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CHAPTER: 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 MACHINE:

Machine is an apparatus using mechanical power and having several parts, each with a
definite function and together performing a particular task.

Machines are usually powered by

Mechanical
Chemical
Thermal
Electrical

In olden days Conventional Machines were used for performing operations .It takes lots of
time to do operations and by the improvement of technology the NC Machines came into existence.
By this NC machines, the conventional machine drawbacks were overcome. But the problem with
the NC machines was that it has no storage facility and functions achieved by this were limited. By
technology development the CNC Machines came into existence. The machine was equipped with
the computer and supportive software's with help of this it was been made too easy to operate with
the complicated operations and has lots of space to store the data.
The concepts of Conventional, NC, and CNC machines are been discussed below.

1.2 CONVENTIONAL MACHINES:

1.2.1Conventional Machines:-

Machines that are driven or operated with the help of human resource are termed as
Conventional Machines. Example: -Small scale welding. - Small scale moulding. - Lathing.

Conventional machines require direct contact of tool with work piece material for metal
removing in form of chip. Conventional machining process involves tool wearing as there is a
physical contact between the tool and the work piece. Turning, drilling, grinding, broaching, are
example of conventional machining process. Conventional machining process have many
advantages over non-conventional machining process as they are more precise, no wear of tool, no
heat generation etc.

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Manufacturing processes can be broadly divided into two groups and they are Primary
manufacturing process and Secondary manufacturing process. The former ones provide basic shape
and size to the material as per designer's requirement. Casting, forming, powder metallurgy are
such processes to name. Few secondary manufacturing processes provide the final shape and size
with tighter control on dimension, surface characteristics etc.; Material removal processes are
mainly secondary manufacturing processes.

Material removal processes are once again divided into mainly two groups on there are
"Conventional machining processes" and "Non Traditional Manufacturing processes".

Examples of conventional machining processes are


Turning
Boring
Milling
Shaping
Broaching
Slotting
Grinding etc.

Conventional machining usually involves changing the shape of work piece using an
implement made of a harder material. Using conventional methods to machine hard metals and
alloys means increased demand of time and energy and therefore increase in cost in some cases
conventional machining may not be feasible.

Conventional machining also cost in terms of tool ware and in loss of quality in the product
owing to induced residual stresses during manufacture with ever increasing demand for
manufactured goods of hard alloys and metals such as inconel718 or Titanium. Bore interest as
gravitated to Non-conventional machining methods.

Conventional machining can be defined as a processes using mechanical (motion) energy


conventional manufacturing processes:

Generally macroscopic chip formation is by shear deformation.

There may be a physical tool present. For example a cutting tool in a lathe machine.

Cutting tool is harder than work piece at room temperature as well as under machining
conditions.
Material removal takes place due to the application of cutting forces-energy domain can be
classified as mechanical.
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Conventional machining involves the direct contact of tool and work piece.
Lower accuracy and surface finish
Suitable for every type of material economically.
Tool life is less due to high surface contact and wear.
Higher waste of material due to higher wear.
Nice operation mostly causes sound pollution.
Lower capital cost
Easy setup of equipment.
Skilled or unskilled operator may be required.
Generally they manual to operate.
They can't be used to produce proto type parts very efficiently and economically.

Some of the Conventional Machines are shown in figures below:

Fig.1.1. Conventional Lathe Machine

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Fig.1.2. Conventional Grinding Machine

1.3 NUMERICAL CONTROL MACHINE:

Numerical Control Machine tools may be defined as a method of automation in which


various functions of machine tools are controlled by letters, numbers and symbols. Basically a NC
Machine runs on a program fed to it. The program consists of precise instructions about the
methodology of manufacture as well as movements. For example, what tool is to be used, at what
speed, at what feed and to move from which point to which point in what path. Since the program is
the controlling point for product manufacture, the machine becomes versatile and can be used for
any part. All the functions of a NC machine tool are therefore controlled electronically,
hydraulically or pneumatically. In NC Machine tools, one or more of the following functions may
be automatic.
Starting and stopping of machine tool spindle.
Controlling the spindle speed.
Positioning the tool tip at desired locations and guiding it along desired paths by automatic
control of motion of slides.
Controlling the rate of movement of tool tip (feed rate).
Changing of tools in the spindle.
An operational numerical control system consists of the following three basic components:

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Program of instructions.
Controller unit also called as machine tool unit.
Machine tool or other controlled process.

The program of instructions serves as input to the controller unit, which in turn commands the
machine tool or other process to be controlled.

1.3.1 PROGRAM OF INSTRUCTIONS:

The program of instructions is the detailed step by step set of instructions which tell the
machine what to do. It is coded in numerical or symbolic form on some type of input medium that
can be interpreted by the controller unit. The most common one is the 1-inch-wide punched tape.
Over the years, other forms of input media have been used, including punched cards, magnetic tape,
and even 35mm motion picture film.

There are two other methods of input to the NC system which should be mentioned. The
first is by manual entry of instructional data to the controller unit. This is time consuming and is
rarely used except as an auxiliary means of control or when one or a very limited number of parts to
be made. The second method of input is by means of a direct link with the computer. This is called
Direct Numerical Control, or DNC.

1.3.2 CONTOLLER UNIT:

The second basic component of NC system is the controller unit. This consists of
electronics and hardware that read and interpret the program of instructions and convert it to
mechanical actions of the machine tool. The typical elements of the controller unit include the tape
reader, a data buffer, signal output channels to the machine tool, and the sequence controls to
coordinate the overall operation of the foregoing elements.

The tape reader is an electrical-mechanical device for the winding and reading the punched
tape containing the program of instructions. The signal output channels are connected to the
servomotor and other controls in machine tools. Most N.C. tools today are provided with positive
feedback controls for this purpose and are referred as closed loop systems. However there has been
growth in the open loop systems which do not make use of feedback signals to the controller unit.
The advocates of the open loop concept claim that the reliability of the system is great enough that
the feedback controls are not needed.

1.3.3 MACHINE TOOL:

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The third basic component of an NC system is the machine tool or other controlled process.
It is part of the NC system which performs useful work. In the most common example of an NC
system, one designed to perform machining operations, It also includes the cutting tools, work
fixtures and other auxiliary equipments .

Some of the NC Machines are shown in figures below:

Fig.1.3. NC Milling Machine Fig.1.4. NC Lathe Machine

1.4 INTRODUCTION OF CNC MACHINES:

CNC is the short form for COMPUTER NUMERICAL CONTROL. As we all know that
NC (NUMERICAL CONTROL) Machine works as per the program of instructions fed into the
controller unit of the machine. The CNC Machine comprises of the mini computer or the
microcomputer that acts as the controller unit of the machine. While in the NC machine the
program is fed into punch cards, in CNC Machines the program of instructions is fed directly into
the computer via a small board similar to the traditional keyboard.

In CNC Machine the program is stored in the memory of the computer. The programmer
can easily write the codes and edit the programs as per the requirements. These programs can be
stored in the memory of the computer. These programs can be used for different parts, and they
dont have to be repeated again and again.

