.0076  j 3.4993 = 0.988 j 7.6341
Answer
0.4339
0 .9922 0.5583
0 0 0 j1.8275
j4.3925 j2.5820
0.4449 0.4449
0 j8.2715 0 0
j0.6461 j8.1649
0.5541
0.5583 1.1124
0 j8.2715 0 j2.3249
j2.5820 j13.9869
0.5765 0.5765
0 0 0 j3.4153
j1.3085 j4.6418
0.4339 0.5541 0.988
0 0
j1.8275 j2.3209 j3.4153 j7.6341
%
% Bus admittance matrix including off nominal transformer
% Shunt parameter must be in ADMITTANCE
% Reading the line data
%
Nbus = 6; Nele = 7; Nsh = 1;
%
% Reading element data
%
Edata=[1 1 4 0.08+0.37i 0.007i 1;2 1 6 0.123+0.518i 0.01i 1;
3 2 3 0.723+1.05i 0 1; 4 2 5 0.282+0.64i 0 1; ...
5 4 3 0.133i 0 0.909;6 4 6 0.097+0.407i 0.0076i 1; ...
7 6 5 0.3i 0 0.976];
%
% Reading shunt data
%
Shdata = [1 4 0.005i];
%
% Displaying data
%
disp([' Sl.No From bus To bus Line
Impedance HLCA ONTR'])
Edata
if Nsh~=0
disp([' Sl.No. At bus Shunt Admittamce'])
Shdata
end
GaussSeidel method of solving the power flow has simple problem formulation and hence
easy to explain However, it has poor convergence characteristics. It takes large number of
iterations to converge. Even for the five bus system discussed in Example 2.4, it takes 10
iterations to converge.
Newton Raphson (N.R.) method of solving power flow is based on the Newton Raphson
method of solving a set of nonlinear algebraic equations.
N. R. method of solving power flow problem has very good convergence characteristics.
Even for large systems it takes only two to four iterations to converge.
Power flow model of Newton Raphson method
The equations describing the performance of the network in the bus admittance
form is given by
I = YV (2.38)
I i Yi 1 V1 Yi 2 V2 Yi N Vn
N (2.42)
n 1
Yi n Vn
In addition to the linear network equations given by eqn. (2.39), bus power
equations should also be satisfied in the power flow problem. These bus power
equations introduce non linearity into the power flow model. The complex power
entering the network at bus i is given by
Pi j Q i Vi I *i (2.43)
Bus power equations can be obtained from the above two equations (2.42) and (2.43) by
eliminating the intermediate variable I i . From eqn. (2.43)
N N
Pi j Q i V I i = V i
*
i
*
n 1
Yi n Vn = Vi i
n 1
Yi n i n Vn n
N
=
n 1
Vi Vn Yi n i n + n  i
N
Qi = 
n 1
Vi Vn Yi n sin ( i n + n  i ) (2.45)
N
Pi = Vi Vn Yi n cos ( i n + n  i ) (2.44)
n 1
N
Qi = 
n 1
Vi Vn Yi n sin ( i n + n  i ) (2.45)
The real and reactive powers obtained from the above two equations are referred as
calculated powers. During the power flow calculations, their values depend on the latest
bus voltages. Finally,these calculated powers should be equal to the specified powers. Thus
the nonlinear equations to be solved in power flow analysis are
N
n 1
Vi Vn Yi n cos ( i n + n  i ) = PI i (2.46)
N

n 1
Vi Vn Yi n sin ( i n + n  i ) = QI i (2.47)
It is to be noted that equation (2.46) can be written for bus i only if real power injection at
bus i is specified.
Similarly, equation (2.47) can be written for bus i only if reactive power injection at bus
i is specified.
N
n 1
Vi Vn Yi n cos ( i n + n  i ) = PI i (2.46)
N

n 1
Vi Vn Yi n sin ( i n + n  i ) = QI i (2.47)
Of the N total number of buses in the power system, let the number of PQ buses be
N 1 , PV buses be N 2 . Then N N1 N 2 1 . Basic problem is to find the
i) Unknown phase angles at the N 1 N 2 number of PQ & PV buses and
n 1
Vi Vn Yi n cos ( i n + n  i ) = PI i (2.48)
for i = 1, 2, .., N
i s
and
N

n 1
Vi Vn Yi n sin ( i n + n  i ) = QI i (2.49)
for i = 1, 2, .., N
i s
i P V buses
In a 9 bus system, bus 1 is the slack bus, buses 2,5 and 7 are the PV buses. List the state
variables. Also indicate the specified power injections.
