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Geology report


Compass refers to the measuring instrument used for the
measurement of angles. In geology magnetic compass is used to find out the
attitude of bed, i.e. the dip amount and dip direction. Compass can be
classified into different groups. They are given below:

Types of compass
1) Clinometer compass: The compass which can measure bearing and
orientation with two sets is called clinometer compass. Since it does not
consists the spirit level, it should be leveled by approximation and may not
be accurate. It is the old form of compass used.

2) Brunton compass: It consists of spirit level and can measure bearing

and inclination with relatively less error. It is preferred more than the
clinometer compass due to its accuracy and effectiveness in the field.

3) Clar compass: It is similar type of compass which can measured both

inclination and bearing simultaneously. This compass is relatively easier to

4) Digital compass: Digital compass are those which measures the bearing
and displays in digits in its screen. Due to easiness in handling and
measuring data it is simple to use.

5)Digital pc compass: It is similar to digital compass. Apart from digital

compass it is directly connected to computer so there is no need of user to
note down data and tabulate it. The observed data are directly transferred to
the computer memory and the required results are obtained.

Attitude, strike, dip

Attitude: Attitudes is the three dimensional orientation of planar features of
rock. The attitude of beds or joints can be described from strike and dip.

Strike: It is the direction of line formed by the intersection of an inclined

geological plane and its own imaginary horizontal plane. It gives the trend or
orientation of the bed.

Dip: It is expressed in components given below:

Dip amount: It is the angle between geological plane and imaginary

horizontal plane, refers to the inclination of bed.

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Dip direction: It is the direction of horizontal projection of the bed. Strike and
dip are perpendicular to each other.

Handling of geological compass:

A geological compass is used to measure the attitudes of geological
features and orientation of slopes. Compass was mainly used for measuring
the bearing object with respect to north and to measure the exact direction.
Operating the geological compass means opening the compass, leveling the
spirit level and placing the compass in the planar feature where the
measurement is to be taken.

Fg: Brunton compasss

Rock outcrops:
Outcrop is the geological term referring to the appearance of bed rock
or deposits exposed at the surface of the earth. In most of the cases the
outer layer of the rock is covered with the soil deposits and the exact view of
the rocks layers cannot be obtained. Outcrop allow the direct observations
and sampling of bedrock in situ for the geological analysis .Outcrops are also
important for understanding fossil assemblages, paleo-environment, and
evolution as they provide a record of relative changes with the geological

Measurement of attitude of planar features of rocks in field

Location: Right bank of trishuli river, way to Dhadingbesi through suspension


Observed by: Sabin Sigdel

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Geology report

SN Dip Direction Dip Amount Attitude Remark

1 177 85 177/85 B.P
2 270 64 270/64 J.P
3 175 84 175/84 B.P
4 274 73 274/73 J.P
5 261 56 261/56 J.P
6 191 72 191/72 B.P
7 271 65 271/65 J.P
Observed by: Sabin Uprety

SN Dip Direction Dip Amount Attitude Remark

1 185 78 185/78 B.P
2 269 71 269/71 J.P
3 181 74 181/74 B.P
4 276 73 276/73 J.P
5 270 62 270/62 J.P
6 266 57 266/57 J.P
7 195 85 195/85 B.P
Observed by: Ashok Aryal

SN Dip Direction Dip Amount Attitude Remark

1 175 85 175/85 B.P

2 269 61 269/61 J.P
3 179 77 179/77 B.P
4 258 72 258/72 J.P
5 251 58 251/58 J.P
6 261 57 261/57 J.P
7 186 83 186/83 B.P
Observed by: Sagar Aryal

SN Dip Direction Dip Amount Attitude Remark

1 174 82 174/82 B.P
2 256 61 256/61 J.P
3 157 84 157/84 B.P
4 262 73 262/73 J.P
5 251 59 251/59 J.P
6 264 61 264/61 J.P
7 187 85 187/85 B.P
Observed by: Sameer Bhatta

SN Dip Direction Dip Amount Attitude Remark

1 169 84 169/84 B.P

2 261 61 261/61 J.P
3 177 83 177/83 B.P
4 261 71 261/71 J.P

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5 266 60 266/60 J.P

6 281 57 281/57 J.P
7 185 86 185/86 B.P

Observed by: Sandeep Aryal

SN Dip Direction Dip Amount Attitude Remark

1 172 89 172/89 B.P
2 251 63 251/63 J.P
3 169 87 169/87 B.P
4 261 73 261/73 J.P
5 256 55 256/55 J.P
6 264 51 264/51 J.P
7 184 87 184/87 B.P

Study of different geological structures

Structure geology deals with the mechanism and types of deformation of
rock or earth crust due to distribution of stress generated through various
geological processes. Structural geologists use microscopic analysis of
oriented thin sections of geological samples to observe the fabric within the
rocks which gives information about strain within the crystal structure of
rocks. Compressive, tensile and shear stress produce strain in the structures
in the earth surface. The deformation may be elastic, brittle, ductile; which
determines the structure to be formed.

