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# EE 0308 POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS

Chapter 2

## POWER FLOW ANALYSIS

Primitive network

## A power network is essentially an interconnection of several two-terminal

components such as generators, transformers, transmission lines, motors and
loads. Each element has an impedance. The voltage across the element is called
element voltage and the current flowing through the element is called the element
current. A set of components when they are connected form a Primitive network.

## A representation of a power system and the corresponding oriented graph are

shown in Fig. 2.1.
1 2 4

7
1 2 3
6 4

5 4

2
1
3

7
1 2 3
6 4

5 4

2
1
3

## Fig. 2.1 A power system and corresponding oriented graph

Connectivity various elements to form the network can be shown by the bus
incidence matrix A. For above system, this matrix is obtained as

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

1 -1 1

2 -1 1 -1 1
A = (2.1)
-1 -1
3
-1 1 -1
4
Element voltages are referred as v1, v2, v3, v4, v5, v6 and v7. Element currents are
referred as i1, i2, i3, i4, i5, i6 and i7. In power system network, bus voltages and bus
currents are of more useful. For the above network, the bus voltages are V 1, V2, V3
and V4. The bus voltages are always measured with respect to the ground bus.
The bus currents are designated as I1, I2, I3, and I4. The element voltages are
related to bus voltages as:
7
v1 = - V1

1 2 3 v2 = - V2
6 4

5 4 v3 = - V4

2 v4 = V4 V3
1
3
v5 = V2 - V3

v6 = V1 V2
0
v7 = V2 V4
Expressing the relation in matrix form

v1 -1 V1
v -1
2
v 3 -1 V2 (2.2)
-1 1
v 4 =
v 5 1 -1 V3

v 6 1 -1
V4
v 1 -1
7

## The element currents are related to bus currents as:

I2 I1 = - i1 + i6
I3
6 I4
I1
5 4
I2 = - i2 + i5 i6 + i7
2 3 4
1
2 I3 = - i4 i5
1
3
I4 = - i3 + i4 i7

0
I1 = - i1 + i6

I2 = - i2 + i5 i6 + i7

I3 = - i4 i5

I4 = - i3 + i4 i7

## Expressing the relation in matrix form

i1
i2
I1 -1 1
I -1 1 -1 1 i3
2
I 3 = -1 -1 i4
-1 1 -1 i5
I 4
i6
i7
Thus Ibus = A i (2.4)
The element voltages and element impedances are related as:

v1 z 11 z 12 z 13 z 14 z 15 z 16 z 17 i1
v z z 22 z 23 z 24 z 25 z 26 z 27 i
2 21 2
v 3 z 31 z 32 z 33 z 34 z 35 z 36 z 37 i 3

v
4 = z 41 z 42 z 43 z 44 z 45 z 46 z 47 i 4 (2.5)
v 5 z 51 z 52 z 53 z 54 z 55 z 56 z 57 i 5

6
v z 61 z 62 z 63 z 64 z 65 z 66 z 67 i 6
v z z 77 i
7 71 z 72 z 73 z 74 z 75 z 76 7

Here zii is the self impedance of element i and z ij is the mutual impedance
between elements i and j. In matrix notation the above can be written as

v =z i (2.6)

i=y v (2.7)

## In the above y is called as primitive admittance matrix. Matrices z and y are

inverses of each other.
v =z i (2.6)

i=y v (2.7)

## Vbus = Zbus Ibus (2.8)

Here Vbus is the bus voltage vector, Ibus is the bus current vector and Zbus is the
bus impedance matrix. The inverse form of above is

## Ibus = Ybus Vbus (2.9)

Here Ybus is known as bus impedance matrix. Matrices Zbus and Ybus are inverses
of each other.
Derivation of bus admittance matrix

## It was shown that

v = AT Vbus (2.3)
Ibus = A i (2.4)
i=y v (2.7)
Ibus = Ybus Vbus (2.9)
Substituting eq. (2.7) in eq. (2.4)

Ibus = A y v (2.10)

## Comparing eqs. (2.9) and (2.11)

Ybus = A y AT (2.12)

This is a very general formula for bus admittance matrix and admits mutual
coupling between elements.
In power system problems mutual couplings will have negligible effect and often
omitted. In that case the primitive impedance matrix z and the primitive
admittance matrix y are diagonal and Ybus can be obtained by inspection. This is
illustrated through the seven-elements network considered earlier. When mutual
couplings are neglected

y 11
y 22

y 33
y y 44

(2.13)
y 55

y 66
y 77

Ybus = A y AT

y 11 -1
y 22
-1
y 33 -1

= A y 44 -1 1
y 55 1 -1

y 66 1 -1
y 77 1 -1

-y11
-1 1 -y22
=
-y33
-1 1 -1 1
-y44 y44
-1 -1
y55 -y55
-1 1 -1 y66 -y66
y77 -y77

1 2 3 4

## 3 0 - y55 y44 + y55 - y44

Ybus =
4 0 - y77 - y44 y33 + y44 + y77
1 2 3 4

## 3 0 - y55 y44 + y55 - y44

Ybus =
4 0 - y77 - y44 y33 + y44 + y77

1 2 3
6 4

5 4

2
1
3

## The rules to form the elements of Ybus are:

The diagonal element Yii equals the sum of the admittances directly
connected to bus i.
The off-diagonal element Yij equals the negative of the admittance
connected between buses i and j. If there is no element between buses i
and j, then Yij equals to zero.
Bus admittance matrix can be constructed by adding the elements one by one.
Separating the entries corresponding to the element 5 that is connected between
buses 2 and 3 the above Ybus can be written as

1 2 3 4

## 2 - y66 y22 + y66+y77 0 -y77

3 0 0 y44 - y44
Ybus =
4 0 -y77 - y44 y33 + y44 + y77

1 2 3 4

1 6 2 3
1 0 0 0 0 4
4
2 0 y55 - y55 0
2
1 3
+ 3 0 - y55 y55 0

4 0 0 0 0
0

It can be inferred that the effect of adding element 5 between buses 2 and 3 is to
add admittance y55 to elements Ybus(2,2) and Ybus(3,3) and add y55 to elements
Ybus(2,3) and Ybus(3,2). To construct the bus admittance matrix Ybus, initially all the
elements are set to zero; then network elements are added one by one, each time
four elements of Ybus are modified.
Example 2.1

Consider the power network shown in Fig. 2.2. The ground bus is marked as 0.
Grounding impedances at buses 1, 2, and 4 are j0.6 , j0.4 and j0.5
respectively. Impedances of the elements 3-4, 2-3, 1-2 and 2-4 are j0.25 , j0.2 ,
j0.2 and j0.5 . The mutual impedance between elements 2-3 and 2-4 is j0.1 .
Obtain the bus admittance matrix of the power network.
4
1 2

## Fig. 2.2 Power network Example 2.1

Solution

The oriented graph of the network, with impedances marked is shown in Fig. 2.3.

j 0.5 7

1 2 3
j 0.2 j 0.1 4 4

6 5
j 0.2 j 0.25

1 2
3

1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1 0.6
2 0.4
z = j 3 0.5
4 0.25
5 0.2 0.1
6 0.2
7 0.1 0.5
Inverting this

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

1 1.6667
2 2.5
3 2.0
y = -j 4 4.0
5 5.5556 -1.1111
6 5.0
7 -1.1111 2.2222

## Bus incidence matrix A is:

-1 1
-1 1 -1 1
A =
-1 -1
-1 1 -1
Bus admittance matrix Ybus = A y AT

1.6667 -1
2.5
-1
2.0
Ybus = - j A -1
4.0
5.5556 -1.1111 -1 1
5.0 1 -1
-1.1111 2.2222 1 -1
1 -1

-1.6667
-1 1 - 2.5
-1 1 -1 1 - 2.0
Ybus = - j - 4.0 4.0
-1 -1
4.4444 - 5.5556 1.1111
-1 1 -1
5.0 - 5.0
1.1111 1.1111 - 2.2222

1 2 3 4

1 - j6.6667 j5.0 0 0

## 2 j5.0 - j13.0556 j4.4444 j1.1111

Ybus =
3 0 j4.4444 - j9.5556 j5.1111
4 0 j1.1111 j5.1111 - j8.2222
Example 2.2

Neglect the mutual impedance and obtain Ybus for the power network described in
example 2.1.

Solution

## Admittances of elements 1 to 7 are

- j1.6667, - j2.5, - j2.0, - j4.0, - j5.0, - j5.0 and j2.0. They are marked blow.

