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Element 1:- Work Equipment Hazards and Control

Precautions in maintenance of Work Equipment

Use of permit to work


Isolation/locking off
Dissipation of stored energy
Segregation
Safe means of access
Use of PPE
Competent personnel
Ensure safe environment (allow to cool)

Hazards of maintenance work opposite of above plus

Chemicals
Biological
Asbestos
Hot or cold
Pressure to complete work

Mechanical Hazards of Machinery

Entanglement
Traps
Impact
Contact
Ejection

ENTICE

Draw examples of entanglement, crushing, drawing in, shear

Non-Mechanical Hazards of Machinery

Chemical/biological hazards
Dust and fumes
Ergonomics
Electricity
Fire/explosion
Hazardous substances
Manual handling
Noise
Radiation
Stability of machine
Temperature extremes
Ultra violet light
Vibration

Office machinery: -

Photocopier and Shredder

Common hazards

Electrical
Ergonomic
Noise
Stability of machine

Other Hazards

Photocopier Document shredder


Drawing in Drawing in to cutters
Trap between moving parts Contact with cutters
Chemicals Dust
Ultra violet light

Manufacturing/Maintenance Machinery:

Bench top grinder/Pedestal drill

Common Hazards

Electricity
Ergonomics
Dust
Stability of machine

Other hazards

Bench top grinder Pedestal drill


Contact with rotating wheel Entanglement
Drawing into the trap between the Contact (Stabbing/puncture)
tool rest and wheel
Ejected parts of wheel or work Impact from an unsecured work
piece piece
Fire and sparks Cutting from swarf
Vibration Ejection of a broken bit or
materials
Manual handling

Agricultural/Horticultural Machinery:-

Cylinder mower and Strimmer


Common Hazards

Biological e.g. animal droppings


Chemicals e.g. herbicides
Electrical
Fire/explosion if petrol
Ergonomics
Manual handling
Noise and vibration
Ejection of materials

Other Hazards
Cylinder mower Strimmer
Contact with rotating blades Contact with cutter
Entanglement in blades Entanglement with cutter

Retail Machinery:-

Waste Compactor/Checkout Conveyor

Common hazards

Electricity
Ergonomics
Manual handling

Other Hazards
Waste Compactor Checkout Conveyor
Impact Drawing in traps
Crush Non-ionising radiation (Scanner)
Biological infection from waste
Construction Machinery:-

Cement Mixer/Circular Saw

Common Hazards

Dust
Electricity
Stability of machine
Ergonomics
Trapping between fixed and moving parts
Noise

Other Hazards
Cement Mixer Circular Saw
Entanglement Drawing into rotating blade
Chemicals Contact
Manual handling Ejection of materials

Machinery Hierarchy of Controls


Fixed guards
Other guards or protection devices
Protective devices (Jigs, Holders, Push Sticks)
Information, Instruction, Training and Supervision

Fixed Guards:-

A physical barrier not connected to machine controls which has no


moving parts and requires a tool to remove it

Fixed Guards
Advantages Disadvantages
Minimal maintenance Not linked to machine controls
Only defeated by deliberate act No protection when removed
Only visual inspection Access to dangerous parts when
removed
May protect against other hazards More difficult to remove not
e.g. noise, dust, ejection of practical when frequent access
materials required
Tends to be left unfixed when
frequent access required
May hamper visibility

Interlock Guard:-

Linked to the machine controls so that when the machine is in a


dangerous condition the guard cannot be opened or opening the
guard causes the machine to become safe

Interlock Guard
Advantages Disadvantages
Allow safe access for feeding Increase the complexity of the
materials machine
Convenient to use Difficult to test and maintain
Less likely to be deliberately May need a brake or time delay
defeated
Speeds up operations Components could fail in service
Regular maintenance required
May not fail to safety
Test ( 1 )
Outline the practical precautions that might need to be
taken prior to the repair of a large item of process
machinery.