Folds are the bend or curvatures or undulations developed in the rocks of the
earth crust due to result of stresses the rock were subjected in the past. They
are produced by
deformation plastic
during and elastic stress.
Mechanism of folding falls in two
General types of fold
1) Concentric folding
Anticline: linear, strata normally dip
2) Flow folding
away from axial center, oldest strata in
Componentstensionalof stress
fold in crest,
concave upward.
Crest and Trough: These are the concave
Syncline: linear, strata normally dip
and concave portions of undulation.
toward axial center, youngest strata in
Core: Ittensional stress acts
is the innermost partonoftrough.
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Hinge: one running
It is the line limb dips
limbs steeper
form mirror
through than the other, axial plane inclined,
image not
ofofmaximum mirror
other, image
curvature ofof ofboth
the each
fold. Itother.
Geology report

Axial plane: It is the imaginary plane which is formed by joining all the hinge
lines and divides the fold as . as possible. It may be simple plane or a curve.

Axis: It is the line of intersection of axial plane and the ground surface. It is
parallel to the hinge line.

Limb: It is the side of the fold. It is expressed as left limb, right limb, east limb,
west limb etc.

Angle of fold: It is an acute angle formed by the intersection of lines extended

from the respective limbs and it is also known as inter-limb angle.

Field observation: Anticline asymmetric fold.

Engineering significance
1) For the foundation of dam in a large fold, upstream is more favourable
than the downstream.

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2) In fold, there is more stress in the zone of hinge line than other zones.

3) In synclinal aquifer the underground water potential is higher and is

adverse in case of anticlinal fold.

A fault is the planar discontinuity between blocks of rock thet have been
displaced past one another, in a direction parallel to the discontinuity.Fault is
the result of brittle deformation due to tensile or compressive forces. Large
faults within the earth crust result from the action of tectonic forces.

Fault zone: It is the tabular region containing many parallel or anatomizing

Shear zone: This is a zone across which blocks of rock have been displayed in
a fault like manner, but without prominent development of visible faults, are
regions of ductile deformations rather than brittle deformation as in the fault

Hanging wall: The faulted block which rests above the fault plane is the
hanging wall.

Footwall: The faulted block which lies below the fault plane is called footwall.

Net slip: The displacement vector connecting originally continuous points in

the hanging wall and footwall is called the net slip as measured along fault

Strike slip: The relative movement of blocks on each side of the fault plane
parallel to the dip of the fault plane is called strike slip.

Dip slip: This is the net slip parallel to the dip fault.

Throw: The total vertical displacement is called throw, also known as vertical

Heave: The total horizontal displacement is called heave, also known as

horizontal slip.

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Classifications of fault:
Dip fault: Faults in which a fault strikes parallel to the dip of bedding, i.e.
fault strike and bedding strike are mutually perpendicular to each other.

Strike fault: Faults in which strike directions of the fault and adjacent beds
are essentially parallel i.e. the fault strikes along the strike of the disrupted

Oblique fault: This is also called as the diagonal fault and is defined as the
type in which the fault strikes at an angle to the strike of the bed.

On the basis of genetic classification the fault may be normal fault and
reverse fault.

Engineering significance
1) Fault zones are not strong and cannot resist the heavy loads and stresses,
such as dams and high raised buildings.

2) As there are non-homogeneous rock masses in the zone of fault, an extra

calculation and expenses are needed in case of such areas.

3) There is chance if water to come out from the faults, which even more
increases the risk of having more faults in this zone.

4) Violent faults may even cause earthquake and damage the engineering


Field observation:

Small scale fault was seen in the site. The evidence of fault seen was
the presence of power gauge and breccia.

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A thrust is the type of fault, across which there has been relative movement,
in which rocks of lower stratigraphic position are pushed up and over higher
strata. They are often recognizable because they place older rocks above
younger. Thrusts are the result of compression forces.

Thrust faults typically have low dip angles. A high angle thrust fault is
called reverse fault. A reverse fault and thrust fault differ in their influence. If
the angle of fault is low (<20 from horizontal) and displacement of the
overlying block is large (km range) the fault is called over thrust.

Engineering significance:
It is a type of fault so the engineering significance of thrust is same as that
of fault. It should be taken in care while designing the structures in thrust.

