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OBJECTIVES

To show that tile intensity of radiation on a surface is inversely proportional to


the square of the distance of the surface from the radiation source.
To show that the intensity of radiation varies as the fourth power of the
source temperature.

SUMMARY
This experiment is all about showing tile intensity of radiation on a surface is
inversely proportional to the square of the distance of the surface from the
radiation source and to show that the intensity of radiation varies as the fourth
power of the source temperature. The parameters involved in this experiment
are, distance X (mm), radiometer reading, R (W/m 2), log10 X, and log10 R. The
average values of the radiometer reading, R (W/mm 2) for each of the distances
100 mm, 200 mm, 300 mm, 400 mm, 500 mm, and 600 mm are 169000 mm,
110000 mm, 77500 mm, 56000 mm, 43000 mm, and 39000 mm respectively.
Now, the values of Log10 R can now be obtained. For the values of Log10 X
which are 2.000, 2.301, 2.477, 2.602, 2.699, and 2.778, the respective values of
Log10 R are 5.228, 5.041, 4.889, 4.748, 4.633, and 4.591. A trend graph has
been plotted to demonstrate the inverse square relationship between distance
and radiation intensity. From that, based on the results achieved and the theory
stated, the objectives were achieved which were to show that tile intensity of
radiation on a surface is inversely proportional to the square of the distance of
the surface from the radiation source and to show that the intensity of radiation
varies as the fourth power of the source temperature.
INTRODUCTION

Radiation is one way to transfer heat. Radiation is the propagation and


emission of energy in the form of electromagnetic waves. The types of radiation
include, light, heat and sound. The process of emitting those waves is also
referred to as radiation. The set-up is as shown in Figure 1 (Refer to Appendices).
The parameters involved are distance, X (mm), radiometer reading, R (W/m 2),
log10 X, and log10 R.

In this experiment, the Radiation Heat Transfer Rig is as shown in Figure 1


(Refer to Appendices) will be used to prove and to demonstrate the tile intensity
of radiation on a surface is inversely proportional to the square of the distance of
the surface from the radiation source and to show the intensity of radiation
varies as the fourth power of the source temperature.

The experiment first started by turning on the main switch. Then, the power
control will be set at 250 W. Next, the sensor will be adjusted to the following
respective readings of distance, X which are 100 mm, 200 mm, 300 mm, 400
mm, 500 mm, and 600 mm. After the adjustments have been done, the
radiometer reading (W/m2) for each individual distances can be recorded down.
Another set of readings will be done for the same values of distance, X which are
100 mm, 200 mm, 300 mm, 400 mm, 500 mm, and 600 mm. From what being
mentioned, the average values of radiometer reading, R in (W/m 2) are now
available. In relation to that, the log10 R values will then be calculated and noted
down. A trend graph between radiometer reading, R (W/mm 2) against distance, X
(mm) will be constructed to show the relationship between these two prime
variables by which in turn verifies the inverse square relationship between
distance and the radiation intensity.
THEORY

Heat transfer is a discipline of thermal engineering that concerns the


generation, use, conversion, and exchange of thermal energy and heat between
physical systems. As such, heat transfer is involved in almost every sector of the
economy. Heat transfer is classified into various mechanisms, such as thermal
conduction, thermal convection, thermal radiation, and transfer of energy
by phase changes. Engineers also consider the transfer of mass of differing
chemical species, either cold or hot, to achieve heat transfer. While these
mechanisms have distinct characteristics, they often occur simultaneously in the
same system.

Thermal radiation is the energy emitted by matter as electromagnetic waves,


due to the pool of thermal energy in all matter with a temperature above
absolute zero. Thermal radiation propagates without the presence of matter
through the vacuum of space. Thermal radiation is a direct result of the random
movements of atoms and molecules in matter. Since these atoms and molecules
are composed of charged particles (protons and electrons), their movement
results in the emission of electromagnetic radiation, which carries energy away
from the surface.

