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com Eduin은 "Education + Design"으로 고객의 발전과 교육적 목적 달성에 적합한 교육 컨텐츠를 개발하고 설계함으로써 세계를 무대로 학생과 기업인의 전진과 발전을 지향하여 글로벌 리더로 만듭니다. 에듀인에서 지구촌을 경험해 보시기 바랍니다. 에듀인은 더욱 편리하고, 재미있는 영어 듣고 말하기를 위해 지속 노력 발전해 나가겠습니다.

Fun English Training 즐거운 영어 회화 에듀인 지음 홈페이지 www.eduinto.com 주 팩 소 : 서울시 양천구 목1동 현대하이페리온Ⅱ 206-3901 스 : 02)2640-0670 대표전화 : 02)745-7333 허가없이 이 교재의 일부 또는 전부를 무단 복제 전재 발췌 할 수 없습니다. (주)에듀인애스크

현대는 지구촌의 많은 사람들이 이룩해 놓은 그 무엇들을 먼저 찾고 공유하는 정보 경쟁시대입니다. 그래서 반드시 영어가 필요한 시대이기도 합니다.

우리는 영어 공부는 하고자 노력은 하지만, 바쁜 생활 속에서 영어를 듣고 말할 기회를 갖기는 쉽지 않습니다. 에듀인은 전화와 화상 솔루션을 통하여 한국에서 영어를 듣고 말할 수 있도록 해 드리고 있습니다. 에듀인에서 지구촌을 경험해보시기 바랍니다.

자! 이제 여유를 갖으시고, 특히 처음 접하시는 회원 분들께서는 발음.단어.문장 등 잘못하지 않을까 긴장하고 걱정하지 마세요!! 틀리면 어떻습니까? 원어민이 아닌 이상 틀릴 수 있는 것이 정상입니다.

문화를 이해하고 즐긴다는 생각으로 도전해보시기 바랍니다. 에듀인은 더욱 편리하고, 재미있는 영어 듣고 말하기를 위해 지속 노력 발전해 나가겠습니다.

Contents
Lesson 1 I spent money on shopping 나는 쇼핑에 돈을 썼다 Lesson 2 It is easy to take care of Lesson 3 It was big and large Lesson 4 How do I say 'sorry'? Lesson 5 It's Halloween day! Lesson 6 Joy is taller than Miggy Lesson 7 I've been waiting patiently Lesson 8 I always speak my mind Lesson 9 I often go to a park Lesson 10 He is a carpenter Lesson 11 The tables and chairs are in the class 돌보기가 쉽다 그것은 크고 넓었다 죄송하다고 어떻게 말하나요? 할로윈 데이입니다 죠이는 미기보다 크다 나는 참을성 있게 기다려왔다 나는 항상 내마음과 얘기한다 나는 종종 공원에 간다 그는 목수이다 책상과 의자는 교실안에 있다 제인은 선생님이 되었다 그들은 내 방을 칠했다 그것을 말해 주었을 것이다 복습

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․․․․․․․․․․ 13 ․․․․․․․․․․ 21 ․․․․․․․․․․ 27 ․․․․․․․․․․ 35 ․․․․․․․․․․ 39 ․․․․․․․․․․ 45 ․․․․․․․․․․ 52 ․․․․․․․․․․ 55 ․․․․․․․․․․ 62 ․․․․․․․․․․ 69 ․․․․․․․․․․ 74 ․․․․․․․․․․ 79 ․․․․․․․․․․ 83

Lesson 12 Jane became a teacher Lesson 13 They painted my room Lesson 14 I would have told him that

If I could have found him, 그를 볼 수 있었다면, 그에게

Lesson 15 Review

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Lesson 1 (나는 쇼핑에 돈을 썼다) Candy : Hi Sandra! Did you know there was a big sale at the mall today? Sandra : Yes. I did. In fact I just came back from the sale. Candy : Were you able to buy a lot of things? Sandra : Yes. I spent all my money and bought a lot of things. Candy : Tell me what things you bought? Sandra : Let's see…. I bought four silk blouses, two skirts and a pair of stockings. They are such vivid colors. Candy : Is there also a sale on men's clothing? I want to buy my husband some new clothes. Sandra : Yes there is. What kind of things are you looking for? Candy : Well, my husband needs a new jacket, ear muffs, gloves and a scarf. We are going on a skiing trip so he needs new warm clothes. Sandra : Wow! That sounds exciting. You better hurry before the mall closes.

Exercise A: Why does Candy need to buy new clothes for her husband? B: _________________________________________. A: What did Sandra buy? B: _________________________________________. A: Is there a sale on men's clothing? B: _________________________________________. A: Where is the sale? B: _________________________________________. A: Why does Candy need to hurry? B: _________________________________________.

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About me A: Have you ever attended a sale? B: _________________________________________. A: What things did you buy at the sale? B: _________________________________________. A: Do you like going to sales? Why? B: _________________________________________. A: Are sales common in your area? B: _________________________________________. A: What times of the year are there sales in your country? B: _________________________________________.

Exercise 1

loafers pumps footwear stilettos moccasins ballet shoes flats

boots rubber shoes sneakers espadrilles Mary Janes platform shoes

mules flip flops sandals aqua shoes clogs

Fill in the blanks. 1. I need to wear ____________ while I'm at the beach. 2. My ____________ is colored blue. 3. Each time I go to the mountain I wear ______________.

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Exercise 2

necklace accessories bracelet cuff links

earrings / studs bangle tie clip

umbrella cane

Fill in the blanks. 1. I put on a ____________ when I go on a date. 2. My father needs a ____________ when he walks. 3. She brings an ______________ when its cloudy.

Exercise 3

cotton textiles / fabrics polyester silk

wool rayon linen

nylon ramie corduroy

Fill in the blanks. 1. To keep me warm my ____________ coat is all I need. 2. The ____________ fabric is made by an insect. 3. ______________ is commonly used in towels.

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Exercise 4

shirt Clothing jacket cap skirt

pants blouse suit socks

hat trousers tank top tuxedo

Fill in the blanks. 1. I wear a ____________ on hot summer days. 2. My ____________ is made of leather. 3. I take off my ____________ when I enter a temple.

Exercise 5

pants blouse Clothes skirt kilt ear muffs

hat trousers bonnetsocks scarf

necktie / bowtie cap jacket suit

Fill in the blanks. 1. For formal occasions a ____________ is common for men. 2. During winter I need ____________ to keep my ears warm. 3. A ______________ is also worn by British men.

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Lesson 2

(돌보기가 쉽다)

Peter : Hello Eddy, how are you today? Eddy : I'm feeling great Peter thank you. Guess what? I went to the pet shop today and I bought a Germen Shepard. Peter : Wow! That's a big dog! But I don't like dogs I prefer cats. Eddy : Why don't you like dogs? Peter : When I was young I was bitten by a dog so I am scared of them now. And cats are much easier to take care of. Eddy : I prefer dogs over cats because dogs are very loyal and you can get exercise when you take them for walks. Peter : That's true but I think dogs are too expensive to take care of. Eddy : Well cats are too independent for my liking.

Exercise A: What kind of dog did Eddy buy? B: _________________________________________. A: Who prefers cats? B: _________________________________________. A: Why does Peter prefer cats? B: _________________________________________. A: Why does Eddy like dogs? B: _________________________________________. A: Why is Peter scared of dogs? B: _________________________________________.

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About me A: Do you prefer a dog or a cat and why? B: _________________________________________. A: Have you ever been bitten by a dog or scratched by a cat? B: _________________________________________. A: What is your favorite pet and why? B: _________________________________________. A: Do you have any pets? B: _________________________________________. A: Why do you think people like to keep pets? B: _________________________________________.

Exercise 1

guinea pig mouse

rabbit dog

pigeon parrot

python turtle

spider beetle

Fill in the blanks. 1. I wish I could have a/an ____________ for a pet. 2. My baby sister is scared of ____________ (plural form). 3. My science teacher says a/an ______________ is very noisy.

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Conversation 1 Kenneth : Mom, I need to buy some school supplies before school opens on Monday. Emee : Alright. We will go to the bookstore after lunch. What do you need to buy anyway? Kenneth : I need a pens, notebooks and pencils for almost all my subjects. I also need oil paint and a palette for my art class. Emee : Are you sure that's all you need? I don't want to go back to the bookstore tomorrow if you forgot anything. Kenneth : Hmmm….. Oh! I also need to get a pad of paper and a marker. A new paintbrush would also be great. Emee : Now, are you sure that's all? Kenneth : Yup! I'm sure that's all. Thanks mom.

Exercise A: Where did Kenneth want to go? B: _________________________________________. A: What time were Kenneth and Emee going to the bookstore? B: _________________________________________. A: What items did Kenneth need for almost all of his subjects? B: _________________________________________. A: What items did Kenneth need for his art class? B: _________________________________________. A: Who is Emee? B: _________________________________________.

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About me A: Have you ever been to a bookstore? B: _________________________________________. A: What items did you buy the last time you were in a bookstore? B: _________________________________________. A: Is there a bookstore near your house? B: _________________________________________. A: How often do you go to the bookstore? B: _________________________________________. A: Can you name some of the different kinds of paper you use in school? B: _________________________________________.

Exercise 2

pencil oil pastel notebook

crayon sketch pad cardboard

paper corrugated board highlighter

poster board pen

marker oil pastel

Fill in the blanks. 1. My sister uses __________ to make her paintings. 2. I bought a/an ___________ at the art shop because my old one was broken. 3. I use _______________ to highlight important things in my book.

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Conversation 2 Christina : Bong, can you tell me how to get to 23rd street? Bong : Travel East for about four blocks, then turn North for another two blocks. Christina : I'm not really familiar with compass directions. Can you please repeat that. Bong : Oh sorry. Turn right at that corner and travel for four blocks. Then turn left for another two blocks. Okay? By the way, why do you have to go to 23rd street.
rd Christina : I'm meeting my brother at a Korean restaurant on 23 street.