Compare to the NC machine, the CNC machine offers greater additional flexibility and
computer capability. New systems can be incorporated into the CNC controller simply by
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reprogramming the unit. Because of its capacity and the flexibility the CNC machines are called as
soft-wired NC. The numerical data required to produce a part is provided to a CNC machine in
the form of program, called Part Program. The program is translated into the appropriate
electrical signals for input to motors that run the machine. A CNC Machine is a Numerical Control
Machine with the added feature of an on board computer which is referred to as the machine
control unit (MCU).

CNC Computer Numerical Machines are widely used in manufacturing industries.


Traditional machines such as vertical millers, center lathes, shaping machines, routers etc. operated
by a trained engineer have, in many cases, been replaced by COMPUTER CONTROL
MACHINES.

1.4.1 NECESSARY OF CNC MACHINES:

CNC Machine Operators work in a wide variety of fields. People from all different pursuits,
such as hobbyists and even military group, take advantage of the cost saving accrued by using CNC
machines to turn raw materials into final products. The machines are faster, more efficient and
safer, too.

1.5 WORKING OF CNC MACHINES:

The CNC machine comprises of the computer in which the program is fed for cutting of the
metal of the job as per the requirements. All the cutting processes that are to be carried out and all
the final dimensions are fed into the computer via the program. The computer thus knows what
exactly is to be done and carries out all the cutting processes. CNC machine works like the Robot,
which has to be fed with the program and it follows all your instructions.

Some of the common machine tools that can run on the CNC are: Lathe, Milling machines,
Drilling Machine etc. The main purpose of these machines is to remove some of the metal so as to
give it proper shape such as round, rectangular, etc. In the traditional methods these machines are
operated by the operators who are experts in the operation of these machines. Most of the jobs need
to be machined accurately, and the operator should be expert enough to make the precision jobs. In
the CNC machines the role of the operators is minimized. The operator has to merely feed the
program of instructions in the computer, load the required tools in the machine, and rest of the work
is done by the computer automatically. The computer directs the machine tool to perform various
machining operations as per the program of instructions fed by the operator.

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1.6 VARIOUS TYPES OF CNC MACHINES:

There are many different types of CNC Machines used industry, such as

Mills and machining centers


Lathes and turning centers
Drilling machines
EDM (Electron Discharge Machine) sinker
Wire cut machines
Flame and Laser Cutting Machines
Water Jet profilers

1.7 ADVANTAGES OF A CNC MACHINES:


CNC machines offer the following advantages in manufacturing,
Higher flexibility: This is essentially because of programmability, programmed control and
facilities for multiple operations in one machining center.
Increased productivity: Due to low cycle time achieved through higher material removal
rates and low set up times achieved by faster tool positioning, changing, automated material
handling etc.
Improved quality: Due to accurate part dimensions and excellent surface finish that can be
achieved due to precision motion control and improved thermal control by automatic control
of coolant flow.
Reduced scrap rate: Use of Part programs that are developed using optimization procedures
Reliable and Safe operation: Advanced engineering practices for design and manufacturing,
automated monitoring, improved maintenance and low human interaction
Smaller footprint: Due to the fact that several machines are fused into one.

1.8 LIMITATIONS OF CNC MACHINES:


CNC Machines are more expensive than manually operated machines, although cost is
slowly coming down.
The CNC Machine operator only needs basic training and skills, enough to supervise several
machines.

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Fewer workers are required to operate the CNC machines compared to manual operated
machines. Investment in CNC Machine can leads to unemployment.

1.9 APPLICATIONS OF CNC MACHINES:


Milling: Milling is the most common form of machining, a material removal processes,
which can create a variety of features on an apart by cutting away the unwanted material.
Drilling: Drilling is a cutting process that uses a drill bit to cut or enlarge a hole of circular
cross-section in solid materials.
Welding: joining of two similar, dissimilar metals with or without use of filler metal.
Boring: In machining, boring is the processes of enlarging a hole that has already been
drilled, by means of a single-point cutting tool.
Bending: Bending is the ability to manipulate an element and is significant to many aspects
life in the world of avatar.

1.8.1 APPLICATIONS OF CNC IN SOME INDUSTRIES:


Automotive Industry: The automotive industry employs various technique of machining to
manufacture a variety of automobile components such as wind screens, outer body, sheets,
door panels and integral components.
Aerospace Industry: CNC cutting machines for aerospace have been instrumental in
increasing productivity by utilizing coded instructions to do complicated work quickly have
been efficiently. Retro systems water jet cutting machines ability to cut a broad array of
materials make them well suited for aerospace applications.
Metal Removal Industry: The metal removing industries remove the metal from the raw
materials to give it the desired as per the requirements. All these metal removal works are
performed by different machine tools like lathe, milling, drilling machines etc.
Electrical Discharge Machining: The EDM Machines remove the metal by creating the
spark that burns the metal. They are two types of EDM with the CNC auto machine, Vertical
EDM and Wire EDM. The EDM needs an electrode of the shape and size of the cavity that
is be made in the job. Wire EDM is used to make the punch and die combinations for the
dies set that are used in the industries where fabrication is done..
Medical Industry: In Medical Industries these CNCs are going to user for preparing
operational instruments.

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Industries For Fabricating Materials: In many industries thin plates like steel plates are
required for various purpose inn fabrication industry the machining operations are
performed on such plates.
Other Industries Where CNC Machines Are Used: CNC Machines are also used extensively
in the wood working industries to perform various operations like routing and drilling. CNC
technology is also used in number of lettering and engraving systems.
Some of the CNC Machines are shown in the figures below:

Fig.1.5. CNC Lathe Machine

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Fig.1.6. CNC Milling Machine

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CHAPTER: 2
CNC PROGRAMMING BASICS
Each letter address relates to a specific machine function. G and M letter addresses are
two of the most common. A G letter specifies certain machine preparations such as inch or metric
modes, or absolutes versus incremental modes.
An M letter specifies miscellaneous machine functions and work like on/off switches for
coolant flow, tool changing, or spindle rotation. Other letter addresses are used to direct a wide
variety of other machine commands.

Some of the Important Things to Know:


Coordinate System
Machine Coordinate System -Three Finger Rule
Coordinates: X,Y,Z, RX,RY,RZ
Quadrant System
Units, incremental or absolute positioning
G - Codes And M-Codes
Part Programming
Preparatory Codes in Programming

2.1 COORDINATE SYSTEM:


2.1.1 Cartesian coordinate system:
Almost everything that can be produced on a conventional machine tool can be produced on
a computer numerical control machine tool, with its many advantages. The machine tool
movements used in producing a product are of two basic types: point to-point (straight-line
movements) and continuous path (contouring movements).
The Cartesian, or rectangular, coordinate system was devised by the French mathematician
and philosopher Rene Descartes. With this system, any specific point can be described in
mathematical terms from any other point along three perpendicular axes. This concept fits machine
tools perfectly since their construction is generally based on three axes of motion (X, Y, and Z) plus
an axis of rotation. On a plain vertical milling machine, the X axis is the horizontal movement
(right or left) of the table, the Y axis is the table cross movement (toward or away from the
column), and the Z axis is the vertical movement of the knee or the spindle. CNC systems rely
heavily on the use of rectangular coordinates because the programmer can locate every point on a

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job precisely. When points are located on a work piece, two straight intersecting lines, one vertical
and one horizontal, are used. These lines must be at right angles to each other, and the point where
they cross is called the origin, or zero point .

