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There are three reason why solar energy generation has not developed more

rapidly. First, the cost per watt of solar cell generation is more expensive than that
steam power or nuclear power generation. Therefore, researchers are still looking
for ways to make solar cells cheaper, second, nature plays a large part in solar cell
generation. For example, some days are cloud and rainy, because there is not
always fine weather, solar energy cannot be generated every day. No solar energy
is generated at night. Consequently, solar cells must have the capacity to store
energy for use during these times and these storage cells are very expensive. As a
result, only in low latitude areas can enough solar energy be generated effectively
at these times. Finally, building plants for solar cell generation is extremely
expensive. A very large space is need, and the need for maintenance is constant. To
illustrate, the surface of the solar cell plant has to be cleaned daily.

For all these reasons, it is very difficult to develop solar cell plants and make solar
cell energy available to the general public for a competitive price. Despite all these
problems, we believe that day will come when we use solar energy cells because
they are a form of clean energy with no pollution

1. The text describes...of the slow development solar cell energy


a. The process
b. The causes
c. The purposes
d. The benefit and harm
e. The condition
2. Effort have been made to develop solar cell energy because
a. It can be generated anytime
b. It is reversible
c. It is easy to generate
d. It does not cause any pollution
e. It is not costly
3. Which of the following statement is true about solar cell
a. Great progress has beEn made in the development of solar cell energy
b. Solar cells can generate and store energy during THE night
c. Unlike solar cell energy, nuclear energy is more expensive to generate
d. Producing solar energy is quite a profitable business nowAdays
e. Generating solar cell energy greatly depend on the condition of
the weather
4. The development of solar cell energy for public use has been rather slow due
to the following, except..
a. The nature of solar energy itself
b. The high cost of production
c. The condition of nature
d. The high construction costs of the plant
e. The daily maintenance of the plant
5. The author expects that...
a. Effort to develop solar cell energy will be stopped immediately
b. Nuclear power will be a better energy alternative
c. Solar energy will become popular among consumers
d. The generation of solar cell can be DONE in lower altitude area
e. Solar energy will remain difficult to develop

Computers are relatively new invention. The first computers were built sixty years
ago and it is only in the last thirty years that their influence has affected our
everyday life. Personal computers were introduced as recently in this short time
they have made a tremendous impact on our life. We are now so dependent on
computers that it is hard to imagine what things would be like today without them.
You have only got to go into a bank when their main computer is broken to
understand the chaos that occur if computers were suddenly removed worldwide

In the future, computers will be used to create bigger and even more sophisticated
computers. The prosfect for this are quite alarming. They will be complex that no
individual could hope to understand how they work. They will bring a lot of benefits
but they will also inercase the potential for unmergable charts. They will be, for
example, be able to fly planes and they will be able to coordinate the movements of
several planes around the airport. Providing all computers are working correctly
nothing can go wrong, but if one program fails, there will be a disaster.

There is no doubt that technology will progress and become increasingly complex.
However, ensure that we are still in a position where we are able to control
technology. It will be able too easy to suddenly discover that technology Is
controlling us. By then it might be too late. I believe that is very important to be
suspicious of the benefits that computers will bring and to make sure that we never
become totally dependent on a completely technological world.

6. From the text above we may conclude that the author...


a. tries to warn us not to be too dependent on computers
b. emphasizes the importance of developing future computers
c. believes computers will make peoples lives more computers
d. reminds us about the threat of computers in the past
e. persuades us to make use of computers in our jobs
7. Peoples current dependent on computers is unamplified by..
a. The influence of computers on our lives for the last thirty years
b. The introduction of computers in the nineteen-fifteens
c. The chaos which took place when computers were removed
d. The disorder at home when the main computer is broken
e. The unimaginable things that may occur on an airport
8. Future computers are predicated to....
a. Be so complex that their prospect will be quite promising
b. Bring great benefits as well as unexpected harm to peoples lives
c. Bring great benefits to the transportation history
d. Make many small programs cause big disasters
e. Be able to coordinate the traffic of planes all over the world
9. Although computers will become more sophisticated...
a. Human beings will be entirely be dependent on them
b. It is difficult for individuals to understand them
c. Technology tend to control human beings
d. There is no doubt that they bring a lot of benefits
e. Human beings should have control over them
10.A suitable title for the text is...
a. The historical background of future computers
b. The unimaginable chaos caused by computers
c. The potential of future computers
d. The control over advanced technology
e. The rapid progress on technology

PORTABLE GENERATOR

Although most electricity comes from power stasions, power can also be generated
by far smaller means. Nowadays, electricity generators can be small enough to hold
in the hand. Portable generators are made up of two main parts; an engine, which
powers the equipment, and an alternator, which converts motion into electricity. The
engine runs on petrol. It is started by pulling a cord. This creates a spark inside
which ignites the fuel mixture.

