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GRADUATE RECORD EXAMINATIONS®

Chemistry Test
Practice Book
This practice book contains
 one actual full-length GRE Chemistry Test
 test-taking strategies

Become familiar with
 test structure and content
 test instructions and answering procedures

Compare your practice test results with the performance of those who
took the test at a GRE administration.

Visit GRE Online at www.ets.org/gre

Listening.
Learning.
Leading. This book is provided FREE with test registration by the Graduate Record Examinations Board.
Note to Test Takers: Keep this practice book until you receive your score report.
The book contains important information about content specifications and scoring.

Copyright © 2002 by Educational Testing Service. All rights reserved.
EDUCATIONAL TESTING SERVICE, ETS, the ETS logos, GRADUATE RECORD EXAMINATIONS,
and GRE are registered trademarks of Educational Testing Service.

CHEMISTRY TEST
PRACTICE BOOK

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earned, letters of recommendation, and GRE General
Table of Contents Test scores. For information about the appropriate use
of GRE scores, write to GRE Program, Educational
Purpose of the GRE Subject Tests ........................ 3
Testing Service, Mail Stop 57-L, Princeton, NJ 08541,
Development of the Subject Tests ....................... 3 or visit our Web site at www.gre.org/codelst.html.
Content of the Chemistry Test ............................ 4
Preparing for a Subject Test ................................. 6 Development of the
Test-Taking Strategies .......................................... 6 Subject Tests
What Your Scores Mean ...................................... 7
Each new edition of a Subject Test is developed by a
Practice GRE Chemistry Test .............................. 9 committee of examiners composed of professors in the
Scoring Your Subject Test .................................. 51 subject who are on undergraduate and graduate faculties
in different types of institutions and in different regions
Evaluating Your Performance ............................. 54 of the United States and Canada. In selecting members
Answer Sheet ..................................................... 55 for each committee, the GRE Program seeks the advice
of the appropriate professional associations in the subject.
The content and scope of each test are specified and
Purpose of the reviewed periodically by the committee of examiners.
Test questions are written by the committee and by
GRE Subject Tests other faculty who are also subject-matter specialists
The GRE Subject Tests are designed to help graduate and by subject-matter specialists at ETS. All questions
school admission committees and fellowship sponsors proposed for the test are reviewed by the committee
assess the qualifications of applicants in specific fields and revised as necessary. The accepted questions are
of study. The tests also provide you with an assessment assembled into a test in accordance with the content
of your own qualifications. specifications developed by the committee to ensure
Scores on the tests are intended to indicate knowl- adequate coverage of the various aspects of the field
edge of the subject matter emphasized in many under- and, at the same time, to prevent overemphasis on
graduate programs as preparation for graduate study. any single topic. The entire test is then reviewed and
Because past achievement is usually a good indicator of approved by the committee.
future performance, the scores are helpful in predicting Subject-matter and measurement specialists on the
success in graduate study. Because the tests are standard- ETS staff assist the committee, providing information
ized, the test scores permit comparison of students from and advice about methods of test construction and
different institutions with different undergraduate helping to prepare the questions and assemble the test.
programs. For some Subject Tests, subscores are provided In addition, each test question is reviewed to eliminate
in addition to the total score; these subscores indicate language, symbols, or content considered potentially
the strengths and weaknesses of your preparation, and offensive, inappropriate for major subgroups of the
they may help you plan future studies. test-taking population, or likely to perpetuate any
The GRE Board recommends that scores on the negative attitude that may be conveyed to these sub-
Subject Tests be considered in conjunction with other groups. The test as a whole is also reviewed to ensure
relevant information about applicants. Because numer- that the test questions, where applicable, include an
ous factors influence success in graduate school, reliance appropriate balance of people in different groups and
on a single measure to predict success is not advisable. different roles.
Other indicators of competence typically include under-
graduate transcripts showing courses taken and grades