Solution
f1 (x1 , x 2 ,, xn ) k1
f 2 (x1 , x 2 ,, xn ) k 2
(2.50)
fn (x1 , x 2 ,, xn ) k n
(0)
Let the initial solution be x1 , x (0) (0)
2 , , x n
then the solution is reached. Let us say that the solution is not reached.
Let us say that the solution is not reached. Assume x1 , x2 ,, xn are the
corrections required on x1(0) , x (0)
2 ,, x (0)
n respectively. Then
f1 [(x1(0) x1 ), (x(0)
2 x2 ),, (x n xn )] k 1
(0)
f 2 [(x1(0) x1 ), (x (0)
2 x2 ),, (x n xn )] k 2
(0)
(2.51)
f n [(x1(0) x1 ), (x (0)
2 x2 ),, (x n xn )] k n
(0)
Each equation in the above set can be expanded by Taylors theorem around
x1(0) , x (0)
2 ,, x (0)
n . For example, the following is obtained for the first equation.
f1 f 1 f 1
2 ,, x n )
f1 (x1(0) , x (0) (0)
x1 x 2 xn 1 k 1
x 1 x 2 x n
f1 f 1 f 1
2 ,, x n )
f1 (x1(0) , x (0) (0)
x1 x 2 xn 1 k 1
x 1 x 2 x n
f1 f f
2 ,, x n )
f1 (x1(0) , x (0) (0)
x1 1 x 2 1 xn k 1
x 1 0 x 2 0 x n 0
f 2 f f
2 ,, x n )
f 2 (x1(0) , x (0) (0)
x1 2 x 2 2 xn k 2
x 1 0 x 2 0 x n 0
(2.52)
f n f f
2 ,, x n )
f n (x1(0) , x (0) (0)
x1 n x 2 n xn k n
x 1 0 x 2 0 x n 0
The matrix form of equations (2.52) is
f 1 f 1 f 1
x1 k 1 f 1 ( x 1(0) , x (0) (0)
2 , , x n )
x 1 0 x 2 0 x n 0
f 2 f 2 f 2
x 2 k 2 f 2 ( x 1(0) , x (0) (0)
2 , , x n ) (2.53)
x 1 0 x 2 0 x n 0 =
f n f n f n
xn k n f n ( x 1(0) , x (0) (0)
2 , , x n )
x 1 0 x 2 0 x n 0
This set of linear equations need to be solved for the correction vector
x1
x
X 2
x
n
F ' ( X(0) ) X K F ( X (0) ) (2.54)
In eqn.(2.54) F ' ( X (0) ) is called the JACOBIAN MATRIX and the vector K F ( X (0) )
is called the ERROR VECTOR. The Jacobian matrix is also denoted as J.
X = F ( X ) K F ( X )
' (0) 1 (0 )
(2.55)
X ( 1) X ( 0 ) X
X ( h1 ) X ( h ) X where (2.56)
K F ( X )
X F ' ( X( h ) ) 1 (h)
(2.57)
X (h 1) X (h) X
Values of the correction vector can also be used to test for convergence.
4 x 2 sin x 1 =  0.6
4 x 22  4 x 2 cos x 1 =  0.3
vector as 10 3 .
Solution
x1 0
 0.6 (4 x 2 sin x1 ) ) x 1 =  0.6
2
x1 0
 0.3 (4 x  4 x 2 cos x 1 )
2
2 x 2 1 =  0.3
0.6
The error vector is not small.
0.3
It is noted that f 1 = 4 x 2 sin x 1
f 2 = 4 x 22  4 x 2 cos x 1
f 1 f 1
x x 2 4 x cos x 1 4 sin x 1
Jacobian matrix is: J = 1 = 2
f 2 f 2 4 x 2 sin x 1 8 x 2 4 cos x 1
x 1 x 2
4 0 0.25 0
J= ; Its inverse is J 1 =
0 4 0 0.25
x1 0 0.150 0.150
x = 1 + 0.075 = 0.925
2
x 1 0.15 rad.
 0.6 (4 x 2 sin x 1 ) x 0.925 = =  0.047079
2
x 1 0.15 rad.
 0.3 (4 x 22  4 x 2 cos x 1 ) x 2 0.925 =  0.064047
0.04709
The error vector is not small.
0.064047
3.658453 0.597753
=
0.552921 3.444916
Correction vector is calculated as
1
x 1 3.658453 0.597753 0.047079 0.016335
x = 0.552921 3.444916 0.064047 =
2 0.021214
x 1 0.166335 rad.