- j2.0 7

1 2 3
- j 5.0 4
6 5
- j5.0 - j 4.0 4
50.2
- j 1.6667 - j 2.5 - j 2.0
1 2
3

0
1 2 3 4

1
- j6.6667 j5.0 0 0
2
Ybus = j5.0 - j14.5 j5.0 j2.0
3
0 j5.0 - j9.0 j4.0
4
0 j2.0 j4.0 - j8.0
Example 2.3

Solution

1 2 3 4

1
- j1.6667 0 0 0
2
0 0 0 0
Ybus =
3
0 0 0 0
4 0 0 0 0

## Add element 2: It is between 0-2 with admittance j2.5

1 2 3 4

1 - j1.6667 0 0 0
Ybus = 2 0 - j2.5 0 0
3 0 0 0 0

4 0 0 0 0
Add element 3: It is between 0-4 with admittance j2

1 2 3 4

1 - j1.6667 0 0 0
Ybus = 2 0 - j2.5 0 0
3 0 0 0 0

4 0 0 0 - j2.0

## Add element 4: It is between 3-4 with admittance j4

1 2 3 4

1 - j1.6667 0 0 0
Ybus = 2 0 - j2.5 0 0
3 0 0 - j4.0 j4.0

4 0 0 j4.0 - j6.0
Add element 5: It is between 2-3 with admittance j5

1 2 3 4

1 - j1.6667 0 0 0
Ybus = 2 0 - j7.5 j5.0 0
3 0 j5.0 - j9.0 j4.0
4 0 0 j4.0 - j6.0

## Add element 6: It is between 1-2 with admittance j5

1 2 3 4

1 - j6.6667 j5.0 0 0
Ybus = 2 j5.0 - j12.5 j5.0 0
3 0 j5.0 - j9.0 j4.0
4 0 0 j4.0 - j6.0

Add element 7: It is between 2-4 with admittance j2.Final bus admittance matrix
1 2 3 4

1 - j6.6667 j5.0 0 0
Ybus = 2 j5.0 - j14.5 j5.0 j2.0
3 0 j5.0 - j9.0 j4.0
4 0 j2.0 j4.0 - j8.0
NETWORK REDUCTION

For a four node network, the performance equations in bus frame using the
admittance parameter can be written as:

## I 1 Y11 Y12 Y13 Y14 V1

I Y Y22 Y23 Y24 V
= 21
2 2
I 3 Y31 Y32 Y33 Y34 V3

I 4 Y41 Y42 Y43 Y44 V4

Suppose current I4 = 0, the node 4 can be eliminated and the network equations
can be written as:

I 1 Y11
'
Y12
'
Y13
'
V1
I = Y ' Y22
' '
Y23 V
2 21 2
I 3 Y ' Y32
'
Y33
'
V3
31

## Y41 V1 + Y42 V2 + Y43 V3 + Y44 V4 = 0

Y41 Y Y
Thus, V4 = - V1 - 42 V2 - 43 V3
Y44 Y44 Y44
Y41 Y Y
Thus, V4 = - V1 - 42 V2 - 43 V3
Y44 Y44 Y44

## Substituting the above in the equation of node 1

Y41 Y Y
I1 = Y11 V1 + Y12 V2 + Y13 V3 + Y14 (- V1 - 42 V2 - 43 V3)
Y44 Y44 Y44

## Y14 Y41 Y14 Y42 Y14 Y43

( Y11 - ) V1 + ( Y12 - ) V2 + ( Y13 - V3)
Y44 Y44 Y44

Y14 Y41
Y11 = Y11 -
Y44

Y14 Y42
Y12 = Y12 -
Y44

Y14 Y43
Y13 = Y13 -
Y44
Y14 Y41
Y11 = Y11 -
Y44

Y14 Y42
Y12 = Y12 -
Y44

Y14 Y43
Y13 = Y13 -
Y44

## Thus in general, when node k is eliminated, the modified elements can be

calculated as

Yik Ykj
Yij = Yij -
Ykk where i = 1, 2, , N i k and j = 1, 2, , N jk
Example

## Solve the equations

0.625 0.5 0 0 V1 0
0.5 1.0833 0.25 0.3333 V 2
=
2

## 0 0.25 0.75 0.5 V3 0

0 0.3333 0.5 0.8333 V4 4

Solution

## 0.6833 0.25 0.3333 V2 2

0.25 0.75 0.5 V = 0
3
0.3333 0.5 0.8333 V4 4
Eliminating node 1, we get

## 0.6833 0.25 0.3333 V2 2

0.25 0.75 0.5 V = 0
3
0.3333 0.5 0.8333 V4 4

0.6 0.5 V2 2
0.5 0.5 V = 4
4

## On solving the above, V2 = 60 and V4 = 68

0.625 0.5 0 0 V1 0
0.5 1.0833 0.25 0.3333 V 2
=
2

## 0 0.25 0.75 0.5 V3 0

0 0.3333 0.5 0.8333 V4 4

## The node 1 equation of first set gives

0.5 x 60
0.625 V1 0.5 V2 = 0 Thus V1 = 48
0.625

## The node 3 equation of first set gives

0.25 x 60 0.5 x 68
- 0.25 V2 + 0.75 V3 - 0.5 V4 = 0 Thus V3 = 65.3333
0.75

V1 48
V 60
Thus =
2
V3 65.3333

4
V 68
Formulation of Power Flow problem

## Power flow analysis is the most fundamental study to be performed in a

power system both during the Planning and Operational phases. It
constitutes the major portion of electric utility. The study is concerned with
the normal steady state operation of power system and involves the
determination of bus voltages and power flows for a given network

## 1 the present status of the power system, required for continuous

monitoring.
2 alternative plans for system expansion to meet the ever increasing
demand.

## The mathematical formulation of the power flow problem results in a

system of non-linear algebraic equations and hence calls for an iterative
technique for obtaining the solution. Gauss-Seidel method and Newton
Raphson ( N.R.) method are commonly used to get the power flow solution.
With reasonable assumptions and approximations, a power system may be
modeled as shown in Fig. 2.4 for purpose of steady state analysis.

G
PD1 jQD1 PD2 jQD2
Static Capacitor
1 2
PG1 jQG1

a:1

3
5
4 V3 3
PG5 jQG5 PG3 jQG3
PD4 jQD4
G G

## Fig. 2.4 Typical power system network

The model consists of a network in which a number of buses are
interconnected by means of lines which may either transmission lines or
power transformers. The generators and loads are simply characterized by
the complex powers flowing into and out of buses respectively. Each
transmission line is characterized by a lumped impedance and a line
charging capacitance. Static capacitors or reactors may be located at
certain buses either to boost or buck the load-bus voltages at times of
need.

## Thus the Power Flow problem may be stated as follows:

Given the network configuration and the loads at various buses, determine
a schedule of generation so that the bus voltages and hence line flows
remain within security limits.
A more specific statement of the problem will be made subsequently after
taking into consideration the following three observations.

1 For a given load, we can arbitrarily select the schedules of all the
generating buses, except one, to lie within the allowable limits of the
generation. The generation at one of the buses, called as the slack
bus, cannot be specified beforehand since the total generation should be
equal to the total demand plus the transmission losses, which is not
known unless all the bus voltages are determined.

2 Once the complex voltages at all the buses are known, all other
quantities of interest such as line flows, transmission losses and
generation at the buses can easily be determined. Hence the foremost
aim of the power flow problem is to solve for the bus voltages.
3 It will be convenient to use the Bus Power Specification which is
defined as the difference between the specified generation and load at a
bus. Thus for the k th bus, the bus power specification S k is given by

S PI j QI
k k k
( PG j QG ) ( PD j QD )
k k k k
( PG PD ) j ( QG QD ) (2.14)
k k k k

## In view of the above three observations Power Flow Problem may be

defined as that of determining the complex voltages at all the buses, given
the network configuration and the bus power specifications at all the buses
except the slack bus.
Classification of buses

There are four quantities associated with each bus. They are PI, QI, V, and .

## Any two of these four may be treated as independent variables ( i.e.

specified ) while the other two may be computed by solving the power flow
equations. Depending on which of the two variables are specified, buses
are classified into three types. Three types of bus classification based on
practical requirements are shown below.

? ? ? ? ? ?
PI s , QIs Vs , s PI k , QIk Vk , k PI m , QIm Vm , m

Slack bus

## In a power system with N buses, power flow problem is primarily concerned

with determining the 2N bus voltage variables, namely the voltage
magnitude and phase angles. These can be obtained by solving the 2N
power flow equations provided there are 2N power specifications. However
as discussed earlier the real and reactive power injection at the SLACK
BUS cannot be specified beforehand.

## This leaves us with no other alternative but to specify two variables Vs

and s arbitrarily for the slack bus so that 2( N-1 ) variables can be solved
from 2( N-1 ) known power specifications.

## Incidentally, the specification of Vs helps us to fix the voltage level of the

system and the specification of s serves as the phase angle reference for
the system.