Fig.2.1. Intersecting lines from right angles and Fig.2.2. The three dimensional coordinate
planes establish the zero point (Allen-Bradley) (axes) used in CNC. (The Superior
Electric Company)
2.1.2 Machine Coordinate System (MCS):
The machine coordinate system comprises all the physically existing machine axes.
Reference points and tool and pallet changing points (fixed machine points) are defined in the
machine coordinate system.

Fig.2.3. Three Finger Rule


2.1.3 Three Finger Rule:

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The Orientation the coordinates system relative to the machine depends on the machine
type. The axis directions follow the so-called "Three Finger Rule" of the right (according to
DIN66217).
When seen from the front of machine, the middle finger of the right hand machines is in the
opposite direction to the in feed of the main spindle. Therefore,
The thumb points in the +X direction
The index finger points in the +Y direction
The middle finger points in the +Z direction

Fig.2.4 Three Hand Rule

Positions of the coordinate system in milling machine the positions of the coordinate system
resulting from the three figure rule can have a different orientation for different machine type, as
mentioned below
2.1.4 Quadrant System:
The three-dimensional coordinate planes are shown in Fig. 2. The X and Y planes (axes) are
horizontal and represent horizontal machine table motions. The Z plane or axis represents the
vertical tool motion. The plus (+) and minus (-) signs indicate the direction from the zero point
(origin) along the axis of movement. The four quadrants formed when the XY axes cross are
numbered in a counter clockwise direction (Fig. 3). All positions located in quadrant1 would be
positive (X+) and positive (Y+). In the second quadrant, all positions would be negative X (X-) and
positive (Y+).In the third quadrant, all locations would be negative X (X-) and negative (Y-). In the
fourth quadrant, all locations would be positive
X (X+) and negative Y (Y-).

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Fig.2.5.Quadrant System
The quadrants formed when the X and Y axes cross are used to accurately locate points
from the XY zero, or origin, point (Allen-Bradley).
In Fig, point A would be 2 units to the right of the Y axis and 2units above the X axis.
Assume that each unit equals 1.000. The location of point A would be X + 2.000 and Y + 2.000. For
point B, the location would be X + 1.000 and Y - 2.000. In CNC programming it is not necessary to
indicate plus (+) values since these are assumed. However, the minus (-) values must be indicated.
For example, the locations of both A and B would be indicated as follows:
A X2.000 Y2.000
B X1.000 Y-2.000
2.2 PROGRAMMING SYSTEM
Two types of programming modes, the incremental system and the absolute system, are
used for CNC. Both systems have applications in CNC programming, and no system is either right
or wrong all the time. Most controls on machine tools today are capable of handling either
incremental or absolute programming.

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Incremental programs locations are always given as the distance and direction from the
immediately preceding point (Fig. 6). Command codes which tell the machine to move the table,
spindle, and knee are explained here using a vertical milling machine as an example:

Fig.2.6.Programming System
Work piece being dimensioned in the Incremental system mode (Icon Corporation).
A X plus (X+) command will cause the cutting tool to be located to the right of the last
point.
An X minus (X-) command will cause the cutting tool to be located to the left of the last
point.
A Y plus (Y+) command will cause the cutting tool to be located toward the column.
A Y minus (Y-) will cause the cutting tool to be located away from the column.
A Z plus (Z+) command will cause the cutting tool or spindle to move up or away from
the work piece.
A Z minus (Z-) moves the cutting tool down or into the work piece.
In incremental programming, the G91 command indicates to the computer and MCU (Machine
Control Unit) that programming is in the incremental mode.
Absolute program locations are always given from a single fixed zero or origin point (Fig.
7). The zero or origin point may be a position on the machine table, such as the corner of the
worktable or at any specific point on the work piece. In absolute dimensioning and programming,
each point or location

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Fig.2.7.A work piece dimensioned in the Absolute system mode.

Note: All dimensions are given from a known point of reference (Icon Corporation) on the work
piece is givens a certain distance from the zero or reference point.
A X plus (X+) command will cause the cutting tool to be located to the right of the zero or
origin point.
A X minus (X-) command will cause the cutting tool to be located to the left of the zero or
origin point.
A Y plus (Y+) command will cause the cutting tool to be located toward the column.
A Y minus (Y-) command will cause the cutting tool to be located away from the column.
In absolute programming, the G90 command indicates to the computer and MCU that the
programming is in the absolute mode.
2.3 Incremental and Absolute systems:
CNC systems are further divided into incremental and absolute systems. In incremental
mode, the distance is measured from one point to the next. For example, if you want to drill five
holes at different locations, the x-position commands are
x + 500, + 200, +600, - 300, -700, -300.
An absolute system is one in which all the moving commands are referred from a reference
point (zero point or origin). For the above case, the x-position commands are,
x 500,700, 1300, 1000, 300, 0.
Both systems are incorporated in most CNC systems. For an inexperienced operator, it is
wise to use incremental mode.

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Fig.2.8.Difference between absolute and incremental positioning


(a) Absolute versus incremental; in absolute positioning, the move is specified by x = 6, y = 8 ; in
incremental, the move is specified by x=4, y=5 for the tool to be moved from (2,3) to (6,8)
(b) Drilling 5-holes at different locations

2.3.1 The absolute system has two significant advantages over the incremental system:
Interruptions caused by, for example, tool breakage (or tool change, or checking the parts),
and would not affect the position at the interruption. If a tool is to be replaced at some stage, the
operator manually moves the table, exchanges the tool, and has to return the table to the beginning
of the segment in which the interruption has occurred. In the absolute mode, the tool is
automatically returned to the position. In incremental mode, it is almost impossible to bring it
precisely to that location unless you repeat the part program2. Easy change of dimensional data

The incremental mode has two advantages over the absolute mode.
Inspection of the program is easier because the sum of position commands for each axis
must be zero. A nonzero sum indicates an error. Such an inspection is impossible with the
absolute system.
Mirror image programming (for example, symmetrical geometry of the parts) is simple by
changing the signs of the position commands.

S Absolute System Incremental System


No.
1. The entered values are related to the The entered values are related to the current

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work piece zero position. position(Last Position)


2. Point zero is fixed Every stop becomes zero position
3. If any dimensions it wrong it only affect If any dimension is wrong their after entire
for the particular step or operation only, dimensions are accepted
other dimensions will remain as same as
given.
4. Indicated with code G90 Indicated with code G91
Table: 1 Difference between Absolute and Incremental Systems

2.4 PART PROGRAMMING IN CNC

The transfer of an engineering blueprint of a product to a part program can be performed


manually using a calculator or with the assistance of a computer language. A part programmer must
have an extensive knowledge of the machining processes and the capabilities of the machine tools.
In this section, we describe how the part programmers execute manually the part programs.
First, the machining parameters are determined. Second, the optimal sequence of operations
is evaluated. Third, the tool path is calculated. Fourth, a program is written. Each line of the
program, referred to as a block, contains the required data for transfer from one point to the next.