 0.6 (4 x 2 sin x 1 ) x 0.903786 = =  0.001444
2
x 1 0.166335 rad.
 0.3 (4 x  4 x 2 cos x 1 ) x 0.903786
2
2 =  0.002068
2
3.565249 0.662276
=
0.598556 3.285495
x 1 0.166875 rad.
 0.6 (4 x 2 sin x 1 ) x 0.903058 = =  0.000002
2
x 1 0.166875 rad.
 0.3 (4 x 22  4 x 2 cos x 1 ) x 0.903058 =  0.000002
2
The final values of x 1 and x 2 are  0.166875 rad. and 0.903058 respectively.
The results can be checked by substituting the solution in the original equations:
4 x 2 sin x 1 =  0.6
4 x 22  4 x 2 cos x 1 =  0.3
In this example, we have actually solved our first power flow problem by N.R. method.
This is because the two nonlinear equations of this example are the power flow model of
the simple system shown in Fig. 2.8.
j 0.25 p.u.
1 2
V1 1 V2 2
G
Here bus 1 is the slack bus with its voltage V1 1 = 1.0 0 0 p.u. Further x 1 represents
the angle 2 and x 2 represents the voltage magnitude V2 at bus 2.
As discussed earlier, taking the bus voltages and line admittances in polar form, in power
flow study we need to solve the nonlinear equations
N
n 1
Vi Vn Yi n cos ( i n + n  i ) = PI i (2.59)
N

n 1
Vi Vn Yi n sin ( i n + n  i ) = QI i (2.60)
N
Gii +
2
Vi Vi Vn Yi n cos ( i n + n  i ) = PI i (2.61)
n 1
ni
N
Vi B i i
2
Vi Vn Yi n sin ( i n + n  i ) = QI i (2.62)
n 1
ni
In a compact form, the above nonlinear equations can be written as
P ( , V ) PI (2.63)
Q ( , V ) QI (2.64)
On linearization, we get
P P
V P
Q V Q (2.65)
Q
V
where
P P
V
V
P
V (2.66)
Q
Q Q
V V
V
H N P
(2.67)
V
M L V Q
The matrix H N is known as JACOBIAN matrix.
M L
H (N1 N 2 ) x (N1 N 2 )
N (N1 N 2 ) x N 1
M N 1 x (N1 N 2 ) and
L N1 x N1
where N 1 is the number of PQ buses and N 2 is the number of PV buses.
Consider a 4 bus system having bus 1 as slack bus, buses 2 and 3 as PQ buses
and bus 4 as PV bus for which real power injections PI 2 , PI 3 & PI 4 and reactive
power injections QI 2 & QI 3 are specified. Noting that 2 , 3 , 4 , V2 and V3 are
the problem variables, linear equations that are to be solved in each iteration will
be
2 3 4 V2 V3
P2 P2 P2 P2 P2
P2 V2 V3 2 P2
2 3 4 V2 V3
P3 P3 P3 P3 P3
P3 V2 V3 3 P3
2 3 4 V2 V3
P4 P4 P4 P4 P4
P4 V2 V3 4 = P4 (2.68)
2 3 4 V2 V3
Q 2 Q 2 Q 2 Q 2 Q 2 V2
Q2 V2 V3 Q 2
2 3 4 V2 V3 V2
Q 3 Q 3 Q 3 Q 3 Q 3 V3
Q3 V2 V3 Q3
2 3 4 V2 V3 V3
The following is the solution procedure for N.R. method of power flow analysis.