Thus for the slack bus, both V and are specified and PI and QI are
to be determined. PI and QI can be computed at the end, when all the V s
and s are solved for.
Generator bus

## In a generator bus, it is customary to maintain the bus voltage magnitude

at a desired level which can be achieved in practice by proper reactive
power injection. Such buses are termed as the Voltage Controlled Buses
or P V buses. In these buses, PI and V are specified and QI and are

to be solved for.

## The buses where there is no controllable generation are called as Load

Buses or P Q buses. At the load buses, both PI and QI are specified
and V and are to be solved for.
Iterative solution for solving power flow model

## The power flow model will comprise of a set of simultaneous non-linear

algebraic equations. The following two methods are used to solve the
power flow model.

1. Gauss-Seidel method

## 2. Newton Raphson method

Gauss-Seidel method

## Gauss-Seidel method is used to solve a set of algebraic equations.

Consider

a 11 x 1 a 12 x 2 a 1N x N y 1
a 21 x 1 a 22 x 2 a 2N x N y 2

a N1 x 1 a N2 x 2 a NN x N y N
Specifically

a k1 x 1 a k2 x 2 a kk x k a kN x N y k
N
Thus a kk x k y k a
m 1
km xm
mk

N

1
This gives xk yk a km x m
a kk m 1

mk
k 1,2,, N

## In Gauss-Seidel method, initially, values of x 1 , x 2 ,, x N are assumed. Updated

values are calculated using the above equation. In any iteration h 1 , up to
m k 1, values of x m calculated in h 1 iteration are used and for
m k 1 to N , values of x m calculated in h iteration are used. Thus

1 k 1 N
yk a km x m a km x m
h 1 h1
x k h
(2.15)
a kk m1 mk 1
Gauss-Seidel method for power flow solution

## In this method, first an initial estimate of bus voltages is assumed. By

substituting this estimate in the given set of equations, a second estimate,
better than the first one, is obtained. This process is repeated and better
and better estimates of the solution are obtained until the difference
between two successive estimates becomes lesser than a prescribed
tolerance.

First let us consider a power system without any P-V bus. Later, the modification
required to include the P-V busses will be discussed. This means that given the
net power injection at all the load bus, it is required to find the bus voltages at all

The expression for net power injection being Vk Ik*, the equations to be solved are

k 1,2,, N
Vk Ik* = PIk + j QIk for (2.16)
k s
k 1,2,, N
Vk Ik* = PIk + j QIk for (2.16)
k s

In the above equations bus currents Ik are the intermediate variables that are to
be eliminated. Taking conjugate of the above equations yields

## Vk* Ik = PIk - j QIk (2.17)

PIk j QI k
Therefore Ik = (2.18)
Vk*

I Y Y22 Y 2N V
= 21
2 2 (2.19)

N
I YN1 YN2 YNN VN
we can write

N
= Ykk Vk + Y
m 1
km Vm (2.20)
mk

N
PIk QI k
Ykk Vk Ykm Vm
m1 Vk
*

mk

1 PIk jQI k N
Thus Vk Ykm Vm
Ykk Vk* m1

m k
k 1,2,, N
ks
PI j QI k 1 N
Ykm
Vm
(2.21)
k
Ykk Vk* m 1 Ykk
mk

k 1,2,, N
ks
PI j QI k 1 N
Ykm (2.21)
Vk k
Ykk Vk*
Vm
m 1 Ykk
mk

## A significant reduction in computing time for a solution can be achieved

by performing as many arithmetic operations as possible before initiating
the iterative calculation. Let us define

PIk j QI k
Ak (2.22)
Ykk

Ykm
and Bkm (2.23)
Ykk

## Having defined A k and Bkm equation (2.21) becomes

N
A
Vk k*
Vk
B
m 1
km Vm k 1,2,,N ks (2.24)
mk

## When Gauss-Seidel iterative procedure is used, the voltage at the k th bus

during h 1 th iteration, can be computed as

k 1 N
Ak
Vh1
k h * Bkm Vm Bkm Vmh
h 1
for k 1, 2......... N; k s (2.25)
Vk m1 mk 1
Line flow equations

Knowing the bus voltages, the power in the lines can be computed as
shown below.

Ikm
ykm
k m
ykm ykm

'
(2.26)

## Power flow from bus k to bus m is

Pkm j Q km Vk Ikm
*
(2.27)

## Pkm j Q km Vk [ ( Vk* Vm* ) ykm

*
Vk* ykm
' *
] (2.28)
Pkm j Q km Vk [ ( Vk* Vm* ) ykm
*
Vk* ykm
' *
] (2.28)

*
Vm* ykm
' *
] (2.29)

## Total transmission loss in the system is

PL P
i j
L i j
(2.31)
ov er all
the lines
Example 2.4

For a power system, the transmission line impedances and the line
charging admittances in p.u. on a 100 MVA base are given in Table 1. The
scheduled generations and loads on different buses are given in Table 2.
Taking the slack bus voltage as 1.06 + j 0.0 and using a flat start perform
the power flow analysis and obtain the bus voltages, transmission loss and
slack bus power.

## Bus code Line Impedance

Sl. No. HLCA
k-m z km
1 12 0.02 + j 0.06 j 0.030
2 13 0.08 + j 0.24 j 0.025
3 23 0.06 + j 0.18 j 0.020
4 24 0.06 + j 0.18 j 0.020
5 25 0.04 + j 0.12 j 0.015
6 34 0.01 + j 0.03 j 0.010
7 45 0.08 + j 0.24 j 0.025
Table 2 Bus data:

## Bus Generation Load

code Remark
k
PGk in MW QGk in MVAR PDk in MW QDk in MVAR
1 --- --- 0 0 Slack bus
2 40 30 20 10 P Q bus
3 0 0 45 15 P Q bus
4 0 0 40 5 P Q bus
5 0 0 60 10 P Q bus

Solution

Flat start means all the unknown voltage magnitude are taken as 1.0 p.u.
and all unknown voltage phase angles are taken as 0.

## Thus initial solution is

V1 1.06 j 0
V2(0) V3(0) V4(0) V5(0) 1.0 j 0
STEP 1

## Bus Line Impedance

code HLCA
No.
k-m
z km ykm
1 12 0.02 + j 0.06 5 - j 15 j 0.030
2 13 0.08 + j 0.24 1.25 j 3.75 j 0.025
3 23 0.06 + j 0.18 1.6667 j 5 j 0.020
4 24 0.06 + j 0.18 1.6667 j 5 j 0.020
5 25 0.04 + j 0.12 2.5 j 7.5 j 0.015
6 34 0.01 + j 0.03 10 j 30 j 0.010
7 45 0.08 + j 0.24 1.25 j 3.75 j 0.025

Y22 = (5 j15) + (1.6667 j5) + (1.6667 j5) + (2.5 j7.5) + j 0.03 + j 0.02 + j 0.02 + j 0.015

= 10.8334 j 32.415

Similarly Y33 = 12.9167 j 38.695 ; Y44 = 12.9167 j 38.695 ; Y55 = 3.75 j 11.21

1 2 3 4 5

STEP 2

## PIk j QIk Ykm

Ak and Bkm
Ykk Ykk
1
PI2 j QI2 ( 20 j 20 ) 0.2 j 0.2
100
PI2 j QI2 0.2 j 0.2
PI2 j QI2 0.2 j 0.2
A2 0.0074 j 0.0037
Y22 10.8334 j 32.415
Similarly A 3 , A 4 and A 5 are calculated.

Y 21 5 j15
B21 0.46263 j 0.00036
Y22 10.8334 j 32.415
Other elements of matrix B can be calculated in a similar manner.
Thus

1 -----

2 0.00740 + j 0.00370

A = 3 -0.00698 - j 0.00930

4 -0.00427 - j 0.00891

5 -0.02413 - j 0.04545

## --- --- --- --- ---

- 0.46263 - 0.15421 - 0.15421 - 0.23131
+ j 0.00036 --- + j 0.00012 + j 0.00012 + j 0.00018
- 0.09690 - 0.12920 - 0.77518
B = + j 0.00004 + j 0.00006 --- + j 0.00033 0
- 0.12920 - 0.77518 - 0.09690
0
+ j 0.00006 + j 0.00033 --- + j 0.00004
- 0.66881 - 0.33440
0
+ j 0.00072 0 + j 0.00036 ---
STEP 3

## New estimate of voltage at bus 2 is calculated as:

A2
V2( 1) (0) *
B 21 V1 B 23 V3( 0 ) B 24 V4( 0 ) B 25 V5( 0 )
V2
0.00740 j 0.00370
( 0.46263 j 0.00036 ) ( 1.06 j 0.0 0 )
1.0 j 0
( 0.15421 j 0.00012 ) ( 1.0 j 0.0 ) ( 0.15421 j 0.00012 ) ( 1.0 j 0.0 )
( 0.23131 j 0.00018 ) ( 1.0 j 0.0 )

