The Republic of Cyprus

-Name of State Kypriaki Democratia (Greek), Kibris Cumhuriyeti (Turkish), Republic of Cyprus (English) Cyprus gained its independence from British colonial rule in 1960. In 1974 Turkey invaded Cyprus and occupied 36,2% of its sovereign territory. The ceasefire line runs right across the island and cuts through the heart of the capital, Nicosia (Lefkosia), dividing the city and the country. Although its northern part is under foreign occupation, the Republic of Cyprus is internationally recognised as the sole legitimate State on the island with sovereignty over its entire territory.

Location and Area
Cyprus is a small island of 9.251 sq kms (3.572 sq miles), extending 240 kms (149 miles) from east to west and 100 kms (62 miles) from north to south. It is strategically situated in the far eastern end of the Mediterranean (33° E, 35°N), at the crossroads of Europe, Africa and Asia, and in close proximity to the busy trade routes linking Europe with the Middle East, Russia, Central Asia and the Far East.

Topography
Troodos massif (southwest); highest point: Olympos (1.953m). Kyrenia (Keryneia) or Pentadactylos range (north); highest point: Kyparisssovounos (1.024m). Central plain: Messaoria plain. There are no perennial rivers, only a few springs and streams.

Climate
Mediterranean, with mild, wet winters (mean daily minimum 5°C, 41°F), and hot, dry summers (mean daily maximum 36°C, 97°F).

Flora and Fauna
Seventeen percent of the island is woodland. The natural vegetation includes forests of evergreen and deciduous trees, shrubs and flowers. The flora comprises about 1.800 species, sub-species and varieties. About 140 or 7% of these are endemic to Cyprus. There are also 365 species of birds but only 115 breed on the island. Two species and five sub-species have been classified as indigenous to the area. Among the animals the moufflon is the most noteworthy. It belongs to the sheep family and is unique in the world.
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Government
- Executive Power
Presidential system of government. The President is elected by universal suffrage for a five-year term. Executive power is exercised through an 11-member Council of Ministers appointed by the President. Turkish Cypriots have refused to participate in the government since late 1963.

- Legislative Power
Multi-party unicameral House of Representatives. Voting system: Simple proportional representation. House members are elected by universal suffrage for a five-year term. The seats reserved for Turkish Cypriots remain vacant.

- Judiciary
The administration of justice is exercised by the island’s separate and independent Judiciary. Under the 1960 Constitution and other legislation in force, the following judicial institutions have been established: The Supreme Court of the Republic, The Assize Courts and District Courts.

- Independent Officers and Bodies
There are also independent officers and bodies which do not come under any ministry: the Attorney-General and the Auditor-General who head the Law Office and Audit Office respectively; and the Governor of the Central Bank of Cyprus; the Ombudsman (Commissioner for Administration); the Public Service Commission; the Education Service Commission; the Planning Bureau; the Treasury; the Commission for the Protection of Competition; the Office of the Commissioner of Electronic Communications and Postal Regulation; the Cyprus Energy Regulatory Authority; the Cyprus Agricultural Payments Organisation; the Office of the Commissioner for Personal Data Protection; the Cooperative Societies Supervision and Development Authority; the Internal Audit Service; the Office of the Commissioner for State Aid Control; the Tenders Review Authority; the Law Commissioner and the Tax Tribunal.

The Central Bank of Cyprus
The Central Bank of Cyprus was established in 1963 as an autonomous institution. Since July 2002, the Central Bank has been governed by the Central Bank of Cyprus Law 2002. This law ensures the Bank’s independence as well as compatibility with the relevant provisions of the Treaty establishing the European Community and the Statute of the European System of Central Banks and of the European Central Bank. At the same time, the pertinent constitutional provisions were amended so as to ensure the independence of the Central Bank as prescribed by the European Union acquis.
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The primary objective of the Bank is to ensure price stability. Without prejudice to this objective, the Bank supports the general economic policy of the government. The Central Bank has intensified its efforts towards the liberalisation of the financial sector, which is necessitated both by economic considerations, as well as by the need to harmonise Cypriot economic structures and policies with those of the EU. With regard to banking supervision, the objective of the Central Bank is to ensure the stability of the banking system, the minimisation of systemic risk and the protection of depositors. The rules, policies and practices of the Bank are in line with the EU directives and the recommendations of the Basel Committee on banking supervision.

