You are on page 1of 24

Topics in Hydro-acoustics

M IWR [c F. M. ~mVI K

Davirt Taylor Naval Ship R&D Center

13ethes<'la, Marylan<'l ;:>0 0 f\lj llSA


The characteristics of three sources of flow-in<'lucen

vihrations ann noise whlch cOMM()nly occur in hynroacollstic
applicJ'itions are niscllssen. The first, a l"1onopole-like source,
concerns cavitation ~oise. Recent nata ohtainen on weakly
cavitating jets anrt vortices which <'levelop at the tip of lifting
surfaces sllggests the f!xistence of a nnivf!rsal spectrUM function.
An expression for this function is provinen ann its nOMain of
valirtity is nefinen. The sf!conn source is nipolf!-like ann
conef!rns the sounrt fieln from a propeller rotating in a spatially
non-uniforM flow fieln. If the wavelength of the sounn is
Much larger than a characteristic length of the source, the
sounn fif!ln renuces to that of a nipole. The source strength,
however, involves some complexities hecause of hyrtroelastic
interactions hetween the structure anrt the fluid. Theoretical
predictions hased on unsteady lifting surface theory are cOMparen
with experimental (lata ann innicate that the dynamic response
of the hlanes significantly affects the sound pressure levels.
A thirrt source of noise of importance in hynroacoustics arises
frOM pressure fluctuations within turhulent hounnary layers.
Recent Measurements of wave numher spectra on SMooth ann rough
surfaces are reporte<'l.


Cavitation is the Most intense source of n,)"tsf! in fillin

l"1achinery anrt unrterwater acoustics. tt occurs in a flow fieln
whf!never the local preRsure falls helow a critical valne. The
connitions nwler which cavitation incepts, the snhseqnent
nevf!lopl"1ent of a cavitation ~one ann the sounn el"1itten hy the
intf!nsf!, interactive procesSf!S that take placf! within that ~one
arf! extremely COMplex. Theoretical analyses are alMost exclu-
sively restricten to isolaten spherical hnhhles containing
varying aMounts of non-connensihle gas. Althollp;h thf!se analyses
have mane valnahle contrihntions to the funnaMental nnnerstanning
of cavitation noise, the prohlem ()f prenictlng sounn pressure
levels in practical applications still reMains largely unsolven.
In Marine engineering, for example, a COmM()n approach is to

Aero- and Ilydro-Acoustics

IlJTAM Symposium lyon 1985
Editors: G. Comte-Bellotand J. E. Howes Williams
@;\Springer. lIeriin IIeidelbcrg 1986

measure the cavitati0r;t n~ise of !i model propeller: in a ..w~ter...

tunnel or towing tank and then attempt to deduce the fullscale
levels that would o'ccur at sea. One of the' dHf1cuitieswifh
this .procedure :i..s that tl1e eIw:!,rQnmentaJ, concUtl0.ns thiLare
found at sea differ signiricl:lnt;t;y from those .in ..
lahoratories, in. !iddition to. the fact thaJ;. c.avi t~tion .. li'J'9ud.e .
.I:lnd Reynolds scaling . criteria cannot hesimul taneously a.chieveti.
Here, we shall review the factors which influence cavitation
noise and descrihe results of SOMe large scare T'\eaSUreM~nts
which May he useful in "calihrating" test facilities and scaling
As 1s well known, cavitation voids develop around
nucleation site~ such a~ suspended MicrQhuhhles or SMall,
gas-filled crevices in hydrophohic particles. ~he critical
pressure depends upon the nUMher and size of puclei pe~ ~n1t _
volume of liquid. Measupements made in the ocean revea:t that
the density distribution of nuclei is a function of location,
depth, and tiMe of year . Data cited hy Shen, OrQwing, and
Pierce(l), shown in li'igs. 1 and? illustrate the va~iation __
of the density distrihution function of sea an~ in a
water tunnel.
li'rom a static equilihrium theory, the critical pressure Pc
for cavitation is

Pc(r) = Pv - (::lY-l)
for r > R

where Pv is the vapor pressure of the liquid and Rc is the

critical hubhle radius. 'rhe theory assumes the nuclei are
spherical bubbles of radius R imMersed in a liquiti with surface
tension S. The huhhles contain a gas whose ratio of specific
heats is y. A huhhle May hecome unstahle at a critical
pressure which is less than the vapor pressure and this pressure
difference is greater the SMaller the huhhle radius. tn
practice, microhuhhles whose racUus are of the ortier of l()-~ CM
or larger are sufficient to trigger cavitation at vapor pressure.
When cavitation occurs, the gas containeti in the original
nucleus expands into a much larger volume, and its partial
pressure is greatly exceeded hy the vapor pressure of the
liquid. This is called "vaporous cavitation" in contrast to
"gaseous cavitation" which occurs when growth is due to the
diffusion of dissolved gas into the huhhle from the.surrounding
liquid. The huhble growth rates associated with vaporous cavi-
tation are Many orders of Magnitudes larger than those of
gaseous cavitation. When the rarefaction is replaced by a
compression, calculations hy Hickling and Plesset(2) show
that the termination phase of the bubhle collapse is controlled
by the gas content and hy the compressibility of the liquid.

