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the square of the distance of the surface from the radiation source.

To show that the intensity of radiation varies as the fourth power of the

source temperature.

SUMMARY

This experiment is all about showing tile intensity of radiation on a surface is

inversely proportional to the square of the distance of the surface from the

radiation source and to show that the intensity of radiation varies as the fourth

power of the source temperature. The parameters involved in this experiment

are, distance X (mm), radiometer reading, R (W/m 2), log10 X, and log10 R. The

average values of the radiometer reading, R (W/mm 2) for each of the distances

100 mm, 200 mm, 300 mm, 400 mm, 500 mm, and 600 mm are 169000 mm,

110000 mm, 77500 mm, 56000 mm, 43000 mm, and 39000 mm respectively.

Now, the values of Log10 R can now be obtained. For the values of Log10 X

which are 2.000, 2.301, 2.477, 2.602, 2.699, and 2.778, the respective values of

Log10 R are 5.228, 5.041, 4.889, 4.748, 4.633, and 4.591. A trend graph has

been plotted to demonstrate the inverse square relationship between distance

and radiation intensity. From that, based on the results achieved and the theory

stated, the objectives were achieved which were to show that tile intensity of

radiation on a surface is inversely proportional to the square of the distance of

the surface from the radiation source and to show that the intensity of radiation

varies as the fourth power of the source temperature.

INTRODUCTION

emission of energy in the form of electromagnetic waves. The types of radiation

include, light, heat and sound. The process of emitting those waves is also

referred to as radiation. The set-up is as shown in Figure 1 (Refer to Appendices).

The parameters involved are distance, X (mm), radiometer reading, R (W/m 2),

log10 X, and log10 R.

(Refer to Appendices) will be used to prove and to demonstrate the tile intensity

of radiation on a surface is inversely proportional to the square of the distance of

the surface from the radiation source and to show the intensity of radiation

varies as the fourth power of the source temperature.

The experiment first started by turning on the main switch. Then, the power

control will be set at 250 W. Next, the sensor will be adjusted to the following

respective readings of distance, X which are 100 mm, 200 mm, 300 mm, 400

mm, 500 mm, and 600 mm. After the adjustments have been done, the

radiometer reading (W/m2) for each individual distances can be recorded down.

Another set of readings will be done for the same values of distance, X which are

100 mm, 200 mm, 300 mm, 400 mm, 500 mm, and 600 mm. From what being

mentioned, the average values of radiometer reading, R in (W/m 2) are now

available. In relation to that, the log10 R values will then be calculated and noted

down. A trend graph between radiometer reading, R (W/mm 2) against distance, X

(mm) will be constructed to show the relationship between these two prime

variables by which in turn verifies the inverse square relationship between

distance and the radiation intensity.

THEORY

generation, use, conversion, and exchange of thermal energy and heat between

physical systems. As such, heat transfer is involved in almost every sector of the

economy. Heat transfer is classified into various mechanisms, such as thermal

conduction, thermal convection, thermal radiation, and transfer of energy

by phase changes. Engineers also consider the transfer of mass of differing

chemical species, either cold or hot, to achieve heat transfer. While these

mechanisms have distinct characteristics, they often occur simultaneously in the

same system.

due to the pool of thermal energy in all matter with a temperature above

absolute zero. Thermal radiation propagates without the presence of matter

through the vacuum of space. Thermal radiation is a direct result of the random

movements of atoms and molecules in matter. Since these atoms and molecules

are composed of charged particles (protons and electrons), their movement

results in the emission of electromagnetic radiation, which carries energy away

from the surface.

Radiation from the sun, or solar radiation, can be harvested for heat and

power. Unlike conductive and convective forms of heat transfer, thermal

radiation can be concentrated in a small spot by using reflecting mirrors, which is

exploited in concentrating solar power generation. For example, the sunlight

reflected from mirrors heats the PS10 solar power tower and during the day it

can heat water to 285 C (545 F) [Anonymous A, 2013].

A black body is and is and idealized physical body that absorbs all incident

electromagnetic radiation, regardless of frequency or angle of incidence

in thermal equilibrium (that is, at a constant temperature) emits electromagnetic

radiation called black-body radiation. The radiation is emitted according to

Plancks Law, meaning that it has a spectrum that is determined by the

temperature alone (based on the spectra below), not by the bodys shape or

composition. A black body in thermal equilibrium has two notable properties by

which are an ideal emitter and also a diffuse emitter. An ideal emitter, it emits as

much or more energy at every frequency than any other body at the same

temperature. A diffuse emitter, the energy is radiated isotropically, independent

of direction. Furthermore, due to the black bodys black surface, it naturally has

higher rate of radiation than of the grey body.

enclosure (see below). Any light entering the hole is reflected indefinitely or

absorbed inside and is unlikely to re-emerge, making the hole a nearly perfect

absorber. The radiation confined in such an enclosure may or may not be in

thermal equilibrium, depending upon the nature of the walls and the other

contents of the enclosure.

energy levels. By definition, a black body in thermal equilibrium has an

emissivity of = 1.0. A source with lower emissivity independent of frequency

often is referred to as a grey body. Constructions of black bodies with emissivity

as close to one as possible remains a topic of current interest. A white body is

one with a "rough surface [that] reflects all incident rays completely and

uniformly in all directions." [Anonymous B, 2013].

in terms of an effective temperature, the temperature of a black body that would

emit the same total flux of electromagnetic energy.