A typical line for a program is given below.


N100 G91 X -5.0 Y7 .0 F100 S200 T01 M03 (EOB)

The significance of each term is explained below.


Sequence Number, N
Consisting of typically three digits, its purpose is to identify the specific machining operation
through the block number particularly when testing a part program.
Preparatory Function, G
It prepares the MCU circuits to perform a specific operation. The G-codes (some) are shown in
Table 1. G91 implies incremental mode of operation.
Dimension Words
1. Distance dimension words, X, Y, Z
2. Circular dimension words, I, J, K for distances to the arc center
3. Angular dimensions, A, B.C
While (1) and (3) are expressed either by incremental or absolute mode, (2) is always in
given in incremental mode. All angular dimensions are specified in revolutions or degrees.

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In the above block, X moves a distance of 5 in. in the negative direction while Y moves
distance of 7 in. in the positive direction. Other axes remain stationary. In some systems, actual
distances are used. In others, the dimension words are programmed in BLUs.
Feed rate, F
It is expressed in in/min or mm/min and, is used in contouring or point-to-point or straight-
cut systems. For example, a feed rate of F100 implies 100 in/min or 100 mm/min. Feed rates are
independent of spindle speed.
In linear motions, the federate of the cutting tool is not corrected for the cutter radius. But in
circular motions, the feed rate should be corrected for the tool radius as follows:
F= [(part contour radius tool radius)/part contour radius] (required feed rate)
For cutting around the outside of a circle, the plus sign in the above equation is used, and
the feed rate is increased. For cutting around the inside of a circle, the minus sign is used, and the
feed rate is decreased.
Spindle speed, S
Programmed in rev/min, it is expressed as RPM or by a three-digit code number that is
related to the RPM.
Tool word, T Consisting of a maximum of five digits, each cutting tool has a different code
number. The tool is automatically selected by the automatic tool changer when the code number is
programmed in a block.

Miscellaneous Function, M
Consisting of two digits, this word relates to the movement of the machine in terms of
spindle on/off, coolant on/off etc.
EOB
The EOB character is used at the end of each block to complete a line

2.5 PREPARATORY CODES:

Programming consists of a series of instructions in form of letter codes

G codes- Initial machining setup and establishing operating conditions


N codes- specify program line number to executed by the MCU
Axis Codes: X,Y,Z - Used to specify motion of the slide along X, Y, Z direction
Feed and Speed Codes: F and S- Specify feed and spindle speed
Tool codes: T specify tool number

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2.5.1 Programming Key Letters:


1
2 O - Program number (Used for program identification)
3 N - Sequence number (Used for line identification)
4 G - Preparatory function
5 X - X axis designation
6 Y - Y axis designation
7 Z - Z axis designation
8 R - Radius designation
9 F Feed rate designation
10 S - Spindle speed designation
11 H - Tool length offset designation
12 D - Tool radius offset designation
13 T - Tool Designation
M - Miscellaneous function

2.5.2 Explanation of commonly used G codes:


G00 Preparatory code to control final position of the tool and not concerned with the path that is
followed in arriving at the final destination.
G01 Tool is required to move in a straight line connecting current position and final position.
Used for tool movement without any machining- point to point control. (Linear interpolation)
G02 Tool path followed is along an arc specified by I, J and K codes. (Circular interpolation)

2.6 List of M Codes/Miscellaneous in SIEMENS CONTROL

M Miscellaneous function, Max 5 M-codes in single block


M00 Program Stop
M01 Optional Stop
M02 End of program
M03 Spindle Rotation Clock Wise
M04 Spindle Rotation Counter Clock Wise
M05 Spindle Stop
M06 Tool Change
M17 Sub Program End
M30 End OF Main Program
Table: 2 M Codes

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2.5.4 List of G Codes/Preparatory function in SIEMENS CONTROL:

G00 Rapid Movement


G01 Linear Movement
G02 Circular Interpolation Clock Wise
G03 Circular Interpolation Counter Clock Wise
G04- S Dwell Time To Stop Spindle
G04-F Dwell Time To Stop Feed Rate
G17 Selection Of X and Y Plane (In Milling)
G18 Selection Of X and Y Plane (IN Turning)
G25 X, Z, Minimum working Area Limitation-WALIM ON/OFF
G26 X, Z, Maximum Working Area Limitation-WALIM ON/OFF
G33 Thread Cutting With Constant Pitch
G40 Tool Nose Radius Compensation OFF
G41 Tool Nose Radius Compensation Active Left Side Of The Geometry
G42 Tool Nose Radius Compensation Active Right Side Of The Geometry
G53 Suppression Of Current Frames-Zero Offset Deactivate Non Modal
G54 TO G57 Settable Zero Offset ON
G60 Exact Stop In Whole Program-Model
G64 Continuous Path Movement
G70 Inch Dimensioning
G71 Metric Dimensioning
G74 Reference Point Approach
G75 Fixed Reference Point
G90 Absolute Dimensioning
G91 Incremental Dimensioning
G94 Feed rate in mm/min
G95 Feed rate in rev/mm
G96 Constant Cutting Speed ON
G97 Constant Cutting Speed OFF
G450 Transition Circle
G451 Point Of Intersection
G500 Deactivate All Settable Zero Offset
Table: 3 G Codes

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CHAPTER: 3
CNC SOFTWARES
3.1 CNC SOFTWARES
There are many software used in CNC Machine, some of them are listed as below.
SIEMENS
FANUC
HANS
MITSUBHUSHI
HADEN HAND

In this machine we have Siemens software, and the Siemens have following softwares. They are:
Siemens 802D
Siemens 802DCL
Siemens 810 D
Siemens 810 DI
Siemens 810DISL
Siemens 840 D
Siemens 840 DI
Siemens 840 DISL

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As per consumer requirement they had simplified their software between from Siemen802D
to Siemen840D for their use similar work they had created new software called SIEMENS
828D.

Siemens 828D maintenance cost is low.