Since'this phase contributes most o'f J;he sound energy, the

possibi11tY,of reducing cayitation' noise by the addition of
gas to the ,cavitation zone appears, to be a promising idea. The
acoustic effects of gas entrained in a bubble are illustrated
in Fig. 3 which is due to Bai tel' (3). Here, Baiter defines
an acoustic efficiency nac as the ratio of acoustic energy
radiateci Rac to the potential energy PoVM initially available
for the collapse to be set in motion

where VM is the maximuM bubble volume and Po is a constant value

assuMeci by the ambient pressure Pa after a step rise initiating
hubhle collapse. This acoustic efficiency is normalized hy a
compressibility factor m = rpo/(pc 2 11/2 which has a
value of 7xlO- 3 in water at Po = 1 bar. The gas content
parameter P(RM)/Pa is defined as the ratio of the partial
pressure of the non-condensible gas containeci in the bubble when
its radius is maximum to the ambient pressure Pa. Baiter's
calculations clearly show the noise-reducing effects of noncon-
densible gas.
In hycirodynamic cavitation, the pressures surrounding the
cavitation nuclei are affected by the cietails of the flow
which, in turn, ciepend upon the Reynolcis number. Tip and hub
vortex cavitation inception on marine propellers, for example,
are strongly influenced by Reynolds number since the radiu,s of
the vortex core is governed by the bounciary layer in the neighbor-
hooci of the tips and roots of the blades. A similar statement
applies to cavitation inception in turbulent flows such as
regions of flow separation or submerged jets. On the other
hanci, cavitation inception at the bounciary of two- or three-
dimensional bodies can be predicted with gooci accuracy from scale-
model tests or calculations, providing the surfaces are SMooth
anci free of protrusions.
Recent studies of b~bble'dynamics were performed by
Hentschel and TJauterborn C ). They useci a holographic technique
in order to ohserve the dynamics of a swarm of micro-bubbles
generateci in the rarefaction region of an acoustic sound field.
An examination of the reconstructed holograms ohtained with an
ultra-high-speeci camera shows the complexity of the interact.ions
which occur within the cavitation zone, as a function of time.
It is interesting to note, for example, the format.ion of SMall
jets which penetrate coalescing bubbles. This phenOMenon
appears to be more generally applicable and is illustrated in
Fig. 4, from Sevik and Park(~). Here, bubbles of ail' were
emitted from a small pipe placeci at the center of a jet of water
which was discharged into a large reservoir. In spite of the
differences in length anci time scales involved in the experiments
of references 4 and 5, the hydrociynamics of coalescing bubbles

appears to he ~uite siMilar. ReMarkahle photographs puhlishe~

hy BrinkMeyer( ) an~ later also hy Hentschel(7) clearly show
the shock waves generate~ hy a collapsing cavity an~ their
effects on a~jacent huhhles.

~he pre~iction of cavitation noise in practical appli-

cations is evi~ently a prohlem of some COMplexity. POI" example,
if it is hase~ on measllreMents of the noise ra~iate~ hy scale
mo~els in a water tunnel a large numher of hy~ro~ynal'1ic an~
hy~roacoustic con~itions must he l'1et if an accllrate extrapolation
to full-scale is to he achieven. ~he facUity requirements,
MeaSUrel'1ent techniqlles, an~ scaling laws which are nee~en for
this purpose wel"e 01ltl1nen hy Rla1{e an~ ~evi1{(Q). Tn orner
to "r.al1hrate" sl1ch an appl" it 1s nes11"ahle to possess
full-scale ~ata of the sOllnn ra~iaten hy variolls forMS of cavi-
tation hy perfol"l'1ing a set of "canonical" experil'1ents in the
environl'1ent in which the l'1ar.hine operates. POI" exal'1ple, ~llMming
an~ Morgan(n) hAVP ohsel"\Ten variol1s types of cavitation on
Marine propellers sllch as tip an~ huh vortex cavitation, lea~ing
e~ge attache~ sheet ca,ri tiition an~ mi~-chorn huhhle ann cloll~
cavitation. Prequently, these varions forl'1s of cavitation
occur sil'1l1ltaneouRly ann the contrihlltlon of each forl'1 to the
total SOlln~ energy cannot he ~istinguishe~.

POI" this reason, l'1easurel'1ents were Ma~e at sea on a set of

hy~rofoils on which tip vortex cavitation cOlll~ he in~uce~ as
the only forl'1 of cavitation. ~he Renol~s nUMher, hase~ on
chord length, was on the or~er of 10. AMhient an~
hackground noise levels were controlle~ in such a Manner that
incipient stages of cavitation COllIn he ~etecte~ hy acoustic
means. Pig. "i shows examples of the noise l'1easllre~ in the far
fielil with an array of hynrophones, afl a function of time.
Here, the soun~ intensity 1n a 1/~ octave han~ centered at
several kBz ifl r'lisplayer'l. Pig. "ill. ShOWfl 1nterl'1ittent flpl1{es of
noise which correspon~fl to a con~ition close to incipient cavi-
tation, whereaR in Pig. "ih the cavitation zone is More extensive.
The cavitation inception conr'lition is ~eterninen frol'1 data
exel'1pllf'ieci in Pig. F.. Tf the hac1{grounn noise at the hynro-
phones ifl sufficiently low, a flllnr'len I"ifle in level ifl ohflerven,
afl cavitation incepts. ~he cOl"responning ratio of static to
nynam1c hear'l ~ef1nes the incipient cavitat10n innex, at.
Afl the velocity of the flow is 1ncreaflen, the cavltat10n noise
heCOT'1efl 1'10re intense ann continuonfl, although, as shown in
Pig. "ih, high level, intel"l'1ittent hursts are stlll preflent.
~ypical spectra of the raniaten noise are shown in Pig. 7, for
two valnes of alai. ~hese spectra have sil'1ilar charactr-
ifltic featllres. ~hey contain a peak level p~ (fM,l\f)
at a fl"eqJlency fl'1 linn exhihit sil'1tlar r'lecay wit.h freqlleYl~y.

