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IMPERIALISM
ITS

PRICES

;

ITS

VOCATION

By

EMIL REICH
DOCTOR JURIS
Author
" Atlas of English Success among Nations," " " Foundations of Modern Europe History,"
of

"

Etc Etc

OKOVVOV

oV.

THEMISTOCLES

London:
Paternoster

HUTCH INSON
Row
JT

& CO.
1905

JT

TO

THE BRITISH NATION
A GRATEFUL HUNGARIAN

PREFACE

publishing

the

present small

work on the

IN greatest
feels

political

that

he

question of the day, the author must, first of all, apologise to the

great Nation to
it.

whom

he has ventured to dedicate
it

The

British

Nation,

is

true,

is

singularly

tolerant

and

affable

to foreigners,

and has more

once listened with attention to the opinions of men who have dwelt amongst Britons as their
than
guests.

Nor

will

it

be,
in

we

may

hope,
to

con-

sidered

presumptuous

a

Hungarian

assume

that, being a

Hungarian, he is not quite an alien in England, nor unfamiliar with English political
sentiment.

Yet

it

is

certain

that

the

question
is

and the way in which it touch upon subjects of delicate national
here
treated,

led

to

interests,

may
case,

expose

the author
intruder.
offers

to

the appearance
this,

of an
be the

unwelcome
he

For
his

should

it

here

humble apology.
" Strike ^me,

He
but

begs to say, with

Themistocles,

viii

PREFACE
me
"
!

listen to
it

It is

is

from a love
it

not from a love of notoriety ; of England that the author

has thought

his

duty to put before the British

public his views on Imperialism.

appeared to him that Imperialism, having so far been approached from every conceivable point of view of home politics, might with adIt

vantage

be

studied

from two
:

other

and

very

instructive points

of view

from that of General

History, and from that of personal experience of the working of types of Imperialism other than
British.

There have been

various

Empires

in

history.

The

author

is

not aware that there exists a com-

prehensive
history
;

study of Imperialism as a
it

and yet

is

in

problem of every question of that

kind a matter of no mean importance to try to " derive from history such " working hypotheses

may serve The author
as

as safe guides in the

maze of

politics.

has devoted
that
is,

his

life

to the study of

General History

to the study of those vast

Alps among the innumerable mountains and hills of history which determined the minor events of
the past.

He

is

convinced

that,

as

the

Alps or

the Cordilleras were not
lation

made by

the slow

cumu;

of countless small heavings of the earth even so the leading facts of history, and amongst

PREFACE
"

ix

them Imperialism, were not produced by " many,

many
Broad

little

causes,

but

by

a
is,

few great causes.
few, causes.

facts

have

broad, that

By

persistent study of every aspect of the historical phenomenon one may very well arrive at a clear
insight

into

the
in

causes
in

of

vast

facts,

such

as

Imperialism

Rome,

the Catholic Church, in

Russia, in America, or in Great Britain.

In the

present

work

the author has essayed to

formulate briefly the results of his life-long study of the dominant events and institutions of General

History as bearing on the question of Imperialism.
works, laid the greatest stress not on the reading of documents and books, but on his personal acquaintance with the political and
has, as in all his
social institutions

He

of the different types of Imperialfeels

ism
It

in
is

Europe and America.
with
reluctance that the author

himthis

self

compelled to add one more
is

remark.

In

country there
to

a

more or
books

less

general tendency
great
questions.

depreciate

small

on
it

To

but too many people seems incongruous when questions like Imperialism are treated with

what

is,

in point

of size and bulk of letter-press,
reader
to

an appearance of levity and superficiality.

pause before making inferences from the thinness of the letter-press to

We

beg

the

x

PREFACE
it.

the thinness of the arguments contained in

We
man

beg him to consider that the more

ripely a

has thought over a subject ; the more elaborately he has studied every possible phase and stage thereof; the more likely he is, provided he is honest

and no
in

erudite

poseur,

to

formulate

his

results

Bulky books on subjects such as Imperialism are, unless they are meant to be mere reference-books of data,
a

the

simplest and briefest

of language.

sure

sign

and proof of the

unreadiness
will

and
in

incapacity

of their authors.
to write a

One

never be

a position
in less

complete history of Bristol than three or four bulky volumes ; but in
years

a

so, history proper will be advanced enough to enable some one to write a satisfactory history of England in one moderate

hundred

or

volume.

May

I

take this opportunity to thank the ladies
in

and gentlemen who have
attended

the

my

lectures, for

their

two years goodness and fairlast
is

ness to a student of history

who

frequently of

an opinion not agreeable to their views?

EMIL REICH.
LONDON,
33, ST.

LUKE'S ROAD,

W.

February 22, 1905.

CONTENTS
PART
I

INTRODUCTION

PART
PRINCIPLES OBTAINED

II

FROM THE STUDY

OF GENERAL HISTORY
I

IMPERIALISM

AND MAN

.

...
.
.

PAGE

13

II

IMPERIALISM AND

WOMAN

.

45

III

IMPERIALISM AND RELIGION

....

69

xii

CONTENTS
IV

IMPERIALISM AND INTELLECT

....

PAGE

92

PART

III

APPLICATION OF PRINCIPLES TO BRITISH IMPERIALISM

PART

I

INTRODUCTION

INTRODUCTION
is

easy

to divide

Politics

into
is

Home

and

IT Foreign
with
tell

Policy
terms.

;

and no one
It
is,

unacquainted

these
in

we

fear,

not so easy to

to

every concrete case which question belongs which part of policy, to home or to foreign.
the great political questions at present agitated
is

Of

engages the interest of British and non-British people more than that
there
that

probably none

of Imperialism. Everybody feels that bottom of most things bearing on
the great
the

really, at the

the

life

of

nations

of Europe,
is

America, and Asia,
or
forces
is

driving force
in

either

Imperialism

enlisted

combating Imperialism.