He said it was beside a small book store. Bong : Oh yes, the restaurant is White Castle right? That's located on 23rd street. The book store beside it is called The Bookworm. There's a huge Elm tree in front of White Castle, you can't miss it. Christina : Thank you! Exercise A: Who needed to go to 23rd street? B: _________________________________________. A: Who gave directions to Christina on how to get to 23rd street? B: _________________________________________. A: Why did Christina want to go to 23rd street? B: _________________________________________. A: What is the name of the Korean restaurant? B: _________________________________________. A: What is the name of the book store? B: _________________________________________. About me A: What is your favorite Korean restaurant? B: _________________________________________.

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A: Where is it located? B: _________________________________________. A: Do you have a favorite book store? B: _________________________________________. A: What is your favorite Korean dish? B: _________________________________________. A: Besides Korean restaurants, do you eat at any other restaurants? B: _________________________________________.

Exercise 3

south west

down left

out beyond

under beside

Fill in the blanks. 1. My hometown is ___________ of Seoul. 2. Please take a seat ____________ me. 3. Kindly put my tennis racket ______________.

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Lesson 3

(그것은 크고 넓었다)

Monica : Tomorrow is Kim's birthday, what kind of present will you give her? Ryan: I don't know. I am planning to look for a gift later after I finish fixing my car. It's just a small problem though. I can fix this in 10 minutes. Monica : Well, if you can fix your automobile that fast, I might as well wait for you so that we can buy a present for her together. I want to see if the surf shop is already selling surfboards because I want to give Kim a new surfboard. Ryan: Where is the surf shop located? Is it on the beach? Monica : Yes, you can clearly see the shop when you arrive at the seashore because it has a large sign. Ryan: I think I know that. It is the big red balloon-shaped sign. We'll go there right after I finish this. We will use my father's car instead.

Vocabulary quiet : 조용한, 고요한 silent : 침묵하는 present : (친한사람끼리의)선물 gift : (개인이나 단체에 대한)정식 선물 big : 큰, 넓은 close : 패쇠하다, 닫다 quick : 재빠른, 잽싼 beach : 해변, 물가 car : 차 small : 작은, 얼마 안되는 nap : 겉잠, 낮잠 see : 보다 speak : 이야기하다 huge : 거대한, 막대한 shut : 닫다 fast : 빠른, 고속의 seashore : 해안, 바닷가 automobile : 자동차 little : (모양과 규모가)작은 rest : 휴식, 수면 look : 바라보다 talk : 말하다

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Exercise A: Whose birthday is it tomorrow? B: _________________________________________. A: What is Ryan doing? B: _________________________________________. A: What kind of present does Monica want to give to Kim? B: _________________________________________. A: Where are they going? B: _________________________________________. A: How will they go to the surf shop? B: _________________________________________.

About me A: What kind of present would you like to receive on your birthday? B: _________________________________________. A: Do you enjoy looking for a present for your loved ones? Why/why not? B: _________________________________________. A: Do you find it easy to look for the perfect gift for that special someone? B: _________________________________________. A: What was the best present you ever received? B: _________________________________________. A: Do you think it's better to receive or to give gifts? B: _________________________________________.

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Tips

* synonyms Synonyms are words that have almost the same meaning. Example You just made a big mistake. You just made a huge mistake.

Exercise Read the sentences. Choose the word that is synonymous to the underlined word in the sentence. 1. Cellular phones should be turned into silent mode when watching a movie in a theater. (loud, quiet, turn off) 2. Paolo will give us a ride in his new car. (automobile, jet, bicycle) 3. I wished for a new bicycle for my Christmas present. (today, time, gift) 4. Can I ask for a small favor? (huge, little, giant) 5. I am too tired to play soccer today. I think I should take a nap now. (wake up, rest, play) 6. Don't forget to close the door when you leave the house. (shut, open, slam) 7. Let us see what is going on behind that door. (look at, listen, move)

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8. You should just take a quick shower because we are going to be late for school. (gradual, slow, fast) 9. Ashley talked to her father about her grades in English. (yelled, whispered, spoke) 10. We played Frisbee at the beach yesterday. (ocean, seashore, sand) Conversation Nina : Hi Tony! Do you still remember our assignment in History class? Tony : Hello Nina! I'm sorry I do not remember our assignment. I keep on forgetting things today. Nina : It's a good thing that you bumped into your beautiful friend. I wrote it at the back of my notebook earlier. Here you can take a look at it. Tony : It's right here in front of your notebook, not at the back. Can I copy this first? Nina : Yeah, sure. But make it fast because I'm actually in a hurry. I have to smooth over the problems between Cristina and Rufio. Tony : All right. I will. By the way, thank you Nina. Nina : You're welcome. Vocabulary

friend : 벗, 친구 good : 좋은, 선한 beautiful : 아름다운, 고운 front : 앞, 정면 war : 전쟁, 불화 forget : 잊다, 망각하다 hurry : 허둥지둥, 서두름 rough : 거친, 험악한 fewer : 더 적은 fast : 빠른, 고속의

foe : 적, 원수 evil : 나쁜, 사악한 ugly : 추한, 보기 싫은 back : 뒤, 후면 peace : 평화, 안심 remember : 기억하다, 상기하다 delay : 늦추다, 미루다 smooth : 매끄러운, 부드러운 more : 더 많은 slow : 느린, 더딘

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Exercise A: What class was their assignment for? B: _________________________________________. A: Where did Nina write their assignment? B: _________________________________________. A: Why was Nina in a hurry? B: _________________________________________. Useful Expressions

*smooth over means make something seem better or more pleasant.
'smooth over' 은 무엇인가를 더 좋아보이거나, 기분좋게 만들때 쓰이는 말이다.

Tips

* antonyms Antonyms are words with the opposite meaning. Example I really love spicy food. I really hate spicy food.

hot-cold tall-short

Exercise 1. Match the term on the left to its Antonym on the right. Friend Rough Good Forget Hurry Delay Remember Evil Foe Smooth

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2. Match the term on the left to its Antonym on the right. War Fewer Front Fast Beautiful Back Peace Slow Ugly More

Tips

* homonyms Homonyms are words that have the same pronunciation but different in meaning. Examples I knew they had a new line of products on sale. I ate the eight candies that were in the candy jar.

Exercise Choose the correct word for each sentence. 1. Why did you _____ (break, brake) the rules? 2. You need to step on the _____ (break, brake) because we are going too fast. 3. My uncle _____ (bred, bread) many goats for so many years. 4. Please buy a loaf of _____ (bred, bread) when you go to the supermarket. 5. I need to _____ (buy, by, bye) a new pair of sneakers. 6. Paul passed _____ (buy, by, bye) our store earlier and bought some apples.

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7. I need to say good _____ (buy, by, bye) to my cousin first before we leave. 8. Can you turn off the air condition because I feel _____ (Chile, chili, chilly)? 9. My family is planning to go to _____ (Chile, chili, chilly) this summer. 10. I'm going to plant these _____ (Chile, chili, chilly) seeds in the garden. 11. Have you seen _____ (scene, seen) the movie City of God? 12. If you don't want to make a _____ (scene, seen), you should tone your voices down. 13. Isabel _____ (blew, blue) her chances on winning the contest when she fell on the stage. 14. This is the first time I bought a _____ (blew, blue) shirt.

Vocabulary break : 깨뜨리다, 부수다 bread : 빵 Chile : 칠레 seen : 눈에 보이는 blew : (바람이)불었다 brake : 제동기, 억제 bred : 길렀다, 낳았다 chili : 칠리 고추의 chilly : 차가운, 으스스한

bye : (헤어질때) 안녕 buy : 사다, 구입하다 by : 곁에, 가까이에 scene : 무대 장면, 광경 blue : 푸른, 파란

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Sample Sentences

- You're pushing your car too much. You should step on the brake or your car might break down. - Did you go by the store earlier? I told you to buy a parting gift for your brother. Give it to him when you say your goodbyes. - The wind blew my blue tent that I pitched last night. - Have you seen the last fight scene on the movie "The Matrix"? It was surreal! - Don't you feel chilly when your windows are open? It is very windy here in Chile, we should eat chili peppers. - We had a couple of businesses. We had a bread shop and we also had a farm where-in we bred sheep for their wool.

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Lesson 4

(죄송하다고 어떻게 말하나요? )

“How to say Welcome” Mr. Hong : Hi! Martin welcome to Korea. Martin : Thank you Mr. Hong. It's my pleasure being here. Mr. Hong : How long will you be staying in Korea Martin? Martin : I'm going to stay here for two weeks. Mr. Hong : Shall we go. I want to treat you to dinner. Martin : Thank you so much Mr. Hong that's very kind of you. Mr. Hong : You're welcome Martin.

"Asking for a favor" Roberto : Would you do me a favor? Mark : Why, of course! I can do you a favor. Roberto : I'm afraid we ran out of film and filming starts in two hours. Mark : Well, what can I do then to help? Roberto : I went to the supply room and there wasn't any film there anymore. Would you mind going to the storage building downtown? Mark : I don't know. I am not supposed to leave the premises of the studio. Roberto : Please, I am begging you. I am short of money and i can't leave. The executive producer keeps asking for me. I might get fired if I leave. Mark : Well, are you sure you can't ask any other person around to help? Roberto : I couldn't find anybody else who has a car parked nearby. Mark : Well, alright then. Just leave a message with the storage building custodian so I can pick them up quickly. You know these actors. They sometimes want a quick ride in the limousine.

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“How to Say Thank You” Bill : Ted can you help me? I'm having such a hard time with my math homework. Ted : Ok Bill. You can come to my house tonight. Bill : What time shall I go to your house? Ted : Come early, around 8:00. We'll have dinner before we study. Bill : Thank you so much for helping me.