There are caRes in which it is ~esirahle to detect the

onRet of cavitation ln its early, incipient. stages. POI" this
purpofle, it is useful to know the frequency fm an~ the maximul'1
sound pl"essure level to he expected at that freqllency. A flimple

dinensional analysis due to Rlake(q) allows an ~Mpirical

pre(1iction of these quantitieR. Since Is a J'lonopole-
like source, the sound pressure lellel p(r,t.) at a point r
distant from the cavitat.ion zone is proport.ional to the net
1I01umetric acceleratIon of this zone at any instant of t.ine

p(!:.,t) p f (~(~,__ t_-:.r!-=2.


where q Is the tine-d~penc1ent cavity 1T01uMe per unit voluMe of
f l U Id

Characteristic lengt.h and t.ine scales ~ and T descrlhe

the growth of t.he eavitatton zone after inception:

and T

where T, is a length scale of the hody generatIng t.he eavities,

as for example, t.he chord of a hydrofoil or t.he diaMeter of a
BaRed on the eholce of t.hese scaleR, the T1ean-sqllare pressllre
p2 in a frequency hand tJ.f will vary as

where RIo is the Reynolds nUrlher. II.t the frequency fn, the
theory of Isolated huhhle cavitation noise suggests that the
function <I> would have a r']Rximum value when

Peo 1 12 P -1 12 ( 0 i -0 ) 1 12
For that.
f M T,

where a is a constant t.hat. depends on the t.ype of flow. In

proportional freqllency hands Af = const. x f, the rlaxiJ'luJ'l
spectrUM level varies as

----.......,(ai - a) 41 (a, '01> RL)
N. (L/r)2

~or a given form of cavitation in a given type of flow,

the function 41 should only vary with f/f m This function
can be conveniently found froJ"l the ratio

~igs. R ann Q show the depennence of p~ ann fJ"l on

(ai - a)1/2 for tip vortex cavitation. ~he choice
of characteristic length and time scales for the cavitation
zone appears to be valin up to a critical value of
(ai - a)1/2. It is probah1e that above this value
more anvancen cavitation significantly alters the structure of
the flow. The spectrum functions which are plotted in Fig. 10
innicate the existence of a universal spectrum form.

To provide further support for this hypothesis, the same

approach was applied to the noise measurements mane by
Jorgensen(10) on cavitating jets. The frequency and pressure
factors differ from those obtained previously because shear
layer instead of tip vortex cavitation is invo1ven. Wig. 11
shows the spectrum function which has a remarkahle resemblance
to Wig. 10.

It appears that an empirical preniction of cavitation

noise produced hy a given type of cavitation is possihle ann
requires the knowledge of the spectrum function

41 (:J"I a, ai, Rr) as well as p~ ann f m A

collection of nata frOM carefully connucteo large scale
experiments under realistic operating conditions wouln provine
a useful data hase for "calihrating" J"Iodel test facilities ann
Monel-scale test results.


In the absence of monopole-liKe sources such as cavi-

tation or pulsating gas bubbles, nipo1e-1ike sources are next
in importance. In most hydroacoustic applications, these
sources are compact and the Mach numhers of the flow are close
to zero. In this important class of proh1eMs, the radiated
sound power is related to the statistics of the alternating

forces acting (;m the hotlies hy a simple. relationship. J;1or an

acoust,ca11y compact, rigit! hotly, th~ sount! iritensity is
'<1irectiy proportional to the tiMe oerivative of the Mean Rquare
fluct"4ating force J;1(t) .

1 cos 2 e

where e is Measured from the direction of the fluctuating

foroce vector.
A marine propeller is an example of such a radiator. A
modern design, manufactured by the Bird-Johnson Co. Marine
Division, is i11ustratetl in Fig. 12. It is clear that it
operates in an incident velocity field which contains spatial
and temporal non-uni.forMi ties. The response of each blade is
proportional to the product of the intensity of the flow tlisturh-
ances anti of the h1ade's hytlroe1astic atlmittance function. If
structural resonances are encounteroed, a possih1e enhancement
of the response must he consideretl as this will influence the
level of the ratliatetl noise as well as the fatigue life of the
~he hytlrodynaMic acceptance function of a proope1lero has
maxima at wavelengths which aroe integral OllMhers of the hlaoe
spacing. The resultant sountl is prooportional to the integroatetl
value of the fluctuating foroce COMponents which act on the
propeller anti energy is concentratetl at nearly tliscroete values
of the circumferential wave nUMher ke = !M where 1'1 is an
integer B the numher of h1atles, ano Ro the propeller raoius.
Although the raoiation prohlem of an acoustically COMpact
propeller is trivial, the prediction of the source strength is
a hydroe1astic proh1em of SOMe COMplexity. The approach is to
decompose the incitlent flow fie1t1 into a steady and a randomly
varying pattern and calculate the response to each separately.
The prediction of forces acting on a propeller which
rotates with angular velocity Q in a steady, hut circumfer-
entia11y non-uniform incitlent flow requires the application of
a three-dimensional unsteady lifting surface theory hecause of
the low aspect ratio of the h1adeR. The unknown pressure
tlifference Ap at a point xl on a h1ade is related to the
self-induced velocity w(~;t) hy an integral equation

w(~,t) = -J Ap(~l) K(~, ~l ,t) tis


where fI represent.s the area of t.he hlarleR. 1'l1e kernel fllnntton

f{represents the "eloelty Inrll\cer~ at. x hy an oRnlllat.ol"Y pl"eSRllre
of Ilnit. al'lplit.l1rle locat.en at. !.l.
1'he hounnary connittonR require t.hat. w(x,t.) cancel
velocity co",ponent.R norMal t.o t.he hlarle Hllrf'aces. If theRe no
not. neform unner loan, then
w(!.,t) = vCR) exp iq(nt - Yq)