1 Read the line data and bus data; construct the bus admittance matrix.
which all the unknown phase angles are taken as zero and unknown voltage
vector are less than the specified tolerance, the problem is solved and hence go to
H N P
for
V V
M L Q V
k V k
= +
V V V
k+1 k
7 Calculate line flows, transmission loss and slack bus power. Print the
N
Vi B i i
2
Vi Vn Yi n sin ( i n + n  i ) = QI i (2.70)
n 1
ni
i.e. Pi ( , V ) PI i (2.71)
Q i ( , V ) QIi (2.72)
H N
Jacobian matrix is where
M L
P P Q Q
H ; N V ; M and L V
V V
Here
N
Gii +
2
Pi = Vi Vi Vn Yi n cos ( i n + n  i ) (2.73)
n 1
ni
N
Q i = Vi B i i
2
Vi Vn Yi n sin ( i n + n  i ) (2.74)
n 1
ni
Diagonal elements:
P N
Hii i = Vi Vn Yi n sin ( i n + n  i ) = Q i Vi
2
Bi i (2.75)
i n 1
ni
Pi N
Ni i Vi 2 Vi G i i +
2
Vi Vn Yi n cos ( i n + n  i )
Vi n 1
ni
2
= Pi + Vi Gii (2.76)
Q i N
Mii
2
= Vi Vn Yi n cos ( i n + n  i ) = Pi  Vi Gii (2.77)
i n 1
ni
Q i N
Li i Vi = 2 Vi B i i 
2
Vi Vn Yi n sin ( i n + n  i )
Vi n 1
ni
= Q i Vi
2
Bi i (2.78)
Offdiagonal elements:
We know that
N
Gii +
2
Pi = Vi Vi Vn Yi n cos ( i n + n  i ) (2.79)
n 1
ni
N
Q i = Vi B i i
2
Vi Vn Yi n sin ( i n + n  i ) (2.80)
n 1
ni
Pi
Hi j Vi Vj Yi j sin ( i j + j  i ) (2.81)
j
Pi
Ni j Vj = Vi Vj Yi j cos ( i j + j  i ) (2.82)
Vj
Q i
Mi j = Vi Vj Yi j cos ( i j + j  i ) (2.83)
j
Q i
Li j Vj = Vi Vj Yi j sin ( i j + j  i ) (2.84)
Vj
Summary of formulae
H i i Q i Vi
2
Bi i
2
Ni i Pi + Vi Gii
Pi Vi
2
Mii Gii
Q i Vi
2
Li i Bi i
(2.85)
Hi j Vi Vj Yi j sin ( i j + j  i )
Ni j Vi Vj Yi j cos ( i j + j  i )
Mi j Vi Vj Yi j cos ( i j + j  i )
Li j Vi Vj Yi j sin ( i j + j  i )
Flow chart for N.R. method of power flow solution is shown below.
START
NO ELEMENTS OF YES
P & Q < ?
SET k = k + 1
STOP
Example 2.7
Perform power flow analysis for the power system with the data given below, using
Newton Raphson method, and obtain the bus voltages.
1 2 3
1 j15 j10 j5 15 10 5
Y = 2 j10 j15 j5 ; G = [0]; B = 10 15 5
3 j5 j5 j10 5 5 10
1 2 3 1 2 3
1 15 10 5 1 90 0
90 0 90 0
10 15 5 0
Y 2 and = 2 90 90 0 90 0
5 5 10 90 0 90 0 90 0
3 3
PI 2 1.8184 2
In this problem PI 3 1.2517 and unknown quantities =
3
QI 3 1.2574 V3
With flat start V1 1.00 0
V2 1.10 0
V3 1.00 0
We know that
N
Gii +
2
Pi = Vi Vi Vn Yi n cos ( i n + n  i )
n 1
ni
N
Q i = Vi B i i
2
Vi Vn Yi n sin ( i n + n  i )
n 1
ni
= 0 + 10 V2 V1 cos ( 90 1 2 ) 5 V2 V3 cos ( 90 3 2 )
= 10 V2 V1 sin( 1 2 ) 5 V2 V3 sin( 3 2 )
Similarly
P3 = 5 V3 V1 sin ( 1 3 ) 5 V3 V2 sin( 2 3 )
Likewise
Q 3 V3 B 3 3 V3 V1 Y3 1 sin( 90 1 3 )
2
V3 V2 Y3 2 sin(90 2 3 )
5 V3 V1 cos ( 1 3 ) 5 V3 V2 cos ( 2 3 )
2
= 10 V3
Iteration starts:
Q 2 15 V2 10 V2 V1 cos ( 1 2 ) 5
2
V2 V3 cos ( 3 2 )
we get P2 P3 0
Q 3 = ( 10 x 1 x 1 ) ( 5 x 1 x 1 ) ( 5 x 1 x 1.1 ) =  0.5
P3 PI 3 P3 1.2517 0 1.2517
2 3 V3
Linear equations P2 H 22 H 23 N 23 2 P2
H 32 H 33 N 33 3 = P3
to be solved are P3
V3 Q 3
Q3 M 32 M 33 L 33 V3
Summary of formulae
H i i Q i Vi
2
Bi i
2
Ni i Pi + Vi Gii
Pi Vi
2
Mii Gii
Li i Q i Vi
2
Bi i
(2.85)
Hi j Vi Vj Yi j sin ( i j + j  i )
Ni j Vi Vj Yi j cos ( i j + j  i )
Mi j Vi Vj Yi j cos ( i j + j  i )
Li j Vi Vj Yi j sin ( i j + j  i )
For this problem, since G i i are zero and i j are 90 0
H i j Vi Vj Yi j cos ( j i )
H i i Q i Vi B i i
2
N i i Pi ; M i i Pi N i j Vi Vj Yi j sin ( j i )
L i i Q i Vi B i i
2
Mi j Vi Vj Yi j sin ( j i )
H 33 Q 3 V3 B 33 0.5 10 10.5
2
N 33 P3 0 ; M 33 P3 0
L 33 Q 3 V3 B 33 0.5 10 9.5
2
N 2 3 V2 V3 Y2 3 sin( 3 2 ) 0
M23 V3 V2 Y3 2 sin( 2 3 ) 0
16.5 5.5 0 2 1.8184
Thus 5.5 10.5 0 3 = 1.2517
0 0 9.5 V3 0.7574
V3
2 0.08538
Solving the above 3 = 0.07449
V3 0.0797
V3
Therefore
Thus V1 1.0 0 0
V2 1.1 4.89 0
V3 0.9203 4.27 0
Q 2 (15 x 1.1 x 1.1)  (10 x 1.1 x 1.0 cos 4.89 0 )  (5 x 1.1 x 0.9203 cos 9.16 0 )
= 2.1929
This is within the limits. Bus 2 remains as PV bus.