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Because of the diversity of undergraduate curricula,
it is not possible for a single test to cover all the
Content of the Chemistry Test
material you may have studied. The examiners, there- The test consists of about 136 multiple-choice ques-
fore, select questions that test the basic knowledge and tions. A periodic table is printed in the test booklet as
skills most important for successful graduate study in well as a table of information (see page 10) presenting
the particular field. The committee keeps the test various physical constants and a few conversion factors
up-to-date by regularly developing new editions and among SI units. Whenever necessary, additional values
revising existing editions. In this way, the test content of physical constants are printed with the text of the
changes steadily but gradually, much like most cur- question. Test questions are constructed to simplify
ricula. In addition, curriculum surveys are conducted mathematical manipulations. As a result, neither
periodically to ensure that the content of a test calculators nor tables of logarithms are needed. If the
reflects what is currently being taught in the under- solution to a problem requires the use of logarithms,
graduate curriculum. the necessary values are included with the question.
After a new edition of a Subject Test is first admin- The content of the test emphasizes the four fields
istered, examinees’ responses to each test question are into which chemistry has been traditionally divided
analyzed in a variety of ways to determine whether and some interrelationships among the fields. Because
each question functioned as expected. These analyses of these interrelationships, individual questions may
may reveal that a question is ambiguous, requires test more than one field of chemistry. Some examinees
knowledge beyond the scope of the test, or is inappro- may associate a particular question with one field,
priate for the total group or a particular subgroup of whereas other examinees may have encountered the
examinees taking the test. Answers to such questions same material in a different field. For example, the
are not used in computing scores. knowledge necessary to answer some questions classi-
Following this analysis, the new test edition is fied as testing organic chemistry may well have been
equated to an existing test edition. In the equating acquired in analytical chemistry courses by some
process, statistical methods are used to assess the examinees. Consequently, the emphases of the four
difficulty of the new test. Then scores are adjusted so fields indicated in the following outline of material
that examinees who took a difficult edition of the test covered by the test should not be considered definitive.
are not penalized, and examinees who took an easier
edition of the test do not have an advantage. Varia- I. ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY — 15%
tions in the number of questions in the different
editions of the test are also taken into account in A. Data Acquisition and Use of Statistics —
this process. Errors, statistical considerations
Scores on the Subject Tests are reported as three- B. Solutions and Standardization —
digit scaled scores with the third digit always zero. Concentration terms, primary standards
The maximum possible range for all Subject Test total C. Homogeneous Equilibria — Acid-base,
scores is from 200 to 990. The actual range of scores for oxidation-reduction, complexometry
a particular Subject Test, however, may be smaller. The D. Heterogeneous Equilibria — Gravimetric
maximum possible range of Subject Test subscores is analysis, solubility, precipitation titrations,
20 to 99; however, the actual range of subscores for chemical separations
any test or test edition may be smaller than 20 to 99. E. Instrumental Methods — Electrochemical
Subject Test score interpretive information is provided methods, spectroscopic methods,
in Interpreting Your GRE Scores, which you will receive chromatographic methods, thermal
with your GRE score report, and on the GRE Web site methods, calibration of instruments
at www.gre.org/codelst.html.

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F. Environmental Applications B. Functional Groups — Preparation, reactions,
G. Radiochemical Methods — Detectors, and interconversions of alkanes, alkenes,
applications alkynes, dienes, alkyl halides, alcohols,
ethers, epoxides, sulfides, thiols, aromatic
II. INORGANIC CHEMISTRY — 25% compounds, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic
acids and their derivatives, amines
A. General Chemistry — Periodic trends, C. Reaction Mechanisms — Nucleophilic
oxidation states, nuclear chemistry displacements and addition, nucleophilic
B. Ionic Substances — Lattice geometries, aromatic substitution, electrophilic
lattice energies, ionic radii and radius/ additions, electrophilic aromatic
ratio effects substitutions, eliminations, Diels-Alder
C. Covalent Molecular Substances — Lewis and other cycloadditions
diagrams, molecular point groups, D. Reactive Intermediates — Chemistry and
VSEPR concept, valence bond description nature of carbocations, carbanions,
and hybridization, molecular orbital free radicals, carbenes, benzynes, enols
description, bond energies, covalent and E. Organometallics — Preparation and reactions
van der Waals radii of the elements, of Grignard and organolithium reagents,
intermolecular forces lithium organocuprates, and other modern
D. Metals and Semiconductors — Structure, main group and transition metal reagents
band theory, physical and chemical and catalysts
consequences of band theory F. Special Topics — Resonance, molecular
E. Concepts of Acids and Bases — Brønsted- orbital theory, catalysis, acid-base theory,
Lowry approaches, Lewis theory, solvent carbon acidity, aromaticity, antiaromaticity,
system approaches macromolecules, lipids, amino acids, pep-
F. Chemistry of the Main Group Elements — tides, carbohydrates, nucleic acids, terpenes,
Electronic structures, occurrences and asymmetric synthesis, orbital symmetry,
recovery, physical and chemical properties polymers
of the elements and their compounds
G. Chemistry of the Transition Elements — IV. PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY — 30%
Electronic structures, occurrences and
recovery, physical and chemical properties A. Thermodynamics — First, second, and
of the elements and their compounds, coor- third laws, thermochemistry, ideal and
dination chemistry real gases and solutions, Gibbs and Helmholtz
H. Special Topics — Organometallic chemistry, energy, chemical potential, chemical
catalysis, bioinorganic chemistry, applied equilibria, phase equilibria, colligative
solid-state chemistry, environmental properties, statistical thermodynamics
chemistry B. Quantum Chemistry and Applications
to Spectroscopy — Classical experiments,
III. ORGANIC CHEMISTRY — 30% principles of quantum mechanics,
atomic and molecular structure, molec-
A. Structure, Bonding, and Nomenclature — ular spectroscopy
Lewis structures, orbital hybridization, C. Dynamics — Experimental and theoretical
configuration and stereochemical notation, chemical kinetics, solution and liquid
conformational analysis, systematic IUPAC dynamics, photochemistry
nomenclature, spectroscopy (IR and 1H and
13
C NMR)