Use of permit to work


Isolation/locking off
Dissipation of stored energy
Segregation
Safe means of access
Use of PPE
Competent personnel
Ensure safe environment (allow to cool)

Outline EIGHT factors that may be important in determining


the maintenance requirements of an item of work equipment

The location of the equipment


Is it capable of being Isolated/locking off
Dissipation of stored energy
Segregation
Safe means of access and egress
Is PPE required
Are personnel trained and competent
Are there heat or cold problems
Chemicals
Biological
________________________________________________________
a) Identify the specific hazards associated with routine
maintenance work

Electricity
Stored energy
Access and egress
hot or cold
Chemicals
Biological
Working at height
Confined spaces

a) Provide sketches to show clearly the nature of the


following mechanical hazards from moving parts of
machinery:
(i) Entanglement
(ii) Crushing
(iii) drawing-in.

Entanglement Shearing
Crushing
Drawing in
(b) Outline the issues that should be addressed in assessing
the appropriateness & suitability of a fixed guard used to
protect against dangerous parts of a machine.

Assess the strength and suitability of guard.


Rigidity of the material which the guard is made.
The security of fastenings the guard.
Sufficient ventilation when required.
Fixed guard or frequent removal.
Ensure that the guard neither interferes with the operation of
the machine nor obstructs the vision of the operator,
Any openings in the guard should be of such size as to
prevent access to the danger point.

(c) Identify FOUR non-mechanical hazards to which


woodworking machine operators may be exposed & outline
the possible health & safety effects in EACH case.

Splinters (resulting in injuries to the eye, cuts & infection)


Dust (causing lung disorders & fires/explosions),
Electricity (with its associated risk of shock, electrical
burns & fire).
Manual handling(which could result in musculoskeletal
disorders)
Noise (resulting in hearing loss or tinnitus)
Vibration (causing hand-arm vibration syndrome)
Chemical/biological hazards
Ergonomics
Fire/explosion
Stability of machine
Temperature extremes

Outline the precautions that might be taken to


reduce the risk of injury when using stepladders
Ensure that the stepladder is inspected for defects
before use.
Erected on level ground with chain or rope
There is no carrying out work from the top step
Body system by a second person when necessary
Correctly positioned to avoid over-reaching
There is no permition for overloaded.

A cleaner is required to polish floors using a rotary


floor polisher.

(i) Identify the hazards that might be


associated with this operation.

Entanglement, slips, trips & falls;


Noise & vibration;
Electrical & Ergonomic hazards;
Chemical hazardous

(ii) Outline suitable control measures that


might be used to minimise the risk.

Testing the machine before start


Guarding
Cable protection
Wear PPE during work & changing brushes
Isolation of the machine if required
Regular maintenance
Use of residual current devices,
Provision training for the operator

An employee is engaged in general cleaning activities in a


large veterinary practice.

(i) Outline the precautions that could be taken to


Minimise the risk of harm from these hazards.

the provision & use of personal protective equipment


the introduction of a procedure for handling &
disposal of sharps,
the need for animals to be kept in secure enclosures,
possible need for immunisation against diseases
known to be transmitted by animals.
employee would need specific training in the
precautions outlined would have gained an additional
mark.

Identify FOUR mechanical hazards presented by


pedestal drills & outline in EACH case how injury may
occur.

entanglement of hair with the drill bit or chuck,


stabbing injuries from the end of the bit,
contact with the drill bit or chuck resulting in
abrasions,
& ejection of, or impact by, unclamped workpieces,
made worse by the fact that the workpiece may be
spinning at fast speed on the bit.
Cutting hazards may also be presented by metal
swarf produced by the drilling process.

(a) Identify:

(i) TWO mechanical hazards associated


with moving parts of machinery.

Mechanical hazards (I.e. those from ,moving


parts of machinery &/or the material being
worked) include:
impact, entanglement, crushing, shearing,
ejection, cutting & abrasion,

(ii) TWO non-mechanical hazards to which


machine operator may be exposed.

non-mechanical machinery hazards includes:


noise, vibration, electricity , hazardous substances,
radiation, extremes of temperature & ergonomic
issues.