Radiation from the sun, or solar radiation, can be harvested for heat and
power. Unlike conductive and convective forms of heat transfer, thermal
radiation can be concentrated in a small spot by using reflecting mirrors, which is
exploited in concentrating solar power generation. For example, the sunlight
reflected from mirrors heats the PS10 solar power tower and during the day it
can heat water to 285 C (545 F) [Anonymous A, 2013].

A black body is and is and idealized physical body that absorbs all incident
electromagnetic radiation, regardless of frequency or angle of incidence
in thermal equilibrium (that is, at a constant temperature) emits electromagnetic
radiation called black-body radiation. The radiation is emitted according to
Plancks Law, meaning that it has a spectrum that is determined by the
temperature alone (based on the spectra below), not by the bodys shape or
composition. A black body in thermal equilibrium has two notable properties by
which are an ideal emitter and also a diffuse emitter. An ideal emitter, it emits as
much or more energy at every frequency than any other body at the same
temperature. A diffuse emitter, the energy is radiated isotropically, independent
of direction. Furthermore, due to the black bodys black surface, it naturally has
higher rate of radiation than of the grey body.

An approximate realization of a black surface is a hole in the wall of a large


enclosure (see below). Any light entering the hole is reflected indefinitely or
absorbed inside and is unlikely to re-emerge, making the hole a nearly perfect
absorber. The radiation confined in such an enclosure may or may not be in
thermal equilibrium, depending upon the nature of the walls and the other
contents of the enclosure.

Real materials emit energy at a fraction called the emissivity of black-body


energy levels. By definition, a black body in thermal equilibrium has an
emissivity of = 1.0. A source with lower emissivity independent of frequency
often is referred to as a grey body. Constructions of black bodies with emissivity
as close to one as possible remains a topic of current interest. A white body is
one with a "rough surface [that] reflects all incident rays completely and
uniformly in all directions." [Anonymous B, 2013].

In astronomy, the radiation from stars and planets is sometimes characterized


in terms of an effective temperature, the temperature of a black body that would
emit the same total flux of electromagnetic energy.
Planck Radiation Law

The primary law governing blackbody radiation is the Planck Radiation Law,
which governs the intensity of radiation emitted by unit surface area into a fixed
direction (solid angle) from the blackbody as a function of wavelength for a fixed
temperature. The Planck Law can be expressed through the following equation
below [Anonymous C, 2013].

Plancks Law of Black-


body Radiation
Black-body radiation is the type of electromagnetic radiation within or
surrounding a body in thermodynamic equilibrium with its environment, or
emitted by a black body (an opaque and non-reflective body) held at constant,
uniform temperature. The radiation has a specific spectrum and intensity that
depends only on the temperature of the body.

Inverse Square Law of Heat

In physics, an inverse-square law is any physical law stating that a specified


physical quantity or intensity is inversely proportional to the square of
the distance from the source of that physical quantity. In relation to the previous
statement, it is verified that the tile intensity of radiation on a surface is
inversely proportional to the square of the distance of the surface from the
radiation source. The formula is as shown below.

The divergence of a vector field which is the resultant of radial inverse-square


law fields with respect to one or more sources is everywhere proportional to the
strength of the local sources, and hence zero outside sources. Newton's law of
universal gravitation follows an inverse-square law, as do the effects
of electric, magnetic, light, sound, and radiation phenomena.
Stefan-Boltzmann Law

A black body is a hypothetic body that completely absorbs all wavelengths of


thermal radiation incident on it. Such bodies do not reflect light, and therefore
appear black if their temperatures are low enough so as not to be self-luminous.
All blackbodies heated to a given temperature emit thermal radiation.

The radiation energy per unit time from a blackbody is proportional to the
fourth power of the absolute temperature and can be expressed with Stefan-
Boltzmann Law as:
q = T4 A

Where:
Q heat transfer per unit time (W)
5.6703 10-8 (W/m2K4) - The Stefan-Boltzmann
Constant
T absolute temperature Kelvin (K)
A area of the emitting body (m2)

Imperial Units - The Stefan-Boltzmann Constant


= 5.6703 10-8 (W/m2K4)
= 0.1714 10-8 ( Btu/(h ft2 oR4) )
= 0.119 10-10 ( Btu/(h in2 oR4) )
DISCUSSION

This experiment is all about showing the intensity of radiation on a surface is


inversely proportional to the square of the distance of the surface from the
radiation source and also to show that the intensity of radiation varies as the
fourth power of the source temperature. The variables involved in this
experiment are distance, X (mm), radiometer reading, R (W/m 2), log10 X, and
log10 R.