Local Authorities
Local government is the responsibility of the Municipal and Community Councils. The former is concerned with the provision of local government services and administration of the towns and large rural areas, while the latter with the management of village affairs. These councils are independent bodies whose members are elected by universal suffrage.

International Relations
On foreign policy issues the Cyprus government aligns itself with the European Union position in the context of the EU’s Common Foreign and Security Policy. Since 1974 the government’s efforts focused primarily on ending Turkey’s military occupation and division of the island. Cyprus has long identified with the West, but also has close relations with the rest of the world, including with Russia and other eastern European countries; India, China, Japan and other countries in Asia; Latin America, Africa, the Arab world and Israel. Cyprus is a member of many international organisations including: - World Trade Organisation (WTO) (1995) - Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) (1975) - The Commonwealth (1961) - The Council of Europe (CoE) (1961) - The United Nations (UN) (1960) and its specialised agencies - The World Bank - The International Monetary Fund
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Member of the European Union
On May 1, 2004 the Republic of Cyprus became a full member of the EU completing a long journey that lasted more than three decades. Accession to the EU was a natural choice for Cyprus, dictated by its culture, civilisation, history, its European outlook and adherence to the ideals of democracy, freedom and justice. EU accession has launched a new era of challenges, opportunities and responsibilities for Cyprus. The application of the EU laws and regulations (the acquis communautaire) is suspended in the area under military occupation by Turkey, pending a solution to the division of the island. Meanwhile, the government of Cyprus in cooperation with the EU Commission has been promoting arrangements to facilitate increased economic transactions between the two communities and improve the standard of living of Turkish Cypriots. While Cyprus has a lot to benefit from EU membership, it also has a lot to offer as a member state. Strategically situated at the crossroads of Europe, the Middle East, North Africa and Asia, Cyprus is becoming an even more important regional business centre, as well as an international communications and transport hub. With its modern infrastructure, sound legal system, tax incentives, low crime rate and well educated labour force Cyprus is a favourite regional operations platform for European companies. Since its accession to the EU, Cyprus has undergone significant structural reforms that have transformed its economic landscape. Trade and interest rates have been liberalised, while price controls and investment restrictions have been lifted. Private financing has been introduced for the construction and operation of major infrastructure projects and monopolies have been abolished. The new political context created by the accession to the EU is also expected to impact positively on the efforts to reach a comprehensive settlement to the division of Cyprus that will reunite its people and reintegrate its economy.
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Population
854.300 (December 2005)* 76,8% (656.200) Greek Cypriots** 10,3% (87.900) Turkish Cypriots 12,9% (110.200) foreign residents and workers Population density: 88,4 persons per sq km. *The population does not include the illegal settlers from Turkey (currently estimated at about 162.000) residing in the Turkish occupied part of Cyprus. **This figure includes the 8.000 (1%) Maronites, Armenians and Latins who opted to join the
Greek Cypriot community. Under the 1960 Constitution they had to choose to belong to either the Greek Cypriot or Turkish Cypriot community.

Vital Statistics
Birth rate Death rate Growth rate Life expectancy (males) Life expectancy (females) 10,9 per thousand (2005) 7,2 per thousand (2005) 2,3% (2005) 77,0 (2005) 81,7 (2005)

Towns
Nicosia (Lefkosia) (Capital) Limassol (Lemesos) Larnaca (Larnaka) Paphos (Pafos) *The population in the Government-controlled part of the city only.

Population (Dec. 2005)
224.500* 176.900 79.000 52.800

Towns under Turkey’s occupation
Famagusta (Ammochostos) Morphou (Morfou) Kyrenia (Keryneia) *Population prior to 1974 Turkish invasion.

Population*
41.200 7.466 3.892

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Languages
Greek and Turkish are the official languages. English is widely spoken.

Religion
The Greek Cypriots are predominantly Christian and adhere to the Autocephalous Greek Orthodox Church of Cyprus. The Turkish Cypriots are Muslims, while the smaller Cypriot communities of Maronites, Armenians and Latins belong to other Christian denominations.