1.03752 j 0.00290

This value of voltage V2( 1) will replace the previous value of voltage V2( 0 )
before doing subsequent calculations of voltages.
The rate of convergence of the iterative process can be increased by
applying an ACCELERATION FACTOR to the approximate solution

obtained. For example on hand, from the estimate V2( 1) we get the change
in voltage

## V2 V2( 1) V2( 0 ) ( 1.03752 j 0.00290 ) ( 1.0 j 0 )

0.03752 j 0.00290

## The accelerated value of the bus voltage is obtained as

V2( 1) V2( 0 ) V2
By assuming 1.4
V2( 1) ( 1.0 j 0 ) 1.4 ( 0.03752 j 0.00290 )
1.05253 j 0.00406

This new value of voltage V2( 1) will replace the previous value of the bus
voltage V2( 0 ) and is used in the calculation of voltages for the remaining
buses. In general

Vkh accld
1
Vkh ( Vkh 1 Vkh ) (2.32)
The process is continued for the remaining buses to complete one
iteration. For the next bus 3

A3
V3( 1) (0) *
B 31 V1 B 32 V2( 1) B 34 V (40 )
V3
0.00698 j 0.00930
( 0.09690 j 0.00004 ) ( 1.06 j 0 )
1.0 j 0
( 0.12920 j 0.00006 ) ( 1.05253 j 0.00406 )
( 0.77518 j 0.00033 ) ( 1.0 j 0 )
1.00690 j 0.00921

## V3( 1)accld V3( 0 ) ( V3( 1) V3( 0 ) )

( 1.0 j 0 ) 1.4 ( 0.00690 j 0.00921)
1.00966 j 0.01289
Continuing this process of calculation, at the end of first iteration, the bus
voltages are obtained as

V1 1.06 j 0.0
V2( 1) 1.05253 j 0.00406
V3( 1) 1.00966 j 0.01289
V4( 1) 1.01599 j 0.02635
V5( 1) 1.02727 j 0.07374

If and are the acceleration factors for the real and imaginary
components of voltages respectively, the accelerated values can be
computed as

e hk accld
1
e hk ( e hk 1 e hk )
h1 h1
(2.33)
fk accld f (f
h
k k f )
h
k
CONVERGENCE

## The iterative process must be continued until the magnitude of change of

bus voltage between two consecutive iterations is less than a certain level

## Vmax = max. of Vkh 1 Vkh for k = 1,2, , N ks

(2.34)
and Vmax <

If 1 and 2 are the tolerance level for the real and imaginary parts of
bus voltages respectively, then the convergence criteria will be

## Vmax 1 = max. of ehk 1 ehk ; Vmax 2 = max. of fkh 1 fkh

(2.35)
(2.35)
for k = 1,2, , N ks

## Vmax 1 < 1 and Vmax 2 < 2

For the problem under study 1 2 0.0001

The final bus voltages obtained after 10 iterations are given below.

V1 1.06 j 0.0
V2 1.04623 j 0.05126
V3 1.02036 j 0.08917
V4 1.01920 j 0.09504
V5 1.01211 j 0.10904

## Pkm j Q km Vk [ (Vk* Vm* ) y km

*
Vk* y km
' *
]
P12 j Q 12 V1 [ ( V1* V2* ) y 12
*
V1* y 12
' *
]
(1.06 j 0 ) [ { ( 1.06 j 0 ) ( 1.04623 j 0.05126 ) } ( 5 j 15 )
{ ( 1.06 j 0) ( 0.0 j 0.03 ) } ]
( 0.888 j 0.086 )
Similarly
P21 j Q 21 V2 [ ( V2* V1* ) y 12
*
V2* y 12
' *

## ( 1.04623 j 0.05126 ) [ { ( 1.04623 j 0.05126) ( 1.06 j 0 ) }( 5 j 15)

{ ( 1.04623 j 0.05126 ) (0.0 j 0.03 ) } ]
( 0.874 j 0.062 )

## PL 1 2 ( P12 j Q 12 ) ( P21 j Q 21 ) (0.888 j 0.086) (0.874 j 0.062)

( 0.014 j 0.024 )

## Power loss in other lines can be computed as

PL 1 3 0.012 j 0.019
PL 23 0.004 j 0.033
PL 24 0.004 j 0.029
PL 25 0.011 j 0.002
PL 34 0.0 j 0.019
PL 4 5 0.0 j 0.051

## Reactive power transmission loss = 17.3 MVAR ( Capacitive )

COMPUTATION OF SLACK BUS POWER

## Slack bus power can be determined by summing up the powers flowing

out in the lines connected at the slack bus.

Ps + j Qs G

1 3
P13 + j Q13

P12 + j Q12

## Thus in this case slack bus power is

Ps j Q s ( P13 j Q 13 ) ( P12 j Q 12 )
( 0.407 j 0.011) ( 0.888 j 0.086 ) ( 1.295 j 0.075 )

## Reactive power = 7.5 MVAR (Capacitive )

VOLTAGE CONTROLLED BUS

In voltage controlled bus k net real power injection PIk and voltage

## specified for voltage controlled bus. Since QI k is not known, A k given by

PIk j QI k
cannot be calculated. An expression for QI k can be developed
Ykk
as shown below.

N
We know Ik Y
m1
km Vm and PIk j QIk Vk Ik*

## Denoting Yi j Yi j i j and Vi Vi i we have

N
PIk j QI k Vk k
m 1
Yk m Vm k m m

N
Vk
m1
Vm Yk m k m k m

N
Thus QI k Vk
m 1
Vm Yk m sin ( k m k m )
(2.36)
N
Thus QI k Vk
m1
Vm Yk m sin ( k m k m ) (2.36)

Vk Vk specified

## Because of voltage updating in the previous iteration, the voltage

magnitude of the voltage controlled bus might have been deviated from the
specified value. It has to be pulled back to the specified value, using the
relation

fkh
1
Adjusted voltage V Vk h
k specified where tan ( h ) taking Vk e k j fk
h
k
h
k
h h h

ek
(2.37)
Using the adjusted voltage Vkh as given in eqn. (2.37), net injected reactive

## power QI hk can be computed using eqn. (2.36). As long as QI hk falls within

the range specified, Vkh can be replaced by the Adjusted Vkh and A k can
be computed.
In case if QI hk violates any one the limits specified, then Vkh should not be

## replaced by Adjusted Vkh ; QI hk is set to the limit and Ak can be

calculated. In this case bus k is changed from P V to P Q type.

## Once the value of A k is known, further calculation to find Vkh 1 will be

the same as that for P Q bus.

Complete flow chart for power flow solution using Gauss-Seidel method is
shown in Fig. 2.7. The extra calculation needed for voltage controlled bus
is shown between X X and Y Y.
START

## READ LINE DATA & BUS DATA

FORM Y MATRIX
ASSUME Vk
( 0)
k 1,2, , N k s
COMPUTE Ak FOR P Q BUSES
COMPUTE Bkm SET h = 0

## SET k = 1 AND VMAX 0.0

k:s YES

X -------------------------------------------- NO-----------------------------------------
NO k : V.C. Bus X
YES
COMPUTE kh ADJUSTED VOLTAGE, QI kh

QI kh : QI k MAX QI kh : QI k MIN
> <
h h h h
REPLACE QI k BY QI k MAX REPLACE QI k BY QI k MIN REPLACE Vk BY ADJ Vk

Y COMPUTE Ak Y
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

COMPUTE Vk
h 1
; COMPUTE V Vkh 1 Vkh

YES
V VMAX SET VMAX V
NO
h h 1
REPLACE Vk BY Vk

SET k = k + 1

> NO
SET h = h + 1

## COMPUTE LINE FLOWS, SLACK BUS POWER

PRINT THE RESULTS

STOP
Representation of off nominal tap setting transformer

## A transformer with no tap setting arrangement can be represented similar to a

short transmission line. However off nominal tap setting transformer which has tap
setting facility at the HT side calls for different representation.

Consider a transformer 110 / 11 kV having tap setting facility. Its nominal ratio is
10 : 1 i.e. its nominal turns OR voltage ratio = 10. Suppose the tap is adjusted so
that the turns ratio becomes 11 : 1. This can be thought of connecting two
transformers in cascade, the first one with ratio 11 : 10 and the second one with the
ratio 10 : 1 (Nominal ratio). In this case the off nominal turns ratio is 11 / 10 = 1.1.

Suppose the tap is adjusted so that the turns ratio becomes 9 : 1. This is same as
two transformers in cascade, the first with a turn ratio 9 : 10 and the second with
the ratio 10 : 1 ( Nominal ratio ). In this case off nominal turn ratio is 9 / 10 = 0.9.
A transformer with off nominal turn ratio can be represented by its impedance or
admittance, connected in series with an ideal autotransformer as shown in Fig. 2.10.