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䡲 All questions are of equal value; do not waste
Preparing for a Subject Test time pondering individual questions you find
GRE Subject Test questions are designed to measure extremely difficult or unfamiliar.
skills and knowledge gained over a long period of time. 䡲 You may want to work through the test quite
Although you might increase your scores to some rapidly, first answering only the questions about
extent through preparation a few weeks or months which you feel confident, then going back and
before you take the test, last-minute cramming is answering questions that require more thought,
unlikely to be of further help. The following informa- and concluding with the most difficult questions
tion may be helpful. if there is time.
䡲 A general review of your college courses is 䡲 If you decide to change an answer, make sure you
probably the best preparation for the test. How- completely erase it and fill in the oval corre-
ever, the test covers a broad range of subject sponding to your desired answer.
matter, and no one is expected to be familiar
䡲 Questions for which you mark no answer or more
with the content of every question.
than one answer are not counted in scoring.
䡲 Use this practice book to become familiar with
䡲 As a correction for haphazard guessing, one-
the types of questions in the GRE Chemistry Test,
fourth of the number of questions you answer
paying special attention to the directions. If you
incorrectly is subtracted from the number of
thoroughly understand the directions before you
questions you answer correctly. It is improbable
take the test, you will have more time during the
that mere guessing will improve your score
test to focus on the questions themselves.
significantly; it may even lower your score.
If, however, you are not certain of the correct
Test-Taking Strategies answer but have some knowledge of the question
and are able to eliminate one or more of the
The questions in the practice test in this book illus- answer choices, your chance of getting the right
trate the types of multiple-choice questions in the test. answer is improved, and it may be to your advan-
When you take the test, you will mark your answers tage to answer the question.
on a separate machine-scorable answer sheet. Total
䡲 Record all answers on your answer sheet.
testing time is two hours and fifty minutes; there are
Answers recorded in your test book will not
no separately timed sections. Following are some
be counted.
general test-taking strategies you may want to consider.
䡲 Do not wait until the last five minutes of a
䡲 Read the test directions carefully, and work as
testing session to record answers on your
rapidly as you can without being careless. For
answer sheet.
each question, choose the best answer from the
available options.

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Range of Raw Scores* Needed to Earn
What Your Scores Mean Selected Scaled Scores on Three
Your raw score — that is, the number of questions you Chemistry Test Editions That
answered correctly minus one-fourth of the number Differ in Difficulty
you answered incorrectly — is converted to the scaled Raw Scores
score that is reported. This conversion ensures that a Scaled Score Form A Form B Form C
scaled score reported for any edition of a Subject Test 900 115-117 113-115 112-114
is comparable to the same scaled score earned on any 800 93-94 89-90 88-89
other edition of the same test. Thus, equal scaled 700 70-71 64-66 63-65
scores on a particular Subject Test indicate essentially
600 47-48 40-41 39-40
equal levels of performance regardless of the test
Number of Questions Used to Compute Raw Score
edition taken. Test scores should be compared only
135 135 133
with other scores on the same Subject Test. (For
example, a 680 on the Computer Science Test is not *Raw Score = Number of correct answers minus one-fourth the
equivalent to a 680 on the Mathematics Test.) number of incorrect answers, rounded to the nearest integer.
Before taking the test, you may find it useful to
know approximately what raw scores would be required
For a particular test edition, there are many ways to
to obtain a certain scaled score. Several factors influ-
earn the same raw score. For example, on the edition
ence the conversion of your raw score to your scaled
listed above as “Form A,” a raw score of 70 through 71
score, such as the difficulty of the test edition and the
would earn a scaled score of 700. Below are a few of the
number of test questions included in the computation
possible ways in which a scaled score of 700 could be
of your raw score. Based on recent editions of the
earned on that edition.
Chemistry Test, the following table gives the range of
raw scores associated with selected scaled scores for
three different test editions. (Note that when the Examples of Ways to Earn a Scaled Score
number of scored questions for a given test is greater
of 700 on the Edition Labeled as “Form A”
than the range of possible scaled scores, it is likely that
two or more raw scores will convert to the same scaled Number of
score.) The three test editions in the table that follows Questions Questions Questions Questions Used
were selected to reflect varying degrees of difficulty. Answered Answered Not to Compute
Raw Score Correctly Incorrectly Answered Raw Score
Examinees should note that future test editions may be
70 70 0 65 135
somewhat more or less difficult than the test editions
70 76 25 34 135
illustrated in the table.
70 83 51 1 135
71 71 0 64 135
71 77 24 34 135
71 83 49 3 135