“How to Say Sorry” Gilbert : Hi honey. I'm home! Emee : Your late!!! You should have been home ten minutes ago. Gilbert : I'm sorry, but I had to drop off Daniel because his car broke down. Emee : You should have called. I was worried sick waiting for you. Gilbert : I'm really sorry, I didn't think ten minutes would be a big deal. It won't happen again. Emee : All right, apology accepted.

“Declining an Offer Politely” Carol : Have a sandwich. Marie : No, thank you. Carol : Please do have some. Marie : No, I'm alright. I can't eat anything at the moment. Carol : Why aren't you eating? Marie : It is because I am trying to lose some weight. Carol : Come on. Try some pie or some tira misu for dessert. Marie : Thank you but I really can't have any. Don't ruin my diet. Carol : Okay then, if you insist. Oh wait… I have to open the door. Someone is knocking. Give me a moment. Marie : Sure, go ahead. Take your time.

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Carol : It was my neighbor. He's having a party at the moment. He's invited us to come over. He even brought some custard cake. You want to try some? Marie : Oh no!

“A Jewish Wedding” So-Young : I'm so excited to see my friend Ruth get married today. Hye-Ran : Really? Isn't she your friend who is Jewish? So-Young : Yes, that's her. Her wedding is in Seoul but it is going to be a real authentic Jewish wedding. They have a rabbi who is flying from a

kibbutz in Tel Aviv just for the wedding.
Hye-Ran : That sounds fascinating! I have only seen a Jewish wedding on television. So-Young : Ruth's fiancé commissioned somebody to make a chuppah for the wedding canopy made of fresh wooden branches tied together with organic rope Hye-Ran : That would really look romantic especially if it would be decorated with lots of white roses. Oh, I can imagine how that would look like now. So-Young : The groom would even have to wear a kind of head ornament or skull cap called a kipa and a symbolic white robe called a kittel. Hye-Ran : Isn't the groom also supposed to break a glass at the end of the wedding? So-Young : Yes, it is customary to break a glass after the ceremony and then the people shouts "Mazaltov" to celebrate the union of the couple. Hye-Ran : Wow! That ceremony sounds very ornate. So-Young : Yes, I agree! It would be an interesting event to witness and document. I am so grateful to Ruth for inviting me to the wedding as she knows I love watching anthropological events. Hye-Ran : You better show me some pictures okay? So-Young : Sure! I will. Now I better go or I will be late.

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Vocabulary wedding : 결혼, 혼례 authentic : 믿을만한, 확실한 fascinating : 황홀케 하는, 매혹적인 anthropological : 인류학 상의 romantic : 낭만주의의

Exercise A: Who is getting married today? B: _________________________________________. A: Where is the wedding going to take place? B: _________________________________________. A: What is a Jewish priest called? B: _________________________________________. A: Who commissioned the chuppah? B: _________________________________________. A: Who did Ruth invite to the wedding? B: _________________________________________.

About me A: Have you ever been to a Jewish wedding? B: _________________________________________. A: Do you wear any special dress in Korean weddings? B: _________________________________________. A: Is there any special ceremony in a Korean wedding? B: _________________________________________.

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A: Do you like attending weddings? Why or why not? B: _________________________________________. A: Are big weddings common in Korea? B: _________________________________________.

"A Catholic Baptism" Kim : Mom, what are we doing here? Mom : Your cousin Julian is about to be baptized. Now hush your mouth, the ceremony is starting already. Kim : But mom I'm curious. Why are they all wearing white clothes? Mom : Because it symbolizes the Church's belief that Baptism sets us free from Original Sin. Kim : Oh...I have another question, why are they holding candles? It's not dark in here. Mom : The baby is going to blow all the candles. It's like a birthday party! Kim : Really?! I want to blow some of the candles! Mom : No Kim, I'm joking. Kim : Mom! Mom : Shhhh...You're attracting attention. Okay, the candle is also a symbol. Your cousin Julian needs the candles to light his way. Kim : What way? To their house? Mom : No, silly! To light the way in his journey through life. Kim : Look Mom, I think Julian is taking a bath. They're pouring water on him. Mom : No, the priest is not giving Julian a bath. Water is also a symbol. Kim : What does water symbolize? Mom : Water is the symbol that we associate with Baptism, representing life, death, cleansing and growth. Kim : Ahh... Mom, I want to be baptized! Mom : You were baptized when you were still an infant. Kim : But I don't remember that. I want to do it again.

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Mom : Okay, that's enough Kim! I think the ceremony is finished. I will go with your aunt and uncle first to take some pictures. You stay put all right? Kim : Yes, Mom. Vocabulary hush : (조용하라는 신호) 쉿! curious : 호기심 있는 symbolize : 상징하다, 나타내다 attention : 주의력, 주의 associate : 연합시키다 ceremony : 의식, 의례 baptism : 세례, 침례, 영세 joking : 농담, 장난 pouring : 따르다, 쏟다 infant : 유아

Exercise A: Why are they all wearing white clothes? B: _________________________________________. A: What are the candles for? B: _________________________________________. A: Why are they pouring water on Julian? B: _________________________________________.

About me A: Were you baptized when you were a child? B: _________________________________________. A: Have you ever attended a Baptismal ceremony B: _________________________________________. A: Describe what happened? B: _________________________________________.

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Lesson 5

(할로윈 데이입니다)

"All Hallow's Eve (Halloween)" Justine : Hello. You're home early. Kendra : Yes, I came home early because I need to go on-line and research a cool Halloween costume. Justine : Really? That sounds exciting. Do you have any idea what you would like to wear? Kendra : Not yet. That's why I am going to look on the net for what possible cool creations and make-up I could find. Justine : Well, I hope you find one that would not be too difficult and expensive to create. Kendra : Me too. I have to work with a tight budget on this or I just might splurge. Justine : You mean like last year? That was a blast though. Kendra : Tell me about it! Last year's costume cost me about two months allowance. Justine : I pray that you won't go overboard again with your expenditures then. Kendra : Yes, I hope so. Justine : We will just wait and see then. Good luck on your costume! Kendra : Thanks a lot! Justine : You're welcome. Vocabulary research : 연구, 조사 blast : 한바탕의 바람, 돌풍 overboard : ~밖으로 costume : 복장, 의상 expenditure : 지출, 소비

Exercise A: Why did Kendra come home early? B: _________________________________________. A: Where does Kendra intend to research her costume? B: _________________________________________.

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A: When did Kendra overspend on her costume? B: _________________________________________. A: How much did her last costume cost? B: _________________________________________.

About me A: When do we celebrate Halloween? B: _________________________________________. A: Why do we wear costumes during Halloween? B: _________________________________________. A: Do you like making or buying your costumes? B: _________________________________________. A: Do you go "trick or treating" in Korea? B: _________________________________________.

“Valentine's Day” Gina : Where are you going to take me this Valentines Day? Roy : I don't know. Gina : Are you telling me you have not thought about where you are taking me? I thought you loved me. Roy : I'm not even sure I can see you on Valentines Day. I have to work. Gina : If you don't take me out I will never speak to you again. Roy : Ok honey I'm sorry I promise we will go to a romantic restaurant. Gina : That's more like it.

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Vocabulary restaurant : 음식점, 레스토랑 promise : 약속, 계약 thought : 생각, 의견, 견해

Exercise A: Why can't Roy take Gina out? B: _________________________________________. A: Where will Roy take Gina? B: _________________________________________. A: When will Roy take Gina out? B: _________________________________________.

About me A: Do you celebrate Valentines Day? B: _________________________________________. A: Where did you go last Valentines Day? B: _________________________________________. A: Did you receive or give a gift on Valentines Day? B: _________________________________________. A: What does Valentines Day mean to you? B: _________________________________________.

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"Meeting a Friend" Rupert : Excuse me, where can I find spark plugs? Francis : They are located in section C, right beside the brake pads. Rupert : All right. Wait, Francis. Is that you? Francis : Yes my name is Francis. Do I know you? Rupert : My name is Rupert. We went to the same academy. Don't you remember? Francis : Oh yeah! You used to go out with that gorgeous blonde right? Rupert : You mean Carmen? We got married last December. So you're also a bike aficionado huh. Francis : Yup. I actually own this store. Do you want to see my collection? I have two Ducati's, a Yamaha R1 and four Harley Davidsons'. Rupert : Wow, that's impressive! I really want to see your collection but I'm in a hurry because I have to run some errands. Hey, why don't we have a drink or two tomorrow? Francis : Sure, why not. By the way, here's my card. If you have any problems regarding your motorcycle, just call or come here to my shop. Rupert : All right. It's nice meeting you again Francis. Francis : You too Rupert. Don't forget your spark plugs.

Vocabulary section : 구역, 구간 gorgeous : 호화로운, 찬란한 collection : 수집, 채집 academy : 협회, 학회 aficionado : 열성가. 애호가

Exercise A: What is Rupert looking for? B: _________________________________________.

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A: Who did Rupert get married to? B: _________________________________________. A: What kind of store are they in? B: _________________________________________. A: What does Francis collect? B: _________________________________________. A: What did Francis give to Rupert? B: _________________________________________.

About me A: Do you own a motorcycle? B: _________________________________________. A: Do you think motorcycles are safe? B: _________________________________________. A: What are the advantages of owning a motorcycle? B: _________________________________________. A: What are the disadvantages of owning a motorcycle? B: _________________________________________.

"Meeting an Officemate/Colleague" Bob : Hello there! Come right in. Have a seat. May I get you anything? Charles : No, thanks. I am good. Bob : Have you heard anything from Andrew lately?