Cultural Heritage
- Neolithic settlements - Classical, Hellenistic and Roman monuments - Byzantine and Latin churches and monasteries - Lusignan and Venetian fortresses and castles (12th – 16th century) - Mosques

Defence
The National Guard was formed in 1964 and comprises primarily of conscripts, regular officers and reserves, as well as a small number of Greek army officers. Since 2000 Cyprus has also been contributing to the European Union defence capabilities and is participating in 5 of the 19 ECAP Project Groups, which deal with issues covering the deficiencies of the European Military Capabilities.

UN Peace-keeping Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP)
A UN Peace-keeping Force (UNFICYP), numbering 917 (Dec. 2006) military personnel, has been on the island since 1964. It was established in 1964 after the outbreak of intercommunal clashes in December 1963 and threats by Turkey to invade. Its chief task now is to supervise the buffer zone and maintain the UN ceasefire, given that more than 43.000 troops from Turkey are still occupying the northern part of the island.

British Sovereign Base Areas
There are British sovereign military bases at Akrotiri/Episkopi and Dhekelia covering 2,7% of the island’s territory. The bases were retained by Britain under the 1960 accords which granted Cyprus its independence from British colonial rule.
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History
Cyprus• civilisation, according to archaeological evidence, goes back 11.000 years to the 9th millennium BC (early Neolithic Period or Stone Age). The island acquired its Greek character after it was colonised by the Mycenaean-Achaean Greeks between the 13th and 11th century BC. In the mid- 9th century BC Phoenician settlers began to arrive, concentrating mainly in the coastal city of Kition. Subsequently Cyprus came, in turn, under Assyrian, Egyptian and Persian domination (8th – 4th century BC). It became part of the Roman Empire between 30 BC and 330 AD. However, it retained its Greek identity and, as part of the Hellenistic state of the Ptolemies (310-30 BC) and of the Greek-speaking world of Byzantium (330 AD-1191), its ethnic heritage was kept alive. The Greek language and culture also prevailed throughout the centuries that followed even though Cyprus came under the rule of successive foreign powers – King Richard I (the Lionheart) of England and the Knights Templar (1191-1192), the Franks (Lusignans) (1192-1489), Venetians (1489-1571), Ottoman Turks (1571-1878) and British (1878-1960). The Greek Cypriots mounted an anti-colonial liberation struggle against British rule from 1955 to 1959. In 1960 Cyprus gained its independence and became a constitutional Republic. Greece, Turkey and Britain were to stand as guarantors of the country’s independence under the Zurich-London agreements and Britain would retain two sovereign base areas. Political power was to be shared between the Greek and Turkish Cypriots on a 7:3 ratio. This gave the Turkish Cypriot community (a numerical minority of 18% of the population) 30% representation in the Government and state institutions. In addition, the Turkish Cypriot community had veto rights on major issues. Relations between the two communities had for centuries been peaceful and amicable. However, certain provisions of the Zurich-London agreements and the 1960 Constitution were to prove conducive to domestic conflict and foreign interference. The Constitution itself emphasised differences between Greek and Turkish Cypriots thereby encouraging divisive rather than integrative tendencies between the two communities. Greek Cypriots were determined to strengthen the unity of the state but the Turkish Cypriot leadership, at the strong urging of Turkey, sought ethnic segregation and geographic separation. This led to brief intercommunal clashes during 1963 to1967, air attacks and threats to invade by Turkey. Turkish Cypriots ceased to participate in the government, the legislature and civil service. UN sponsored intercommunal talks to reach a settlement were held during 1968-1974. Intercommunal tensions subsided and violence virtually disappeared during this period.
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Military Invasion and Occupation by Turkey
On 15 July 1974 the military junta then ruling Greece sponsored a coup to overthrow the democratically elected government of Cyprus. On 20 July Turkey, using the coup as a pretext, and in violation of international codes of conduct established under treaties to which it is a signatory, invaded Cyprus purportedly to restore constitutional order. Instead, it seized 36,2% of the territory of the Republic in the north – an act universally condemned as a gross violation of international law and the UN Charter. Turkey, only 74 kms (45 miles) away has since defied many UN resolutions demanding the withdrawal of foreign troops from the island. The invasion and occupation had disastrous consequences. Thousands were killed and more than 162.000 Greek Cypriots living in the north – over a quarter of the population – were driven from their homes and became refugees. This number includes 20.000 Greek Cypriots enclaved in the occupied area who were gradually forced through intimidation and denial of their fundamental human rights to abandon their homes and find refuge in the government–controlled area. Today there are only about 500 enclaved people. Seventy per cent of the productive potential of the island was lost and 30% of population became unemployed. Turkish Cypriots were forced