But
?

Imit
*

perialism a matter of

Home

Policy

Or does
a

belong to Foreign Policy? both ?
If Imperialism
is

Or

is

it

mixture of

C

a matter of

Home
all

Policy, then
its

we may
will

feel

pretty confident that

problems

adjust themselves in time and in proper order without much ado, and without much risk of any one's committing grave blunders.
3

In British

home

4
policy,
at

IMPERIALISM
any
safe
rate,

the

chances

of

success

has

danger of spoiling the never been very great.
since

Practically

from

attack

the

times

of

century, Great Britain has, since 1660, certainly since 1688, seen no serious internal trouble ; and whether one
Philip
II.

of Spain,

in the sixteenth

Administration consisted of
than other Ministers,

men

wiser or less wise

matters were not likely to be either hopelessly compromised by the inefficiency, or hurriedly precipitated into fundamental

home

reforms by the talents, of British statesmen. In British home matters one can afford to

There

danger in delay, nor any Since 1707, special advantage in superior wisdom. when, through the union with Scotland, Great Britain reached her more or less complete equiliis

no

particular

brium
were

at
left

rest of the internal problems " evolution.' to slow Blunders, if made,

home, the

1

were corrected, partly by contrary blunders, partly by process of a slow wearing out. Should therefore
is

Imperialism

belong
reason

to

home
not
else's,

policy
to

there

no

serious

why

give

Mr.
fair

Chamberlain's,
chance.

or
that

any one
case

scheme a

Imperialism would be no more than the series of Acts by which, beginning
In
Grenville's
to

with

Act
settle

in

1770,

various

proposals

were made

the

question of contested

INTRODUCTION
elections.

5

Grenville's
so.

Act proved

fairly useful,

but

Other Acts were passed, and the question of contested elections has been
not quite

finally
left to

the ordinary law-courts. But if, on the other hand, British Imperialism is a matter, or largely a matter, of Foreign Policy, then

the

of blundering becomes an exceedBoth in home and in foreign ingly grave question. policy great blunders may and have always been
possibility

made

;

but

while

in

home

policy they were but

rarely fraught with grave dangers, in foreign policy even apparently slight blunders entail most serious, A negative answer frequently irreparable, losses.

instead

of

an

affirmative

one
B.
;

;

the

despatch
in

of
or
in-

Mr. A.

instead

of Mr.
;

participation
;

abstention from a war

any delay
policy,

any wrong

formation on the

state,

army, or navy of

another great or even small Power, all this and innumerable more things may bring about the most
appalling consequences.

not difficult to point out examples in quite modern history. Austria is at present in a pitiful
It is

plight.

Many

outside

critics

are

convinced

that

she

will,

after the death
fall

King,
equally

automatically
certain

of the present Emperorto pieces. Others are
will

that

she

be

swallowed
be,
it

up

by

Germany.

However

that

may

remains

6
certain
in

IMPERIALISM
that

Austria,

if

not

Austria-Hungary,

is

a state

unworthy of her secular

role in history.

Most
Yet
facts

people are inclined to seek for the reasons of

that downfall of Austria in the
if

most varied quarters.
not very
difficult

we only

firmly grasp the truth that broad
it

have broad causes,
that

is

to

Austria, always dependent more on her than on her home policy, has come to her foreign present plight by one single mistake in her foreign
see
policy,

made
1870.

in

day

in

one single minute of one single Had Austria, regardless of con-

sequences, at once attacked Germany in July 1870, at the outset of the Franco-German War, she could

under no circumstances have
Great Power of the
did
first

lost

her rank as a

order.

However, Austria

In the very minute not join the French. this abstention was determined by the Emperor-King, Austria was automatically sinking to
that

and by losing her true leverage she began to toss about miserably in her sea of internal disturbances. It is unnecessary
the level
;

of a second-rate Power

to

point

out the

fateful
III.,

blunders
in

in

the foreign

policy

of
It

Napoleon
is

1864,
to

1866,

and

1870.

likewise

superfluous
in

remind the

reader of the absurd, and,
terrible

The

consequences, blunders in the foreign policy of Louis XV. matter is too well known.

their

INTRODUCTION
If,

7

then, British Imperialism

is

a matter of British

Foreign Policy, then indeed the greatest precaution is advisable and necessary. By the nature of
foreign policy, tentative or half measures are, quite in contrast to home policy, not feasible, or not

In foreign policy, if anywhere, Europe. we must admit and act up to the dictum: Une
easily so in

forte

est ouverte

ou fermee.

At any
There

rate,
is

we must
any

do

so

in

the
in

long run.
saying
that

scarcely

exaggeration

nations with a clear-

sighted and steady general plan in their foreign policy have the greatest chances of ultimate success.

Foreign policy must be clear in aim, as it must be based on solid information about and insight into
the resources and aims of the other Powers.

There

is

little

doubt

that Great Britain did

have

such a steady and general plan from William III. It was based on clear to the battle of Waterloo.
principles

both in what England did not want to

do

(e.g.

to acquire large provinces

on the Continent)

;

what England did want to do (e.g. to expand and But can we say this imperially outside Europe).
in

much of Great
Is there

Britain's foreign policy at present

?

such a clear and steady foreign policy ? Before the year 1871, Europe, Africa, and Asia

were, from the standpoint of International Policy,
essentially different

from what they have come to

8

IMPERIALISM
at present.

be

The
Asia,

expansion of Russia in Northern
the
rise

and

Central

of the Japanese,

the

unity and im penalisation of Germany, the unity of all colonisation of nearly all Africa Italy, the these new circumstances have most materially altered

the aims and methods of foreign policy in general.

Has
her

British foreign policy correspondingly

new steady and clear plan the altered bearings and drift of international policy
intended to
Is British

adopted meet
?