It works without air conditioner.
It has better utilization of machine.
It makes the operator to work easy.
It works under dust condition. Etc.,

The specifications and details about Siemen828D are given below:

Enabled for Heavy Duty Optimal View Scalable study CNC


Communication operator panel
Fig.3.1.SINUMERIC 828D

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(1) (2) (3) (3)


Fig.3.2.Keyboard

1. Low-maintenance
No battery (non-volatile data buffer thanks to NV-RAM technology)
No hard disk
No fan
2. User-Friendly
Full QWERTY keyboard
Hard keys with protective foil
IP65 degree of protection
3. Clever
3/8th thread for additional components
4. Optimally connected
Rear side parts
USB 2.0
RJ45 Ethernet
DRIVE-CLiQ
PLC I/O Interface
RS 232 C
NC Inputs/Outputs

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By devising the SINUMERIK 828D, we have managed to develop a panel-based CNC that
is tailor-made for use in milling and turning machines. The product combines CNC, PLC, operating
and axis control functions for six CNC measuring circuits into one Compact units, which is
designed to fit any operator panel housing. Despite its compact Dimensions, the SINUMERIK
828D is a real powerhouse. Equipped with premium CNC functions such as the ability to execute
kinematic transformations or powerful Tool management, the product leaves nothing to be
desiredand all without being unnecessarily complicated. The SINUMERIK 828D is ideal for the
shop floor thanks to its unique graphical user interface. Users can quickly commission, operate,
program, Service and maintain machines and tasks without the need for extensive training.

3.2 SINUMERIK 828D: One system, two versions, many advantages.


The SINUMERIK 828D is available in two versions that offer different performance levels,
which means it can be perfectly adapted to suit the power requirements of the machine. There are
separate software versions for milling and turning applications. These provide the maximum
possible number of machine presets, thereby helping to keep commissioning times to a minimum.

3.2.1Heavyduty:
The operator panel front of the SINUMERIK 828D is made from heavy duty die-cast
magnesium. This ensures that the SINUMERIK 828D remains in good condition even if subjected
to harsh operating conditions. The hard keys on the CNC keyboard are covered In embossed foil to
provide perfect protection against moisture.

3.2.2 Compact and user-friendly:


Thanks to its mounting dimensions, the SINUMERIK 828D can even be built into highly
compact operator panel housing. Despite its small dimensions, the SINUMERIK 828D features a
10.4 colour display along with a full QWERTY keyboard and offers maximum user friendliness.
3.2.3Enabledforcommunications:
The SINUMERIK 828D is equipped with all the latest communications ports. The Compact
Flash (CF) Card, USB and service ports are located behind the flap on the operator panel front,
from where they can be directly accessed. The flap can even be closed once a CF Card has been
inserted.

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Fig.3.3. SINUMERIK 828D

3.2.4 Low-maintenance:

The SINUMERIK 828D has no hard disk and no fan. Thanks to the removal of these parts,
which are subject to wear, the SINUMERIK 828D is relatively easy to maintain and easy to service.
In addition, no battery is required and the use of NV-RAM does away with the need for backup.

3.2.5 Scalable:
The SINUMERIK 828D is available with both a horizontal and a vertical operator panel
layout. Both operator panel orientations are available in conjunction with two different performance
ratings. As a result, the SINUMERIK 828D can be perfectly matched to the installation locations
well as the power requirements

3.3 VERSIONS OF THE SINUMERIK 828D:

Standard version
PPU 260 (vertical operator panel layout)
PPU 261 (horizontal operator panel layout)
Performance version
PPU 280 (vertical operator panel layout)
PPU 281 (horizontal operator panel layout)
Milling machines: Setting up and getting started.

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The SINUMERIK 828D is perfect for equipping vertical and straight forward horizontal
milling centers featuring up to six CNC measuring circuits. And thanks to the new Advanced
Surface motion control function it can also be used in tool- and mould making applications. Straight
forward operation across the board.

As well as being suitable for use with milling spindles and geometry axes (X-, Y-, and Z-
axes), the CNC can be used to operate other machine units as an alternative. These include:

CNC rotary table (C-axis) for machining on two stations


CNC reversible clamping device (A-axis) for milling and hole machining on cylindrical
work pieces
CNC gantry axes (gantry operation)
Inclinable heads or swivel tables for milling and hole machining in statically rotated
machining planes
CNC-controlled tool change.

Fig.3.4. Milling machines: Setting up and getting started.

The SINUMERIK 828D is perfect for equipping vertical and straightforward horizontal
milling centers featuring up to six CNC measuring circuits. And thanks to the new Advanced

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Surface motion control function it can also be used in tool- and mould making applications. Straight
forward operation, across the board.

As well as being suitable for use with milling spindles and geometry axes (X-, Y-, and Z-
axes), the CNC can be used to operate other machine units as an alternative.
These include:
CNC rotary table (C-axis) for machining on two stations
CNC reversible clamping device (A-axis) for milling and hole machining on cylindrical work
pieces
CNC gantry axes (gantry operation)
Inclinable heads or swivel tables for milling and hole machining in statically rotated machining
planes
CNC-controlled tool changer

Turning Machine is shown in the figure below:

Fig.3.5. Turning machines guaranteed to turn out well.

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Another application for the SINUMERIK 828D is the control of turning machines. The
functional scope has been tailored for horizontal and vertical turning centers equipped with one
machining channel and up to eight CNC measuring circuits.

3.3.1Flexible Use:
Besides being suitable for use with lathe spindles and geometry axes (X- and Z-axes), as an
alternative the product can be used to operate other machine units:
Power tools, peripheral C-axis mode, and Y-axis (orthogonal or diagonal) for end face and
surface machining
Counter spindle with synchronous spindle function for two-sided work piece machining
Tailstock axis (with travel to fixed stop function)
CNC-controlled turret
3.4 TOOL MANAGEMENT:

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Fig.3.6.Tool Management

Tool management made easy. The SINUMERIK 828D features a command center for all
tool and magazine tasks so that the machining process is never interrupted. If the tool is at the end
of its service life, the SINUMERIK 828D will send a text message (SMS) as necessary thanks to
the Easy Message technology.

3.4.1 Everything at a Glance:


The SINUMERIK 828Ds tool management system presents tool data and position
information on one screen so there is no need to keep switching screens. The tool type is presented
in the form of a pictogram. Both primary and secondary cutting edges are indicated for turning
tools.
Therefore, process stability can be guaranteed simply by looking at the tool table.

3.4.2 Simply Brilliant:


The SINUMERIK 828D does not just recognize tools in the tool magazine. Simply create a
tool in the tool list and it is ready to be programmed and simulated. At the touch of a button, the
tool management function will search for a suitable magazine location. Assign relevant names for
the tools, then call the tool name in the CNC part program and the SINUMERIK 828D will
automatically take care of everything else for you.

3.5 CNC SIMULATION: Maximum process stability guaranteed.

Fig.3.7.CNC Simulation

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3.5.1 Maximum Process Stability:


The SINUMERIK 828Ds simulation feature guarantees maximum process stability because
it uses the actual geometrical data of the tools installed on the machine. Therefore, the
SINUMERIK 828D doesnt just look good; it shows an exact image of the desired machining
process.
Ensuring machine productivity is partly a question of preparing well for the machining
process. The SINUMERIK 828Ds powerful CNC simulation feature helps in this regard. And not
just by a brilliant simulation display. The calculation of the machining time provides the ideal basis
for determining work piece costs. In all circumstances
Any CNC that is available on the market today is capable of generating simulations in top
and side view. But what about simulations involving kinematic transformations? Even here, the
SINUMERIK 828D shows what it is made of. Whether it is being used for front and peripheral
surfaces in the case of turning machines or rotated machining planes in the case of milling
machines, the SINUMERIK 828D can simulate machining whatever the circumstances.
3.6 Optimum View Guaranteed:
Worried about detailed machining? Not a problem for the SINUMERIK 828D. The user can
zoom in to the smallest corners of the CNC simulation without having to restart it. In addition, the
simulation can be interrupted at any time and controlled in terms of speed. As a result, even the
smallest detail is not overlooked. Machine setup made easy.