to move to the occupied area in line with Turkey’s policy of ethnic segregation. Some 1.474 Greek Cypriot civilians and soldiers disappeared during and after the invasion. Many were in Turkish custody and some were seen in prisons in Turkey and the occupied area before their disappearance. The fate of all but a handful is still not known as Turkey is unwilling to investigate their whereabouts. Furthermore, the policy of bringing settlers from Turkey to the occupied areas has changed demographics to such an extent that these illegal settlers (more than 160.000) outnumber the Turkish Cypriots (about 88.000) by almost two to one. Much of the rich cultural heritage in the occupied areas has been destroyed and vandalised and places of worship have been desecrated. A series of UN General Assembly and Security Council resolutions, as well as resolutions adopted by numerous other international organisations, reflect the universal condemnation of Turkey’s invasion and all subsequent acts of aggression against Cyprus; demand the return of the refugees to their homes in safety and the tracing of the missing persons; and call for respect for the human rights of all Cypriots as well as for the independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity of Cyprus. Moreover, the European Court of Human Rights has found the government of Turkey responsible for gross and systematic violations of human rights in Cyprus. Successive rounds of UN-sponsored talks between the Greek and Turkish Cypriot communities since 1974 to resolve the Cyprus problem and reunite the country have been undermined by the Turkish side which has sought a settlement that in effect would leave Cyprus permanently divided and hostage to foreign interests. The Greek Cypriots, on the other hand, have been insisting on the genuine reunification of the island and its people.
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The latest UN effort resulted in the presentation of a plan by the Secretary-General for a comprehensive settlement of the Cyprus problem. On 24 April 2004 the people of Cyprus were asked to approve or reject, through separate, simultaneous referenda by the two communities, the UN Secretary-General’s proposal (Annan Plan V). A clear majority of 75,8% Greek Cypriots rejected the proposed Annan Plan because they felt that the finalised text, which incorporated arbitrarily many last minute demands by Turkey, was not balanced and did not meet their main concerns regarding security, functionality and viability of the solution. By their vote the Greek Cypriots obviously did not reject the solution to the Cyprus problem which remains their primary goal. They only rejected the particular plan which was put before them. Moreover, they have not turned their backs on their Turkish Cypriot compatriots who approved the plan by 64,9%. On the contrary, they have been working towards a solution that will meet the expectations of both communities. The “no” vote in the referendum should be interpreted as a legitimate expression of the real concerns that led to the rejection of a seriously flawed plan which, among other weaknesses, did not provide for: - The removal of the foreign troops and settlers from Cyprus and the elimination of the right of foreign powers to unilaterally intervene in Cyprus; - Adequate guarantees to ensure that the commitments undertaken by the parties involved would be carried out; - A property recovery system that appropriately recognised the rights and interests of displaced Greek Cypriots who were forced from their homes in 1974, and a property compensation arrangement that did not require Greek Cypriots to fund their own restitution; - The right of all Cypriots to acquire property and to live wherever they chose without restrictive quotas; and - A functional government without deadlocks or voting restrictions based on ethnicity. The Government of Cyprus continues to work for the genuine reunification of Cyprus and integration of its people and economy in the context of a functional and viable settlement – a solution which will bring peace, prosperity and a better future for all the citizens of a united Cyprus within the EU.

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Economy
Even though the political problem remains unresolved, the free market economy in the government-controlled area has made remarkable recovery since 1974. The economic success is attributed to, among other factors: the adoption of a market-oriented economic system, the sound macroeconomic policies of successive governments, as well as the existence of a dynamic and flexible entrepreneurial community and a highly educated labour force. During the last two decades the Cyprus economy turned from agriculture to services and light manufacturing. Cyprus is, today, a major tourist destination as well as a modern economy offering dynamic services with an advanced physical and social infrastructure. The per capita income in PPS (Performance Presentation Standards) reached 88,9% of EU 25 member-states average in 2005. Additionally, Cyprus was ranked 29th in the Index of Human Development as included in the UN Development Program Report (2006). On 29 April 2005 the Cyprus pound* joined the Exchange Rate Mechanism II (ERM II). The standard fluctuation band of plus or minus 15% will be observed around the central rate of the pound. Cyprus expects to join the eurozone in January 2008. The average annual growth in the past five years has been 3,1% while inflation stood at 2,9% and unemployment at 3,4% over that period.