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Charles : Not much. We haven't really been in touch recently. But I have heard something about him though. Bob : Oh really? I heard he has a son now. Charles : Yes, he has. And I heard he is a lot happier now. Bob : That is wonderful! Charles : Yes, he sure to be happy after what he has been through. Bob : Are you sure you wouldn't care for anything? Tea, perhaps? Charles : Oh, I am fine. Thank you just the same. Bob : Okay, suit yourself. May I leave you one moment though? I have to turn off the oven. Charles : No problem. Take your time. I am not much in a hurry anyways. It has been quite a while since we had a chat so I'm excited to catch up. Bob : Okay, I'll leave you for a while but I'll be quick. Charles : Sure. Vocabulary anything : 무언가, 무엇이든 recently : 최근, 바로 얼마 전 wonderful : 훌륭한, 굉장한 deserves : ~할 만하다 moment : 순간, 시기

Exercise A: Who was Bob asking about? B: _________________________________________. A: What did Bob offer Charles? B: _________________________________________. A: Did Charles accept the tea? B: _________________________________________.

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A: What did Bob have to turn off? B: _________________________________________.

About me A: Do you like tea? B: _________________________________________. A: Do you like cooking? B: _________________________________________. A: Do you often chat with your friends? B: _________________________________________. A: What do you often talk about? B: _________________________________________.

"Meeting a Superior" Richard : Good morning Sir. How are you today? Luke : Good morning Richard. Have you finished that report that I asked you for yesterday? Richard : Well Sir, to be honest I'm still working on it because I'm still waiting for some information from the accounting department. Luke : That is unacceptable!!! I have a meeting in thirty minutes and I need that report. Richard : Sir please forgive me. I promise I'll finish it on time. I'll have the report on your desk in twenty minutes. Luke : That's more like it. Make sure this doesn't happen again or you're fired! Richard : Yes sir!

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Vocabulary report : 보고서, 신고서 accounting : 회계학, 회계보고 information : 정보, 지식 unacceptable : 받아들이기 어려운

department : (공공기관 회사등의) 부, 부문

Exercise A: What was unacceptable? B: _________________________________________. A: When will Luke have a meeting? B: _________________________________________. A: In how many minutes did Richard promise Luke that he will finish the report? B: _________________________________________.

About me A: Do you have a nice superior? B: _________________________________________. A: What is it like to have a superior like Luke? B: _________________________________________. A: Did you ever have to rush a report? B: _________________________________________.

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Lesson 6

(죠이는 미기보다 크다)

Francis : Miggy and Joyce seem to be enjoying each other's company. Mel : Yeah, I agree. They have a lot in common. Francis : Like what? Mel : Miggy is as jolly as Joyce. They both like to laugh all the time. Francis : They are the same age right? Mel : Yes, but Joyce is taller than Miggy. Maybe she got her height from her dad. Her dad is a basketball player. Francis : Is she the tallest in their class? Mel : Yes, she is. Francis : They also have their differences.

What is a Adjective? (형용사란 무엇인가?) An ADJECTIVE : A word used to modify or describe a noun or pronoun. It usually answers one of these questions: Which one? What kind of? How many? 형용사는 명사나 대명사를 수식하거나 묘사하는 역할을 한다. 형용사는 주로 “어느것?”,“어떤 종류의?”이나 “얼마나 많이?”의 질문에 답을 한다.

Rules for using adjectives
1. Adjectives that have one or two syllables, just add er, -est. example hard harder hardest light lighter lightest 하나나 두 개의 음절이 있는 형용사에는 ‘er' 이나 ’est'를 더한다. 2. Do not use the double comparison. 이중의 비교급은 쓰지 않는다.

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3. Adjectives that have two syllables and ending in Y, change y to i and add er or est. example lucky - luckier - luckiest happy - happier - happiest lovely - lovelier - loveliest 형용사 중에 두 개의 음절을 가지고 있고, ‘y'로 끝나는 것은, ’y'를 ‘i'로 바꾸고 ’er'이나 ‘est'를 더한다.

4. Adjectives that have two or more syllables but not ending in Y, use MORE or MOST before the adjective. example beautiful more beautiful most beautiful expensive more expensive most expensive 형용사 중에 두 개나 그이상의 음절을 가지고 있지만, ‘y'로 끝나지 않는 것은, 형용사 앞에 ‘more'이나 ‘most’를 더한다.

5. Some adjectives have irregular forms. example good - better - best bad - worse - worst 어떤 형용사는 불규칙한 형태를 가지고 있기도 하다.

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Degrees of Comparison

1. COMPARATIVES - used to compare two things, you can use THAN, or a conjunction like BUT 비교급은 두 가지를 비교할 때 쓰이고, ‘than'이나 접속사 ’but'이 쓰인다. examples a. My sister is taller than me. b. Edwin is tall, but Jerome is taller. 2. SUPERLATIVES - used to compare more that two things. It usually use THE 최상급은 두 가지 이상의 것을 비교할 때 쓰이고, ‘the'가 주로 쓰이다.

Exercise Change the following words to comparative and superlative forms. 1. dangerous 2. weak 3. important 4. small 5. boring 6. funny 7. angry 8. big 9. magnificent _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ ______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________

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10. new 11. handsome 12. delicious 13. clumsy 14. scary 15. strange

_______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________

_______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________

Exercise 1. Sixth Sense is the_________ (scary) movie I've ever seen. 2. That was the _________ (bad) typhoon this year.

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Lesson 7 (나는 참을성 있게 기다리고 있었다) Jacqui : There you are! Where have you been? Walter : I am so sorry to be late. Jacqui : Yes, but where have you been? I have been waiting here patiently. Walter : There was some construction being done on the highway. Everyone's cars were moving sluggishly. Jacqui : Well, you could have called you know. Walter : My phone's battery is not working properly. I have recharged it all night but it seems that it only lasted for a few hours and I have been running errands tenaciously all day. Jacqui : You could have asked to borrow someone else's phone to call me or to send me a message urgently. Walter : I was feeling dazed and confused all afternoon. I have not yet eaten lunch. My stomach is grumbling wildly already. Jacqui : Okay, so would you like to find a restaurant now? Walter : I thought you would have thought of that already. Jacqui : I have been waiting anxiously for you. My mind was not thinking effectively as well. Walter : Alright then. So, what kind of food would you like to eat? Jacqui : I have an earnest craving for pasta. Let's go to an Italian restaurant! Walter : Then let's get inside the car promptly. Jacqui : Let me just get my stuff by the door. Walter : Oh dear! My front tire is flat! What a delightfully taxing day indeed!

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Vocabulary
patiently : 참을성 있게, 끈기 있게 properly : 당연히, 적당하게 urgently : 긴급히, 다급하여 confused : 당황한, 혼란한 anxiously : 마음을 졸이며. 걱정하여 promptly : 신속히, 재빠르게 sluggishly : 게으르게, 나태하게 tenaciously : 완강하게, 집요하게 dazed : 눈부시게, 현혹시키는 wildly : 격렬하게. 사납게 effectively : 유효하게, 효과적으로 delightfully : 매우 기쁘게, 즐겁게

Useful Expressions
running errands 심부름을 가다 배가 몹시 고프다, 위가 소동을 친다

stomach is grumbling a craving for a taxing day

sending a message / sending a text message 메시지를 보내다/문자를 보내다 ~을 열망하다, ~을 갈망하다, ~을 간절히 원하다 세금 내는 날, 돈 내는 날, (뜻하지 않게)돈을 쓰게 되는 날

Exercise A: Why was Walter late? B: _________________________________________. A: What happened to Walter's phone? B: _________________________________________. A: Were they able to leave immediately? B: _________________________________________. A: Have you been late going somewhere before? B: _________________________________________. A: Why were you late? B: _________________________________________.

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A: Did you make somebody get angry at you for being late? B: _________________________________________. A: What should you do to avoid being late? B: _________________________________________.

Definition of Adverbs
An adverb is a word that modifies or gives a description of a verb or a modifier (adjective or another adverb). It is a word that gives more information or details about the word it is describing. Adverbs describe verbs, adjectives and adverbs in terms of such qualities as time, frequency and manner. 부사는 동사나 다른 수식어(형용사나 다른 부사)를 수식하거나, 그에 대해 더 많은 정보를 주는 품사이다. 부사는 묘사를 하고 있는 것에 대해 더 세밀한 정보를 준다. 부사는 시간, 빈도, 양태의 따라 동사, 형용사와 부사를 꾸민다.

Adverbs of Manner (양태의 부사) Adverbs of Manner tell us how something happens. They are usually placed after the main verb or after the object. 양태의 부사는 어떤 것이 어떻게 일어났는지 말해준다. 이것은 주로 문장안의 주요 동사의 뒤나 목적어 뒤에 오게 된다. examples She politely declined the offer of chocolates. He studied diligently for his Math exam last night. Janice sadly said that her puppy ran away this morning. Donald spoke tartly about the new school policies. The tribesmen of Mogadishu traditionally live in clay huts.

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Exercise Rephrase the sentence to include the adverb. example He treated her.(respectfully)

He treated her respectfully.
1. He spoke his speech.(eloquently) _______________________________ 2. Anita met him.(secretly) _______________________________ 3. The boy band Super Junior sings.(wonderfully) _______________________________ 4. The lion is roaring.(loudly) _______________________________ 5. John's sister plays the trumpet.(awfully) _______________________________ 6. Dana hurt her leg in an accident.(badly) _______________________________ 7. The burglars sneaked inside the house.(quietly) _______________________________ 8. The soldier ate his meals.(quickly) _______________________________ 9. Jane took the results of the exam.(sadly) _______________________________

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10. Mr. Hong accepted the reward.(gladly) _______________________________

Adverbs of Time (시간의 부사) Adverbs of Time tell us when an action happened, and the use of this

adverb might affect the verb tenses in a particular clause. Adverbs of time can be classified under three categories : Past, Present and Future
시간의 부사는 언제 행동이나 동작이 일어났는지를 말해주고, 이것은 특정한 문장의 절 안에서 동사의 시제에 영향을 주기도 한다. 시간의 따른 부사는 세 가지의 분류로 나뉜다. 과거, 현재, 미래시제. examples

We played soccer in the field yesterday. They are having a party today. Anna will sing in the auditorium tomorrow.