Fig.3.8.Optimum view

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Everything as it should be:


Blanks often need to be shaped prior to machining. The SINUMERIK 828D does not
require any additional CNC part program for this purpose. A work piece can be face milled or face
turned simply by setting the relevant parameters in setup mode. Simply select NC Start and off you
go. Want to bore clamping jaws? The SINUMERIK 828D can also do this at the touch of a button.

Perfectly Aligned:
All you need to do is trace the edge, corner or boreholes and the system will determine the
clamping position including the work pieces basic rotation. The SINUMERIK 828D offers a
variety of measurement variants even for sloping Work piece surfaces.
Particularly within the context of job shop manufacturing (small batch production),
machines frequently need to be reset. Tracer processes for work piece setup or process
measurement for the establishment of tool geometries are provided in a format tailored to the users
requirements. Perfectly equipped
The SINUMERIK 828D makes it really easy to quickly determine the tool length. Whether
you are determining the tool geometry by scratching or using a tool measurement system, all you
need to do is press a button and the geometry will be stored in the CNCs tool offset memory.

User memory and data transfer: All data under control.

Fig.3.9.SINUMERIK 828D Alignments


Unlimited user memory:

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The SINUMERIK 828D is already equipped with a basic 3 or 5 MB user memory. If this
memory capacity is not sufficient, then memory can be expanded by inserting a Compact Flash
(CF) Card into the front port.

Perfect Diagnostics:
Need quick and easy service? The SINUMERIK 828D is available to you from anywhere.
The remote diagnostics function enables remote operation as well as supporting file transfer. The
contents of the CNC screen are displayed directly on the workstation where the remote diagnostics
are being carried out. Simply connect a modem that supports the required
Data transfer method (analogue, ISDN, etc.)

Text message (SMS), USB and Ethernet the SINUMERIK 828D uses the latest methods
of communication to guarantee data transfer at all times. To the front Ethernet port of the
SINUMERIK 828D and youre online. The CNC also offers a user-friendly PC tool in the form of
the RCS Commander.

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CHAPTER: 4
HISTORY AND DEVELOPEMENT OF CNC MACHINES

4.1 History of NC Machines:

Numerical control machining began in the aircraft industry. Engineers wanted to make
complex aircraft parts quickly and accurately. In 1947, two aircraft component contractors for the
U.S. Air Force, John Parsons and Frank Stolen, perfected the use of three-axis curvature data to
control machine tool motion. In 1951, the government funded the Servomechanisms Lab of the
Massachusetts Institute of Technology to design and build the first NC Machine. The first prototype
of a three-axis vertical milling machine debuted in 1952. Parsons was able to end mill and face mill
an aluminum plate.

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Fig.4.1. Numerical control machining began in aircraft industry


4.1.1 Increase in NC Use:
Though the first NC machine was a success, private businesses lacked the funding to make
it practical. So from 1955-1956, the Air Force sponsored NC development at several companies
across nation, and NC machining gained popularity.

As the benefits to NC machining became more apparent between 1958 and 1960, aerospace
company managers started to place their orders for the new equipment, and some even began to
build their own machines. NC machines soon after began competing with manual machines like the
manual mill in Figure.4.1. In many shops, manual machines have been retrofitted with CNC, like
the mill in Figure.4.2.NC machines quickly displayed their worth. They were more accurate, held
better tolerances, and produced more uniform dimensions than the manual machining methods of
the day. In addition to increasing accuracy, NC machines reduced the amount of non-productive
time in the machining cycle.

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Fig.4.2. NC machines began competing Fig4.3.Instead of buying new machines some


With manual machines such as this companies retrofit with CNC machine
manual mill

4.2 Changes from NC to CNC Systems:


The first CNC machines were actually called NC machines. They existed before small
computers were common. NC Machines were controlled by complex electrical circuitry.NC
machines read and executed one line of code at a time from a part program punched into a paper
tape or Mylar tape. When the entire program was executed, the tape reader, like the one in would
rewind back to the beginning of the program. With further development of small computers,
machine tool builders began using computers to control machine tools. The term CNC was born.
CNC machines can now hold hundreds of programs in memory. Any one of these programs can be
instantly called up for execution through a control panel like the one in figure.4.4. Many CNC
machines also contain multiple tools, as shown in figure.4.5. This greatly boosts productivity.

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Fig.4.4.Tape Reader Fig.4.5.CNC Machine

NC machines read and executed one line of The machine operator calls and executes
Code at a time from a part program punched a part program from the control panel.
Into paper are Mylar tapes.

Fig.4.6. CNC machines may contain many tools

4.3 COMMON CNC MACHINES:


There are many types of CNC machines. The two most common CNC machines in the
metalworking industry are:

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Mills or machining centers (Figure 4.7): Generally, the work piece is held on the table while cutting
tools perform their work.
Lathes or turning centers (Figure 4.8): A work piece spins as the cutting tools are brought in
contact with it. Lathes create symmetrical pieces.

In every CNC use, a programmer plans the best way to cut the work piece and then codes
the movement of the tool. These instructions are interpreted by the computer controller. The
controller then ensures that every part is handled in exactly the same manner for both small and
large production runs. This process eliminates guesswork and the downtime involved while a
human operator decides the best method for machining a part in the middle of production

Fig.4.7.Milling Machine Fig.4.8.Lathe Machine


A CNC mill often called a machining center, A CNC lathe often called a turning Centre,
holds a part while a rotating tool cuts metal. Rotate a work piece while a tool cuts metal.

4.3.1 Other CNC Machines:


Besides mills and lathes, you will find CNC systems in these machines as well:
Grinders: There are many different types of grinders, one of which is shown in fig.4.9
grinding is a finishing operation that creates a smoother surface.
Punch presses: Punching, or stamping, can apply large forces to sheet metal to create holes
or bends. Some punch presses have one tool, as shown in fig.4.10.
Welders: There are several types of welding. The welder applies heat and a filler to fasten
the pieces together.
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You will also find CNC systems in operations that involve robotics, laser cutting, automatic
testing machines, drafting systems, electronic assembly systems, and more. As you can see,
computers have proven very useful in many aspects of manufacturing.

Fig.4.9. A CNC grinder creates a smoother Fig.4.10. A CNC punch press uses one tool.
Surface on a work piece.

CNC (Computer Numerical Control) is the combination of Numerical Control (NC, the
controlling of machinery using numbers either to manipulate discrete controls, or more directly via
punch cards or tapes or other electrical signals) and computers.