Imperialism, as far as
foreign

it

is,

by hypothesis,

mainly

British

policy, a well-outlined and

well-planned scheme of great life? One may well doubt it. In saying
reproach
is
is

this,

no

silly

meant.

On

the

contrary a
is

question
easy.

asked,

the

answer to which

far

from

In

fact, the answer seems so difficult that unless

we

the facts of the past we cannot very well hope to evolve it by sheer logical or political penetration. What the foreign policy
find

some

safe

guide

in

of Great Britain
British

shall
is

be
to

Imperialism

more simply, what mean this, we take it,
or,

can be answered only after a mature consideration

of Imperialism in the past and in empires other than the British. If it should be possible to derive

from the study of past and
non-British

also

from

that

of
real

Imperialism

in

the

present some

insight into the

nature of that great driving force

INTRODUCTION
and
still

9

greater responsibility, then indeed one might

be in a better condition to appreciate and judge adequately British Imperialism and British Imperialists and their schemes.

This
the

is

the plan here followed.

In Part

II.

of

pamphlet it is attempted to sum up plainly yet fully such causes, influences, and prices of Imperialism as can be clearly learnt from an
present
attentive

study of general
into

history.
II.

These causes
will

and prices being manifold, Part
divided
various
sections
(II)

be sub(I)

dealing

with

Imperialism and Man,
(III)

Imperialism and

Woman,

Imperialism and Religion, (IV)
Intellect.

Imperialism

and

On
in

the basis of the insight
in

study of Imperialism
Part
III., try

the

won from a general past, we shall then,
Empire, which con-

to apply the principles so obtained

to

that novum, to the British

stitutes

an essentially new and highly differentiated form of Imperialism. In pursuing our study in this fashion we shall finally be able to see whether
British

Imperialism
that

is,

or

is

not,

a

mixture of

constitutions referring to both Foreign

and
the
the

Home
above
truth

Policy

is,

whether

the

third of

Imperialism is nearer than either the first or the second.
classifications

of

PART

II

PRINCIPLES OBTAINED FROM THE STUDY OF GENERAL HISTORY

IMPERIALISM AND

MAN

CLASSIFICATION OF EMPIRES
is

more or
times

less

natural

that

men have
to

at

IT

all

imagined

themselves
history.

be

the
the
still

makers
citizens

of

their

own
state,

Whether
realm, or a
flattering

of a small
empire,

a large

larger selves

men
success.

have

been

themtheir

upon
political

few

things

more

than
state,

upon
they

own
has

Their
their

think,
forces
;

been

produced by

own

innate

by some mysterious racial quality, by virtue of which they are and always were far stronger, more
intelligent,

more

just,

and hence more successful

than

other

nations.

Nor have even
history

the greatest
to

writers

of national

seriously attempted

correct this erroneous notion.

At

the

present

prepare for an the one they
years

day when the Germans daily even greater than historic deed
achieved
a
little

over

thirty

ago,

their

foremost

teachers

and

writers

i

4
in

IMPERIALISM
them
an
incredibly
fanatic

foster

belief

in

" Teutonic "
quality,

superiority
destiny.

by

nature,

by

" race "

by

What

they have done was,

of course, exclusively their own merit ; what they will do will likewise be the effect of their irresistible
It
is

national force.

even of
;

so the

with

all

other

nations.

The
every

idolisation

word

" America "
in

by

American

their boundless belief

the

immense

everything American, either now or in the near future, all this forms the groundwork, the chief mental pabulum, the principal
superiority

of

guide and
the
to
It

leading

star

of

every

one
is

citizen

of

States.

To

cast

doubt

on

it

to

attempt

extinguish
is

the sun, or to
it

swallow

the ocean.

ridiculous;

is

unworthy
to

of

serious

attention.

Yet with
so necessary,
there
is

all

due deference
admit,
to
less
all

the

prejudices
greatness,

we

national

no statement
belief above
is,

confirmed

than
each

the

sketched.

by history The history of
It
is

nation

in

reality,

binary.

the

outcome
rather

of

conflicts

with

other

nations,

much

than
the

the

result

of
be

an

innate

greatness.

When
the

nations

to

combated
also

nation combating
real

them
each

pu remained pu

were

The

prayer

of

nation

ought

to

be

:

IMPERIALISM AND
Lord,
the

MAN
What
has

15
all

give

us

worthy enemies

!

of the Hungarians availed them, since unfortunately most of the nations surrounding them were people of third-rate importance ? Given
talent

favourable geographical situation, the next and vital point is favourable that is, very dangerous
a

In combating them, a nation will, neighbours. through those very conflicts, and provided nature
has fairly equalised chances,

become what without
to

those conflicts she could never have become.

These

conflicts
;

compel one nation
others in a territorial
spiritual
state
;

concen;

trate in city-states

monarchy
matters

others
in

again,

in

a

finally,

others,

a

vast Empire.
;

Empires
matters
briefly,

are

not

of

choice

they
(or,
It

are

of

geographical

and

historical

more
is

geo-political)

circumone's

stances.

flattering

to

think
great

that

empire

was

built

up by

the

and
is

proud

forces of one's

national

will.

But

it

not true.

Empires, like small city-states, are the resultants of circumstances that cannot be controlled, that do
not admit of a free choice.

They must be obeyed,

or otherwise they entail the heaviest penalties. No Roman ever seriously thought of an Empire
before
the

second

century

Empire was not
it

deliberately

The Roman made by the Romans
B.C.
;

was the Romans who were absolutely forced into

1

6

IMPERIALISM
up of the
all

A

the building

greatest

and most

typical

lay empire of

times.

Had

they not done so,
it.

the Carthaginians would have done

Had

the

would have Carthaginians failed, the Macedonians done it. The Mediterranean countries were, since
the
third

century

B.C.,

bound

to coalesce or

to

be united in a vast empire

Roman, Carthaginian,
got the prize
;

Macedonian, or other.