An equivalent circuit as shown in Fig. 2.11, will be useful for power flow studies.
The elements of the equivalent circuit can be treated in the same manner as the
line elements.

Let 'a ' be the turn ratio of the autotransformer. 'a ' is also called as off nominal
turns ratio. Usually 'a ' varies from 0.85 to 1.15.

a:1
p t ypq q

Ip i tq
Iq
Fig. 2.10 Representation of off nominal transformer
p t ypq q

Ip i tq
Iq
The parameters of the equivalent circuit shown in Fig. 2.11 can be derived by
equating the terminal current of the transformer with the corresponding current of
the equivalent circuit.

Ep i tq
It is to be noted that a and a (2.86)
Et Ip

## We are going to write Ip and Iq in terms of Ep nd Eq.

itq 1 1 Ep
Ip
( Et Eq ) y p q ( Eq ) y p q
a a a a
yp q yp q
2
E p Eq (2.87)
a a
Ep
Also I q ( E q E t ) y p q ( E q ) yp q
a
(2.88)
yp q
Ep y p q Eq
a
yp q yp q yp q
Ip 2
Ep Eq Iq Ep y p q Eq
a a a

P Q
A
IP Iq
B C Parameters A,B and C
Fig. 2.11

## Referring to the equivalent circuit

(2.89)
I p (Ep Eq ) A Ep B ( A B ) Ep A Eq and

I q ( Eq Ep ) A Eq C A Ep ( A C ) Eq (2.90)

## Comparing the coefficients of E p and E q in eqns. (2.87) to (2.90), we get

yp q yp q
AB Thus A
a2 a
yp q yp q yp q 1 1
A B 2
( 1) yp q
a a a a a
A C yp q yp q 1
C yp q (1 ) yp q
a a
The equivalent circuit will then be as shown in Fig. 2.12

ypq

p
a q

I p I q

1 1 1
( 1) y p q (1 )y p q
a a a

## Fig. 2.12 Equivalent circuit of off nominal transformer

When the off nominal turns ratio is represented at bus p for transformer

## necessary in the bus admittance matrix.

yp q 1 1 yp q
Yp p new Yp p old
( 1 ) y p q Yp p old 2
a a a a
yp q 1
Yq q new Yq q old ( 1 ) y p q Yq q old y p q
a a (2.91)
yp q
Yp q new Yp q old
a
yp q
Yq p new Yq p old
a
Obtain the bus admittance matrix of the transmission system with the following
data.

Line data

Off
Line Between
Line Impedance HLCA nominal
No. buses
turns ratio

## 4 25 0.282 + j 0.64 0 ---

5 43 j 0.133 0 0.909

## 6 46 0.097 + j 0.407 j 0.0076 ---

7 65 j 0.3 0 0.976

## Bus No. 4 Admittance j 0.005

Line Between
Line admittance HLCA ypq / a ypq / a2
No. buses
1 1 4 0.5583 j2.582 j 0.007 --- ---
2 1 6 0.4339 j1.8275 j 0.01 ---- ---
3 2 3 0.4449 j 0.6461 0 ---- ----
4 2 5 0.5765 j 1.3085 0 ---- ----
5 4 3 - j 7.5188 0 - j8.2715 - j 9.0996
6 4 6 0.5541 j 2.3249 j 0.0076 ---- ----
7 6 5 - j 3.3333 0 - j 3.4153 - j 3.4993

## Y11 = 0.5583 j 2.582 + j 0.007 + 0.4339 j 1.8275 + j 0.01 = 0.9922 j 4.3925

Y22 = 0.4449 j0.6461 + 0.5765 j1.3085 = 1.0214 j 1.9546
Y33 = 0.4449 j0.6461 j7.5188 = 0.4449 j 8.1649
Y44 = 0.5583 j 2.582 + j 0.007 j 9.0996 + 0.5541 j 2.3249 + j 0.0076 + j0.005
= 1.1124 j 13.9869
Y55 = 0.5765 j1.3085 j 3.3333 = 0.5765 j 4.6418

Y66 = 0.4339 j 1.8275 + j 0.01+ 0.5541 j 2.3249 + j0.0076 - j 3.4993 = 0.988 j 7.6341

0.4339
0 .9922 0.5583
0 0 0 j1.8275
j4.3925 j2.5820

## 1.0214 0.4449 0.5765

0 0 0
j1.9546 j0.6461 j1.3085

0.4449 0.4449
0 j8.2715 0 0
j0.6461 j8.1649
0.5541
0.5583 1.1124
0 j8.2715 0 j2.3249
j2.5820 j13.9869

0.5765 0.5765
0 0 0 j3.4153
j1.3085 j4.6418
0.4339 0.5541 0.988
0 0
j1.8275 j2.3209 j3.4153 j7.6341
%
% Bus admittance matrix including off nominal transformer
% Shunt parameter must be in ADMITTANCE
% Reading the line data
%
Nbus = 6; Nele = 7; Nsh = 1;
%
% Reading element data
%
Edata=[1 1 4 0.08+0.37i 0.007i 1;2 1 6 0.123+0.518i 0.01i 1;
3 2 3 0.723+1.05i 0 1; 4 2 5 0.282+0.64i 0 1; ...
5 4 3 0.133i 0 0.909;6 4 6 0.097+0.407i 0.0076i 1; ...
7 6 5 0.3i 0 0.976];
%
% Reading shunt data
%
Shdata = [1 4 0.005i];
%
% Displaying data
%
disp([' Sl.No From bus To bus Line
Impedance HLCA ONTR'])
Edata
if Nsh~=0
disp([' Sl.No. At bus Shunt Admittamce'])
Shdata
end

## % Formation of Ybus matrix

%
Ybus = zeros(Nbus,Nbus);
for k = 1:Nele
p = Edata(k,2);
q = Edata(k,3);
yele = 1/Edata(k,4);
Hlca = Edata(k,5);
offa = Edata(k,6);
offaa = offa*offa;
Ybus(p,p) = Ybus(p,p) + yele/offaa + Hlca;
Ybus(q,q) = Ybus(q,q) + yele + Hlca;
Ybus(p,q) = Ybus(p,q) - yele/offa;
Ybus(q,p) = Ybus(q,p) - yele/offa;
end
if Nsh~=0
for i = 1:Nsh
q = Shdata(i,2);
yele = Shdata(i,3);
Ybus(q,q) = Ybus(q,q) + yele;
end
end
disp([' *** BUS ADMITTANCE MATRIX ***'])
Ybus
Introduction to Power Flow Analysis by Newton Raphson method

Gauss-Seidel method of solving the power flow has simple problem formulation and hence
easy to explain However, it has poor convergence characteristics. It takes large number of
iterations to converge. Even for the five bus system discussed in Example 2.4, it takes 10
iterations to converge.

Newton Raphson (N.R.) method of solving power flow is based on the Newton Raphson
method of solving a set of non-linear algebraic equations.

N. R. method of solving power flow problem has very good convergence characteristics.
Even for large systems it takes only two to four iterations to converge.
Power flow model of Newton Raphson method

The equations describing the performance of the network in the bus admittance
form is given by

I = YV (2.38)

## I1 Y11 Y12 Y1N V1

I Y Y22 Y 2N V
= 21
2 2 (2.39)

I N YN1 YN2 YNN VN

## The current injected into the network at bus i is given by

I i Yi 1 V1 Yi 2 V2 Yi N Vn
N (2.42)

n 1
Yi n Vn
In addition to the linear network equations given by eqn. (2.39), bus power
equations should also be satisfied in the power flow problem. These bus power
equations introduce non- linearity into the power flow model. The complex power
entering the network at bus i is given by

Pi j Q i Vi I *i (2.43)

Bus power equations can be obtained from the above two equations (2.42) and (2.43) by
eliminating the intermediate variable I i . From eqn. (2.43)

N N
Pi j Q i V I i = V i
*
i
*

n 1
Yi n Vn = Vi i
n 1
Yi n i n Vn n

N
=
n 1
Vi Vn Yi n i n + n - i

## Separating the real and imaginary parts, we obtain

N
Pi = Vi Vn Yi n cos ( i n + n - i ) (2.44)
n 1

N
Qi = -
n 1
Vi Vn Yi n sin ( i n + n - i ) (2.45)
N
Pi = Vi Vn Yi n cos ( i n + n - i ) (2.44)
n 1

N
Qi = -
n 1
Vi Vn Yi n sin ( i n + n - i ) (2.45)

The real and reactive powers obtained from the above two equations are referred as
calculated powers. During the power flow calculations, their values depend on the latest
bus voltages. Finally,these calculated powers should be equal to the specified powers. Thus
the non-linear equations to be solved in power flow analysis are
N

n 1
Vi Vn Yi n cos ( i n + n - i ) = PI i (2.46)

N
-
n 1
Vi Vn Yi n sin ( i n + n - i ) = QI i (2.47)

It is to be noted that equation (2.46) can be written for bus i only if real power injection at
bus i is specified.