In a typical four-stroke engine, when the piston descends, the air inlet valve opens
and a mixture of air and petrol is sucked in through a carburetor. The valve closes,
the piston rises on the compression stroke and a spark within the upper chamber
ignites the mixture. This mini-explosion pushes the piston backdown, and as it rises
again the fumes formed by the ignition are forced out through the exhaust valve.

This cycle is repeated many times per second. The moving piston makes the
crankshaft rotate at great speed. The crankshaft extends directly to an alternator,
which consists of two main sets of windings-coils of insulated cooper wire wound
closely around an iron core. On set, called stator windings, is in a fixed position and
shaped like a broad ring. The other set, the armature windings, is wound on the
rotor which is fixed to the rotating crankshaft. The rotor makes about 3.000
revolutions per minute.

The rotor is magnetized and as it spins round, electricity is generated in the stator
windings through the process of electromagnetic induction. The electric current is
fed to the output terminals or sockets. This type of generator can produce a 700
watt output, enough to operate lights, television, and some domestic appliances.
Larger versions provide emergency power to hospital and factories

11.The word motion in sentence 3 is closest in meaning to...


a. Position
b. Emotion
c. Stagnation
d. Movement
e. immobility
12.What should people do when they want to start the engine of the portable
generator..
a. They have to push the cord and light the fuel
b. They have to mix the fuel and pull the engine
c. They have to fill out the fuel and push the cord
d. They have to light the fuel and push the engine
e. They have to fill in the fuel and pull the cord
13.The word ignite in sentence 6 could be best replaced by the word....
a. Extinguish
b. Flaming
c. Ignition
d. Force
e. burn
14.The word descend in sentence 7 is closest in meaning to the following words
expect...
a. Move down
b. Gravitate
c. Tumble
d. Detrain
e. Rise up
15.What does the word it in sentence 9 refers to...
a. The mini explosion
b. The compression
c. The mixture
d. The piston
e. The valve
16.What is the function of the crankshaft...
a. To create spark
b. To rotate the rotor
c. To spin stator windings
d. To generate electric current
e. To operate home appliance
17.What is the significant difference between stator windings and rotor...
a. The stator is fixed while the rotor generates electricity
b. The stator generates electricity while the rotor is fixed
c. The stator is fixed while the rotor rotates
d. The stator rotates while the rotor is fixed
e. None of the above
18.In a typical portable generator, the rotor windings.....to the crankshaft
a. Attach
b. Are attached
c. Are attaching
d. Were attached
e. Had been attached
19.What will happen once the electric current is supplied to the selected output
terminals?
a. The engine will run automatically
b. The electric current will be generated
c. The crankshaft and alternator will be rotated
d. Power in the form of watt output will be produced
e. Lights, fridge, and other appliances will be turned off
20.According to the passage, power station.......most electricity
a. Supply
b. Supplied
c. Will supply
d. Are supplied
e. Were supplying

GAS CENTRAL HEATING

Most gas central heating works on the wet system of heat transfer between water
flowing through pipes. A typical system includes a boiler, a network of pipes, a feed,
an expansion tank, radiators, and a hot storage system.

In conventional boilers, water is heated by gas burners. It is then pumped around


the central heating system and the hot water storage cylinder. The flow of gas to
the burner is controlled by a valve (or valves) which can be operated by a time
switch or by a boiler thermostat, hot water cylinder thermostat, or by a thermostat
located in one of the rooms. Air is necessary for complete combustion and is
supplied to the burners either from inside the house, when adequate ventilation
must be ensured, or directly from outside through a balanced flue.

Water is circulated through a heat exchanger above the burner the heat exchanger
is made of tubes of cast ........both types to increase the surface area ..........which
improves the transfer of heat. A thermostat located in the boiler causes the gas
control valve to shut off when the water temperature reaches the pre-set level..

After being pumped through a diverter or priority valve, water circulates around
either one of two loops of pipework, which act as heat exchanges..one loop passes
through the inside of the hot water storage cylinder in a coil arrangement. Heat is
transferred to the surrounding water, which can then be drawn off from this cylinder
from various hot taps in the house when required. The loop then returns to the
boiler for re-heating.

The other loop of the circuit passes to the the radiators, which provide room
heating... several radiators are generally connected, where one pipe provides the
hot water input and the other carries the cold water back to the boiler...in this way,
all radiators receive hot water directly from the boiler....

21.What does the word it in sentence 4 refers to??


a. Conventional boiler
b. Gas burner
c. Water
d. Pipe
e. gas
22.The word flow in sentence 5 is closest in meaning to...
a. Breeze
b. Progress
c. blockage
23.All of the following words have closest synonym to the words is circulated in
sentence 7 EXCEPT
a. Is passed from place to place
b. Is moved in a circle
c. Is distributed
d. Is assembled
e. No of the above
24.What can improve the transfer of heat...
A. Surface area
B. Cast iron
C. Copper
D. Water
E. fins