The Romans

but they did not create it. It is even so with the American Empire, or the United States. When, through the war of 1755

1763, the Colonials in America had taken cognisance of the vast Hinterland, west of
to

full

the

Alleghany Mountains ; when they began to sec that this immense Hinterland was both easily
accessible to agriculture

and
;

industrial labour,

and

teeming with untold wealth
that

when then they saw

George

III.

absolutely forbade them, by the

Proclamation of October 7, 1763, to enter upon and possess themselves of that incomparable Hinterland, they could not hesitate for one moment in
their

choice
to

of measures.

disobey the Accordingly, the Colonials, seeing that their future was in their Hinterland, and not in London, and

was

obey George III. strongest instincts of men.

To

being most effectively

aided by France, cut loose

from England.

IMPERIALISM AND
As soon
if that

MAN

17

was done, it became evident that Hinterland was to be really utilised by the
as that
it

Colonials

must be under one common governdistances

ment.

The

were

far

too

immense, the

helplessness of the solitary farmer far too manifest, to admit of the establishment of detached and

straggling

states.

It

was moreover quite on the
of except in the wars, and similar conflicts,

cards that the fabulous wealth of that Hinterland

could

not be

taken

possession

absence of

all civil strifes,

that have driven

Europe into the acceptance of, at over two thousand different governments. times,

And
human
the

so,

under

the

impulse of

the

strongest

and obeying the clear behests of geographical nature of North America, the
desires,
at

Colonials
finally

once formed an
to

come

be

Empire, which has washed both by the Atlantic
in

and the

Pacific,

and

size

is

equal to Europe.
in

Had
the

Nature rolled as insurmountable obstacles

way of the

Colonials in the north, as she has

to Colonials in the southern continent

of America,
arisen.

the very idea of an

Empire could not have

geographical reasons have long forced the Russian* to expand into Northern and
Central
Asia, as
early

The very same

as

the

and to

advance slowiy,

but

century ; to an persistently,

sixteenth

I

open

sea.

And

since such a sea, as

geography
2

wills

1

8

IMPERIALISM
can

only be secured by them by the previous conquest of huge territories, lying as it does at
it,

an enormous distance from the centre of old Russia
the

;

Russians

have v

in

the

last

three

centuries,
their

necessarily formed an Empire, in that evitable and indispensable condition of
life

in-

national
a

could
or

be secured only by
imperial
scale.

efforts

on
the

very
Poles,

great

As

against

Russians always had the great advantage of being practically unmolested in the north and east,
the

whereas the
sides.

Poles

were attacked on

all

the four

The Russian Empire
solution
in

is

thus the only

possible

the

geographical Had the Russians not succeeded in establishing the Poles, Turks, or Swedes would have done
Into
the

of Europe, given the actual nature of that part of the continent.
east
it,
it.

entered
into
as

for

the

history share than did geography ; greater making of the Russian Empire, as well a

making of the Roman Empire

of the American

Empire, geography claims a
In
all

greater share than does history.

the

three

cases, however, an Empire was, and in them still is, an inevitable phenomenon.

two of
It

may

be deplored or admired ; it cannot accidental, or a product of deliberate

be
will.

thought

The

reader

is

already prepared to hear that the

IMPERIALISM AND
British

MAN

19

Empire too is a necessity, and not the result of mere plans, schemes, adventures, exploits, or any other apparently free action of man. Ever
since

1066,

certainly

ever

since

1154,

England

has clearly been Imperialist, in fact or in intention. If one compares the history of France with
that of

England proper,

it

becomes

at

once evident
still

that, while

France for centuries after 1066 was

broken up into a great
territories
earls,

number of autonomous

belonging to kings, dukes, margraves, and barons ; England after 1066 offers,
the

through

conquest of William

I.,

a practically

united territory from the

Tweed

to

Land's End.

The
the

territorial

territorial

unity of England dates from 1066 ; unity of France dates from 1766.
small

Even
This
the

in

1766 there were a few

foreign

enclaves in France.
territorial

first

Norman

unity of England clearly enabled kings to think of expansion
that
is,

outside England

to think imperially.
in
fact,
it

This

was more than
necessary by the

facilitated

was made

circumstance

that

the

Normans,

who conquered England, were dukes of Normandy.
After
1 1

proper.
to

54 the King of England had an Empire Half of modern France owed allegiance
part of eastern Ireland belonged to

him

;

him

;

and the Scotch were not quite independent of him.

20

IMPERIALISM
the maintenance of this vast and most valuable the kings and the people of England spent, interruptions, the next three hundred years,

On
with

Empire

from 1154 to the battle of Chatillon in 1453, by which Guienne was lost to the English, so that
only Calais remained English until 1558.

For three hundred
and
people

years, then,

the

Government
in
felt

of

England

were

engaged
rightly

vast
that

imperial
their

conflicts.

The Normans

hold

on England would be much

safer

by

the resources of imperial provinces outside England.

They were thus driven
to

into Imperialism in order

consolidate

the

extraordinary

success

of

the

Battle of Hastings.

No
totally

sooner

had

imperial

proved to be unfeasible
an imperial career of a
to

expansion in France (1453) than a new and
horizon.
In

unforeseen circumstance drove England into
still

greater
later

1492 Columbus discovered what
be a huge continent
full

on was found
and

of

riches

new

possibilities.

Through

that

discovery

Columbus

changed the entire gco-politicaJ position of England. From having formerly been at the extreme end
of the European world, England

now

slowly

woke

up
of

to

the fact that

she

was

really in

the centre

the

world.
a

England

Englishman service so immense.

No

ever

rendered

IMPERIALISM AND
More
than that.
It
is

MAN

21

indeed quite evident that nearly every one great event of the sixteenth century

quickened into life by the incomparable The Reformation broke achievement of Columbus.

was

out
after
in

in

Germany

in

1517,

and

more

particularly

1519, because the German territorial princes, view of the apparently boundless power of

Charles V., ruler of most of western Europe and of America, were afraid that he would degrade

them

to

mere

provincial

officials.