Similarly, equation (2.47) can be written for bus i only if reactive power injection at bus
i is specified.
N

n 1
Vi Vn Yi n cos ( i n + n - i ) = PI i (2.46)

N
-
n 1
Vi Vn Yi n sin ( i n + n - i ) = QI i (2.47)

Of the N total number of buses in the power system, let the number of P-Q buses be
N 1 , P-V buses be N 2 . Then N N1 N 2 1 . Basic problem is to find the

i) Unknown phase angles at the N 1 N 2 number of P-Q & P-V buses and

## We can write N 1 N 2 real power specification equations (eqn.2.46) and N 1 reactive

power specification equations (eqn.2.47).

## Therefore Number of equations = Number of variables = 2 N 1 N 2

Thus in power flow study, we need to solve the equations
N

n 1
Vi Vn Yi n cos ( i n + n - i ) = PI i (2.48)

for i = 1, 2, .., N

i s

and
N
-
n 1
Vi Vn Yi n sin ( i n + n - i ) = QI i (2.49)

for i = 1, 2, .., N

i s

i P V buses

## The unknown variables are also called as state variables.

Example 2.5

In a 9 bus system, bus 1 is the slack bus, buses 2,5 and 7 are the P-V buses. List the state
variables. Also indicate the specified power injections.

Solution

## PI 2 , PI 3 , PI 4 , PI 5 , PI 6 , PI 7 , PI 8 , PI 9 , QI 3 , QI4 , QI6 , QI8 and QI9 are the specified power

injections.
Newton Raphson method of solving a set of non-linear equations

## Let the non-linear equations to be solved be

f1 (x1 , x 2 ,, xn ) k1

f 2 (x1 , x 2 ,, xn ) k 2

(2.50)

fn (x1 , x 2 ,, xn ) k n

(0)
Let the initial solution be x1 , x (0) (0)
2 , , x n

2 , , x n ) 0

2 , , x n ) 0
=

## k n fn (x1(0) , x(0) (0)

2 , , x n ) 0

then the solution is reached. Let us say that the solution is not reached.
Let us say that the solution is not reached. Assume x1 , x2 ,, xn are the
corrections required on x1(0) , x (0)
2 ,, x (0)
n respectively. Then

f1 [(x1(0) x1 ), (x(0)
2 x2 ),, (x n xn )] k 1
(0)

f 2 [(x1(0) x1 ), (x (0)
2 x2 ),, (x n xn )] k 2
(0)
(2.51)

f n [(x1(0) x1 ), (x (0)
2 x2 ),, (x n xn )] k n
(0)

Each equation in the above set can be expanded by Taylors theorem around
x1(0) , x (0)
2 ,, x (0)
n . For example, the following is obtained for the first equation.

f1 f 1 f 1
2 ,, x n )
f1 (x1(0) , x (0) (0)
x1 x 2 xn 1 k 1
x 1 x 2 x n
f1 f 1 f 1
2 ,, x n )
f1 (x1(0) , x (0) (0)
x1 x 2 xn 1 k 1
x 1 x 2 x n

## where 1 is a function of higher derivatives of f 1 and higher powers of

x1 , x2 ,, xn . Neglecting 1 and also following the same for other equations,
we get

f1 f f
2 ,, x n )
f1 (x1(0) , x (0) (0)
x1 1 x 2 1 xn k 1
x 1 0 x 2 0 x n 0

f 2 f f
2 ,, x n )
f 2 (x1(0) , x (0) (0)
x1 2 x 2 2 xn k 2
x 1 0 x 2 0 x n 0
(2.52)

f n f f
2 ,, x n )
f n (x1(0) , x (0) (0)
x1 n x 2 n xn k n
x 1 0 x 2 0 x n 0
The matrix form of equations (2.52) is

f 1 f 1 f 1
x1 k 1 f 1 ( x 1(0) , x (0) (0)
2 , , x n )
x 1 0 x 2 0 x n 0

f 2 f 2 f 2
x 2 k 2 f 2 ( x 1(0) , x (0) (0)
2 , , x n ) (2.53)
x 1 0 x 2 0 x n 0 =

f n f n f n
xn k n f n ( x 1(0) , x (0) (0)
2 , , x n )
x 1 0 x 2 0 x n 0

## F ' ( X(0) ) X K F ( X (0) ) (2.54)

This set of linear equations need to be solved for the correction vector

x1
x
X 2

x
n
F ' ( X(0) ) X K F ( X (0) ) (2.54)

In eqn.(2.54) F ' ( X (0) ) is called the JACOBIAN MATRIX and the vector K F ( X (0) )
is called the ERROR VECTOR. The Jacobian matrix is also denoted as J.

## Solving eqn. (2.54) for X

X = F ( X ) K F ( X )
' (0) 1 (0 )
(2.55)

X ( 1) X ( 0 ) X

## Generalizing this, for ( h 1 ) th iteration

X ( h1 ) X ( h ) X where (2.56)

K F ( X )
X F ' ( X( h ) ) 1 (h)
(2.57)

## i.e. X is the solution of F ' ( X ( h ) ) X K F ( X( h ) ) (2.58)

Thus the solution procedure to solve F ( X ) K is as follows :

## (iii) Update the solution as

X (h 1) X (h) X

Values of the correction vector can also be used to test for convergence.

Example 2.6

## Using Newton-Raphson method, solve for x 1 and x 2 of the non-linear equations

4 x 2 sin x 1 = - 0.6

4 x 22 - 4 x 2 cos x 1 = - 0.3

## Choose the initial solution as x 1(0) = 0 rad. and x (0)

2 = 1. Take the precision index on error

vector as 10 3 .

Solution

## Errors are calculated as

x1 0
- 0.6 (4 x 2 sin x1 ) ) x 1 = - 0.6
2

x1 0
- 0.3 (4 x - 4 x 2 cos x 1 )
2
2 x 2 1 = - 0.3

0.6
The error vector is not small.
0.3
It is noted that f 1 = 4 x 2 sin x 1

f 2 = 4 x 22 - 4 x 2 cos x 1

f 1 f 1
x x 2 4 x cos x 1 4 sin x 1
Jacobian matrix is: J = 1 = 2
f 2 f 2 4 x 2 sin x 1 8 x 2 4 cos x 1
x 1 x 2

## Substituting the latest values of state variables x 1 = 0 and x 2 = 1

4 0 0.25 0
J= ; Its inverse is J 1 =
0 4 0 0.25

## x 1 0.25 0 0.6 0.150

x = 0 0.25 0.3 = 0.075
2

## The state vector is updated as

x1 0 0.150 0.150
x = 1 + 0.075 = 0.925
2

## This completes the first iteration.

Errors are calculated as

x 1 0.15 rad.
- 0.6 (4 x 2 sin x 1 ) x 0.925 = = - 0.047079
2

x 1 0.15 rad.
- 0.3 (4 x 22 - 4 x 2 cos x 1 ) x 2 0.925 = - 0.064047

0.04709
The error vector is not small.
0.064047

## 4 x cos x 1 4 sin x 1 x 0.15 rad.

Jacobian matrix is: J = 2
8 x 2 4 cos x 1 x 0.925
1
4 x 2 sin x 1 2

3.658453 0.597753
=
0.552921 3.444916
Correction vector is calculated as
-1
x 1 3.658453 0.597753 0.047079 0.016335
x = 0.552921 3.444916 0.064047 =
2 0.021214

## x1 0.150 0.016335 0.166335

x = 0.925 + 0.021214 = 0.903786
2

## Errors are calculated as

x 1 0.166335 rad.
- 0.6 (4 x 2 sin x 1 ) x 0.903786 = = - 0.001444
2

x 1 0.166335 rad.
- 0.3 (4 x - 4 x 2 cos x 1 ) x 0.903786
2
2 = - 0.002068
2

## Still error vector exceeds the precision index.

4 x 2 cos x 1 4 sin x 1 x 1 0.166335 rad.
Jacobian matrix is: J =
4 x 2 sin x 1 8 x 2 4 cos x 1 x 2 0.903786

3.565249 0.662276
=
0.598556 3.285495

## Correction vector is calculated as

-1
x 1 3.565249 0.662276 0.001444 0.000540
x = 0.598556 3.285495 0.002068 =
2 0.000728

## x1 0.166335 0.000540 0.166875

x = 0.903786 + 0.000728 = 0.903058
2
Errors are calculated as

x 1 0.166875 rad.
- 0.6 (4 x 2 sin x 1 ) x 0.903058 = = - 0.000002
2

x 1 0.166875 rad.
- 0.3 (4 x 22 - 4 x 2 cos x 1 ) x 0.903058 = - 0.000002
2

## Errors are less than 10-3.

The final values of x 1 and x 2 are - 0.166875 rad. and 0.903058 respectively.