First and foremost, the main switch of the radiation heat transfer rig was
turned on for the initialization of the process. Next, the power control was
regulated to 250 W for a constant power flow. After these steps were done, the
system was left for 10 minutes for the system to warm up and stabilized itself for
further experimentations. After enduring patience, the sensor was adjusted to
the first reading of distance, X which is 100 mm. Once the adjustment it
completed, the system was left for 3 minutes so that the readings will stabilize.
Once the period ends, the reading of the radiometer was recorded in (W/m 2). This
method was repeated for the respective readings of 200 mm, 300 mm, 400 mm,
500 mm, and 600 mm in order to acquire and demonstrate various rate of
radiation heat transfer. Another set of readings were done for the same values of
distance, X which are 100 mm, 200 mm, 300 mm, 400 mm, 500 mm, and 600
mm. From what being mentioned, the average values of radiometer reading, R in
(W/m2) can now be obtained. In relation to the noted down values of the average
radiometer reading, R in (W/m2) the log10 R values can now be calculated. Thus,
a log-log plot of radiometer reading, R (W/mm 2) against distance, X (mm) was
generated to present the relationship between these two prime variables by
which verifies the inverse square relationship between distance and the radiation
intensity.

Based on the radiometer readings, R acquired, the average values of the


radiometer reading, R (W/mm2) can now be calculated. The average values of the
radiometer reading, R (W/mm2) for each of the distances 100 mm, 200 mm, 300
mm, 400 mm, 500 mm, and 600 mm are 169000 mm, 110000 mm, 77500 mm,
56000 mm, 43000 mm, and 39000 mm respectively. Now, the values of Log10 R
can now be obtained. For the values of Log10 X which are 2.000, 2.301, 2.477,
2.602, 2.699, and 2.778, the respective values of Log10 R are 5.228, 5.041,
4.889, 4.748, 4.633, and 4.591. A trend graph has been plotted to demonstrate
the inverse square relationship between distance and radiation intensity.
Through theoretical research, heat transfer is a discipline of thermal
engineering that concerns the generation, use, conversion, and exchange
of thermal energy and heat between physical systems. Heat transfer is classified
into various mechanisms, such as thermal conduction, thermal
convection, thermal radiation, and transfer of energy by phase changes. In
addition to that, thermal radiation is the energy emitted by matter
as electromagnetic waves, due to the pool of thermal energy in all matter with a
temperature above absolute zero. Thermal radiation propagates without the
presence of matter through the vacuum of space.

In physics, an inverse-square law is any physical law stating that a specified


physical quantity or intensity is inversely proportional to the square of the
distance from the source of that physical quantity. In relation to the previous
statement, it is verified that the tile intensity of radiation on a surface is
inversely proportional to the square of the distance of the surface from the
radiation source. This theoretical section is widely based on three main principles
which are the Plancks Radiation Law, the Inverse Square Law for Heat and the
Stefan-Boltzmann Law.

There are several possibilities that might have contributed to the errors that
occurred during the experiment. Among those errors is physical errors (caused
by experimenters). The experimenters might not have waited for the readings to
stabilize first and have recorded down the wrong readings, which could lead to
an abnormal trend of results. Not just that, the experimenter may not have
focused well during the experiment and may have recorded down the readings of
the parameter in the field of another parameter. By doing so, it will disrupt the
results, and the trend graphs will not result as expected. Moreover, during the
experimenting process, the experimenters or an unknown source might have
accidentally and unintentionally blocked the bridge of radiation thus causing
abnormality in readings. Other than that, the experimenter may be careless and
accidentally set a higher/lower power supply than it was supposed to thus
resulting in weird and unexpected results. Furthermore, the wires and equipment
may be faulty without anyone realizing. This could lead to unstable readings or
disastrous outcomes.
TREND GRAPH