Without

Columbus's discovery the princes would not have dreaded Charles V. Without the aid of the princes
of Germany, Luther could success than had had Hus.
never
wards.

have

had

no more

The Germans have
in

made

political

revolutions from bottom up-

This they did only
in

matters intellectual

and

artistic.

As
events

Germany, so in Spain the chief cause of The Spanish people, Columbus. spells

determined to appropriate the vast territories and treasures of their newly discovered world, did not
join the Reformation, in that they clearly saw that

with religious wars at home the American and other They therefore conquests could not be realised.
readily submitted, with apparently
to the Catholic

fanatic

bigotry,

Church, to the
have peace
at

Inquisition, to the
free scope

monks, so

as to

home and

22
in

IMPERIALISM
America.
Spanish bigotry in modern times and consequences were thus the inevitable result of

all its

the feat of Columbus.

long proof is needed to show that in sixteenthcentury France too the principal and ultimate
cause at

No

work

is

Columbus.

In the

first

half of

that century (up to

by ultra-Catholic

1558) France was surrounded Spain on all sides ; Philip of

Spain, subsequently the Second, having married the Queen of England, and being Lord of the countries
to
east

the

south,

east

(Spanish

(Franche-Comte), and Netherlands) of France.
her

northSpain,

hitherto relatively unimportant to France, was now,

thanks to

America,

Naturally many driven into Huguenotism

most serious antagonist. Frenchmen were, up to 1558,
;

and had England
with
Spain,
all

re-

mained Catholic and

allied

the

French would have become Protestants.

1558-61 England was therefore necessary
Catholic.

in

However, became Anglican; and it
for

France

to

remain

question was fought and intrigued out in France from 1559 to 1593, when Henry IV. turned Catholic.
In

The

now

turning to the influence of Columbus on

England,

we

have

no

hesitation

in

saying

that

Columbus, together with

William the

Conqueror
as

and Simon de Montfort, has revealed

well as

IMPERIALISM AND

MAN

23

given to the English their real destiny Imperialism. The English of the sixteenth century were,

an fond) dominated by one great desire only the desire, both natural and legitimate, to avail themselves of the unparalleled opportunities afforded to

them by

the

discovery

of Columbus

and

other

Spanish, Portuguese, and some English navigators. Slowly but unfailingly the English of the Tudor

period

learnt

to

appreciate

the

fact

that

North

" America, at any rate, was their natural sphere of " and that for the trade in the east influence ;

no way smaller than those It became of the Spanish, Portuguese, or Dutch. more and more galling to them to note the
they had
facilities

in

glorious career of the people of
little

little

Holland and

Portugal, while they themselves lagged behind.
like

But,

seriously think
in

North

Spanish, the English could not of establishing an oversea empire America, without having found their
the

equilibrium at home.
In the sixteenth century, with the Spanish spectre

constantly

before
for
in

them,

they

Spanish of Philip II. When, acquiesced tyranny however, the Spanish might was becoming more
the

autocracy

the

same reason

that

accepted the

Tudor

and more evanescent, the English, learning from the example of the successful Dutch revolt before

24
them,
teenth
first

IMPERIALISM
settled
all

home

questions in the seven-

by civil war and parliamentary and then, in the eighteenth, entered upon conflicts, the task of establishing an oversea empire.
century

The
the

civil

war and

most

of the conflicts of
in
in

Parliament

from

1660 to

1702 were centred
Puritanism

Puritan section of the people.
at the

England aimed
brium
forces
at
all

Catholic bigotry in

very same thing that ultraSpain meant to secure: equili-

home, in order to devote the country's the more freely to Empire-building abroad.

The

Lord.

Puritans devotedly sang of the Empire of the In reality they sang for the British Empire.
is

Historically speaking, Puritanism

the

same phePuritanism

nomenon
is

as Spanish

ultra-Catholicism.
conflicts,

far richer in

antagonisms and
stimulate
it

and hence
progress

more
But

likely

to

thought

and

historically

is

on a line with

the Spanish

means of securing

free scope for Imperialism.
fact,

The dominating
is

then,

of English history

its

Imperialism/ dictated by the least changeable
*

of all influences
in

the world.

by England's geo-political situation No doubt untold thousands, nay,

against

of bygone English disliked the idea of Imperialism, and when brave John Eliot thundered " of Charles I. he took his the "
millions,

Sejanus

example from

Roman

imperial history only to cast

IMPERIALISM AND
upon
it all

MAN

25

the contumely that his noble heart was

capable of.

This, however, does not alter the fact that Eliot

himself

is,

historically, as

much one of

the builders

of the British Empire as is Warren Hastings or Without men like Eliot, England Cecil Rhodes.
could not have settled her
seventeenth

home

century, although And without her equilibrium producing such men. at home, she could not, in the eighteenth century,

questions in the she was sure of

have devoted her forces to the work of EmpireAs Eliot preceded Cromwell, so he is building.
the antecedent of Chatham.

The

drift for Imperial-

ism has been, as we saw, secular in England. By nature England was, before the time when
the wealth of her coal mines
a

was

fully appreciated,

poor country. of taxation that did not admit of exemptions as on
the

By some

industries and a system

Continent, the English kings had, it is true, an ample revenue. Yet it was evident, both from
the

Spanish

and

Dutch

wars,

and

from

the

requirements of colonisation, that England must, in In the self-defence, possess a very strong fleet.
seventeenth

century England had a population of

This 6,000,000, and 7,000,000 people. was evidently too small to draw therefrom a revenue sufficiently large for the maintenance of a first-class
between

26
fleet.