Sector
Primary (mainly Agriculture) Secondary (mainly Manufacturing and Construction) Tertiary

% Contribution to GVA (2006)
2,8% 19,6% 77,6%

Other Economic Data (2006)
Per capita income Inflation Rate of Growth Unemployment Economically active population Gainfully employed * C£1 = US$2.34 (May 2007)
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C£ 10.678* (18.544 euro) 2,5% 3,8% 3,4% 375.000 359.400

Foreign Business and Shipping
As from 1 October 2004, foreign investors can register a company directly with the Registrar of Companies and obtain any license, if needed, from the appropriate authority according to the nature of investment. Also, following the convergence of the former “international” banking sector with the “domestic” banking sector in January 2006, applications from foreign banking institutions for conducting banking business in Cyprus are examined under a new framework which makes no distinction between “domestic” and “international” or “offshore” operations. Cyprus is also an important shipping centre and currently has in its registry one of the leading merchant fleets in the world. The strategic location of Cyprus, its favourable tax environment, educated work force, excellent telecommunications and modern banking and legal infrastructure make the country an ideal business bridge for the European Union and the Middle East. Cyprus’ friendly entrepreneurial environment and supporting facilities compare favourably with those of the best-established centres in the world. The island is considered to be a primary international business centre among approximately 50 countries offering similar facilities.

High Technology Industry
Industrial development is among the primary objectives of the Government as it constitutes a vital component of the broader economic policy. Within this policy the government has introduced an incubating programme for the creation of new enterprises of high technology and innovation. The Technology-Incubating Programme seeks to effectively link talent, technology, capital and know-how in order to accelerate the development of new companies and speed up the commercialisation of new technology.

Services
The tertiary or services sector is the fastest growing area and today accounts for about 77,6% of GVA (Gross Value Added) and 71,1% of the gainfully employed population. The sector includes tourism, transport and communications, trade, banking, insurance, accounting, real estate, public administration, health, education and business and legal services. Tourism (hotels and restaurants) in particular plays an important role in the economy. In 2006 it contributed 7,1% to GVA and 10,0% of the workforce was engaged in the industry. In 2006 over 2,4 million tourists visited Cyprus, mainly from the UK (56,7%), Scandinavian countries (8,6%), Russia and former Soviet Union countries (5,4%), Germany (6,4%), Greece (5,3%) and France (1,6%). Cyprus’ role as a regional services centre is being enhanced and plans are also underway to promote the island as an international information centre.

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Manufacturing
Manufacturing accounts for 8,6% of GVA and provides employment to 10,2% of the workforce. The main industries are food, beverages, tobacco, textiles, clothing, footwear, leather goods, metal products, chemicals and plastic products.

Imports/arrivals
Imports/arrivals are classified according to their economic destination i.e. consumer goods, intermediate inputs, fuels and lubricants, transport equipment and capital goods. In 2005, the European Union (EU25) remained the main source of supply of goods to Cyprus, with a share of 65,9% of total imports/arrivals. Major suppliers within the Union were Greece (17,1%), Italy (10,1%), the United Kingdom (8,8%), Germany (8,3%) and France (3,6%). Imports from the United States and Japan accounted for 1,6% and 3,1% respectively.

Exports/dispatches
Major exports/dispatches of domestically produced goods are pharmaceutical products, cement, cigarettes, clothing, paper goods, potatoes and citrus fruit. In 2005, dispatches to European Union (EU25) were 52,9% of domestic exports. Mainly to the UK (13,4%), Greece (13,0%) and Germany (6,9%). In addition, 13,6% of exports went to Near and Middle Eastern countries, whereas 12,7% to other Asian countries.

Transhipment
On account of its geographical position, Cyprus has developed into an important transhipment centre with a large volume of re-exports going to the markets of the Middle East and Central Europe.