Exercise Rearrange the words to make a sentence. Place the time expressions at the end of the sentence. example office / early / the / to / came / I

I came to the office early.

1. report / I / immediately / the / need / __________________________________ 2. home / tomorrow / will / I / go __________________________________

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3. today / played / games / computer / Garret __________________________________ 4. ? / you / were / where / yesterday __________________________________ 5. won / award / Jake /recently / the __________________________________ 6. last / the / Adam / finished / marathon __________________________________ 7. study / I / now / can __________________________________ 8. as soon as possible / project / the / submit __________________________________ 9. recently / Mr. Lee / job / his / lost __________________________________ 10. married / last night / got / Steven and Martha __________________________________

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Lesson 8

(나는 항상 내 마음과 얘기한다)

Adverbs of Frequency (빈도의 부사) Adverbs of Frequency indicate approximately how many times something happens. 빈도의 부사는 대략 어떤일이 얼마나 자주 일어나는지 말해준다. Examples

I always speak my mind. He never forgets to exercise. Julie often wonders about the stars. I take a bath daily. The company publishes a fiscal report annually.

Exercise Rephrase the sentence to include the adverb. example I go to Jeju Island.(often)

I often go to Jeju Island.
1. Ryan eats here.(everyday) _______________________________

2. It rains in summer.(never) _______________________________

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3. My dad plays golf on Saturdays.(seldom) _______________________________

4. They go to church every Sunday.(always) _______________________________

5. Rapunzel cuts her hair.(rarely) _______________________________

6. I go to the beach every summer.(usually) _______________________________

7. My dad drinks soju.(occasionally) _______________________________

8. Mother goes to yoga class.(frequently) _______________________________

9. Have you been to Incheon Airport?(ever) _______________________________

10. I eat kimchi jjigae.(sometimes) _______________________________

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Adverbs of Place (장소의 부사) Adverbs of Place tell us where an incident happens or takes place. They are usually placed after the main verb or after the object. 장소의 부사는 어떤 사건이 어디에서 일어났는지 말해준다. 이것은 주로 문장에서 주요 동사나 목적어 뒤에 온다. examples

Birds fly southwards before winter. He bought his coffee there at the corner store. He threw the toy car downstairs.

Exercise Answer the question using the corresponding adverb of place. example Where is the bathroom?(upstairs)

The bathroom is upstairs.
1. Where are the children?(outside) _______________________________

2. Where is the gym?(nearby) _______________________________

3. Where are you going?(somewhere) _______________________________

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4. Where should I place the boxes?(anywhere) _______________________________

5. Where is the bedroom located?(there) _______________________________

6. Where in the zoo are the animals?(inside) _______________________________

7. Where are the students walking?(home) _______________________________ 8. Where is he headed?(nowhere) _______________________________

9. Where are the books?(here) _______________________________

10. Where is the washing machine?(downstairs) _______________________________

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Adverbs of Degree (정도의 부사) Adverbs of Degree tell us about the intensiveness or the degree of a quality (adjectives), or even an adverb itself, (normally adverbs of manner). 정도의 부사는 어떤 강의어(강도나 세기), 질의 정도(형용사), 부사만 으로라도(대부분의 양태의 부사)를 말해준다. examples She had a very big problem last month. I couldn't quite understand what he was saying. Jake almost threw up after riding the roller coaster.

Exercise Complete the sentence with the appropriate adverb. 1. Diana finished the day _________ exhausted. (a bit / totally)

2. Celine Dion is a good singer. She's ___________ fantastic. (absolutely / very)

3. The Petronas Towers in Kuala Lumpur are __________ high. (absolutely / pretty)

4. La Playa de Sol is _______ interesting place. (quite an / a rather)

5. That kid of yours is _________ lazy. (absolutely / extremely)

6. It was _________ cold this morning. (a bit / absolutely)

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7. Jenna, in my opinion, is _______ mad. (completely / highly)

8. Elisha Cuthbert looked gorgeous at the Golden Globe Awards ceremony. (absolutely / totally)

9. Kayla is ______ incompetent. (absolutely / really)

10. Tagaytay is _______ pretty town. (quite a / a rather)

11. The Maldives is ______ small country. (really a / a very)

12. It was _______ simple invention. (quite a / a remarkably)

13. Samantha is a _______ skilled computer analyst. (completely / highly)

14. Sigmund lives ______ care-free life. (quite a / a very)

15. Kim cooks _____ well. (absolutely / fairly)

Exercise Fill the blank with an appropriate adverb. Use a dictionary or thesaurus if necessary. 1. Ben takes a bath _________.

2. It is ______ hot during summer.

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3. The gorilla is locked _________ the cage.

4. My room is located ________.

5. I was dreaming about you __________.

6. This blueberry cheesecake is ___________ delicious!

7. The burglar ran away _______ from the police.

8. I will _______ try to smoke a cigarette.

9. The whole world _______ mourned for the death of The Crocodile Hunter.

10. I did not eat breakfast ________.

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Lesson 9

(나는 종종 공원에 간다)

Anne : Are you coming to the party with us Lucy? Lucy : I'd really love to but I can't. Anne : But you already bought a dress for the party. Lucy : Yes, I know. Yesterday, I was eager and excited to go to the party. I even prepared the things I need. Anne : And now what happened? Lucy : This morning when I woke up, my head was spinning. I have a splitting headache. Anne : Didn't you get enough sleep last night? Lucy : I didn't sleep a wink last night. Anne : Why? Lucy : My boyfriend and I talked all night long. He is taking me to the beach later. Anne : Oh! So, that's why, Vocabulary already : 이미, 벌써 eager : 간절히 바라는 headache : 두통 yesterday : 어제 prepared : 준비가 되어있는

Exercise A: Why isn't Lucy going to the party? B: _________________________________________. A: What did Lucy feel when she woke up in the morning? B: _________________________________________. A: Why didn't Lucy sleep last night? B: _________________________________________.

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A: Where is Lucy's boyfriend taking her? B: _________________________________________. A: What did Lucy buy for the party? B: _________________________________________.

About me A: Do you often go to parties? B: _________________________________________. A: Do you often go to the beach? B: _________________________________________. A: What do you like about going to parties? B: _________________________________________. A: What do you like about going to the beach? B: _________________________________________.

What are Conjunctions? CONJUNCTION - a word that joins other words or parts of a sentence together. 접속사는 단어들을 연결해주거나 한 문장에서 다른 부분들을 함께 연결시켜주는 역할을 한다.

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Kinds of Conjunctions

1. Coordinating conjunctions - for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so example Sharon went to the mall and bought some clothes 2. Correlative conjunctions either. . .or both. . . and neither. . . nor not only. . . but also 3. Conjunctive adverbs example anyway the conjunctive adverb 접속 부사 앞에 ;을 넣고, 접속 부사 뒤에 , 를 넣는다. 4. Subordinating conjunctions after as where example The businessman I met when I was in Italy is here. although when than before until that also finally besides instead

note : Place a semicolon before the conjunctive adverb and a comma after

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Lesson 10

(그는 목수입니다)

Tips *Singular nouns

refer to a unit or quantity.

단수명사는 단위나 양을 나타낸다.

Examples 1) Kindly open the door for me, please.

2)

I saw a kitten up on the roof.

3)

I called for a carpenterto fix the baluster.

4)

It was a tiring day for the workers in the factory.

5)

At the zoo, he was disappointed to see the lion sleeping.

6)

It’s nice to know I’ll always have a friend.

7)

It’s advisable to take the highway when going to the city.

8)

It would make me feel better if you show me a smile.

9)

Would you like to come inside my office?

10)

She gave birth to a beautiful baby.

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Vocabulary kindly : 친절하게, 상냥하게 tiring : 지치게 하는, 지루한 highway : 고속도로, 큰길 inside : 안쪽, 내면 carpenter : 목수, 목공 disappointed : 실망한, 낙담한 advisable : 권할만한, 적당한 beautiful : 아름다운, 고운

Exercise 1) She’s the best _____ in her class. (student /

housewife)

2)

I want to buy a _____ for my son. (bike

/ doll)

3)

I’d rather take the _____ to work. (coffee / train)

4)

Can you please open the _____? (fan / window)

5)

The child ran after her _____ down the street. (dog /

cup)

6)

I can’t seem to find the _____ I need in the library. (bus / book)

7)

He gave her a _____ for their anniversary. (ring /

door) leash)

8)

Martha should put a _____ on that dog. (couch /

9)

The _____ says the attire is strictly formal. (house / invitation)

10)

Mr. Smith refuses to board the _____ unless his wife comes with him. (aircraft

/ runway)

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Tips *Plural nouns

refer to number, amount or individuals. 복수 명사는 숫자나, 양, 개개인을 나타낸다.

Examples 1) Can you get rid of the boxes in the attic?

2)

She took a lot of pictures during her trip.

3)

It’s your turn to wash the dishes.

4)

How many churches are there in this community?

5)

A few companies suffered only minimal losses after the economic crisis.

6)

We reserve our best crystal glasses for special occasions.

7)

The students in our school don’t like wearing uniforms.

8)

They will broadcast the games at these times.

9)

At the concert, the bands played several songs each.

10)

The little children couldn’t wait till Christmas came around.

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Vocabulary attic : 지붕과 천장사이의 공간 suffer : 괴로워하다, 견디다 economic : 경제의, 경제상의 broadcast : 방송하다 community : 사회, 공동체 minimal : 최소의, 극미한 crystal : 수정, 크리스털 concert : 콘서트, 음악회

Exercise Convert the following singular nouns to its plural form.