IMPERIALISM

This could only be done by accumulating than had been possible great wealth more rapidly This again was tantamount to intense overbefore.
to Empire-building. with industrial resources in their In those times, as the example of the infancy, oversea trade alone,

sea trade

that

is,

Dutch
a naval

clearly

a wealth

showed, could bring to the country maintenance of sufficiently large for the
first

power of the

order, together with
a great

its

indispensable

complement

merchant

fleet.

In 1690, as well as in

1779, England's coasts were
fleets.

attacked by French and Franco-Spanish
place before

To

England a rampart of

invincible vessels,

an Empire with boundless resources was needed.

The same

reason that prompted the

Norman and

Lancastrian kings of England to conquer France, prompted the English people to What fortify their country by a world-empire.

Plantagenet and

the battles of Crecy and Agincourt meant to the kings of England in the fourteenth and fifteenth
centuries,

the

battles

of the

Nile
in

meant to the English people
nineteenth
reflection

and Trafalgar the eighteenth and
cases
is

centuries.

In

both

the

same

was made.

England alone

not endowed

resources to defend herself against Not one Islands never are. powerful aggressors. of the large islands in Europe has ever been able

with

sufficient

IMPERIALISM AND
to

MAN
up
a

27
it

hold

its

own
like

for

any length of time, unless
in

succeeded,

Venice,
islands

building

strong

Empire.

The

of Crete, Rhodes, Cyprus,
all

Sicily, Sardinia,

Corsica, and Ireland were

alike

unable to stave off the conqueror.
in

the early

Middle Ages
learnt

;

and

it

So was England was only when

of geo-politics, that islands must be Imperialist or otherwise be annexed by a great continental power, that England

England

finally

the

lesson

became

really strong

and important.

At
of

present

this

we are witnessing another example The fundamental truth of geo-politics.

must Japanese arc quite right in holding that they form an Empire. Being only a group of islands
they must surround them" on all sides " selves by the one force that is always This means or ubiquitous that is, by sea-power.
accessible

on

all

sides,

they

must have

an

Empire.
for
in

So
the

far,

so

good.
they
the

However,
imitate

unfortunately

Japanese
in

the
in

Swedes

the

English seventeenth

the

Middle Ages and the
century
;

that

Japanese now attempt to build up that indispensable Empire of theirs on the continent of eastern Asia,
or,

more properly speaking,
territory.

in

Russian, or
will

semi-

Russian,
fail,

In

this

they
the

ultimately
in

as did

the English and

Swedes

quite

similar enterprises

on the Continent.

28

IMPERIALISM
What
the

Japanese ought to have done was to build up an island Empire in the Pacific. The Philippine Islands they might probably have bought

of the Americans
have been

other innumerable islands might " exchanged, conquered, or inevitably
;

annexed," from
possessions.
a

the Dutch, Portuguese, and other The heroism of the Japanese is not

consequence of bushido, or any other quality " of the " soul of that nation. But bushido is a
consequence of the arrival of Russia in the Far East, a political circumstance ; and of the island
nature of Japan, a geographical fact. More briefly, then, what has driven the Japanese
into

Imperialism

is

a

geo-political

situation.

profound alteration in their Their Empire, like that

of the Romans, Americans, Russians, or English, is not a matter of choice, of proud free will, of " innate " racial superiority, but of fatal necessity.
It

cannot be
"

otherwise.

An

individual

man

in

England may be

called, or call himself, a "Little

he may in ever so violent language ; Englander " " thunder against the " grab of and u greed he will remain an Imperialist all the Imperialism
:

same.

It

is

written

all

over his

face,

in the v his

calm and unemotional expression of his lack of gestures ; in his tastes ;

face

;

in

in

his

likes

and dislikes

;

in

his

stern

and passionate

interest

IMPERIALISM
in

AND MAN
of the sense ot Art
possessed
it

29
a
a

Religion

;

in

his lack his

sense

which had

ancestors

to

greater extent, they could not have made the British Empire ; in every nook and corner of his soul,

of his being.

How

many

times has

it

not been remarked by
radically different the
!

Continentals, as well as

by English people coming

home from
English
radically

the Continent,

how

are

from

the

Continentals

Precisely
these

;

indeed.

The English have
prompted and
by a
:

eight

hundred
pregnated

years been

pushed,

im-

and

energised,

force

practically

unknown on

the Continent
;

by Imperialism.
is

The

English are Imperialists
or only trying to be so.
ence.
It
is

the Continentals are not,

This

the whole differ;

a

difference

indeed
all

one

that

goes

down

to the very tap-root of

religious,

or
;

financial.
it

It

things social, public, colours or discolours

everything

intensifies or relaxes

everything

;

it

changes the very atmosphere of things.

Not any

alleged

" race " quality,

Anglo-Saxon,

Anglo-Celtic, or other, has impressed its fiat on the features, physical and moral, of the English ; their secular Imperialism has done it. Their very physical
features are clear evidence of
it.

They

have, on the

whole, imperial faces

:

sharp, stern, imposing, with
hair,

prominent noses,

little

bony,

sinewy.

Like

30

IMPERIALISM
them
is

their country, each of
able, ours,

uncommunicative

;

an island, unapproachyet fully aware that

public virtues (dpcral
all

jcoti/oi'ijcai)

must bind them

Taine has together in an imperialist unit. essayed to build up the history of the intellect of England by reducing the moving forces to Race,
Milieu,

Moment.
is

This

is

handy

;

but only handy.
as

The

truth

that the English intellect, as well

every

other

feature

of

English

life,

has

been

influenced by nothing
greater

or

lesser

more profoundly than by the wave of Imperialism constantly

surging over England since William the Conqueror. If then, Imperialism is, as will be seen later on in

much

greater detail, not merely a political scheme,
rest

which leaves the
or religious
life

of the

intellectual, emotional,

of the individual

untouched

;

if

Imperialism be, as it undoubtedly is, a Scheme of National Life, embracing and influencing every one
aspect of public or private
life,

then

we must

indeed

be very careful in distinguishing the various kinds For there are several kinds. of Imperialism.