Field observations:
Malekhu region also contains the Main Central Thrust (MCT), also known
as Mahabharat Thrust extending throughout the Mahabharat range. The
evidence of thrust has been laid by the sighting of the metamorphic rocks on
the earth surface along with the younger rock types on the surface. The
younging region has been reversed in the region giving indirect evidence of


Study and Identification of rock

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Rock is defined as naturally forming, hard and compact solid aggregates or

assemblage of minerals forming crust of the earth. Petrology is the branch
which deals with the study of rock.

Types of rock:
I) Igneous rock
The rock which is formed by the cooling and solidification of molten mobile
minerals called magma by the crystallization are called igneous rock. The
process of formation of igneous rock is called magmatism.

Magmatism is the process of forming rock by cooling and solidification of

molten mobile material magma by crystallization. In this process magma
lose its heat gradually on the upward movement, it lose heat and becomes
crystals, by crystallization. If the heat is completely lost within the depth of
surface, rock formed is called intrusive rock and if heat is lost outside from
the surface it is called extrusive rock. Examples: granite, basalt etc.

II) Sedimentary rock:

The sedimentary rocks, as the name indicates, are the rock which are
derived from the consolidation of sediments of the preexisting rocks under
the influence of mechanical, chemical or organic activities of the denuding
agents (wind, running water, glacier etc).

Sedimentary rocks are formed by the process of accumulation,

compaction, cementation, and consolidation of the sediments. The
sediments are formed by the weathering of old rocks, igneous, metamorphic
and even sedimentary. They are formed by the deposition of either clastic
sediments, organic matter, or chemical precipitates (evaporates), followed
by compaction of particulate matter and cementation during diagenesis.
Sedimentary rocks form at or near Earths surface. Mud rocks comprise 65%
(mudstone, shale, and siltstone): sandstones 20% to 25% and carbonate
rocks 10 to 15% (limestone and dolomite).

III) Metamorphic rock:

The rock formed due to the alteration of the pre-existing rocks(sedimentary
or igneous) by the process of metamorphism is called metamorphic rock.
When the igneous rocks and metamorphic rocks are subjected to high
temperature and stress on very long period of time, they gradually change

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their form and evolve as a new form of rock known as metamorphic rocks.
Examples: slate, marble, diamond etc.

It is the natural process by which the existing rocks are altered (modified)
into new rock under the influence of pressure, temperature and chemical
solution (reaction). Under the influence of these factors the rock (pre-
existing) is changed into new rock physically and chemically. In metamorphic
rock, minerals are arranged in preferred orientation.



1 Color White
2 Texture Crystalline
3 Structure/Cleavage Bedding
4 Sp. Gravity high
5 Acid Test React with acid in powder form
6 Mineral Dolomite,Calcite
7 Rock Type Sedimentary
8 Rock Name Limestone
9 Engineering
i Strength high
ii Durability high
iii Blastibility high
10 Uses Construction aggregate, flooring
11 Geological Malekhu limestone



1 Color Grey
2 Texture Non-crystalline
3 Structure/Cleavage Foliated/slaty
4 Sp. Gravity low
5 Acid Test -
6 Mineral Clay, mica

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7 Rock Type metamorphic

8 Rock Name slate
9 Engineering
i Strength low
ii Durability high
iii Blastibility low
10 Uses roofing
11 Geological Benighat slate



1 Color
2 Texture
3 Structure/Clevage
4 Sp.Gravity
5 Acid Test
6 Mineral
7 Rock Type
8 Rock Name
9 Engineering
i Strength
ii Durability
iii Blastibility
10 Uses
11 Geological



1 Color
2 Texture

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3 Structure/Clevage
4 Sp.Gravity
5 Acid Test
6 Mineral
7 Rock Type
8 Rock Name
9 Engineering
i Strength
ii Durability
iii Blastibility
10 Uses
11 Geological



1 Color
2 Texture
3 Structure/Clevage
4 Sp.Gravity
5 Acid Test
6 Mineral
7 Rock Type
8 Rock Name
9 Engineering
i Strength
ii Durability
iii Blastibility
10 Uses
11 Geological



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Geology report

1 Color
2 Texture
3 Structure/Clevage
4 Sp.Gravity
5 Acid Test
6 Mineral
7 Rock Type
8 Rock Name
9 Engineering
i Strength
ii Durability
iii Blastibility
10 Uses
11 Geological

River channel morphology

River channel morphology in brief means the type of river channels in
different geological regions of a zone and the climatic conditions. The route
in which river flows is called the river valley In engineering practice, many
structures, such as dam, bridge, reservoir etc are constructed in the river

Types of rivers
I) Straight river channel: This type of river follows a straight path.The
topography of the area is characterized by steep relief. The gradient of the
river path is also highcausing the flow velocity of water high. Since the
energy level of such river is high, the erosional rate is intensely higher than
the deposition of sediments. Deep scouring along the river path is higher
than the side cutting. Straight rivers are dominantly occurred in Higher
Himalayan Region.