1) 2)

These __________ (gown) need to be ready in time for the Spring Formal. The Cathedral of Notre Dame is one of the oldest __________ (Church) in the world. I enjoy eating peach _________ (half) with cottage cheese. The __________ (boy) locker room is parallel to the gym for easy access. The children are on the hilltop flying __________ (kite). Salinger is one of the best knife ________ (brand) in the market today. Be sure to stack those _________ (box) before the boss arrives. These ___________ (computer) are so outdated. Label your __________ (key) properly so you don’t lose any. Count your ___________ (penny) before you take them to the bank for depositing.

3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10)

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Rules on how to make nouns plural :

1. For most nouns, just add the letter S. examples: bats, horses, labels 대부분의 명사들은 간단하게 ‘s'를 더한다. 2. If a noun ends with the letters S, CH, SH, X or Z, just add ES. examples: buses, churches, waxes 명사가 s, ch, sh, x 나 z로 끝날 때는, ‘es'를 더한다. 3. If a noun ends with the letters F or FE, change the F to a V and then add ES. examples: scarves, leaves 명사가 f나 fe로 끝날 때는, ‘f'를 ’v'로 바꾸고, ‘es'를 더한다. 4. If a noun ends with a vowel and a Y, add the letter S. examples: boys, toys, buoys 명사가 모음으로 끝나고 ‘y'로 끝날 때는, ’s'를 더한다. 5. If a nouns ends with a consonant and a Y, drop the letter Y and add IES. examples: nannies, pennies 명사가 자음으로 끝나고 ‘y'로 끝날 때는, ’y'를 떨어뜨리고 ‘ies'를 더한다.

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Tips *Collective nouns (집합 명사)

are names for groups of people, animals, or things. 집합 명사는 사람의 그룹이나, 동물, 물건들의 이름을 나타낸다.

Examples 1) The Italian team was welcomed in the Winner’s Circle after the World Cup Finals of 2006. 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) My family goes to the Hamptons every spring break. The committee ruled against the union’s demands. The shepherd led the herd back to the pen. The flock of geese you saw yesterday was heading south for the winter. The band started playing "The Way You Look Tonight"as the new groom led his lovely wife to the dance floor. This is the most unruly class I have ever handled in all my years of teaching. The staff at summer camp is trained lifeguards so there is no need to worry. The ant colony swarmed out of the broken ant farm case.

7)

8)

9)

Vocabulary demand : 요구하다. 청구하다 yesterday : 어제, 전날 unruly : 감당할 수 없는 swarmed : 떼를 지은 shepherd : 양치는 사람 lovely : 사랑스러운, 귀여운 lifeguard : 구조원, 경호원 detention : 붙들림, 저지

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Exercise Choose the best word to complete the sentence.

1)

The Three Musketeers are one of the most famous (herds / trios) in history.

2)

The (staffs / bands) rendition of ‘Baby I Love Your Way’is a blend of reggae and R&B. Lauren Hill first started singing in the Church (bundle / choir). Of the original Rat (orchestra / pack), I like Frank Sinatra the best. The (class / swarm) of bees attacked the poor boy. A (clump / bunch) of us will go down to the beach tomorrow. The (pod / audience) gave the production a standing ovation. I observed a (jury / school) of clown fish swimming past that coral over there. The Lawn Tennis (crew / team) garnered a total of 2 trophies, 2 gold medals and 5 bronze medals for this school year. The (committee / stack) of papers on my desk are missing; the maid must have mistaken it for trash!

3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8)

9)

10)

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Lesson 11 (책상과 의자는 교실 안에 있다)

Tips *Countable nouns (가산명사)

name individual people or things. 가산 명사는 개개인의 사람이나 물건들의 이름을 나타낼 때 쓰인다.

Examples 1) 2) The girl crossed the street and ran into that building.

People today are faced with numerous social problems, the biggest of
which is racism. The food items on sale are most likely near the expiry date already.

3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10)

Eggs are classified into organic, one yolk, and two yolks.
The trees in the park were uprooted during the storm. The tables and chairs we have aren’t enough for the party. The students are not prepared for the quiz today. Sandra went out with her friends last night. Feel free to grab a snack from the refrigerator. She checked her answering machine for messages.

Vocabulary building : 건축, 건물 social : 사회적인, likely : 있음직한, ~할 것 같은 classified : 분류된, 구분된 prepared : 준비가 되어있는 numerous : 다수의, 수많은 racism : 인종 차별주의 expiry : 소멸, 종료, 만기 uprooted : 뿌리째 뽑은 refrigerator : 냉장고, 냉동장치

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Exercise Choose the best word from the box to complete the sentence. clues shows professor clothes essays newspaper land materials butler pocketbooks

1)

There is not much _______ available for a new football field.

2)

How many _______ did you pack for the trip?

3)

I am a _______ at Harvard University.

4)

His _______ told me he wasn’t home.

5)

You can buy these _______ at the bookstore.

6)

I read about the accident in the _______.

7)

Are there any good _______ on TV tonight?

8)

I can’t go out tonight; I have so many _______ to write.

9)

I don’t have enough _______ for the project.

10)

The police couldn’t find any _______ to solve the murder.

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Tips

*Mass nouns (질량명사) name abstract, intangible or concrete things 질량 명사는 추상적이거나, 만질 수 없거나, 실제의 것들을 나타낼 때 쓰인다.

Examples

1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6)

Indian food is well known for its heavy aromatic spices. The fun at Enchanted Kingdom never stops!

Knowledge is power.
The information on the internet is limitless. The furniture will be delivered first thing on Monday morning. He gives great advice to his friends, but he can’t handle his own problems. The water shortage last week was so bad that I think half of my officemates went to work without bathing.

7)

8) 9)

Sand is so hard to get out of wet clothes.
The fire spread quickly over the dry bushes and reached the house next door. Butcher Dan’s meat always comes fresh from his slaughterhouse.

10)

Vocabulary aromatic : 향기로운 shortage : 부족, 결핍 bathing : 수영, 목욕 butcher : 푸주간. 고깃간 enchanted : 매혹한, 황홀한 officemates : 직장 동료 clothes : 옷, 의복 slaughterhouse : 도살장

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Exercise Choose the best word to complete the sentence. 1) The victim’s family is searching for _______. a) b) c) d) justice houses clients killers

2)

My son loves to play in the _______ when it’s hot outside. a) b) c) d) school factory water house

3)

There’s some _______ coming out of the volcano’s crater. a) b) c) d) rocks sticks bricks smoke

4)

The woman needs to buy some _______ for her baby. a) b) c) d) cookies milk candies sandwiches

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5)

Can you please get me some _______ from the pantry? a) b) c) d) cans carrots sugar jars

6)

Our bodies need _______ in order to live. a) b) c) d) buttons cars glasses oxygen

7)

I hate cleaning the attic. I’m allergic to _______. a) b) c) d) brooms dust mops pails

8)

I really love _______. It’s my passion. a) b) c) d) music bananas clocks boxes

9)

Can you pass the _______ please? a) b) c) d) onions rice pitcher plates

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10)

I need to borrow some _______. a) b) c) d) shirts bracelets books money

Special nouns Some nouns have no plural forms except when used under special conditions. 어떤 명사들은 특별한 경우를 제외하고, 복수의 형태가 없다. advice water bread jewelry applause scenery hair furniture money

Some nouns are always plural and take plural verbs. 어떤 명사들은 항상 복수의 형태이며 복수형태의 동사와 같이 쓰인다. headquarters trousers wages scissors ashes glasses clothes riches pants

Some nouns are plural in form but take singular verbs 어떤 명사들은 복수의 형태이지만, 단수형태의 동사와 같이 쓰인다. economics news politics mathematics measles mumps

Examples

1)

Our High School Guidance counselor Mrs. Regullano gives excellent

advice.
2) My Aunt Elizabeth left me all her white gold jewelry in her will.

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3)

We’ll meet again tomorrow at Headquarters at 8 in the morning hours for our special training workshop. These scissors are too sharp for a child; you need to buy the plastic kind. It’s very difficult to budget my money because we get our wages only once a month. They scattered his ashes into the river behind his house, just as he wished. These pants are my favorite; they are comfortable and have a great fit. The news about the hurricane came too late to warn the citizens.

4)

5)

6)

7) 8) 9) 10)

Politics is a very dirty and uneven playing field for the smart and coy.
Bea got the measles when she was only 2 years old.

Vocabulary guidance : 안내, 지도 excellent : 우수한, 훌륭한 budget : 예산, 경비 hurricane : 폭풍, 태풍 uneven : 평탄하지 않은 counsellor : 고문, 상담역 training : 훈련, 단련 scattered : 따로 따로 떨어진 politics : 정치, 정치학 citizens : 시민, 국민

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Lesson 12

(제인은 선생님이 되었다)

Linking verbs LINKING VERBS do not express action. They connect the subject to the equivalent or additional information in the sentence. 연결 동사는 동작이나 행동을 나타내지 않는다. 연결동사는 주어를 문장 안에서의 동격이나 추가로 있는 정보와 연결시켜 주는 역할을 한다.

TO BE is Am Are Was Were Has been Have been Had been I s being Are being Was being Will have been

TO BECOME

TO SEEM Seemed Seeming

Become Becomes Became Has become Have become Will become Will have become I

Seems Has seemed Have seemed Had seemed is seeming Are seeming Was seeming Were seeming Will seem

Examples

1) 2) 3)

The IQ test proves that Jane is a genius. After drinking the soju on an empty stomach, Ernest turned green. On rainy days, my cats are content to snuggle in my bed.