Trend graph between Radiometer Reading (Log10 R) against Distance (Log10 X)


5.400

5.200

5.000

4.800
Radiometer Reading (Log10 R)
4.600

4.400

4.200
1.800 2.000 2.200 2.400 2.600 2.800 3.000

Distance (Log10 X)
CONCLUSION
In conclusion, a trend graph of radiometer reading against distance was
generated. The trend graph verifies the inverse square relationship between
distance and radiation intensity. Through this experiment, we have learned that
the closer the radiation detector with the heat panel, the higher the radiometer
reading gets. We have also learned that through this experiment, the intensity of
radiation varies as the fourth power of the source temperature as based on the
formula of the Stefan-Boltzmann Law. This experiment of radiation heat transfer
has much relativeness with the Plancks Radiation Law, the Inverse Square Law
for Heat and the Stefan-Boltzmann Law. The results mentioned have very much
supported by the theory stated, thus it can be deduced that the objectives of this
experiment were achieved.

RECOMMENDATIONS
There are steps that can be taken to prevent these types of errors from
occurring. To prevent physical errors (caused by experiments) from occurring,
experimenters have to focus and be patient for the readings to stabilize before
recording any data. Also, work together to record data, and not just be
dependent on just a team member. Next, in order to prevent recording the wrong
data, team members should reconfirm with each other on the results to acquire
the readings which best fit. Besides that, to prevent conducting a slow process,
those who conduct the experiment should read the lab manual prior to
conducting the experiment. Furthermore, even before conducting the
experiment, each team should request assistance from available technicians to
check whether the experiment is faulty or not, to avoid unwanted results.
TUTORIALS

1. A trend graph has been plotted between radiometer reading (Log10 R)


against distance (Log10 X) as shown in the Trend Graph section.

2. Show the Radiometer Reading R (W/m2) calculation in Appendix of your


experimental report. Radiometer Sensor Surface Area = 1cm 2

The conversion of the unit meter square to unit millimeter square is done by
multiplying the value of reference with (1000) 2 since the unit needed in
generating the trend graph is in mm 2.

Since, 1 m = 1000 mm

Then, 1 m2 = (1000)2 mm2 or 1000000 mm2

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

The average radiometer reading, R (W/m2) for the distance of 100 mm is


0.169 W/m2.
0.169 W/m2 * 1000000 = 169000 W/mm2

The average radiometer reading, R (W/m2) for the distance of 200 mm is


0.110 W/m2.
0.110 W/m2 * 1000000 = 110000 W/mm2

The average radiometer reading, R (W/m2) for the distance of 300 mm is


0.0775 W/m2.
0.0775 W/m2 * 1000000 = 77500 W/mm2

The average radiometer reading, R (W/m2) for the distance of 400 mm is


0.056 W/m2.
0.056 W/m2 * 1000000 = 56000 W/mm2

The average radiometer reading, R (W/m2) for the distance of 500 mm is


0.043 W/m2.
0.043 W/m2 * 1000000 = 43000 W/mm2

The average radiometer reading, R (W/m2) for the distance of 600 mm is


0.039 W/m2.
1.39 W/m2 * 1000000 = 39000 W/mm2

3. Discuss the factors that affect the radiation heat transfer from the heat
source to the Radiometer (reading).
Temperature - The hotter it is, the more heat radiated.
The colour/surface Black objects radiate and absorb better than white.
REFERENCES

1. [Anonymous A, 2013]
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heat_transfer
[3rd November 2013]
2. [Anonymous B, 2013]
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_body
[3rd November 2013]
3. [Anonymous C, 2013]
http://csep10.phys.utk.edu/astr162/lect/light/radiation.html
[3rd November 2013]
4. [Steven Holzner, 2013]
http://www.dummies.com/how-to/content/transferring-heat-through-
radiation.html
[3rd November 2013]
5. [Anonymous D, 2013]
http://www.ask.com/question/what-is-the-definition-of-radiation
[3rd November]
6. [Aaron, 2013] http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?
qid=20130609134855AAyaeQI [3 rd November 2013]
APPENDICES

Figure 1