You are on page 1of 6

Applied Mechanics and Materials Vols.

365-366 (2013) pp 365-369
Online available since 2013/Aug/16 at
© (2013) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland

A Simple Correlation Equation to Predict Pump Performance for Slurry

He Peng Cheng 1, a, Song Peng Yun 1, b
Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology,
Kunming, Yunnan 650500, China

Keywords: centrifugal pump; slurry; solid particles; head ratio

Abstract: As to the centrifugal pump for slurry, the effects of solids particles on the performance of
the pump have been extensively researched. It is essential to understand the effects of solids on the
pump performance well in order to obtain the performance of centrifugal pump for handling slurries.
Some existing correlation equations to predict the performance are analyzed and summarized in this
paper. A new simple correlation equation to predict the head ratio for pumps handling solids has
been developed. The simple equation has been validated by the experiment data published in the
related literature. The results by the simple equation are compared with ones available in the
literature. The result shows that the simple equation is in good agreement with the experimental
data, and it can be used to predict the performance of centrifugal pump for slurry.

Centrifugal pumps are extensively used for distance transportation of homogeneous and
heterogeneous mixtures of solid materials by pipelines. To obtain the performance characteristics of
slurry centrifugal pumps, it is necessary to modify the clear water pump performance characteristics
due to the presence of solids. Gandhi [1] proposed that the performance of the pump be evaluated
for slurries by conducting experiments with actual slurry or estimated on the basis of the
performance of clear water pump. Generally speaking, under the same conditions, the slurry pump
performance (head and efficiency) is lower than that of clear water pump, and also due to the
excessive wear of the flow components, the performance of the pump is also decreased [2]. Many
theoretical investigations and experimental investigations as to the performance of slurry pump,
especially the pump head and efficiency have been carried out.

The performance correlation equations available in the literature
Due to the effect of the solid particles, it is necessary to modify the performance of the pump. The
correction coefficients are usually denoted by head ratio (HR), which was defined as [3]

HR = H s H w (1)

Where Hs is the pump head with slurry, Hw is the pump head with clear water
A lot of equations for the prediction of performance of pumps handling slurries have been
proposed [4-9], and in general, the parameters of the solid particles are mainly considered, which
includes particle size (the weighted mean particle diameter dwn or the mass median diameter d50),
concentration of solid (weight concentration Cw or volume concentration Cv) and specific gravity of
solids (S). Additional, the specific gravity of solids S can be written as

All rights reserved. No part of contents of this paper may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means without the written permission of TTP, (ID:, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, USA-10/03/15,06:16:10)

Wilson [11] also supported this conclusion.1. the expressions of Gahlot and Cave are respectively written as 3 HR = 1 − 0. Gandhi [10] had been observed that ER is almost equivalent to the corresponding HR. Kazim [4] assumed that HR varies as ( S − 1) α . The equation given by She Anting is written as [9] HR = 1 − 0. But in the correlation proposed by Cave. Engin [13] had been made an attempt to include the impeller exit diameter (D2) in the developed correlation. A simple relationship given by Frazier [8] can be written as 1 − Cv HR = (4) 1 − Cv + S ⋅ Cv This is a simple relationship without considering the impact of solid particle size. the correlation equations proposed by Kazim is d wn HR = 1 − 0.366 Machine Design and Manufacturing Engineering II S = ρs ρw (2) Where ρs is the density of the solid particles. To determine the relationship between HR and specific gravity of solid (S). This assumption has also been adopted by Engin [7]. However. the particle size is expressed by the mass median diameter (d50). S ) (3) As to the efficiency ratio ER.13 ⋅ C w ⋅ S − 1 ⋅ ln( ) (5) 20 Similarly.056 ⋅ ( S − 1) 0. Thus. and found that ER is generally lower than the corresponding HR value. C v orC w .72 ⋅ (1 + ) ⋅ C w ⋅ ln(50d wn ) (6) S 4 d HR = 1 − 0. It can be seen from the figure 1 that HR decreases with the increasing of Cw for different material of solid particles. Gahlot and Cave [8] obtained head drop expression in similar analysis method. She Anting proposed that in order to estimate the head of centrifugal slurry pump. By the experimental data of Kazim [4] and a plot of variation of HR with Cw is shown in Fig. ρw is the density of the water It has been found that HR is a function of dwn or d50. Kazim [4] had carried out experimental investigation. a head ratio HR which is in line with the actual situation is introduced. it is enough to obtain the pump performance characteristics only by considering the head ratio HR.25 ⋅ C w (8) Vocadlo [12] reported that the effect of solids was smaller in larger sized slurry pumps than that in smaller units. it can be written as HR = f (d wn ord 50 . the head ratio can be written as . Cw or Cv and S.0227 To understand the difference and the trend of the performance of the pump when it transported slurry from the clear water.0385 ⋅ ( S − 1) ⋅ (1 + ) ⋅ C w ⋅ ln( 50 ) (7) S 0. the maximum deviation between them was within 5 percent. Benretem [5] and Chandel [6] obtained the same conclusion.