where ts the wavelength of' the ntsturhance and vCR) is the
velocity cOMponent of the blarle at a radial position R. The
phase angle Iq is illustrat.erl in FIg. 1,. Monern nesIgns,
however, have co",plex geometrIes ann several resonances may
occur within the operating range. In t.hls case w(x,t) ",ust
also cancel a velocity component rlue to hlarle vIhr~tions. The
linearized houndary connition in this case is gtllen hy

w(!.,t) = {~at + IT cota(l'l)

where S(R) is the pitch angle of the hlarle at the radial
posit.ton R anrl 6(!.,t) is the norl'lal rleflect.ion at (R,t o )
ann TT is the volune mean velocit.y over the propeller rHsk. Tn
arldtt.ion, the Kllt.t.a connition at. the tratllnp; enge applleR at.
all instants of t.iMe.
1'sl1RhiMa and Sevik(11) solverl the lntegral equation,
Rllhject to these hounrlary connit.ions. To verify the predtctionR,
experlment.s were perforned on a "flexihle" and on a "rigin"
propeller of identic~l geometries, shown in Fig. l~. The
hlarles had a skew angle of 1?0 rlegrees. The "flexihle" propeller
was marle of an epoxy resin anrl the "rigtrl" propeller of alumiml'"
alloy. The resonances of the epoxy propeller were within the
the operating rpm; those of the aluminum propeller were outsirle
that range. The lowest resonance frequency of the epoxy
propeller when suhMergen tn water was 4f1 Hz, whereas that of
the aluninum one waR higher hy a factor of ?~4. During the
experiments the exciting frequency was limiterl to ,~ Hz. The
epoxy propeller had a loss f'actor o~ ?~ x 10- 2
The propellers were r~ollnten in the water tunnel of t.he
A.pplierl . Research T.ahoratory at the Penn.syl vania State ITni \Tel'S 1I;y,
as Rhown in Fig. 14. A.n electl"ln I'\otor \Tarierl the rev/I'\in so
aR to l'Iaintain a constant arlvance ratio over a range of tunnel
flow ITelocit.tes. A screen upstream of' the propeller generaterl
a Rtrong three cyole wake, aR shown in Fig. 1~. A siMple
rtynamoneter, conRisting of a pie~oelentrtc enhenrlert in
the propeller Rhaf't, was capahle of neaR1lrinp; only a Ringl"!
force (~oT'1ponent, nanely the unRt.earty thruflt..

The theol"etical calculations of t.he unsteacly forces

incluclecl the first. five ~ocles of vthratton of t.he hlacles. The
clynamic response of the hlanes gave rise t.o significant.
cliffel"ences in t.he ~A.gnlt.ucle ane'! phase of t.he forces, as
illustraten in Fi'ig. H;. ~ince the siMple clyna~oMeter lIsen in
the experiment.s only nelisure(i t.he t.hrust., t.heoret.tcal
as well as expel"inental results are plottecl tn Fi'ig. 17 as the
ratio of the root-nean-square value of t.he force acting on the
flexihle propeller ITFI to that acting on the rigte'! propeller
ITRI. Although the agl"eement he tween theory ancl eXpel"tMent is not
precise, the general features of the response are eviclent in
hoth. Annitional experiments ann analyses pel"fol"mecl hy Rrooks(I~)
confirmert earlIer l"esults.
These results can he scalen lineal"ly, provicllng the
geOMetry ann the incinent flow fiele'! al"e similal" ancl the loss
factor Is the saMe. For exaMple, a propeller macle of bronze,
ten tines larger than the monel, woulcl have Ii funnamental
fl"equency of approximately 11 Hz ann the peak amplitune of the
unsteacly thrust force wOllle'! occur at ahout lRn l"ev/~tn. Near
resonance, the Intensity of the l"anlatecl souncl woulcl he II') ciR
hIgher than that of an icieally "rigin" pl"opeller.

The noise racliatecl hy turhulent houn,'1ary layers, the wall

Motions inclucen hy fluctuating pressures ancl the resulting
acoust.ic fielcl have receivecl Much at.tent.ton 1n hycll"OI'tcollsttcs,
The early, classical papers of Powell(I~) ane'! Wfowcs WilliaMs(14)
t rea tecl tlIrhulen t flows cont igllous to I" iglcl or flexi h le hOllnclaries
which were infinite in extent ane'! ci.e\70icl of inhOMogeneities. They
showeci that the raciiat.ion is quaclrllpole tn character. However,
at the Mach numhers of interest in unclel"water acolistics, this
source of racliation has an extremely low acoustic efficiency.
It was evinent that qua,lr1lpole theory cOlllcl not explain the
much higher levels ohservecl in practice.
Two sources contrihute to the souncl fteln in practical
applications, namely e'!irect raniation frOM the flow anci racliation
from structures that are excited hy the fluctuating wall pressures.
Real strlIctures, of course, contain numerous impeciance
niscontLnuities, ann actual houne'!ary layers al"e selclom spatially
homogeneous. Accordingly, there exis t f1any acous t ic
scattering mechanisms which convert the intense reactlve energy
of turhulent ecirties into more efficient IiCOllfitic sOIlr'ces.
Powell, for exaMple, showee'! that althollgh pressure d.tpoles
vanIsh ovel" a sUl"face a they ne~n not vanish near its edges.
More r'ecently, Howe(I..,) exaMinecl the pl"ohlen of sotlncl
genel"ation hy scattering of the neal" fieln of low Mach nUMher
houndary layer turhulence hy a rough, rtgid wall. He conclunen
that the souncl .intensity val"ies as the sixth power' of the nain
stream velocity, in accordance with experiMental (iata clue to
Hersh(]h). ThIs sCll.tte'l"ing MechantRM affect.R the cltrect
radiation frOM the flow.