Planck Radiation Law

The primary law governing blackbody radiation is the Planck Radiation Law,

which governs the intensity of radiation emitted by unit surface area into a fixed

direction (solid angle) from the blackbody as a function of wavelength for a fixed

temperature. The Planck Law can be expressed through the following equation

below [Anonymous C, 2013].

body Radiation

Black-body radiation is the type of electromagnetic radiation within or

surrounding a body in thermodynamic equilibrium with its environment, or

emitted by a black body (an opaque and non-reflective body) held at constant,

uniform temperature. The radiation has a specific spectrum and intensity that

depends only on the temperature of the body.

physical quantity or intensity is inversely proportional to the square of

the distance from the source of that physical quantity. In relation to the previous

statement, it is verified that the tile intensity of radiation on a surface is

inversely proportional to the square of the distance of the surface from the

radiation source. The formula is as shown below.

law fields with respect to one or more sources is everywhere proportional to the

strength of the local sources, and hence zero outside sources. Newton's law of

universal gravitation follows an inverse-square law, as do the effects

of electric, magnetic, light, sound, and radiation phenomena.

Stefan-Boltzmann Law

thermal radiation incident on it. Such bodies do not reflect light, and therefore

appear black if their temperatures are low enough so as not to be self-luminous.

All blackbodies heated to a given temperature emit thermal radiation.

The radiation energy per unit time from a blackbody is proportional to the

fourth power of the absolute temperature and can be expressed with Stefan-

Boltzmann Law as:

q = T4 A

Where:

Q heat transfer per unit time (W)

5.6703 10-8 (W/m2K4) - The Stefan-Boltzmann

Constant

T absolute temperature Kelvin (K)

A area of the emitting body (m2)

= 5.6703 10-8 (W/m2K4)

= 0.1714 10-8 ( Btu/(h ft2 oR4) )

= 0.119 10-10 ( Btu/(h in2 oR4) )

DISCUSSION

inversely proportional to the square of the distance of the surface from the

radiation source and also to show that the intensity of radiation varies as the

fourth power of the source temperature. The variables involved in this

experiment are distance, X (mm), radiometer reading, R (W/m 2), log10 X, and

log10 R.

First and foremost, the main switch of the radiation heat transfer rig was

turned on for the initialization of the process. Next, the power control was

regulated to 250 W for a constant power flow. After these steps were done, the

system was left for 10 minutes for the system to warm up and stabilized itself for

further experimentations. After enduring patience, the sensor was adjusted to

the first reading of distance, X which is 100 mm. Once the adjustment it

completed, the system was left for 3 minutes so that the readings will stabilize.

Once the period ends, the reading of the radiometer was recorded in (W/m 2). This

method was repeated for the respective readings of 200 mm, 300 mm, 400 mm,

500 mm, and 600 mm in order to acquire and demonstrate various rate of

radiation heat transfer. Another set of readings were done for the same values of

distance, X which are 100 mm, 200 mm, 300 mm, 400 mm, 500 mm, and 600

mm. From what being mentioned, the average values of radiometer reading, R in

(W/m2) can now be obtained. In relation to the noted down values of the average

radiometer reading, R in (W/m2) the log10 R values can now be calculated. Thus,

a log-log plot of radiometer reading, R (W/mm 2) against distance, X (mm) was

generated to present the relationship between these two prime variables by

which verifies the inverse square relationship between distance and the radiation

intensity.

radiometer reading, R (W/mm2) can now be calculated. The average values of the

radiometer reading, R (W/mm2) for each of the distances 100 mm, 200 mm, 300

mm, 400 mm, 500 mm, and 600 mm are 169000 mm, 110000 mm, 77500 mm,

56000 mm, 43000 mm, and 39000 mm respectively. Now, the values of Log10 R

can now be obtained. For the values of Log10 X which are 2.000, 2.301, 2.477,

2.602, 2.699, and 2.778, the respective values of Log10 R are 5.228, 5.041,

4.889, 4.748, 4.633, and 4.591. A trend graph has been plotted to demonstrate

the inverse square relationship between distance and radiation intensity.