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Practice Test
To become familiar with how the administration will be conducted at the test cen-
ter, first remove the answer sheet (pages 55 and 56). Then go to the back cover of
the test book (page 50) and follow the instructions for completing the identification
areas of the answer sheet. When you are ready to begin the test, note the time and
begin marking your answers on the answer sheet.

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FORM GR0027

99

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Material in the tables on pages 10 and 11 may be useful in answering the questions in this examination.

10

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counted in the scoring. At the bottom of the page,
Scoring Your Subject Test enter the total number correct and the total number
Chemistry Test scores typically range from 490 to 910. incorrect. Divide the total incorrect by 4 and subtract
The range for different editions of a given test may the resulting number from the total correct. This is
vary because different editions are not of precisely the adjustment made for guessing. Then round the
the same difficulty. The differences in ranges among result to the nearest whole number. This will give you
different editions of a given test, however, usually are your raw total score. Use the total score conversion
small. This should be taken into account, especially table to find the scaled total score that corresponds
when comparing two very high scores. The score to your raw total score.
conversion table on page 53 shows the score range Example: Suppose you chose the correct answers
for this edition of the test only. to 80 questions and incorrect answers to 46. Dividing
The worksheet on page 52 lists the correct 46 by 4 yields 11.5. Subtracting 11.5 from 80 equals
answers to the questions. Columns are provided for 68.5, which is rounded to 69. The raw score of 69
you to mark whether you chose the correct (C) answer corresponds to a scaled score of 690.
or an incorrect (I) answer to each question. Draw a
line across any question you omitted, because it is not

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Worksheet for the Chemistry Test, Form GR0027 Only
Answer Key and Percentages* of Examinees Answering Each Question Correctly

QUESTION TOTAL QUESTION TOTAL QUESTION TOTAL
Number Answer P+ C I Number Answer P+ C I Number Answer P+ C I

1 ** ** 51 A 53 101 B 56
2 B 80 52 B 52 102 A 59
3 E 55 53 D 83 103 E 48
4 D 95 54 D 56 104 C 60
5 A 86 55 A 70 105 E 33

6 C 58 56 D 75 106 E 76
7 B 53 57 D 77 107 C 48
8 B 57 58 C 47 108 B 55
9 C 84 59 A 74 109 E 47
10 D 85 60 D 18 110 E 33

11 E 47 61 E 68 111 E 36
12 C 56 62 C 34 112 D 94
13 E 75 63 E 15 113 B 50
14 B 81 64 D 64 114 B 30
15 E 63 65 E 53 115 A 19

16 B 63 66 C 41 116 E 48
17 B 82 67 B 47 117 A 77
18 B 63 68 C 70 118 C 41
19 C 52 69 D 22 119 E 69
20 A 72 70 A 50 120 C 56

21 C 53 71 C 44 121 D 57
22 E 63 72 E 33 122 A 58
23 B 68 73 B 42 123 D 39
24 B 56 74 C 47 124 E 31
25 B 66 75 B 58 125 D 26

26 D 63 76 E 82 126 E 78
27 A 52 77 D 62 127 E 35
28 E 49 78 C 53 128 D 40
29 E 75 79 B 15 129 D 46
30 B 57 80 A 24 130 D 57

31 A 67 81 B 61 131 C 30
32 A 90 82 B 45 132 D 53
33 D 68 83 D 39 133 A 60
34 E 63 84 A 33 134 B 42
35 E 73 85 D 27 135 C 35

36 D 73 86 D 51 136 B 85
37 D 81 87 B 54
38 B 57 88 E 77
39 E 77 89 C 79
40 C 30 90 B 63

41 A 81 91 C 69
42 A 30 92 D 63
43 E 57 93 A 68
44 C 67 94 A 70
45 C 41 95 E 55

46 C 66 96 E 62
47 D 80 97 D 68
48 D 38 98 A 33
49 A 70 99 D 60
50 E 12 100 B 79

Correct (C)

Incorrect (I)

Total Score:
C – I/4 = ____________
Scaled Score (SS) = ____________

* The P+ column indicates the percent of CHEMISTRY Test examinees who answered each question correctly; it is based on
a sample of November 2000 examinees selected to represent all CHEMISTRY Test examinees tested between October 1,
1998 and September 30, 2001.
** Item 1 was not scored when this form of the test was originally administered.