A wave nUl'lher conversion process which inflll~nces the

rarHationfroM structures was an;ilyzec'l hy r.rightonT17 ). ....
'l'he prohlem involvec'l the long range c011pllng hetween a quac'lrupole
eddy which injects energy iryto.- an .. elastiC. structure . .
ano. surface inhoMogeneities" such .asrihs or fraMes. 'l'his
energy reMains trappeo. in th~"suiface anc'l an ac'ljacent fluio.
layer ano. propagates in suhsonlc.surface wave Mones until a
discontinuity is encountered. '~righton showen that at low
frequencies ann unner conrlitionS of heavy fluio., this
process efficiently converts SOMe of the near field reactive
energy of the quan~upole irito rao.iative energ~. In practical
applications, estiMates of the structural response and of
the resulting souno. rao.iation require that the wave numher
spectrum of turhulent houndary layer pressures he known. The
acceptance of structures of interest has maxiMa in a range of
wave nUMhers

w w
c Hc

where w/c and w/Hc are the sonic and convective wave
numbers, respectively. Accordingly, in hyo.roacoustic appli-
cations, the wave numhers of greatest interest are those in
the sonic and aupersonic range for direct radiation from the
flow, ann those in the low, suhsonic wave number range for
radiation from flow inducen vihrations.
Rxisting moo.els of the wave numher-frequency spectruM of
the wall pressure fielo. heneath a turhulent hounrlary layer
assume that it is spatially homogeneous anrl temporR.lly stR.tional"Y.
'l'he cross-correlation function for the pressure at two arhitrary
points on the WR.lI is therefore given hy the enseMhle
with respect to tiMe

where i (~l' ~ 3) is the separation o.istance hetween two

points and T is a time o.elay. The o.istances in the streaMwise
ano. crossflow directions are ~l ano. ~ 3 , respectively.
The wave vector-frequency spectrum is the Fourier trans
form of R(i, T)

where III is the frequency and ~ = (k 1 , k3) the wave vector.

The stream wise and crossflow components are denoted by

kl and k 3 ,
respectively. The cross-spectral density is

the partial Fourier transform over time

The autospectral density function is given hy


The first model of the wave number frequency spectrum was

based on similarity principles proposed by Corcos(l~).
Wall pressure measurements by Willmarth and Wooldridge(lq),
and Bull(20) suggested a separable representation for the
cross-spectral density function in the form

'T'he "Corcos model", which is the Fourier transform of this

function, has several limitations. Wor example, it does not
account for the effects of compressihility which control the
sonic and supersonic phase velocity range of the spectrum. It
also violates the IKI2 dependence of the spectrum at low wave
numbers, for perturhations which propagate at low suhsonic
phase velocities. Note that the convection velocity Hc is a
function of the frequency: larger values of Hc are associated
with smaller values of --- where 6* is the displacement
thiCKness of the boundary layer and U", is the free stream

Ffowcs Willians(?l) extennen the Corcos Monel to make it

applicahle to the low wave numher elements of the spectrun.
Starting with Lighthill's acoustic analogy ann his own earlier
paper(?2), he proposen the following representation for
the wall pressure spectrum

where p is the nensity of the fluin, ~ the nirac nelta function,

TI ..
ann M The functions, , \ , Ro ann the constants R o ' a J
ann a z must he neterminen hy experiments. An ohjective of the
present paper is to use experimental nata from which runction

<!>o(~:~) ann the pronuct [A. o (l)R o (O) Rl] can he rounn.

The last term in Ffowcs Williams' expression represents the

acoustically co-incinent elements of the spectrun. Here, R
nenotes the effective extent of the 2 turhulence zone which
contrihutes to the energy at k =-
A thlrn, recent monel by Chase('l) for the hynrodynamic
range of wave numbers accounts for both the linear mean shear
ann the nonlinear turbulence-turbulence Interaction terms. In
other wordS, the monel includes the sum of interactions of
each scale of motion with the mean flow as well as the self-
interactions of erInies ann the couplen interactions he tween
rIirferent scales of motion. The spectrum if! of the form

4>p(~'lll) Hoo
----f----- =


Ki ' +

ann the suhscripts Mann T refer to either the Mean shear or

the turhulence interaction. The shear stress at the wall TW'
the friction velocity TTT ann the dimensionless coefficients
CM. CT. hi ann hi nepenn upon the surface finish of the
wall. For smooth walls. Chase recommenns the following values:

hM'" hT '" ~ ; r'T = 0.0474 ; CM = 0.07 I

hrr = o.~7R ; hM = 0.7'0

With this choice of coefficients. the convective pressure

levels agree well with experiMental values and the wave nUMher
spectrum displays the proper Ikl 2 depennence in the low
wave nUMher dOMain. Coefficients for rough walls are given hy
Rlake(?4) tn his recent hook.

With the advent of large COMputers. the possihiltty of

calculating wall pressure fluctuations nUMel"ically frOM the
full Navier-Rtokes equations is heing 7x~,oren. A recent
paper hy Hannlel". Hansen. nrs~ag et al ? . provines a
COMparison of nllMel"tcal ann experimental results for a fully
nevelopen channel flow. Although nUmel"ical techniques show
prOMise, further nevelopMents are neenen if inforMation of
practical value is to he provinen.