The history starts with early efforts to automate industrial machinery such as looms.

1801-Jacquard Loom

The Jacquard loom is a mechanical loom, invented by Joseph Marie Jacquard, first
demonstrated in 1801, that simplifies the process of manufacturing textiles with complex patterns
using punch cards.

1810-Milling Machine

Machines which make use of rotary filing are developed for metalworking.

1820-Cams

Used in gun-stock copying and turret lathes. Development continued through World War I.

1822-Difference Engine

Charles Babbage conceives of the Difference Engine, an early mechanical computer for
calculating polynomials.

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1915-Electric Wood Router

The first electrical power tool, the wood router inaugurated the idea of bringing the tool to
the piece being worked, a concept central to CNC.

1931-Servos and Selwyns

Adding power to Cams didn't address the matter of controlling the position accurately under
all possible circumstances. Servomechanisms and seasons allowed the machine to provide
measurement information as it worked, increasing accuracy.

1940-Tracer Control

Adding hydraulics to Cams allowed for the use of a stylus to trace a template controlling a
machine which would cut a part to match.

1946-Numerical Control

John T. Parsons developed Numerical Control (NC) so as to be able to fabricate parts for
helicopter rotors for the Sikorsky Helicopter Company using funding from the United States Air
Force.

1949-Numerical Control using Punch Cards

Parsons turned to M.I.T. to make use of servomechanisms or to otherwise improve the


accuracy of NC under an Air Force contract for the construction of two "Card-a-matic Milling
Machines", a prototype and a production system.

1952-A Working machine

M.I.T. instead attempted to develop a machine on their own, but Parsons filed for a patent
on "Motor Controlled Apparatus for Positioning Machine Tool" on 5 May 1952, sparking a filing by
MIT for a "Numerical Control Servo-System" on 14 August 1952. Parsons received US Patent
2,820,187 on 14 January 1958, and the company sold an exclusive license to Bendix. IBM, Fujitsu
and General Electric all took sub-licenses after having already started development of their own
devices.

M.I.T. continued with their development, using roller chains to manipulate the machine
along three axes (X, Y, and Z) and used standard 7-track punch tape for input.

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1953-Proliferation of NC

The Air Force Numeric Control and Milling Machine projects formally concluded in 1953,
but development continued at the Giddings and Lewis Machine Tool Co. and other locations.

1955-G-Code/Magnetic Tape

Electronic control was added with the use of magnetic tapes to record and play back
calculated machine paths, which are described using the nascent G-code.

1958-Computer Aided Design (CAD)

The Automatically Programmed Tool project and the report, then later project, Computer-
Aided Design: A Statement of Objectives 1960 of Douglas T. Ross were the first CAD systems.

1959-First Computer Numerical Control system

On 25 February 1959, Aircraft Industries Association (AIA) and Air Material Command at
Wright-Patterson Air Force Base produce a fully computer-controlled NC system and demonstrate
it to the press, including an ashtray made of machined aluminum in the press kits.

1960-Proliferation of CNC in Industry

The falling price of computers and the rising costs of labour resulted in a proliferation of
CNC machines using PDP-8s and the Data General Nova.

1984-Stereolithography (3D printing) and STL File Format

Chuck Hull of 3D Systems Corp invented a process known as stereo lithography employing
UV lasers to cure photopolymers.

4.4 DEVELOPEMENT OF CNC MACHINES

First concept developed for the manufacture of helicopter blades Alongside Frank L. Stulen,
John T. Parsons first utilized computer methods to overcome machining setbacks, especially the
accurate interpolation of the curves found in helicopter blades. In the process of developing
smoother rotors, Parsons and Stuller generated an early version of a Numerical Control (NC)
machine.

Developed with assistance of MIT:

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To further develop this machine, in 1949, Parsons turned to Gordon S. Browns


Servomechanism Laboratory at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). At MIT, a
feedback system designed to gauge how far the controls had turned was developed.

While the US Air Force halted its funding in 1953 due to expense, the project was resumed
by Giddings and Lewis Machine Tool Co. who reduced expense but improved quality and
efficiency.

Reduced production time from 8 hours down to 15 minutes:

The first CNC machine was developed when John Runyon managed to produce punch tapes
under computer control. By doing this, he managed to reduce the normal production time of 8 hours
down to 15 minutes. By 1956, the US Air Force had accepted the proposal to produce a generalized
programming language for NC.

The invention of CNC machines paved the way for automated tools that enabled efficient
production for manufacturers. Todays CNC machines bear little difference with the original
machines in terms of concept. Both produce outputs in three dimensional directions: X and Y axes
and depth.

4.4.1 The types of CNC machine:

The types of CNC machine that exist today include the following:

CNC turning lathes CNC turning lathes produce parts by turning rod materials and feeding a
cutting tool into the turning material.

CNC milling machines Using a rotating cylindrical cutting tool, CNC Milling utilizes a
machining process similar to both drilling and cutting. The cutter in a milling machine has the
ability to move along multiple axes and can create a variety of shapes, slots and holes

CNC routers - CNC routers are similar to handheld routers but the tool paths are instead controlled
via computer numerical control. CNC routers can be used for cutting various hard materials
including wood, composites, aluminum, steel, plastics and foams.

4.5 Difference between Conventional and Non-Conventional Machines

In conventional lathe, all the operations are manual. Changing tool, moving the tool post,
adjusting feed, depth of cut etc. must be done manually.

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In CNC lathe, all these operations can be programmed and saved it in the machine. You can
machine as many parts as you want. You need to load the work piece and press CYCLE START.
The machining work is performed based on your program automatically.

CNC lathes - High precision CNC lathes even for the most complicated parts. Various
modern options for perfect efficiency.

Conventional lathes - Efficient machining of work pieces, in both serial and unit production.
Highly accurate finishing and roughing of various types of metals and plastics.

Conventional Lathes are the pioneer of manufacturing. The operations like knurling,
drilling, facing, cut-off, boring etc. are done .In all the above mentioned operations ,gear shifting
for speed(Belt changing in case of Belt lathes which are out of date),tool changing, feeding the
work piece etc. are done by the machine operator manually. Also the high accuracy of microns
cannot be achieved in conventional machines.

CNC standing for computer numerical control is the present market trend. CNC turning
centers are those machines where the operations of tool changing, Speed etc. are controlled
automatically through the programmers. In case of turning centers, only the work piece had to be
fed to the machine and the operations are carried automatically.

CHAPTER: 5
ACTUAL PROJECT WORK

5.1 AIM
Designing of a profile and Manufacturing the desired profile by using CNC Smartrun Lathe
machine.

5.2 DESCRIPTION

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The profile is designed by using SINUMERIK 828D software. In this software we gave the
required dimensions of the profile that we want to produce by using CNC Lathe machine. The
design of this profile is given by the manual or cycle program in the software. After giving the
program, the program is been simulated before executing in the CNC machine.