52 CHEMISTRY TEST
PRACTICE BOOK

007625 • 54082 • ETS/ GRE Practicing to Take the CHEMISTRY Test • RI51620 • OC 5/9/01 • revs 5/17/01 rkc • revs 7/23/01 las • revs 8/1/01 las
Score Conversions and Percents Below*
for GRE Chemistry Test, Form GR0027 Only
TOTAL SCORE
Raw Score Scaled Score % Raw Score Scaled Score %

133-135 980 99 68-69 690 52
131-132 970 99 65-67 680 50
129-130 960 99 63-64 670 48
126-128 950 99 61-62 660 45
124-125 940 98 59-60 650 43
122-123 930 97 56-58 640 40
120-121 920 96 54-55 630 37
118-119 910 95 52-53 620 34
115-117 900 94 49-51 610 31
113-114 890 92 47-48 600 29
111-112 880 90 45-46 590 26
109-110 870 88 42-44 580 24
106-108 860 87 40-41 570 21
104-105 850 85 38-39 560 19
102-103 840 83 35-37 550 16
100-101 830 81 33-34 540 14
97-99 820 79 31-32 530 11
95-96 810 77 28-30 520 10
93-94 800 76 26-27 510 8
91-92 790 74 24-25 500 6
88-90 780 72 21-23 490 5
86-87 770 70 19-20 480 3
84-85 760 68 17-18 470 2
82-83 750 66 14-16 460 2
79-81 740 64 12-13 450 1
77-78 730 61 10-11 440 1
75-76 720 59 7-9 430 1
72-74 710 57 5-6 420 1
70-71 700 55 3-4 410 1
0-2 400 1

*Percentage scoring below the scaled score is based on the performance of
9,359 examinees who took the CHEMISTRY Test between October 1, 1998
and September 30, 2001.

CHEMISTRY TEST 53
PRACTICE BOOK

007625 • 54082 • ETS/ GRE Practicing to Take the CHEMISTRY Test • RI51620 • OC 5/9/01 • revs 5/17/01 rkc • revs 7/23/01 las • revs 8/1/01 las
Evaluating Your These percentages appear in the score conversion
table in a column to the right of the scaled scores.
Performance For example, in the percentage column opposite the
scaled score of 690 is the number 52. This means that
Now that you have scored your test, you may wish to 52 percent of the GRE Chemistry Test examinees
compare your performance with the performance of tested between October 1998 and September 2001
others who took this test. Both the worksheet on page scored lower than 690. To compare yourself with this
52 and the table on page 53 use performance data population, look at the percentage next to the scaled
from GRE Chemistry Test examinees. score you earned on the practice test.
The data in the worksheet on page 52 are based on It is important to realize that the conditions under
the performance of a sample of the examinees who took which you tested yourself were not exactly the same as
this test in November 2000. This sample was selected those you will encounter at a test center. It is impossible
to represent the total population of GRE Chemistry to predict how different test-taking conditions will
Test examinees tested between October 1998 and affect test performance, and this is only one factor that
September 2001. The numbers in the column labeled may account for differences between your practice test
“P+” on the worksheet indicate the percentages of scores and your actual test scores. By comparing your
examinees in this sample who answered each question performance on this practice test with the performance
correctly. You may use these numbers as a guide for of other GRE Chemistry Test examinees, however, you
evaluating your performance on each test question. will be able to determine your strengths and weaknesses
The table on page 53 contains, for each scaled and can then plan a program of study to prepare
score, the percentage of examinees tested between yourself for taking the GRE Chemistry Test under
October 1998 and September 2001 who received lower standard conditions.
scores. Interpretive data based on the scores earned by
examinees tested in this three-year period will be used
by admissions officers in the 2002 – 03 testing year.

54 CHEMISTRY TEST
PRACTICE BOOK

007625 • 54082 • ETS/ GRE Practicing to Take the CHEMISTRY Test • RI51620 • OC 5/9/01 • revs 5/17/01 rkc • revs 7/23/01 las • revs 8/1/01 las
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