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4)

Samantha always feels sleepy after finishing off a Big Mac and an Up-sized Coke. Johnny seemed quiet at first, but I guess I was mistaken. The child is being held hostage inside that abandoned warehouse. His staff appeared disorganized during the meeting. Her perfume smells awful! Charlotte’s voice sounds lovely. That painting looks great on that wall.

5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10)

Vocabulary genius : 천재적인, 비상한 snuggle : 달라붙다, 끌어안다 abandoned : 버림받은, 폐기된 stomach : 위, 복부 hostage : 인질, 담보 warehouse : 창고, 저장소

disorganized : 파괴하다, 혼란시키다 perfume : 향기, 향수

Tips

If you can substitute AM, IS or ARE for the verb in your sentence, and it still makes sense, then you have a linking verb. If the sentence does not sound logical after the substitution, then you have an action word. 문장에 am, is 나 are 를 동사로 대체했다면, 뜻은 통하나, 연결동사가 되어버린다. 대체 후에 문장이 이상하다면, 그 동사는 동작이나 행위의 단어가 된다.

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Linking verbs The following words are sometimes used as action words, and sometimes used as linking verbs. 이 동사들은 가끔씩 행동의 단어들로도 쓰이며, 연결동사로도 쓰인다. Appear Grow Smell Turn Become Look Sound Became Remain Taste

Exercise Identify the linking verb in the sentences below.

1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10)

I always feel out of place when I am with those people. That idea sounds really good. Cherry is always full of ideas. The ghost in the picture appeared to be a fake. That was the time when the fraud became apparent. Red hair looks good on you, Sorry, I am too busy to take the call. It has been fun working with you all. The air freshener they used smells good. All my brothers are home tonight.

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"Getting a library card" Student: Good morning ma’am. I would like to borrow these books for my thesis research. Librarian: Okay, do you have your library card with you? Student: Oh, no! I don’t have a library card yet. What should I do? I really need these books today. Librarian: Don’t worry! You can apply for a library card today. I’ll issue you a temporary card so you can check-out these books today. Student: Really? Thank you! What do I need to do? Librarian: Just fill up this form. I’ll take your picture in a while so I can print it onto your card. For the meantime, I’ll give you a temporary card. Your permanent card will be ready in 3 days. Student: Okay. Do I have to pay a processing fee? Librarian: No, it’s free. If you’re done filling out the application form, I would like you to stand over there so I can take your picture. Student: Okay. How long can I keep the books for? Librarian: You’ll have to return them in 3 days, or else you’ll be charged a late fee. Student: Fair enough. I’m done with the form. You can take my picture now.

thesis : 논제, 주제

Vocabulary issue : 내주다, 발행하다 temporary : 일시의, 잠깐 동안의 permanent : 영구한, 불변하는 processing : 진행, 처리 charged : 부담하다, 전과하다 application : 지원서, 신청서 enough : 충분한, 족한

picture : 그림, 사진

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Exercise A: What did the student want to borrow those books for? B: _________________________________________. A: Can you bring home books from the library without a library card? B: _________________________________________. A: How much did the student have to pay for the library card? B: _________________________________________. A: How long will it take to process the student’s library card? B: _________________________________________. A: How long can the student borrow the books? B: _________________________________________.

About me

A: Have you ever been to a library? In your community? School? B: _________________________________________. A: Do you like going to the library? B: _________________________________________. A: Do you have a library card? Since when? B: _________________________________________. A: Do you take library books home? B: _________________________________________. A: Have you ever retuned a library book late? What happened? B: _________________________________________.

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Lesson 13

(그들은 내 방을 칠했다)

Moods of the verb (동사의 서법) All verbs have a mood, which relates what the writer or speaker intends. 모든 동사에도 글을 쓰는 사람이나 말하는 사람이 의도하는 바와 연결되는 법이 있다.

Moods of the verb (동사의 서법) 1 Indicative states an apparent fact or asks a question. This is the way verbs are normally used in English, and is therefore the most common. 직설법은 눈에 보이는 사실이나 질문을 물어보는데 쓰인다. 이 방법이 보통 영어에 쓰이는 방법이며, 가장 일반적인 방법이다.

Exercise Identify the indicative verb in the sentences below.

1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7)

Edwin picks up the cartons. The German shepherd fetches the bone. Oliver closes the gate. Martin loves Italian food. Rebecca wrote a Nobel-Prize winning novel last year. Julia Roberts gets paid 20 million dollars per movie. I am going home after this class.

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8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15)

Korea has all four seasons: winter, spring, summer and fall. They painted the office walls sky blue. All the furniture and equipment you see was imported from Korea. My medicine costs seven pesos per tablet. A partly restored Karman Ghia costs up to six thousand dollars. All correspondence gets logged into Anne’s book. Mount Everest is the tallest mountain in the world. The Banaue Rice Terraces is a breathtaking view to behold. Vocabulary shepherd : 양치는 사람, 지도자 equipment : 장비, 설비 medicine : 약, 약물 thousand : 천의, 1000의 mountain : 산, 산맥 correspondence : 대응, 일치 furniture : 가구, 부속품 imported : 수입된, 수입되다 restored : 되돌리는, 되찾는 everest : 에베레스트 산 breathtaking : 움찔, 놀랄만한

Exercise Choose the best verb to complete the sentence.

1) Rainier _______ me a birthday present. a) b) c) gave catch sold

2) I _______ Kathleen at the party last night. a) b) c) bake met drove

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3) I always _______ the door before I leave the office. a) b) c) cook lock iron

4) I _______ in the park every morning. a) b) c) sleep walk shower

5) My brother _______ everything on the table! a) b) c) ate ran waxed

6) The little boy _______ into the pool. a) b) c) dove sat drew

7) I’ll _______ my famous apple pie to the picnic a) b) c) sing bring crochet

8) Are you _______ to the prom? a) b) c) going laugh singing

9) My mother _______ very well. a) b) c) jump dances holds

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10) This Mexican restaurant _______ the best salsa in town. a) b) c) slides serves converts

Moods of the verb (동사의 서법) 2 Imperative states a command or request. 명령법은 명령이나 요구를 나타낼 때 쓰인다.

Examples

1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13)

Do it. Fetch! Make a note of this. Pick up those cartons. Close the door. Hold your tongue. Drop your weapon! Perish the thought. Don’t look down. Please pass the rice. Stop staring, it’s impolite! Don’t even think about it. File your resignation letter by noon today.

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14) 15)

Take my hand. Follow the road till you hit a fork. Take a right.

Vocabulary tongue : 혀 perish : 멸망하다, 없어지다 impolite : 무례한, 버릇없는 weapon : 무기, 병기 thought : 생각, 사고 resignation : 사직, 사임

Exercise Determine whether the following sentences are indicative or imperative.

1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12)

Don’t stop now. This is the fastest route to San Jose. Grab the wheel. My grandmother was born on June 8, 1941. The dog roams in our backyard. Let go of me! These are my cousins Jug, Tyler and Joshua. Hold it! I am feeling dizzy right now. He has diabetes, just like his father. Do not cross the street till you see the green light. An airplane crashed into the ocean last night.

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Lesson 14

(그를 볼 수 있었다면, 그에게 그것을 말해 주었을 것이다)

Moods of the verb (동사의 서법) 3 Conditional implies what might be. Often uses the words: could, might, should, would. 조건법은 가능성과 추측을 함축한다. 종종 could, might, should, would가 쓰인다.

Examples

1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13)

It could be the answer to our prayers. That might put the fire out. Should you find yourself in need of a friend, just call me. It would be a good deal if he threw in the printer for free. It should work with this battery. It would be a great help if you attend the fundraiser. This might be the cause of your back pains. This should help you sleep at night. It could be the start of a beautiful friendship. I might catch up with you if I get my work done early. I should make a mental note about this. You would make a great teacher someday I could make you a new sweater if this one doesn’t fit.

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14) 15)

That should do the trick! I’m afraid you might get sick if you don’t take care of yourself.

Vocabulary answer : 응답, 대답 printer : 인쇄기계 fundraiser : 기금 조성자 beautiful : 아름다운, 고운 sweater : 스웨터 prayers : 기도, 소원 battery : 전지, 건전지 cause : 원인, 동기 friendship : 우정, 사귐

Exercise Choose the best answer from the parenthesis to complete the sentences.

1) 2)

I _______ (should / might) go now if I don’t want to be late. You _______ (should / might) catch a cold if you don’t dry yourself off.

3) 4) 5) 6)

It _______ (would / could) be nice if my boss gives me a raise. I _______ (should / could) go over and help you if you need me to. It _______ (would / should) be working by now. I’m buying a lot of groceries because I’m afraid that we _______ (might / should) run out of food. I _______ (could / would) be very grateful if you help me out with this. You _______ (might / could) start by helping me sort the laundry. I’m not sure about this, my mother _______ (could / might) not approve of it. You _______ (might / should) be ashamed of yourself!

7) 8) 9)

10)

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Moods of the verb (동사의 서법) 4 Subjunctive states something contrary to fact. It expresses a wish, dream, doubt, supposition, desire or condition contrary to fact. This is often used with clauses introduced with "if". 가정법동사는 사실과 상반되는 것을 나타낼 때 쓰인다. 이것은 소원, 꿈, 의심, 상상, 욕구나 조건을 사실과 상반되게 표현할 때 쓰인다. 종종 이 가정 구문은 ‘if'와 같이 사용된다.

Examples

1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13)

If I were you, I would feel like the luckiest man on earth. I wish those butterflies would be set free. If I were you, I would resign. I wish this book would get published. I doubt if they will come back for us. I suppose this will do for now. I want it to snow here in Manila. If he leaves tomorrow, he will miss the Awards Ceremony. If I were president for a day, I would abolish the taxes. I wish you had told me about this earlier. I suppose you were right all along. I wish those bullies would just leave me alone! I want to ride a space shuttle and go to the moon.