In orner to Measure the weak signals in the low wave

nUMher and acoustic wave nUMber nOMains. two essential require-
Ments Must he met. First. a very quiet test facility Must he
used such as an anechoic wind tunnel or a huoyant hody in a
region of water with very low aMhient noise levels. as in the
experiMents of Haddle and Skudrzyk(?o). Secondly. an
instrUMent must he availahle which selectively responds to the
spatial scales of interest and rejects others - such as convective
nisturhances - which May he more intense hy a factor as great as
10 5 .TaMeson(?71 ann Martin(2R) used vibrating plates and
Membranes as spatial filters. By selecting specific mones of
vihrations. the force on the panel applied by the matching
scales of the turhulence in the boundary layer is calculated.
This technique applies to the hydrodynamic range of wave nUMbers.
Mainanik ann Jorgensen(?Q) devisen an array of pressure trans-
nucers - a wave vector filter - which l"\eaSllres the spectral
nensity of the wall pressures in terMS of k ann w. The
array is designed to respond to a handwidth of specific wave
nUMhers only. "Then couplen to a frequency filtel". the resultant
output is a Measure of the spectral ne..g.}i ty. Ti'ornally. the
array Measures a Mean square pressure p (00. hw) at a
frequency w ann hannwinth Aw tn terMS of the following filter

p2 (w. hw)


where IH(oo)12 is the frequency filter function provirling

anarrowbanrl output ofthe signal which 1s further silbjected
to- the s-patial . response kernel of each transrlucer forMing the
ar~a:y :r~(~) 1. 2 ~nrlthe ~rray function I~(~) 12. Wave .
vector filter measllreMents have heen performe~ hy neih
anrlli'arahee( ~O) in an anechoic winn tunnel. An arr'ay of
sii mi~r'ophone~mounte~ flush in the wall of th~ tunnel was
usen, -as shown in li'igure 1R. ~easureMents of the spectr'al
density of wall pressure fluctuations were man~ on sMooth ann
r'oughwalls, 1"01' low wav~ nUlTIher anrl supersonic eleMp.nts of
the spectrulTl. In arlnition, the experiMents perforMed hy Han~le
and Skudrzyk were r'epeate~ with ilTlproven Metho~s ann equiplTlent.
nata frOM various sources in the hynrorlynaMic range of
wave-nuMbers are cOlTlpared by Rlake(24) with the COr'cos ann
Chase Mone1s in li'ig. 1Q. The Corcos 1TI0nel applies in the
neighborhood of the convective region, wher'eas the Chase monel
agrees well with the data over a broader range of wave numbers.
This conclusion was also reached by Hwang ann Oeib(~l) who
used a-linear regression model for estiMating the norMalized
wave vector-frequency spectrum with a set of measured levels.
The convenient forM of the Corcos monel, however, motivates
attempts to extend its range of validity to lower wave nUMbers
as More experimental data are obtained.
The supersonic elements of the spectrum are shown in
li'igs. 20 and 21. These figures contain rlata frolTl experiMents
performen on a buoyant bony in water as well as those performed
in an anechoic winn tunnel. The Mach nUlTlhers rluring the water'
experiments were less than 0.01 anrl the mOMentuM thickness
Reynolds numbers exceenerl 10 5 The wall surface was sMooth.
In the anechoic winn tunnel experiments, Mach nUMhers rangen
frOM O.O~ to 0.1~ ann the MOlTlentum thickness Reynolns nUMhers
were on the orc'ler of ~ x 10 4 ~Mooth, as well as rough
walls were investigaten. In terMS of' the equivalent roughness
k S rT T
height of the surface irregularities k s , values of rangerl
from less than 10 to 1000. The wave vector filter used in the
anechoic winn tunnel han a hanc'lwi~th Marke~ hy the -~rlB
sensitivity of O<k 6* ( O.~, wher'eas in water this bandwi~th
was smaller by a factor' of approximately 10. The collapse of
the rlata taken over such a wide range of parameters suggests
the possibility that direct radiation frOM the bounnary layer'
may have been lTIeasured. However, the cautionary words that
usually accompany such stateMents must not be forgotten.
The data can be approximated by the relation

in the range:

~ <- < 30

or .a~ter<n~tty!!_ly....

.~_p()~oo) '.T~_.'=~!).62 . (.~~!i)' .

. WT~(6*)3". . ,...fJ~ .
As k -+- 0 ~. Ff()wcs W:l.lliams' spectrum functi0n.r.educesto

~p(O~OO) = p2Ul(0*)3 . :o(OO;J*) Ao(l)Ro(())' a l ~~.

In terms of the dynamic head q

~p(O~OO) 0 ..
M2 q 2 (/,*)3

The data in ~igure ?1 are plotted in accornance with

these parameters. ~he collapse of the nata noes not appear to
he as goon as in Figure ?n; points from different experiments
have different slopes~ for example. If q2 were replacen hy
the shear stress TW2 as in Figure ?O~ then

4 A (1)R (O)a

where cf denotes the skin friction coefficient

u ). 2
Cf = 2.2

In this case~ over the range of frequencies shown in ~ig. 2n~


~ (000
o TT
= (001l * )
-If .5

Levels at k 2 =(:) 2 were ohserved to he higher than at

supersonic wave numhers~ with most of the energy arriving at

grazing incidence from an up stream direction. Although there
are several possihle explanations for this ohservation the
source has not heen positively identified at this time.


1. Shen, V.T., S. nrowing, R. Pierce, "Cavitation Suscepti-

hility Measurements by a Venturi," International
SYMpf)si11M on Cavitation Inception, A.(LM.R.,

? Hickling, R. an~ M.A. Plesset, "Collapse an~ Rehoun~ of

a Sphertcal Ruhhle in 1.rater," Phys. F111ir'ls,
Vol. 7, pp. 7-111, 1Qf)11

~. Ralter, H .T., "Rst.iMates of the Acoust.ic Rfftciency of

CollapRing Ruhhles," International SYMposiuM on
Cavitation NoisF'!, A.S.H.R., ]QR?