To
is

jumble

Roman,

Imperialism together with Russian, American, or Japanese Imperialism,
British

absurd.

The Romans had an Empire, and
British.

so have the
essentially.

But these two Empires differ most

They

have, of course, certain fundamental features

IMPERIALISM
in

AND MAN
see.

31
the con-

common,

as

we

shall

Some of

sequences of Imperialism are so vast, so penetrating, that every one Empire has manifested them. Yet
there are deep differences between
is

Empires and it only by grasping the individual and distinctive
;

nature

of

the

British

Empire quite

clearly

that

we may hope
Empire.
In
trying

to secure a safe foundation of further

thought on Imperialism as related to the British
to
at

give

a

short

classification

of

Empires, we are
difference.

once struck by their geographical The British Empire is not continuous
It
is

or contiguous.
it

straggling over

all

latitudes
is

;

has no continuous boundary line.
all

It

of

all

climes, of

nations, of

all

degrees of civilisation.

The Roman Empire
territory,

was, the

American and the

Russian Empires are, composed of one continuous

encompassed by one unbroken

frontier.
in structure.

This alone constitutes a vast difference

But when we add that the British Empire consists
of some sixty million white people, mostly British, and several hundred million non-white people ; when we furthermore consider that the real soul

of the British Empire, in numbers, money, intellect, and general moving force, is centred in a little
country,

not

quite the

United Kingdom,

of Hungary, in the then we see at once that the
size

32
British

IMPERIALISM
Empire
is

in

many ways

essentially different

from either of the three other great Empires. In the Roman Empire, comprising as it did
the

all

Mediterranean

and

nearly

all

the

Atlantic

countries,

we

have, to the present day, the classical

type of the lay Empire proper.
million people, mostly very civilised

Over

a

hundred
historical

and old

that Empire, in the nations, were dwelling in territory of which there was no break, no in-

terruption.

Since the second decade of the third
all

century

A.D.

free
;

were Roman
that

citizens

of that Empire and most of them had enjoyed
inhabitants

great privilege of in the first century A.D.

Roman
Their

citizenship already
political
;

and

legal

organisation was Romanised them

practically
in

one

and

Rome
too,

had

point of language

to an

enormous
Outside
or

extent.

Roman
there

ideas

of

life,

public,

religious,

economic,

was only an

ever-dwindling

number of
Christianity.

particularities, except the

new

force of

There was,
have

inside that Empire, almost
;

uninterrupted peace for generations

and the world

seemed

to

reached

its

final

and

definite

equilibrium.

To

the present day

many an

historian

and student of history contemplates that famous Empire as the be-all and end-all of human felicity ;

and

it

is

indeed not easy to deny one's admiration

IMPERIALISM AND
to
a

MAN
millions

33
of

polity

that

enabled

so

many

halfhighly civilised people, together with many civilised or still less developed nations, to dwell in

relative

peace over the vast irea Syria to Yorkshire.

stretching

from

For

practical purposes,

then,

we may very

well

take the

Roman Empire

as the classical type of lay

Empires proper.
In point of territory the American Empire (barring a few recent and not quite assimilated provinces in
the the

West Indies and in the Pacific) is identical with Roman Empire. It is absolutely continuous
In

and self-contained.
it

point

of inner uniformity

even superior to the Roman Empire. The " recruited " sixty million white Americans, although " from all the " races of Europe, are in reality one
is

compact mass of the most uniformly developed citizens the world has ever seen.

However judge some
sojourn

incapable
features

European may be to of American life, even after a
a

of

a

year

or

two

in

the

States,

he

is

certainly well qualified

to estimate aright
in

the one

thing to

which his education

customed
diversity

him every day of
of type.
full

his

Europe has aclife we mean
:

that

it

is, is

Europe, as the Greater Hellas of the most astoundingly varying

types of physiognomy, language, manners, customs,
3

34
laws,
arts,

IMPERIALISM
games, amusements, men must be quite deprived of all

and women.
intellect

He

who,

has not achaving been brought up in Europe, quired the sense of noting the bewildering differences in types characteristic of every corner of Europe,
In

coming to America, the European
struck

is,

as all

admit,

by nothing so forcibly as by the monotony of types, whether in language, customs, manners, opinions, or tastes. This uniformity, or

homogeneity of the American people is, only in a much higher degree, what students of history
have long noticed
to

have been the case

in

the

Roman Empire.
Already
in the
first

century A.D.
in

we

find,

both

the literary works of the time, a surprising homogeneity of tone and form. Whether the inscription was penned in Gaul or in
in the inscriptions

and

Maurctania, in Sicily or in Asia Minor, it is ever more nearing a uniform level of shaliowncss and
banality.

Whether

the

writer
Italy, as

comes from Spain,
did Tacitus, there

as did Seneca, or
is

from

the same tendency to sententious terseness and

artificiality.

Whether the

jurist

was a Phoenician,
is

like Ulpian, or

an African, like Africanus, there

practically the

same bent of thought and expression. In the second and still more in the third century
becomes the
level

A.D. this uniformity

of mcdiocr

IMPERIALISM AND
and
in

MAN
excepting
intellect

35
the

the

fourth

century, always

Christian writers on religion, the

of the

Roman Empire had become The Americans are, it is
the

stale

and unprofitable.

true, very indignant at

remarks of Europeans on their uniformity. Apart from the fact that the Americans are
indignant
at

any

except

the

most

laudatory

remarks on their country, they ought, we venture to submit, to consider that undoubted uniformity

from a standpoint much more elevated than national We say, undoubted ; and we hasten to vanity.
add, that

Empires such
have

as

the

American could

not

possibly

been

built

up

unless

that

uniformity was observed more and more strictly. The American Empire, although on all fours
with the

Roman Imperium
is,

in point

configuration in space
different

of territory i.e. in point of time, totally
built

from

it.