Agriculture and Fishing
Agriculture and Fishing contributed 2,8% to GVA in 2006 and provided employment to 8,3% of the working population. Principal crops are potatoes, other vegetables, cereals, citrus, grapes and olives. Livestock farming is mainly in cattle, sheep, goats, pigs and poultry. Fish production is derived from inshore and trawl fishing and marine agriculture.

Environment
Cyprus’ environmental policy has recently been revised following Cyprus’ accession to the EU. More than three hundred Directives and Regulations and a number of action plans comprise the complicated and detailed Chapter for the Environment. These new legislative regulations now constitute powerful bedrock for the enforcement of the environmental policy. The laws now in place are explicit and do not allow for different interpretations or misinterpretations. This legislative framework ensures the improvement of the environment and of the quality of life.
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Natural Resources
The island’s natural resources are copper, gypsum, timber, marble, bentonite and earth pigment, but none exist in significant quantities. Water is a scarce resource in Cyprus. The problem has been met by the construction of dams and desalination plants.

Health and Social Welfare
Free medical care in government hospitals and health centres is available for low-income families, refugees and civil servants. There are also more than 100 private clinics with more than 1.600 beds and a large number of practices offering a wide range of medical services. The ratio of persons per doctor was 384:1 in 2005. A comprehensive social insurance scheme covers every working male and female and their dependants. Benefits and pensions from the scheme cover unemployment, sickness, maternity, widows, injury at work, old age and death. There is also a broad range of welfare services provided by the Government, including children’s day care centres, old people’s homes, facilities for the disabled, free housing for displaced persons as a result of Turkey’s military invasion, rent subsidies and financial assistance to community organisations.

Education
Education is compulsory up to the age of 15. Primary and secondary education is free. Cyprus has one state university in Nicosia, one Technological University in Limassol and 30 colleges and institutions of higher education. Cyprus ranks high in terms of third-level education with about 75% of those completing secondary school in 2004-2005 continuing their studies. More than half the students study abroad, mainly in Greece (65,3%), the UK (20,5%) and the USA (5,1%). In 2004-2005 53,1% of students studying abroad and 58,6% enrolled on third-level education courses in Cyprus were women.

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Culture
Cultural life finds expression through the creative arts and Cypriot traditions. Literature, poetry, music, opera, drama, dance, painting and sculpture are some of its manifestations. There are also a number of museums including a major archaeological museum in Nicosia and art galleries. The State Gallery houses on a permanent basis the State Collection of Contemporary Cyprus Art, while it periodically hosts important exhibitions from abroad as well as retrospective exhibitions of the pioneers of the Cyprus visual arts. For the promotion of the contemporary Cyprus art abroad, the Cultural Services of the Ministry of Education and Culture organises exhibitions or subsidises the participation of Cypriot artists in international art competitions.

Media
Freedom of expression and media are safeguarded by the Constitution and the relevant press and radio and television station laws. Currently there are: - 8 dailies and a large number of weeklies and periodicals in circulation. - 8 island-wide and 6 local TV channels. - 10 island-wide and 38 local radio stations. - 1 news agency (Cyprus News Agency). In addition there are a number of private subscription cable and satellite TV networks. Cyprus serves also as a base for a number of international news media outlets and correspondents covering the broader Middle East region.