11. Hentschel, W., W. T,auterhorn, ".Tet ForMation anr'l Ruhhle

Interaction St.ur'lier'l with T,aser-Pro~llcer'l Cavi-
tat.ion Ruhhles", MecaniquF'! Hateriaux Rlectricite,
pp. 1f)'i-1fif), 1QRn

'i. Sevik, M. an~ S.H. Park, "The Splitting of Drops anrt

Ruhhles hy Turhulent Flui~ Flow," Trans. A.S.M.R.
Journal of Flui~s Engineering, Vol. Q'i, pp.
'i~-fin, lQn

fi. BrinkMeyer, E., "Koharent-Optische Verfahren :<:11 Tlntersuchung

kurzer qtosswellen hei Akustisch Er:<:engter
Kavitation," Dissertation, nottingen, 1Q1fi

1. Hentschel, W., "Hochfrequenzholografische Tlntersllchungen

ZUM Verhalten von Kavitationshlasen in
Druckfel~ern," Dissertation, nottingen, lQR~

R. Rlake, W.K. anrt M. Sevik, "Recent Developments in Cavi-

tation Noise Research", Internat.ionl "ymposium
on r:avitation Noise, A.S.M.R., 1QR?

Q. CUMMing, 1<'.1<:. Rnr'l W.R. Morgan, "PropF'!Jler Design Aspects

of T,arge High-Spee~ ,qhips", Proceertings ,')YfllposillM
on qtgh Powere~ Propulsion of T.Rrge ,,)hips, N.q~m
PUhlication No. llQn, 1Q711

In. Jorgensen, D.W., "Noise frOM Cavit.Rting SuhMerger'l Jets",

.Tournal of Acoustical Society of AMerica, Vol.
~~, pp. n~)1-11~R, 1Qf)1

11. Tsushima, H. an~ M. Sevik, "DynaMic Response of Marine

Propellers to NonuniforM Flowfielr'ls", Journal
of Hy~ronalltics, Vol. 7, No. ;>, pp. 71-77, 1Q71

12. Brooks, .I.E., "Vibrations of a Marine Propeller Operating

in a Nonuniform Inflow," Dissertation, r:atholic
Tlniversity, Washington, D.C., 1QRn

13. Powell. A "Aerodynamic Noise and the Plane Boundary."

Journal of Acoustical Society of America. Vol.
32. pp. 9R2-990. 1960
14. Ffowcs Williams. J.E ~Sound Radiation from Turhulent
Boundary Layers Formed on Compliant Surfaces".
Journal of Fluid Mechanics. Vol. 22. pp. 347-3~R.

1~. Howe. M.S "On the Aeneration of Sound hy Turhulent

Boundary TJayer li'low Over a Rough Wall".
Proceedings of Royal Society. London. A 30~.
pp. 247-263. 10R4
In. Hersh. A.S AIAA paper No. R3-07 Rn. 1983
17. Crighton. n.A "Long Range Acoustic Scattering hy Surface
Inhomogeneities Beneath a Turhulent Boundary
Layer". International SymposiuM on Turhulence-
Induced Vihrations and Noise of Structures.
pp. 107-121. 1983
1R. Corcos. A.M "The Resolution of Pressures in Turbulence".
Journal of Acoustical Society of America. Vol.
3~. pp. 102-199. 1963

10. Willmarth. W.W. and C.E. Wooldridge. " Measurements of the

Fluctuating Pressure at the Wall Beneath a
Thick Turbulent Boundary Layer". Journal of
Fluid Mechanics. Vol. 14. pp. 1R7-210. 1962
20. Bull. M.R "Wall-Pressure Fluctuations Associated with
Subsonic Turhulent Boundary Layer Flow". Journal
of li'luid Mechanics. Vol. 2R. pp. 710-7~4. 1967
21. Ffowcs WilliaMS. ,J.E "Boundary Layer Pressures and the
Corcos Model: a Development to Incorporate Low
Wave Number Constants". ,Journal of Fluid Mechanics.
Vol. 125. pp. 9-25. 1982
22. li'fowcs WilliaMS. ,I.E "Surface Pressure Fluctuations
Induced hy Boundary-Layer Flow at li'inite ~ach
Numher". ,Journal of Fluid Mechanics. Vol. 22.
pp. 507-519. 1965
23. Chase. n.M "Modeling the Wave-Vector Frequency Spectrum
of Turbulent Boundary Layer Wall Pressure".
Journal of Sound Vibration. Vol. 70. pp. 29-67.
24. Blake. W.K "Aero~Hydroacoustics for Ships". DTNSRDC
Report.84j010. 10R4

2~. Handler. R.A R.J. Hansen. S.A. Orszag et al

"Calculation of the Wall Pressure Field in a
Turbulent Channel Flow". Physics of Fluids.
Vol. 27. No. ~. pp. ~7Q-~R2. lQR4
26. Haddle. Cl.D. and F. .J. Skudrzyk. "The Physics of Flow Noise".
Journal of Acoustical ~ociety of America. Vol.
~fi. pp. 110-1~7. lQ6q

27. .Jameson. P. W.. "MeasureMent of the Low-Wavenumher r.oTl'lponent

of ~urbulent Boundary Layer Pressure ~pectral
nensity". Procee~ings of 4th ~YTl'lposiuM on
~urbulence in Liquids. lQ7~

2R. Martin. N.C "Wavenumber Filtering by Mechanical ~tructures".