II) Meandering river channel: This the type of river channel in which the
course if the river is bent towards different direction within the small area. It
is mostly possible in soft rocks. In middle reaches, the river becomes mature.
It does erode but only selectively, changing its course where it finds
obstructions, which are insurmountable. It meanders profusely, i.e. changes

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its course again and again through a small area. It flows in loops. Menders
are therefore typical character feature of a mature river. The discharge is
quite high which also contributes to meandering of a river. In this type of
river channel, erosion and deposition are frequent and approximately equal.

III) Braided river morphology: Braided rivers look completely different

from meandering rivers. The topography of the braided river area is
characterized by low relief. The gradient is low, area wide, and water flow
with low velocity. They have many channels that are constantly changing
position because of frequent changes inflow rate and sediment supply. The
sediments of braided rivers are usually gravel and cobbles. Sometimes a
meandering river may change into a braided river in the middle zone if the
supply of sediment increases as a result of farming or grazing activities in
the watershed.

Features developed by river channel morphology

I) Alluvial Fans and Cones: These are cone shaped accumulation of
stream debris that is commonly found at places where small intermittent
streamlets coming down from hills enter the low lands. The apex of such a
deposit points up hill and its slope may range from almost flat to as much as
50.When the slope of the deposits is below 10, the alluvial deposit is known

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as alluvial fan, and when it is from 10-50, the deposit is known as alluvial
cone. Alluvium is usually very porous and will be compressible if rich in clay
and permeable if composed of gravel, sand or silt.

II) Flood Plain Deposits: When water overflows the banks and spread as
enormous sheets of water in surrounding areas, their velocity gets checked
everywhere due to obstructions. As a result they deposit most of the load in
the form of a thick layer of mud. Since such a process may get repeated year
after year, the low lying areas surrounding major rivers are actually made up
of the layers of mud deposits laid after a number of floods. These are
generally level or plain in nature and extensive in area and are called Flood
plains. These are invariably very fertile in nature and hence have been
supporting population. Two major types of floodplains known as convex flood
plains and flat flood plains are known.

III) Deltas: Deltas are defined as alluvial deposits of roughly triangular

shape that are deposited by the rivers at the points where they enter into the
sea. Herodotus first used this term for the deposits of the river Nile at its
entry into the Mediterranean Sea. Deltas are very complex in their structure.
A number of fractures are involved in their formation, evolution and

IV) Oxbow Lake: The isolated curve or loop shaped part of meandering
river often contains some supplies of water known as oxbow lakes in the
shape of curve.

V) Higher Terrace: It is the land formed by the river as it was flowing in

these areas in the past history. The higher terrace is over the high flood level
of the river in present. There may be finer and coarser material layers
alternately in the higher terrace.

VI) Middle Terrace: As its name it is the middle part of the higher and lower
terrace. This terrace will also over the high flood level of the river.

VII) Lower Terrace (Flood Plain): During floods a river overflows its bank
and submerges the adjacent low-lying areas where deposition of alluvial
material takes place. A wide belt of alluvial plain formed in this way on either
side of a stream, is called 'flood plain'.

VIII) Rock Island: It is the area formed by the river deposition. It is not
necessary to be at its mouth.

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Engineering significance of different types of river channels

Civil engineers have to deal with varieties of the river channel
morphology for the construction of different structures as well as availability
of the construction material. If we consider straight river channel
morphology, then construction of masonry bridge foundation on river
channel is not applicable as deep scouring is intense along the path,
whereas, the straight river channel has low side cutting, in such case arch
bridge can be a good option. Similarly the construction of run off hydropower
dam is an option.

In case of meandering river if the bridge is constructed in a curve

portion then the foundation on the striking band may be affected. Instead
the site of the bridge is selected on the straight potion of the meandering
river. Whereas, depending upon the construction material available like
granite boulders, gravity dam can be constructed in this type of morphology
like Kulekhani Hydropower Dam.

In case of braided river condition, a span of bridge is high with many

pillars on the river path. In low land braided river morphology, the
hydropower project is impracticable, due to low gradient and high
sedimentation problem.

Sketch and photographs


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An unconformity is defined as a surface of erosion or non-depositing
occurring within a sequence of rocks. It indicates a gap or interval of time in
the geological history of the area during which the normal process of
deposition was interrupted. It is a structural feature in the sense that rock
formations lying above and below it generally represent different conditions
under which they have been formed.

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A text book of engineering geology-

Fundamentals of geology-

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