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President Tassos Papadopoulos on the Accession of Cyprus to the European Union - 1 May 2004
“This moment signals a momentous milestone in Cyprus’s history. It is the second most important historic landmark after the proclamation of the Republic of Cyprus 44 years ago. This moment marks the successful conclusion of a long effort and the hopeful beginning of a new course and a new era for Cyprus. As from this moment, the Republic of Cyprus formally becomes a Member of the European Union. It becomes a full, integral and inseparable member of the great European family. Our great joy for our accession to the European Union is overshadowed by our grief because we could not celebrate this moment together with our Turkish Cypriot compatriots and our great disappointment for the absence of a solution to our national problem. We do not want to enjoy the benefits of accession on our own. We want to share them with the Turkish Cypriots. They too are entitled to these benefits and this joy as legitimate citizens of the Republic of Cyprus. We are expecting them. Their place is here with us, so that we can embark, hand in hand, on the new course commencing today in the interest of all of us, for the benefit of our common country. A reunited homeland. Our accession to the European Union does not create rights only. It entails also obligations and responsibilities. We will claim and we will enjoy those rights. At the same time we will fulfil our obligations and undertake our responsibilities. Our aim and ambition is not to be a recalcitrant Member of the Union, but a constructive and creative partner.”
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CHRONOLOGY
The recorded history of Cyprus dates to the 9th millennium BC. 2nd and 1st millennium BC Mycenean and Achean Greeks settled in Cyprus bringing Greek culture to the island 30BC-330AD Cyprus a province of the Roman Empire 330AD-1191 Cyprus a province of the Byzantine Empire 1191-1571 Cyprus under the rule of the Crusaders, the Order of the Knights Templar, the French Lusignans (1192-1489) and the Venetians (1489-1571) 1571-1878 Cyprus under Ottoman rule 1878 Cyprus leased by the Ottoman Empire to Britain 1914 Cyprus annexed by Britain following Turkey’s alignment with Germany in WWI 1923 Under the Treaty of Lausanne Turkey relinquishes all rights to Cyprus 1925 Cyprus declared a British crown colony 1931 First Greek Cypriot uprising against British rule 1950 Makarios III elected Archbishop of Cyprus 1954 Greece brings the issue of self-determination for Cyprus to the UN General Assembly 1955-1959 Greek Cypriot anti-colonial struggle 1959 Under agreements negotiated in Zurich and London by Greece, Turkey and Great Britain, Cyprus is granted independence 1960 (August 16) Proclamation of the Republic of Cyprus 1963 President Makarios submits constitutional amendments for discussion which are rejected by Turkey and the Turkish Cypriot leadership. Insurrection by Turkish Cypriot extremists 1964 Arrival of UNFICYP (UN peacekeeping force). Turkey bombs and threatens to invade Cyprus. US President Johnson’s intervention haults the threatened invasion 1967 Turkey threatens to invade Cyprus. The US (Vance mission) ends the invasion threat

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1968 1974 - 15 July 1974 - 20 July 1975 1983

1990 1993 1994 1998 2003 - 16 April 2003 - 23 April

2004 - 24 April 2004 - 1 May

Start of UN-sponsored talks between the Greek and Turkish Cypriot communities to resolve the inter-communal conflict Coup against the government of the Republic of Cyprus organized by the military junta of Greece Turkey invades Cyprus and in a two-phase operation occupies nearly 37% of the Republic Turkey, through the Turkish Cypriot leadership, creates the "Turkish Federated State of Cyprus" in the areas occupied by the Turkish army The Turkish Cypriot leadership, with Turkey’s support, unilaterally declares the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" ("TRNC") in the Turkish occupied areas of the Republic. The UN Security Council and all major international organizations condemn the action and call for the respect of the independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity of the Republic of Cyprus. The Security Council declares the secessionist act “legally invalid” The Republic of Cyprus applies for membership in the EEC. The European Commission issues its positive opinion on the application of Cyprus The EU Corfu Summit decides that the next phase of enlargement will include Cyprus and Malta Accession negotiations between Cyprus and the EU commence. The Republic of Cyprus signs the Treaty of Accession to the EU in Athens The Turkish occupation regime announces partial lifting of restrictions it imposed since 1974 on the movement of persons across the ceasefire line The Greek Cypriots overwhelmingly reject the Annan Plan (version V). The Turkish Cypriots, including the settlers, support the plan The Republic of Cyprus becomes a member of the European Union

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REFERENCES
For further information please consult the following websites: Republic of Cyprus – www.cyprus.gov.cy House of Representatives – www.parliament.cy Ministry of Foreign Affairs – www.mfa.gov.cy Ministry of Finance – www.mof.gov.cy Ministry of Commerce, Industry and Tourism – www.mcit.gov.cy Press and Information Office – www.moi.gov.cy/pio Planning Bureau – www.planning.gov.cy Statistical Service – www.mof.gov.cy/cystat Central Bank – www.centralbank.gov.cy Cyprus Tourism Organisation – www.visitcyprus.org.cy Cyprus News Agency – www.cna.org.cy University of Cyprus – www.ucy.ac.cy

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