M.I.~. Ph.n. ~hesis. lQ7fi
2Q. Maidanik. Cl. and n.w. Jorgensen.
"Boundary Wave Vector
Filters for the Study of the Pressure Field in
Turbulent Boundary Layer". Journal of Acoustical
Society of America. Vol. 42. pp. 4Q4-50l.
30. Cleih. F.E. and T.M. Farabee. "Measurement of Boundary Layer
Pressure Fluctuations at Low Wavenumber on a
Smooth Wall." Paper presented at <Hst Meeting.
Acoustical Society of America. lQ76
:n. Hwang. Y.F. and F.E. Geih. "Estimation of the Wavevect.or-
Frequency Spectrum of Turhulent Boundary Layer
Wall Pressure by Multiple Linear Regression".
A.~.M.F.. SymposiuM on Turhulencelnduced Vihration
and Noise of Structures. lQR~



M M 4.5
-'!- -'!-
5.0 ~ 4.0
z z
0 ;:::
~ 4.5 ...

4.0 " 3.0
C!l g

2.5 LOW
10 m 0---0 0---0
25 m 0-0 0---0 STRAITS
e---e MEDWIN, 3m DEEP, 1.5
2.5 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6
0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 I I I 1
LOG 0 RADIUS 11""1 20
' 10 30 40
5 10 20 30 40

Fig. 2 Bubble Concentration in 12-inch Water

Tunnel at DTNSRDC (Ref. 1)
Fig. 1 Measured Bubble Spectra At Sea (Ref. 1)

10 5 r-~----~------'-------r-----~

L _ l r - - - - - 3 " 10-5


3 " 10-4, POINTS OF 1%

10-3 '" ,"', CURVE FOR m-->()
' 10-5
3" 10-3 ,
/ ~ 3" 10-5
m = 10-2
m = 10-4


10- 4 10-3 10-2 - 10- 1


Fig. 3 Acoustic Efficiency for Weak Collapse With

Indications ot Deviations From This Relation in Case
ot Moderately Strong Collapse and Maximum Possible
Values of 'lao/m in Case ot Strong Collapse
Depending on ~ Compressib1l1ty Parameter
m = po/Qc2 (Ref. 3)

Fig.4 Two Phase Flow Pattern (Ref. 5)




Wi'" J' **1 J .rae .. ,.". I 1 J
-sof- -
....... -90-

:s -100 f-

Fig. 5 Temporal Variations of Tip Vortex ~'
Cavitation Noise
~ -110 - I
,~'.\ -
-120 - I

-130 - ,'\1 I -

_I ) I I I I I I
0 0.4 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.S

dB 20 1/0;-0

Fig. 8 Pressure Factor for Sound Radiated From a

Tip Vortex on Large Hydrofo!ls. Various Pointe
Refer to Different Test Conditions and StatiO
Pressures (~'" 107 )

OL-__L -__L -__L -__L-~>-~

0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0


Fig. 6 Noise Level Differenoes Above
Background, at High Frequenoles I

~Ij .01
~ f~L X~
0--00.72 = 0.0\03 10; -
c:; .-6 t::.
w-,gf" 0
.002 .".", . . . -1'"
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.S

Fig. 9 Frequenoy Factor for Bound Radiated From

a Tip Vortex on Large Hydrofo!ls. Various Points
1.000 100.000 Refer to Different Test Conditions and Statio
Pressures (~'" 107)

Fig. 7 Typloal Speotra of Tip Vortex Cavitation


9 -20

0 .40.6 2 4 6 810 20 40

Fig. 10 Universal Spectrum Function For Sound

From Tip Vortex Cavitation on Hydrofoils

~ -10
Fig. 13 Model Propeller Geometry (Ref. 11)
- -20


Fig. 11 Universal Spectrum Function for Sound

From Cavitating Jets (Jorgensen Data)

Fig. 14 Installation of Screen and Propeller

In the Water Tunnel (Ref. 11)

Fig. 12 Propeller for Great Lakes Ship "Charles E .

Wilson" Courtesy BlrdJohnson Co. Marine DIvision.
Walpole. MA .. USA


-:: 1.0 q~O 240 VIBRATION MODES
'i 0 .9
...... 12
>~I::> 0.8
q ~ 12
120 "0... 10
iii g
0.7 q=9\ 60 0-'-0
\ ...",
.,....'v: ....."' ...., ...
l q=12 ,:: EXPERIMENT

q = 0 :'( l"'-~
-.~"'-.....-. I~II. 0
0 .5 q= 6 ,..' -60 i
0.4 -120 ..."

::> 0.3 q=3 -180 l: ..."
...0 0.2 - 240

0.1 -300

0 . 1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0 .6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0


0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0

FIg. 16 Wake Harmonics Due to Soreen (Ref. 11) FREQUENCY OF LOADING

10 kg .",_------ct:. 51 m/aec
Fig. 17 Effect of Blade Resonanoes
on Fluctuating Force
8,'" ,
.... ,
'4.0 "
4 8 12 16 20 kg

-4 i
, ,/
-SO'.......... ,./ '
-12 U ~ 5.0 mlsee ' " ~LEXIBLE
Fig. 16 Predloted Magnitudes and Phases of
Unsteady Thrust Force for Rigid and
Flexible Propellers (Ref. 11)

Fig. 18 Experimental Setup In Anechoic

Wind Tunnel


-60 r-
-70 ...

J ~ -80-
'3 :g
o :P- -90- -
~ :I

Fig. 19 Wall Pressure Spectra In Purely 9 -100- -

Hydrodynamic Bange of Wave Number,
M <0.01 (Bef. 24) ~
-110 - -
- 120 '----J'--.L......I_)'_~....II~........
1 1 '1 1
10 100
10 r- (SMOOTH) _
Fig.21 Data Normalized to Dynamic Head.

k,U T = 50
"!!- 0

~1; -20 -
0 -30 -
~ k,U T = 1000
~ ~O
-40 - /:).D~ -
-50 0 -
-60 I
0.6 1.0 5 10 50 100
WO*/U oo

Fig. 20 Variation of Boundary Layer Noise With

Dimensionless Frequenoy