B=0. n = (0.23 ) ⋅ Cv (11) D2 Fitting process and evaluation of results Burgess [15] cited a large number of different physical characteristics of the solid particles. y = n S and then it can be written as y = A+ B⋅x (15) The fitting analysis based on the software of Origin8. and proposed a correlation which contains impeller exit diameter (D2).21 + 0. Then the expression of n is as follows n = (0. the final form of the proposed equation in this paper is given as HR = (1 − C w ) n .066 ln d 50 ) ⋅ S (17) Equation (17) is the universal correlation equation to predict the head of the centrifugal pump for slurries obtained in this paper. assuming x = ln d 50 .21. and the result is: A=0. it can be written as [14] d 50 S HR = 1 − (57 −1 + 169. Applied Mechanics and Materials Vols.21 + 0. 365-366 367 dw HR = f (C w orC v,S . n S = A + B ln d 50 (14) Here. the specific expression of n can be determined.066. and it can be written as HR = 1 − 2.066 ln d 50 ) ⋅ S (16) After inspection. an empirical formula was given as HR = (1 − C w ) n (12) The index n is a function of the particle size d50 and the specific gravity of solids S. . and made experimental studies. Combined the equation (16) and (12). ) (9) D2 Engin [13] identified the relationship of HR. but the literature does not give the expression of n. d 50 ) (13) According to the experimental data of Burgess.313 (10) He Xijie had been analyzed a lot of experimental data. The index n can be written as n = f ( S . the regression equation is meaningful.705C w ⋅ ( S − 1) 0.0.64 (d wn D2 ) 0.

2.00 0 10 20 30 40 50 HR-Experimental Weight Concentration(%) Fig. (5) and (6) produce 2.2. (17) and the suitable range are better than other equations.60 0.2% (8) 41.95 0. When the parameter of solid particles within a suitable range. On the basis of the analysis of data and the results. The range of S is 1.60 Zinc. quantity 7) and Gahlot [8] (Coal. so the accuracy of the equation (7).368 Machine Design and Manufacturing Engineering II In order to test the feasibility of equation (17). (10). the deviation range lies within -10% to +10%.[15] a Materials Coal. Table 1. thus.90 +10% 0.[4] e H 0.F [16] (Sand-S. and the equation (7) and (10) produce a smaller mean deviation (2.65 0. For all solids.55 0.[4] d 0.00 0.80 Sand 0. (10).95 1.84mm and Cv is up to 45.6%. The comparisons of the correlations of equation (4)-(8).59% and 3. The parameters of the particle size. Burgess [15] (Sand-A. the specific gravity and the concentration are the main influence factors in the performance of the pump. 1. quantity 11).[16] ( 0. and the range of parameters considered is relatively narrow. The equation (7). it will affect the calculation accuracy. the equation (17) gives 4. The correlations are generally based on a small number of test data. (10) and (17) are better. quantity 18).75 0.70 0. although the mean deviation of (5) and (6) are suitable. but the maximum deviation is larger than other three equations.5% 21. are shown in Table 1.23 and 1. quantity 20). the equation (17) can be used for predicting the pump performance when the fluid of the pump is solid-liquid mixtures.[8] 0. The results are shown in Fig.80 0.86%) than other equations. Kazim [4] (Mild steel.90 HR-Prediction Sand-S. Comparison of the eight equations Equation Equation δ max δ δ max δ (4) 40. Variation of head ratio HR with Fig.90 0.[8] Zinc 0.24. (11)) with the developed one (equation (17)). (6).95 0.65 Coal-A.05% mean deviation. 1. 2. The results show that the head ratio decreases linearly with the increasing of the parameters of solid particles. the particles size (dwn or d50) is between 0. (7). when one of them is not included in the equations or the value of them beyond the available rang of the equation. Comparison of measured and predicted Concentrations of solids HR using equation (17) Test of existing correlations to the experimental data Some correlations available in the literature have been tested by the experimental data from Ni.75 Sand-E. The larger deviations in the predicted values by other correlations may arise from the following reasons: a.75 0. As showed in Fig.85 0.85 Mild Steal.2% 19.80 o Sand-A.55 0. Zinc tailing.48-6.70 Heavy min.[8] Coal Coal-B. (10) and (17) can be used to estimate the head of the solid-liquid two-phase flow pump better. 68 sets of data from references[4],[8],[15] and [16] are extracted.[15] i -10% ta 0. b. the deviation of equation (11) is reasonable.[4] R 0. The results of the equation (5).1% respectively.85 ) R H 0.6% .00 1.