The results can be checked by substituting the solution in the original equations:

4 x 2 sin x 1 = - 0.6

4 x 22 - 4 x 2 cos x 1 = - 0.3
In this example, we have actually solved our first power flow problem by N.R. method.
This is because the two non-linear equations of this example are the power flow model of
the simple system shown in Fig. 2.8.

j 0.25 p.u.
1 2
V1 1 V2 2
G

j 6.0 p.u.

## Fig. 2.8 Two bus power flow model

Here bus 1 is the slack bus with its voltage V1 1 = 1.0 0 0 p.u. Further x 1 represents
the angle 2 and x 2 represents the voltage magnitude V2 at bus 2.

## We now concentrate on the application of Newton-Raphson procedure in the power flow

studies.
Power flow solution by Newton Raphson method

As discussed earlier, taking the bus voltages and line admittances in polar form, in power
flow study we need to solve the non-linear equations
N

n 1
Vi Vn Yi n cos ( i n + n - i ) = PI i (2.59)

N
-
n 1
Vi Vn Yi n sin ( i n + n - i ) = QI i (2.60)

## Separating the term with n i we get

N
Gii +
2
Vi Vi Vn Yi n cos ( i n + n - i ) = PI i (2.61)
n 1
ni

N
Vi B i i
2
Vi Vn Yi n sin ( i n + n - i ) = QI i (2.62)
n 1
ni
In a compact form, the above non-linear equations can be written as

P ( , V ) PI (2.63)

Q ( , V ) QI (2.64)

On linearization, we get

P P
V P

Q V Q (2.65)
Q
V

where

## Q QI calculated value of Q ( , V ) corresponding to the present solution.

V
To bring symmetry in the elements of the coefficient matrix, is taken as
V
problem variable in place of V . Then eqn. (2.65) changes to

P P
V
V
P
V (2.66)
Q
Q Q
V V

V

## In symbolic form, the above equation can be written as

H N P

(2.67)
V
M L V Q

The matrix H N is known as JACOBIAN matrix.

M L

## The dimensions of the sub-matrices will be as follows:

H (N1 N 2 ) x (N1 N 2 )

N (N1 N 2 ) x N 1

M N 1 x (N1 N 2 ) and

L N1 x N1

where N 1 is the number of P-Q buses and N 2 is the number of P-V buses.

Consider a 4 bus system having bus 1 as slack bus, buses 2 and 3 as P-Q buses
and bus 4 as P-V bus for which real power injections PI 2 , PI 3 & PI 4 and reactive
power injections QI 2 & QI 3 are specified. Noting that 2 , 3 , 4 , V2 and V3 are
the problem variables, linear equations that are to be solved in each iteration will
be
2 3 4 V2 V3

P2 P2 P2 P2 P2
P2 V2 V3 2 P2
2 3 4 V2 V3

P3 P3 P3 P3 P3
P3 V2 V3 3 P3
2 3 4 V2 V3

P4 P4 P4 P4 P4
P4 V2 V3 4 = P4 (2.68)
2 3 4 V2 V3

Q 2 Q 2 Q 2 Q 2 Q 2 V2
Q2 V2 V3 Q 2
2 3 4 V2 V3 V2

Q 3 Q 3 Q 3 Q 3 Q 3 V3
Q3 V2 V3 Q3
2 3 4 V2 V3 V3
The following is the solution procedure for N.R. method of power flow analysis.

1 Read the line data and bus data; construct the bus admittance matrix.

## 2 Set k = 0. Assume a starting solution. Usually a FLAT START is assumed in

which all the unknown phase angles are taken as zero and unknown voltage

## magnitudes are taken as 1.0 p.u.

3 Compute the mismatch powers i.e. the error vector. If the elements of error

vector are less than the specified tolerance, the problem is solved and hence go to

H N P

for
V V
M L Q V
k V k

= +
V V V
k+1 k

## 6 Set k = k + 1 and go to Step 3.

7 Calculate line flows, transmission loss and slack bus power. Print the

## results and STOP.

Calculation of elements of Jacobian matrix

## We know that the equations that are to be solved are

N
Gii +
2
Vi Vi Vn Yi n cos ( i n + n - i ) = PI i (2.69)
n 1
ni

N
Vi B i i
2
Vi Vn Yi n sin ( i n + n - i ) = QI i (2.70)
n 1
ni

i.e. Pi ( , V ) PI i (2.71)

Q i ( , V ) QIi (2.72)

## The suffix i should take necessary values.

H N
Jacobian matrix is where
M L

P P Q Q
H ; N V ; M and L V
V V
Here
N
Gii +
2
Pi = Vi Vi Vn Yi n cos ( i n + n - i ) (2.73)
n 1
ni

N
Q i = Vi B i i
2
Vi Vn Yi n sin ( i n + n - i ) (2.74)
n 1
ni

Diagonal elements:

P N
Hii i = Vi Vn Yi n sin ( i n + n - i ) = Q i Vi
2
Bi i (2.75)
i n 1
ni

Pi N
Ni i Vi 2 Vi G i i +
2
Vi Vn Yi n cos ( i n + n - i )
Vi n 1
ni

2
= Pi + Vi Gii (2.76)

Q i N
Mii
2
= Vi Vn Yi n cos ( i n + n - i ) = Pi - Vi Gii (2.77)
i n 1
ni

Q i N
Li i Vi = 2 Vi B i i -
2
Vi Vn Yi n sin ( i n + n - i )
Vi n 1
ni

= Q i Vi
2
Bi i (2.78)
Off-diagonal elements:

We know that
N
Gii +
2
Pi = Vi Vi Vn Yi n cos ( i n + n - i ) (2.79)
n 1
ni

N
Q i = Vi B i i
2
Vi Vn Yi n sin ( i n + n - i ) (2.80)
n 1
ni

Pi
Hi j Vi Vj Yi j sin ( i j + j - i ) (2.81)
j

Pi
Ni j Vj = Vi Vj Yi j cos ( i j + j - i ) (2.82)
Vj

Q i
Mi j = Vi Vj Yi j cos ( i j + j - i ) (2.83)
j

Q i
Li j Vj = Vi Vj Yi j sin ( i j + j - i ) (2.84)
Vj
Summary of formulae

H i i Q i Vi
2
Bi i

2
Ni i Pi + Vi Gii

Pi Vi
2
Mii Gii

Q i Vi
2
Li i Bi i
(2.85)
Hi j Vi Vj Yi j sin ( i j + j - i )

Ni j Vi Vj Yi j cos ( i j + j - i )

Mi j Vi Vj Yi j cos ( i j + j - i )

Li j Vi Vj Yi j sin ( i j + j - i )

Flow chart for N.R. method of power flow solution is shown below.
START

## READ LINE and BUS DATA

COMPUTE Y MATRIX
ASSUME FLAT START
SET k = 0

## FOR ALL P-V BUSES COMPUTE Q i

IF Q i VIOLATES THE LIMITS SET
Qi = Q i Limit AND TREAT BUS i AS A P-Q BUS

## COMPUTE MISMATCH POWERS P & Q

NO ELEMENTS OF YES
P & Q < ?

## COMPUTE MATRICES H,N,M & L

H N V P V AND UPDATE
FORM ; SOLVE FOR
M L V Q
V

V = +
k+1 V k V k

SET k = k + 1

## COMPUTE LINE FLOWS, TRANSMISSION LOSS & SLACK BUS POWER

PRINT THE RESULTS

STOP
Example 2.7

Perform power flow analysis for the power system with the data given below, using
Newton Raphson method, and obtain the bus voltages.