(iii) Outline a hierarchy of control measures that


may be used to reduce the risk of injury
from dangerous parts of machinery.

fixed guards,
other types of guards or protective devices,
safety aids such as jigs, holders & push-sticks,
the provision of information, instruction, training &
supervision,
(a) Outline the principles of the following types of
machine guard:

(i) A fixed guard

A fixed guard is physically attached to the machine &


normally requires a special tool to remove it. Provides a
physical barrier that has no moving parts & is not linked to
the controls, motion or hazardous condition of the
machine.

(ii) An interlocked guard.

Interlocked guards, on the other hand, work on the


principle that a machine cannot start or otherwise become
dangerous until the guard is closed, & that when the
machine is in a dangerous condition either the guard
cannot be operated or opening the guard causes the
machine to come to a rest.

(iii) Identify TWO advantages & TWO


disadvantages of a fixed machine guard.

Advantages

A fixed guard means it is easy to inspect & maintain


Requires a tool to remove it
there are no moving parts leads to increased
reliability

Disadvantages

It is not linked to the machine controls which means


that no protection is afforded should it be removed
since it is fixed & requires a special tool for its
removal, access, when required, is more difficult.
A physical barrier, particularly if it is solid rather than
meshed, may also hamper visual inspection of the
machine or the work being performed.

List EIGHT types of non-mechanical associated with


machinery

Chemical/dust/fumes etc.
Noise & Vibration
Fire/explosion
Hot surfaces
Temperature
Electricity
Radiation
Biological
Ergonomics
Access

Identify FOUR hazards when cutting grass on


roadside verges with a rider-operated motor-mower &
outline the precautions to be taken against EACH one.
fast rotating blades & the potential for the machine to
overturn when operating on inclines.
noise & vibration,
collision with road traffic or pedestrians,
fumes,
dust,
flying objects (e.g. stones from the machine),
& hazards associated with fuel.
Environmental issues such as extreme exposure to
sunlight & the presence of stinging insects.
Outline the issues that should be considered to
ensure the health and safety of cleaners employed in
a school out of normal working hours

3 Areas

1) General Cleaning (Chemicals,Electrical, Sharp objects,


Manual handling)
2) School Situation (Labs, Workshops)
3) Out of hours working (Lone working, Communication,
Supervision etc:

Outline the FOUR main categories of guards &


safeguarding devices that may be used to minimize
the risk of contact with dangerous parts of machinery

Initially mentioned fixed guards described


A physical barrier
Held in its place at all times
Not linked to the machine operation
requiring a special tool for its removal
difficult for by-bass
Next, interlocked guards could have been described as
A guard linked mechanically, electrically, or pneumatically to the
machine operation
& preventing access when the machine is in a dangerous position
While also preventing operation of the machine when the guard is
open
A third category of guard, the adjustable or self-adjusting guard, is
essentially a fixed guard that has elements that can be adjusted (or
which adjust themselves) to allow for the material being processed
Typical examples can be found on circular saws & drill chucks
Lastly, the trip device (for example)
A pressure mat
Probe
Or photo-electric system)
stops movement of the machine when approach is detected
While not really main type of guard due to its limited application,
credit was given to candidates who referred to automatic (or self-
acting) guards within their 4 types
An automatic guard is linked to the machine mechanism & physically
moves an operator from the danger zone.

Identify FOUR mechanical hazards presented by pedestal


drills & outline in EACH case how injury may occur
These include
Entanglement of hair with the drill bit or chuck
Stabbing injuries from the end of the bit
Contact with the drill bit or chuck resulting in abrasions
& ejection of, or impact by, unclamped workpieces, made worse
by the fact that the workpiece may be spinning at fast speed on
the bit
Cutting hazards may also be presented by metal swarf produced
by the drilling process

Provide sketches to show clearly the nature of the following


mechanical hazards from moving parts of machinery ( i)
Entanglement (ii) Crushing (iv)Shear
(iii)Drawing-in
Identify FOUR types of protection device which will
switch off the machine upon contact or when the light
beam broken

Protection Devices
Trip Device Such as Telescopic Trip Device
Photoelectric Safety Systems (Example of a
Photoelectric Light Guard
Pressure Sensitive Mats
Safety Trip Wires