W. [8] V. Metallic Ore Dressing Abroad. Applied Mechanics and Materials Vols.N. [14] X. Proceedings of the fourteenth International Conference on Slurry Handling and Pipeline Trasport.A. seven other correlations in the literature have been verified by a large number of experimental data. so the equation (7) and (10) also could be used to predict the performance of centrifugal slurry pumps.J. 114 (1992) 386-389.Zwartbol.84mm). 19 (2012) 110-116.Gur.A. equation (17) can be well used for predicting the pump performance in the condition of handling solid-liquid mixture. Journal of Engineering for Industry. [15] K. ARCHIVE: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers.23-1. [11] G.J Vlasblom.Seshadri.9% 2. [16] N. J.Engin. Journal of Fluids Engineering.9% (7) 11.Ratol.Vocadlo.K. Fourth International Pump Symposium. [4] K.86% (17) 9. Journal of Fluids Engineering. [2] S. 1 (1998) 19-21 (in Chinese). J.Sagoo.Reizes.Kazim. [12] J. In addition to the developed correlation. On the basis of the investigation and the analysis of data available in the literature. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. 125 (2003) 149-157.Engin. Maastricht. Journal of Fluids Engineering.Hammouda and M.Yassinea. S. Houston (1989) 19-25.Gandhi. Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences. 123 (2001) 271-280. 95 (1973) 65-71. The Netherlands (1999) 141-149.K.Gandhi. The mean deviation between the predicted and the experimental head ratio is 4.Singh.Maiti and P. [3] K. and the maximum deviation is 9.She. A.1% (11) 39.J.T. 29 (2011) 378-396. [13] T. [5] A.Sheng.Khalilb. V. S. particle diameter (0. [6] S. 3 (1983) 37-39 (in Chinese). S. M.86% (6) 15. Egypt (2010) 1-9.Seshadri.He. The equation (17) provides a higher accuracy within the range of parameters considered above.S.48-6. B.C. Singh and V.2% 2. H.F. Journal of Fluids Engineering. Particulate Science and Technology.Seshadri.etc.Chand. 214 (2002) 473-486.N.Kumar.E.Chandel.6%. a new correlation has been developed in the condition of handling solid-liquid mixtures.59% (10) 10.56%. . A. Journal of Drainage and Irrigation Machinery Engineering.Haddouche. [7] T. For a large number of data covering a wide range of specific gravity (1. 365-366 369 (5) 13.56% 4. 2 (2007) 244-247.1% 16.05% Where δ max is maximum deviation. Tenth International Congress of Fluid Dynamics.Singh and V. Proceedings of the institution of Mechanical Engineers. δ is mean deviation Summary In order to predict head reductions of centrifugal slurry pumps. M.05%. BHRA. 123 (2001) 532-538.Gahlot. It also should be noted that the results of equation (7) and (10) are similar to equation (17). References [1] B. M.Gur. [9] A.Burgess.Cheghib.24).H.S. A.9% 2.N.Wlison.Benretem. Materials Engineering.F. 190 (1976) 391-399. 211 (1997) 147-157. [10] B.K.4% 3. concentration by volume was up to 45. [6] S.E. Journal of Engineering for Industry. 211 (1997) 147-157. 214 (2002) 473-486. Engin. Particulate Science and Technology. J.doi.1080/ V.2010. Singh and V.365-366 A Simple Correlation Equation to Predict Pump Performance for Slurry 10. S. Journal of Fluids Engineering. Burgess. http://dx. Chand. 114 (1992) Gur.1366322 [12] J.2910042 [10] B. Proceedings of the institution of Mechanical Engineers. M.365 DOI References [1] B. Singh and V.1243/PIME_PROC_1976_190_041_02 . 125 (2003) 149-157. Seshadri. Singh. 190 (1976) 391-399.1379034 [8] Journal of Fluids Engineering. Seshadri. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers.1115/1.doi. http://dx. Gahlot.1115/1. http://dx. Gandhi. Chandel. Sagoo. 123 (2001) 532-538. M. 95 (1973) 65-71. 123 (2001) 271-280. 29 (2011) 378-396.doi. ARCHIVE: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Reizes.1115/1. http://dx. Maiti and P.scientific.3438162 [13] T.1115/1. Kazim.scientific.N. http://dx.doi.A.1243/0957650001538029 [4] K.4028/www.K. Journal of Fluids Engineering.503264 [7] T.K.Machine Design and Manufacturing Engineering II 10.K.1115/1. http://dx. http://dx.J.N. Journal of Fluids Engineering. S.doi. M.1523065 [15] K. B.doi. http://dx.