P2 (10 x 1.1 x 1.0 sin 4.89 0 ) + ( 5 x 1.1 x 0.9203 sin 9.16 0 ) = 1.7435
Q 3 = 10 x 0.9203 x 0.9203  ( 5 x 0.9203 x 1.0 cos 4.27 0 )  ( 5 x 0.9203 x 1.1 cos 9.16 0 )
=  1.1163
N 33 =  1.1484; M 33 =  1.1484
H 32 =  4.9971
M 32 = 0.8058
15.9571 4.9971 0.8058 0.0749
4.9971 9.5858 1.1484 2
3 = 0.1033
0.8058 1.1484 7.3532 V3 0.1444
V3
Its solution is
0.001914
2
0.012388
3 =
V3 0.021782
V3
V1 1.00 0
V2 1.15.00 0
V3 0.9032 4.98 0
V1 1.00 0
V2 1.15 0
V3 0.9 5 0
Once we know the final bus voltages, if necessary, line flows, transmission loss and
the slack bus power can be calculated following similar procedure adopted in the
case of Gauss Seidel method.
EE 0308 Power System Analysis  Problem Set 2
PROBLEM 1
2
2
5
2
3 4 4
j 0.25 j 0.2 3 6
j 0.125 1
j 0.15 7
1
j 0.25 j 0.4
1 4
3 0
ii) Neglect the mutual coupling and find the bus admittance matrix.
Answer
1 2 3 4
1
 j16.75 j11.75 j2.5 j2.5
j11.75  j19.25 j2.5 j5
Ybus = 2
j2.5 j2.5  j5.8 0
3
j2.5 j5 0  j8.3
4
1 2 3 4
1
 j14.5 j8 j4 j2.5
j8  j17 j4 j5
Ybus = 2
j4 j4  j8.8 0
j2.5 j5 0  j8.3
PROBLEM 2 For the transmission network with the following data,
determine the bus admittance matrix.
Line data
Off
Line Between
Line Impedance HLCA nominal
No. buses
turns ratio
5 43 j 0.133 0 0.909
7 65 j 0.3 0 0.976
0.4339
0 .9992 0.5583
0 0 0 j1.8275
j4.3925 j2.5820
0.4449 0.4449
0 j8.2715 0 0
j0.6461 j8.1649
0.5541
0.5583 1.1124
0 j8.2715 0 j2.3249
j2.5820 j13.9869
0.5765 0.5765
0 0 0 j3.4153
j1.3085 j4.6418
0.4339 0.5541 0.988
0 0
j1.8275 j2.3209 j3.4153 j7.6341
PROBLEM 4
Line data
All the buses other than the slack bus are P Q type. Assuming a flat voltage
start and slack bus voltage as 1.04 0 0 , find all the bus voltages at the
end of first Gauss Seidel iteration.
Answer
V1 1.04 j 0.0
V2(1) 1.01909 j 0.04636
V3(1) 1.02802 j 0.08703
V4(1) 1.02505 j 0.00923
PROBLEM 5
Answer
QI 2 0.20799
V2 1.05129 j 0.03388
V3 1.03387 j 0.08929
V4 1.03968 j 0.0149
PROBLEM 6
Answer
QI 2 0.25
V2 1.05460 j 0.03278
V3 1.034473 j 0.08949
V4 1.04118 j 0.01540