1 1 2 0 j 0.1
2 23 0 j 0.2
3 1 3 0 j 0.2

## Bus Generator Load

Type V Q min Q max
No P Q P Q

Solution

## The bus admittance matrix can be obtained as

1 2 3
1 j15 j10 j5 15 10 5
Y = 2 j10 j15 j5 ; G = ; B = 10 15 5

3 j5 j5 j10 5 5 10

1 2 3 1 2 3

1 15 10 5 1 90 0
90 0 90 0
10 15 5 0
Y 2 and = 2 90 90 0 90 0
5 5 10 90 0 90 0 90 0
3 3

PI 2 1.8184 2

In this problem PI 3 1.2517 and unknown quantities =
3
QI 3 1.2574 V3
With flat start V1 1.00 0

V2 1.10 0

V3 1.00 0

We know that
N
Gii +
2
Pi = Vi Vi Vn Yi n cos ( i n + n - i )
n 1
ni

N
Q i = Vi B i i
2
Vi Vn Yi n sin ( i n + n - i )
n 1
ni

## Substituting the values of bus admittance parameters, expressions for P2 , P3 and Q 3

are obtained as follows
2
P2 = V2 G 2 2 V2 V1 Y2 1 cos ( 2 1 1 2 ) V2 V3 Y2 3 cos ( 2 3 3 2 )

= 0 + 10 V2 V1 cos ( 90 1 2 ) 5 V2 V3 cos ( 90 3 2 )

= 10 V2 V1 sin( 1 2 ) 5 V2 V3 sin( 3 2 )
Similarly

P3 = 5 V3 V1 sin ( 1 3 ) 5 V3 V2 sin( 2 3 )

Likewise

Q 3 V3 B 3 3 V3 V1 Y3 1 sin( 90 1 3 )
2
V3 V2 Y3 2 sin(90 2 3 )

5 V3 V1 cos ( 1 3 ) 5 V3 V2 cos ( 2 3 )
2
= 10 V3

Iteration starts:

## To check whether bus 2 will remain as P-V bus, Q 2 need to be calculated.

Q 2 15 V2 10 V2 V1 cos ( 1 2 ) 5
2
V2 V3 cos ( 3 2 )

## This lies within the Q limits. Thus bus 2 remains as P V bus.

Since 1 2 3 0,

we get P2 P3 0

Q 3 = ( 10 x 1 x 1 ) ( 5 x 1 x 1 ) ( 5 x 1 x 1.1 ) = - 0.5

## Mismatch powers are: P2 PI 2 P2 1.8184 0 1.8184

P3 PI 3 P3 1.2517 0 1.2517

## Q3 QI 3 Q 3 1.2574 0.5 0.7574

2 3 V3
Linear equations P2 H 22 H 23 N 23 2 P2
H 32 H 33 N 33 3 = P3
to be solved are P3
V3 Q 3
Q3 M 32 M 33 L 33 V3
Summary of formulae

H i i Q i Vi
2
Bi i

2
Ni i Pi + Vi Gii

Pi Vi
2
Mii Gii

Li i Q i Vi
2
Bi i
(2.85)
Hi j Vi Vj Yi j sin ( i j + j - i )

Ni j Vi Vj Yi j cos ( i j + j - i )

Mi j Vi Vj Yi j cos ( i j + j - i )

Li j Vi Vj Yi j sin ( i j + j - i )
For this problem, since G i i are zero and i j are 90 0

H i j Vi Vj Yi j cos ( j i )
H i i Q i Vi B i i
2

N i i Pi ; M i i Pi N i j Vi Vj Yi j sin ( j i )

L i i Q i Vi B i i
2
Mi j Vi Vj Yi j sin ( j i )

## H 22 Q 2 V2 B 22 - 1.65 + ( 1.1 x 1.1 x 15 ) = 16.5

2

H 33 Q 3 V3 B 33 0.5 10 10.5
2

N 33 P3 0 ; M 33 P3 0

L 33 Q 3 V3 B 33 0.5 10 9.5
2

## H23 V2 V3 Y2 3 cos ( 3 2 ) = 1.1 x 1 x 5 x 1 5.5 and H 3 2 = 5.5

N 2 3 V2 V3 Y2 3 sin( 3 2 ) 0

M23 V3 V2 Y3 2 sin( 2 3 ) 0
16.5 5.5 0 2 1.8184
Thus 5.5 10.5 0 3 = 1.2517

0 0 9.5 V3 0.7574
V3

2 0.08538
Solving the above 3 = 0.07449

V3 0.0797
V3

Therefore

(1)
V3

Thus V1 1.0 0 0

V2 1.1 4.89 0

V3 0.9203 4.27 0

## This completes the first iteration.

Second iteration:

Q 2 (15 x 1.1 x 1.1) - (10 x 1.1 x 1.0 cos 4.89 0 ) - (5 x 1.1 x 0.9203 cos 9.16 0 )

= 2.1929
This is within the limits. Bus 2 remains as P-V bus.

P2 (10 x 1.1 x 1.0 sin 4.89 0 ) + ( 5 x 1.1 x 0.9203 sin 9.16 0 ) = 1.7435

## P3 - ( 5 x 0.9203 x 1.0 sin 4.27 0 ) ( 5 x 0.9203 x 1.1 sin 9.16 0 ) = -1.1484

Q 3 = 10 x 0.9203 x 0.9203 - ( 5 x 0.9203 x 1.0 cos 4.27 0 ) - ( 5 x 0.9203 x 1.1 cos 9.16 0 )

= - 1.1163

## Q3 - 1.2574 + 1.1163 = -0.1444

H 22 - 2.1929 + ( 1.1 x 1.1 x 15 ) = 15.9571

## H 33 1.1163 + (0.9203 x 0.9203 x 10) = 9.5858

N 33 = - 1.1484; M 33 = - 1.1484

H 32 = - 4.9971

M 32 = 0.8058

## The linear equations are

15.9571 4.9971 0.8058 0.0749
4.9971 9.5858 1.1484 2

3 = 0.1033
0.8058 1.1484 7.3532 V3 0.1444

V3
Its solution is

0.001914
2
0.012388
3 =
V3 0.021782

V3

## 0.9232 0.02 0.9032

(2)
V3
Thus at the end of second iteration

V1 1.00 0

V2 1.15.00 0

V3 0.9032 4.98 0

## Continuing in this manner the final solution can be obtained as

V1 1.00 0

V2 1.15 0

V3 0.9 5 0

Once we know the final bus voltages, if necessary, line flows, transmission loss and
the slack bus power can be calculated following similar procedure adopted in the
case of Gauss Seidel method.
EE 0308 Power System Analysis - Problem Set 2
PROBLEM 1

## Consider the transmission network shown. Generators of reactances j1.25 are

connected at busses 3 and 4. The network graph is also shown below.

2
2
5
2
3 4 4
j 0.25 j 0.2 3 6
j 0.125 1
j 0.15 7
1
j 0.25 j 0.4
1 4
3 0

## i) Obtain the bus admittance matrix of the power system.

ii) Neglect the mutual coupling and find the bus admittance matrix.

1 2 3 4

1
- j16.75 j11.75 j2.5 j2.5
j11.75 - j19.25 j2.5 j5
Ybus = 2
j2.5 j2.5 - j5.8 0
3
j2.5 j5 0 - j8.3
4

1 2 3 4

1
- j14.5 j8 j4 j2.5
j8 - j17 j4 j5
Ybus = 2
j4 j4 - j8.8 0
j2.5 j5 0 - j8.3
PROBLEM 2 For the transmission network with the following data,
determine the bus admittance matrix.

HLCA
No. k-m z km

## 6.25 j18.72 5 j15 1.25 j3.75 0 0

5 j15 10.834 j32.43 1.667 j5 1.667 j5 2.5 j7.5
1.25 j3.75 1.667 j5 16.71 j43.198 13.793 j34.483 0
0 1.667 j5 13.793 j34.483 17.184 j43.758 1.724 j 4.310
0 2.5 j7.5 0 1.724 j4.310 4.224 j11.810
PROBLEM 3 Obtain the bus admittance matrix of the transmission system with
the following data.

Line data

Off
Line Between
Line Impedance HLCA nominal
No. buses
turns ratio

## 4 25 0.282 + j 0.64 0 ---

5 43 j 0.133 0 0.909

## 6 46 0.097 + j 0.407 j 0.0076 ---

7 65 j 0.3 0 0.976

0.4339
0 .9992 0.5583
0 0 0 j1.8275
j4.3925 j2.5820

## 1.0214 0.4449 0.5765

0 0 0
j1.9546 j0.6461 j1.3085

0.4449 0.4449
0 j8.2715 0 0
j0.6461 j8.1649
0.5541
0.5583 1.1124
0 j8.2715 0 j2.3249
j2.5820 j13.9869

0.5765 0.5765
0 0 0 j3.4153
j1.3085 j4.6418
0.4339 0.5541 0.988
0 0
j1.8275 j2.3209 j3.4153 j7.6341
PROBLEM 4

Line data

## Bus code Line impedance Bus data

1 2 0.05 j 0.15
1 3 0.10 j 0.30 Bus No. PI QI
23 0.15 j 0.45 1
24 0.10 j 0.30 2 0.5 0.2
34 0.05 j 0.15 3 1.0 0.5
4 0.3 0.1

All the buses other than the slack bus are P Q type. Assuming a flat voltage
start and slack bus voltage as 1.04 0 0 , find all the bus voltages at the
end of first Gauss Seidel iteration.

V1 1.04 j 0.0
V2(1) 1.01909 j 0.04636
V3(1) 1.02802 j 0.08703
V4(1) 1.02505 j 0.00923
PROBLEM 5

Compute

## QI 2 , V2 , V3 and V4 at the end of first Gauss Seidel iteration. Assume flat

start and 0.2 QI 2 1.0 p.u.

QI 2 0.20799
V2 1.05129 j 0.03388
V3 1.03387 j 0.08929
V4 1.03968 j 0.0149

PROBLEM 6