5.3 DESIGNING OF THE PROFILE

Basic profile design of the profile using AUTOCAD is shown in the figure below:

All dimensions are in mm

Fig.5.1. Profile design

5.4 PROGRAM FOR DESIGNED PROFILE:

MSG("PROJECT5")

WORKPIECE(,,,"CYLINDER",0,0,-120,-85,60)

G90 G95 G71

T="FINISHING_T35 A"

M06 D1

G96 S500 LIMS=1200 M03 M08


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G00 X60 Z5

G01 Z0 F0.2

CYCLE62(,2,"GSS1","GSS2")

CYCLE95("",1,0.1,0.1,0,0.1,0.1,0.1,9,0,0,2,1,1002)

G00 X100 Z100

T="PLUNGE_CUTTER_3 A"

M06 D1

G96 S500 LIMS=1200 M03 M08

G00 X60 Z5

G01 Z0 F0.2

CYCLE930(40,-40,6,6,5,,0,0,0,1,1,1,1,0.2,0.5,5,10530,,1,30,0.1,1,0.2,0.2,2,1001010)

G00 X100 Z100

T="THREADING_TOOL"

M06 D1

G96 S500 LIMS=1200 M03 M08

G00 X60 Z5

G01 Z0 F0.2

CYCLE99(0,20,-
18,,1,2,1,0,40.892563,0,10,5,2.5,1310101,4,2,0.1,0.5,0,0,1,0,0.866,1,,"ISO_METRIC","M20",1002
,1001)

G00 X100 Z100

M05

M08

M30

GSS1:

G01 X0 Z0 F0.2

X20 CHF=2

Z-20

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G02 X30 Z-30 CR=10

G03 X40 Z-40 CR=10

G01 Z-50 F0.2

G02 X40 Z-65 CR=15

G01 Z-70 F.2

G03 X60 Z-80 CR=10

GSS2:

The SINUMERIC 828D software is shown in the figure below with the profile program:

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Fig.5.2. Profile program

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Work piece dimensions are shown in figure below:

Fig.5.3. Work piece dimensions

CYCLE62 ( ): COUNTER CALL

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CYCLE95 ( ): STOCK REMOVAL

Fig.5.4. Stock removal


CYCLE930 ( ): GROOVE- 1,2

Fig.5.5. Grooving

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SIMULATION
2D SIMULATION

Fig.5.6. 2D simulation

3D SIMULATION

Fig.5.7. 3D simulation

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HALF-CUT SIMULATION

Fig.5.8. Half cut simulation

5.5 MANUFACTURING OF THE PROFILE BY USING CNC SMARTRUN LATHE


MACHINE

After designing the profile using the SINUERIK 828D Software it is simulated in the
different views as shown in the above figures. The program for this profile design is copied and
pasted in the actual CNC Lathe machine for execution.
Before manufacturing the given profile the following points should be followed:
Measure the diameter and length of the given work piece that is to be manufactured.
Clamp the work piece within the chucks tightly.
Start the spindle by giving command in MDI mode to check whether the work piece
clamped properly or not.
Clamp the tools in the tool holder that are used for manufacturing the given profile.
Measure the tool offset manually through JOG mode and fixes the X and Z axis.

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Give the command to move the X axis and Z axis to the work piece with less feed rate. If
the tool doesnt make any error and reaches the work piece zero point then the tool offset
given is correct. Now bring the X axis and Z axis to the reference point by using
REFERENCE mode.
Now the machine is ready to design the given profile.

The work piece used is aluminum for profile manufacturing is shown in the below figure:
The work piece dimensions before manufacturing the profile is as follows,
150 X 63.5 diameter
All dimensions are in mm.

Fig.5.9 Aluminum work piece


The tools used for manufacturing the given profile design are shown in the below figure:

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Fig.5.10 Tools used


The machining process is shown in below figures:

Fig.5.11. Profile manufacturing

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Fig.5.12. Machining process

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CHAPTER: 6
RESULT & CONCLUSION

RESULT
Thus we achieved desired profile, by using CNC machines we can complete the work with
less time and with great accuracy compare to conventional machines. The profile produced by this
Smart run CNC lathe machine has good finishing surface and with accurate dimensions in 1Hour
and 20 minutes cycle time.

The required profile design is obtained and it is shown in the figure below.

Fig.6.1 The profile output

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CONCLUSION:
The Indian CNC systems though have made a beginning with both imported technologies
and indigenous development, the technologies adopted in this field are comparatively outdated and
do not incorporate recent development and, also, are found to be wanting in terms of meantime
between failures. There is a high degree of obsolescence in this area. It is an acknowledged fact that
latest developments in these fields are not effectively transferred by advanced countries, under the
normal technology transfer. Under these circumstances, a long term strategy for keeping abreast in
this important sphere, by self-reliant efforts, needs to be speedily evolved.

Compare to conventional machine, CNC machines provide many advantages than


traditional machines.

CNC Machines are very accurate. The CNC machines produce high production compare to
conventional machines.

These CNC Machines doesnt require a skilled operator to perform specified operations,
whereas in conventional machining the operator should have good skill and well trained.

In CNC Machines we can produce complicated profiles easily with less time rather than
conventional machine.

Now-a-days large numbers of industries are coming forward to plant CNC Machines in their
respective industries which increase the demand of CNC Machines and their developments.

CNC machines are applicable to perform any type of processing easily within short time
required.

Many industries would like to prefer using CNC machines for productivity as well as
quality of the products.

CNC machine have high storage capacity which store lot of programs and these will be used
for mass production.

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REFERENCES
http://www.ehow.com/about_5415088_types-cnc-machines.html
http://www.cncci.com/resources/articles/what%20is%20cnc.htm
http://www.bracingsystemsinc.com/basic-motion-types-in-a-cnc-machine
http://www.madehow.com/Volume-2/CNC-Machine-Tool.html
http://dget.nic.in/lisdapp/Trade/syllabus/pdf/TTCNC.pdf
http://users.isr.ist.utl.pt/~pjcro/courses/api0910/API_I_C5.pdf
http://www.tradekorea.com/products/cnc_machine.html
http://www.nd.edu/~manufact/MET%20pdf_files/MET_Ch37.pdf
http://huayucnc.win.mofcom.gov.cn/en/plate01/product.asp?id=24916
http://www.automation-drive.com/cnc-lathe-machine
http://www.cnc-machining-center-yida.com/cnc-turning-center-bml-
420.html
http://cnc-machine-center.blogspot.com/2008/09/cnc-surface-grinding-
machine.html
http://cadcamcnccenter.com/cadcamthai/cnc/machine/108-what-is-cnc
http://news.thomasnet.com/news/machinery-machining-tools/electro-
discharge-machines
http://zaipul.wikispaces.com/file/view/01+Introduction+to+CNC+Technol
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http://www.metalshopsolutions.com/
http://www.efunda.com/eds/company_details.cfm/id2/4846/pv/NO/cp/Zhej
iang%2020Com
http://boeingcockpit.com/html
http://www.westone.wa.gov.au/toolbox8/furniture/toolbox/shared/resourc
es_mw/ask_expert/tony/advantages.html

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PHOTOGRAPHS

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