Through theoretical research, heat transfer is a discipline of thermal

engineering that concerns the generation, use, conversion, and exchange

of thermal energy and heat between physical systems. Heat transfer is classified

into various mechanisms, such as thermal conduction, thermal

convection, thermal radiation, and transfer of energy by phase changes. In

addition to that, thermal radiation is the energy emitted by matter

as electromagnetic waves, due to the pool of thermal energy in all matter with a

temperature above absolute zero. Thermal radiation propagates without the

presence of matter through the vacuum of space.

physical quantity or intensity is inversely proportional to the square of the

distance from the source of that physical quantity. In relation to the previous

statement, it is verified that the tile intensity of radiation on a surface is

inversely proportional to the square of the distance of the surface from the

radiation source. This theoretical section is widely based on three main principles

which are the Plancks Radiation Law, the Inverse Square Law for Heat and the

Stefan-Boltzmann Law.

There are several possibilities that might have contributed to the errors that

occurred during the experiment. Among those errors is physical errors (caused

by experimenters). The experimenters might not have waited for the readings to

stabilize first and have recorded down the wrong readings, which could lead to

an abnormal trend of results. Not just that, the experimenter may not have

focused well during the experiment and may have recorded down the readings of

the parameter in the field of another parameter. By doing so, it will disrupt the

results, and the trend graphs will not result as expected. Moreover, during the

experimenting process, the experimenters or an unknown source might have

accidentally and unintentionally blocked the bridge of radiation thus causing

abnormality in readings. Other than that, the experimenter may be careless and

accidentally set a higher/lower power supply than it was supposed to thus

resulting in weird and unexpected results. Furthermore, the wires and equipment

may be faulty without anyone realizing. This could lead to unstable readings or

disastrous outcomes.

TREND GRAPH

5.400

5.200

5.000

4.800

Radiometer Reading (Log10 R)

4.600

4.400

4.200

1.800 2.000 2.200 2.400 2.600 2.800 3.000

Distance (Log10 X)

CONCLUSION

In conclusion, a trend graph of radiometer reading against distance was

generated. The trend graph verifies the inverse square relationship between

distance and radiation intensity. Through this experiment, we have learned that

the closer the radiation detector with the heat panel, the higher the radiometer

reading gets. We have also learned that through this experiment, the intensity of

radiation varies as the fourth power of the source temperature as based on the

formula of the Stefan-Boltzmann Law. This experiment of radiation heat transfer

has much relativeness with the Plancks Radiation Law, the Inverse Square Law

for Heat and the Stefan-Boltzmann Law. The results mentioned have very much

supported by the theory stated, thus it can be deduced that the objectives of this

experiment were achieved.

RECOMMENDATIONS

There are steps that can be taken to prevent these types of errors from

occurring. To prevent physical errors (caused by experiments) from occurring,

experimenters have to focus and be patient for the readings to stabilize before

recording any data. Also, work together to record data, and not just be

dependent on just a team member. Next, in order to prevent recording the wrong

data, team members should reconfirm with each other on the results to acquire

the readings which best fit. Besides that, to prevent conducting a slow process,

those who conduct the experiment should read the lab manual prior to

conducting the experiment. Furthermore, even before conducting the

experiment, each team should request assistance from available technicians to

check whether the experiment is faulty or not, to avoid unwanted results.

TUTORIALS

against distance (Log10 X) as shown in the Trend Graph section.

experimental report. Radiometer Sensor Surface Area = 1cm 2

The conversion of the unit meter square to unit millimeter square is done by

multiplying the value of reference with (1000) 2 since the unit needed in

generating the trend graph is in mm 2.

Since, 1 m = 1000 mm

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

0.169 W/m2.

0.169 W/m2 * 1000000 = 169000 W/mm2

0.110 W/m2.

0.110 W/m2 * 1000000 = 110000 W/mm2

0.0775 W/m2.

0.0775 W/m2 * 1000000 = 77500 W/mm2

0.056 W/m2.

0.056 W/m2 * 1000000 = 56000 W/mm2

0.043 W/m2.

0.043 W/m2 * 1000000 = 43000 W/mm2

0.039 W/m2.

1.39 W/m2 * 1000000 = 39000 W/mm2

3. Discuss the factors that affect the radiation heat transfer from the heat

source to the Radiometer (reading).

Temperature - The hotter it is, the more heat radiated.

The colour/surface Black objects radiate and absorb better than white.

REFERENCES

1. [Anonymous A, 2013]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heat_transfer

[3rd November 2013]

2. [Anonymous B, 2013]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_body

[3rd November 2013]

3. [Anonymous C, 2013]

http://csep10.phys.utk.edu/astr162/lect/light/radiation.html

[3rd November 2013]

4. [Steven Holzner, 2013]

http://www.dummies.com/how-to/content/transferring-heat-through-

radiation.html

[3rd November 2013]

5. [Anonymous D, 2013]

http://www.ask.com/question/what-is-the-definition-of-radiation

[3rd November]

6. [Aaron, 2013] http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?

qid=20130609134855AAyaeQI [3 rd November 2013]

APPENDICES

Figure 1

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