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14) 15)

If he arrives early today, I’d definitely be surprised. If I were her, I’d forget about that man!

Vocabulary butterflies : 나비 published : 출판하다 tomorrow : 내일 president : 대통령, 회장 space shuttle : 우주 왕복선 resign : 사임하다, 그만두다 doubt : 의심하는, 불확실한 bullies : 약한 자를 못살게 구는 사람 ceremony : 의식, 의례 suppose : 가정하다. 추측하다

abolish : 폐지하다, 철폐하다 definitely : 뚜렷하게, 명확히 surprised : 깜짝 놀라게 하다, 소스라치다

Exercise True or false. Determine whether the sentences are in the subjunctive mood.

1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10)

I would want to go there someday. I suppose I’ll have to take the longer route this time. I wish I had more money to spend. I am going home now; I’m really tired. Can you please stop running around? If you turn around, you will see the statue I’ve been telling you about. If I were him, I’d run to the nearest police station. I might get a new car for Christmas. I doubt if he remembers me. Put those papers on my desk when you’re done.

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Lesson 15

(복습)

Exercise Identify the Nouns and The Gender of These Nouns. Who Did Patrick's Homework? by Carol Moore*1 Patrick never did his homework. "Too boring," he said. He played baseball and basketball and Nintendo instead. His teachers told him, "Patrick! Do your homework or you won't learn a thing." And it's true, sometimes he did feel like a ding-a-ling. But what could he do? He hated homework. Then on St. Patrick's Day his cat was playing with a little doll and he grabbed it away. To his surprise it wasn't a doll at all, but a man of the tiniest size. He had a little wool shirt with old fashioned britches and a high tall hat much like a witch's. He yelled, "Save me! Don't give me back to that cat. I'll grant you a wish, I promise you that." Patrick couldn't believe how lucky he was! Here was the answer to all of his problems. So he said, "Only if you do all my homework 'til the end of the semester, that's 35 days. If you do a good enough job, I could even get A's." The little man's face wrinkled like a dishcloth thrown in the hamper. He kicked his legs and doubled his fists and he grimaced and scowled and pursed his lips, "Oh, am I cursed! But I'll do it." And true to his word, that little elf began to do Patrick's homework. Except there was one glitch. The elf didn't always know what to do and he needed help. "Help me! Help me!" he'd say. And Patrick would have to help -- in whatever way. "I don't know this word," the elf squeaked while reading Patrick's homework. "Get me a dictionary. No, what's even better. Look up the word and sound it out by each letter."

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When it came to math, Patrick was out of luck. "What are times tables?" the elf shrieked. "We elves never need that. And addition and subtraction and division and fractions? Here, sit down beside me, you simply must guide me." Elves know nothing of human history, to them it's a mystery. So the little elf, already a shouter, just got louder "Go to the library, I need books. More and more books. And you can help me read them too." As a matter of fact every day in every way that little elf was a nag! Patrick was working harder than ever and was it a drag! He was staying up nights, had never felt so weary, was going to school with his eye spuffed and bleary. Finally the last day of school arrived and the elf was free to go. As for homework, there was no more, so he quietly and slyly slipped out the back door. Patrick got his A's; his classmates were amazed; his teachers smiled and were full of praise. And his parents? They wondered what had happened to Patrick. He was now the model kid. Cleaned his room, did his chores, was cheerful, never rude, like he had developed a whole new attitude. You see, in the end Patrick still thought he'd made that tiny man do all his homework. But I'll share a secret, just between you and me. It wasn't the elf; Patrick had done it himself!

Exercise Identify the Action Verb. 1. George gracefully jumped over the fence. 2. We usually jog around the village at five in the morning. 3. Johnny caught a fish using his bare hands.

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4. Arnold lifted the 500 pound weights with ease. 5. We danced on the floor until dawn. 6. My father climbed Mount Kilimanjaro when he was in high school. 7. I was sleeping when you called my house. 8. Look at the beautiful girl! She's gorgeous! 9. You need to sign these papers sir. 10. Amanda loves to sing "Buttons" by the Pussy Cat Dolls.

Exercise Choose the right verb for each sentence. 1. _____ you feeling well now? (Are, Were) 2. The team ______ composed of fifteen players. (is, are) 3. Dad ______ worried about my grades. (is, were) 4. Our neighbor _____ a new pet dog. (has, had) 5. She _____ sick last month. (am, was) 6. I don't _____ soccer. (play, playing) 7. The baby _____ milk everyday. (drank, drinks) 8. I have to _____ at seven in the morning tomorrow. (up, get up, getting up)

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9. George loves to _____ stories about his business. (tell, telling) 10. The players _____ very confident. (is, were) 11. The lady _____ in great danger. (is, are) 12. Michelle _____ eight cups of coffee a day. (drinks, drinking) 13. She could _____. (fall, fallen) 14. He can _____ a song in five minutes. (composing, compose) 15. My cat always _____. (slept, sleeps, sleeping) Exercise Pick the correct form of the adjective: "-ed" or "-ing." 1. The clown was very _____. (annoyed, annoying) 2. I was _____ with the market vendors. (annoyed, annoying) 3. Surfing is one of the most _____ things I did during summer. (excited, exciting) 4. My sister is very _____ to meet her teenage crush. (excited, exciting) 5. Barbie was _____by the horror movie. (terrfied, terrfying) 6. I was _____ to death when I watched the play. (bored, boring) 7. The play was _____. That's why we left early. (bored, boring) 8. Someone should end the serial killers' _____ spree. (killed, killing) 9. The murderer _____ five people last month. (killed, killing)

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Exercise Each sentence contains 3 underlined parts. In one of the underlined parts there is an error. Identify the error and you should insert the correct word or phrase. example Why do we need to put this hat on? It doesn't matched our outfit. a. need b. this c. matched * your entry: match 1. It seem like it's going to rain later. I have to bring an umbrella. a. seem b. going c. bring your entry : _____ 2. Shah Jahan build the Taj Mahal as a monument to his undying love for his wife. a. build b. monument c. undying your entry : _____ 3. Keep your friends close and your enemies close. a. your b. close c. close your entry : _____ 4. I wasn't expecting your call. I think you were on vacation today. a. expecting b. think c. were your entry : _____

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5. Take a look at these pictures. This remind me of the good old days. a. look at b. these c. remind your entry : _____ 6. I hope you will not felt lonely when I leave the country for good. a. I hope b. felt c. leave your entry : _____ 7. I would love to buy a new pair of shoe this weekend. a. would b. buy c. shoe your entry : _____ 8. Judging by the way he walk out of the room, I think he did not pass the audition. a. walk b. think c. pass your entry : _____ 9. There is nothing that I can do to stopped him from eating your lunch. a. nothing b. stopped c. eating your entry : _____ 10. I think that Derek won the marathon tomorrow because I know he trained very hard for this competition. a. won b. trained c. this your entry : _____

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Singular vs. plural nouns

Determine whether the sentences are grammatically correct or not. incorrect, convert the nouns to its plural form.

If they are

1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10)

In my opinion, bat are such ugly animals. The school buses need to be painted a bright yellow. Princess Diana loved horses. I raked all the leaf this morning. My mother bought me a beautiful scarf yesterday. These label will not stick properly onto the bottles. All the nanny meet in the park at around three in the afternoon. My daughter collects penny in her piggy bank. I am not sure the boxes will fit in the van. The newspaper always gets here before eight in the morning.

Collective nouns

Choose the best word to complete the sentences.

1)

The _________ (gang / flock) will go to the Karaoke Lounge after office hours.

2) 3) 4) 5)

The _________ (staff / family) all undergoes training with David. The school _________ (pack / band) always practices before a big game. The pit _________ (choir / crew) must move extremely fast during a race. The __________ (bundle / committee) decided against holding the party at the Municipal Hall.

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6)

My sister brought home a _________ (bunch / trio) of flowers from the hillside. A __________ (flock / group) of birds was surprised by the hunter’s shot. Batman and Robin are known to be the dynamic __________ (family / duo) The __________ (herd / class) took a trip to the museum to see the Mona Lisa up close. The veterinarian was sent to give shots to the entire _________ (team / herd).

7) 8) 9)

10)

Countable vs. mass nouns

Determine whether the nouns are countable or mass. Remember that countable nouns name individual people or things, while mass nouns name abstract, intangible or concrete things.

1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6)

The girl was chased by the dog. The food was delicious! I enjoy bacon and eggs in the morning. The furniture in their house is so outdated! The students all filed into the auditorium silently. She is a walking contradiction because she does not follow her own advice. Evian Natural Mineral Water is the best tasting water I’ve ever had. You are only limited by your imagination. Don’t forget to refrigerate the meat as soon as you get home from the grocery store. They vandalized all the tables in the library.

7) 8) 9)

10)

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Verbs

Identify what mood the verbs are in the sentence. The choices are: Indicative, Imperative, Conditional and Subjunctive.

1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15)

I play golf every Sunday. I might buy a new computer at the end of this month. If I were him, I’d fire that employee. Stop playing with your food! This park is a nice place to have a picnic. I wish I was a little bit taller. Come out with your hands up! I should be going to the mall to buy Christmas presents by now. You looked really cute in your baby pictures. Go home. It’s not safe here at night. I could wash the dishes if you’re too tired to do it. I doubt if the package will arrive as scheduled. I borrowed books from the library last night. Please handle my baggage with care. I love you.

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Fun English Training 즐거운 영어 회화 기초 Step1 Step2 초급 Step3 Step4 중급 Step5 Step6 고급 Step7 Step8

Business English 글로벌 비즈니스맨을 위한 영어 회화 Step1 Step2

글로벌 감각과 시사 토론을 위한 영자 신문 회화

주니어 회화 Level1 Level2 Level3 Level4

TOEFL Speaking iBT Speaking 시험 대비

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