Rome, indeed, was not

in a day ; was reared

America was.
in a

The Roman

Empire

thousand years, from the territory of one town to the immense extent of the Orbis

Romanus

in the third century A.D.

The American

Empire was
after 1783.

built
If,

two or three generations, then, the Romans were obliged to

up

in

pay,
on),

amongst other
the

prices (which

we
of

shall

see later

very
it

heavy

penalty

ever-growing

homogeneity,

stands to reason that the Americans,

36

IMPERIALISM

trying to do, if under altered circumstances, within seventy to eighty years what it took the Romans a

thousand years to do ; it stands to reason, we say, that the Americans were necessarily obliged to pay that penalty of uniformity in a much higher degree
still.

For there can be no doubt
ideal,
it.

that the higher

the
for

the

heavier

the

penalty

we must pay
cease
;

If ever there should be a time

when wars

when Universal Brotherhood reigns supreme in the when wealth will be equally distributed, world
;

and

intellect

quite

general,

if

ever such

a time
that

should
shall

come, then we

may

rest assured

we

pay for

very souls.
penalty
is

it by the skin of our teeth, with our For such an extreme ideal, an extreme

sure

to

be exacted

;

and

that

alone

should

open the eyes of so many well-meaning Utopians to the realities, and let us be candid, to
the true humanities of things.
to

We

are not

meant
cannot

be

angels:
it.

the

price

is

too big.

We

afford

Or do we
to
raise

not see that
;

into the Great Desire
a vast
less

when people were driven when they were prompted
;

manner of
with

when, in addition to all noble motives, they were also filled

Empire

the imposing hope of peopling up spaces of uncultivated land ; of giving

immense
comfort

IMPERIALISM AND
and
case

MAN
poor

37
people
;

to

untold

millions

of

of establishing a new realm where goodness and
friendliness

amongst men
;

are

frequently

realised

and much cherished

in other

words, when people
boldness,
to

had

the

audacity,

the

Promethean

aspire to
ideal

and

realise all this magnificent labour
call

and

which we
see
that

the

American

Empire

;

do

we not

such

grandeur, so

rapidly won,

so quickly acquired, could be won and only at the expense of severe losses in
that

acquired

some of
proud
at

human
?

capital

which constitutes our

heritage

On

hearing

Europeans

criticise

or

mock

uniformity, the true American ought to " Be it so, friend ; we reply with Roman dignity are excessively uniform. But we have in the
:

American

'

shortest possible time given

millions

of

uniform happiness to unfortunate Europeans, and uniform
billions

cultivation

to

of

barren

acres

of

land.

Could we have done
us to persist in

this

while permitting each of
differentiation

the intense
?

of
;

his

own
do
I.

individuality

You

admire

the Greeks

so

But

I

follow the Romans."

type of the American type. Empire If, now, we turn to the third or Russian type, we cannot but see that, while it resembles, in point

We

have thus ascertained the second

38 of
duration

IMPERIALISM
of
growth,
in

American Empire

that

very much more the it reached most of its
it

extent in less than three hundred years

is,

in

point of autocratic institutions, very much more The Tsar is pope and emperor like the Roman.
in

one person, as was the

Roman

princeps.

One

will goes through every nerve of this vast organism ; and all attempts to alter this fundamental con-

stitution

by

the

introduction

of

representative

government, or autonomous provinces (in Finland, Poland, or the Caucasus) have necessarily fail

We

say, necessarily

;

and nothing
blinded,

less

can be said.
rhetorical

They
phrases
still

arc

quite

by

the

of the period from 1848 to 1850, who believe that the Russian people endure the

autocrat

Tsar because of

their lack

ment.

Nothing

is

less

true.

of enlightenThat millions of

Russian peasants are most illiterate and uninformed, there is no doubt whatever. On the other hand,
it

is

not their

illiteracy,

in

the

first

place,

that

makes them submit
a

to the Tsar.

In Austria the

people were already, in the eighteenth century, in

very advanced stage of civilisation, and in the half of the nineteenth century they could certainly not be called illiterate or unenlightened.
first

Yet they bowed down to the whip of Mctternich with the same meekness that appears to us so

IMPERIALISM AND
revolting in the Russian peasant.

MAN
The
fact
is,

39
that

the Russians

too are, and have long

been, seized

with the pride and fever of Imperialism. tried above to show that they could not but

We

become

Imperialists.

We

now want

to

call

the

reader's attention to the inevitable consequence of that great Pride and Fever. Once it seizes you firmly, you will, you must, adapt the rest of your

moral economy to the exigencies of that great and You cannot stop short of great noble passion.
results,

You
not

merely because they entail heavy sacrifices. will belittle and disdain such sacrifices. Have
willingly accepted

the Americans
in

the sacrifice

of Individuality

mighty Empire ? Americans have endured
tyranny of one

order to build up a vast and So have the Russians. The

and

type after

enduring the which each of them

are

must model

his

own

self.

The

Russians

have

endured and are enduring the tyranny of one Will, of one Autocrat, to whom each of them must

conform

his

own

will.

Is there

really

such
?

a

great

difference

between
the

the

two systems
?

Is

there

really
social

more than
and
in

difference
political

between

spheres
is
is

spheres
either

thing of the two cases ; but
in

The
Is

done otherwise

both

?

it

not the same thing done really indifferent to us Europeans

40
whether we
each
are,
in

IMPERIALISM
or
a

arc

not,

allowed
different

to develop

of

us

somewhat

Individuality, this the greatest result

Is way? of Greek and

neo-Greck or
contemptible a a smile ? Not

Renaissance

culture,

so

puny,
it

so

matter

that

we can forego
will say so,

with

The
hold

truth

is

many Europeans that we Europeans,
rather
die

like

our Hellenic

ancestors,

will

than

abandon

what we
national,

dearest

our individuality, whether
or personal.

religious, artistic,

We

arc

told

that

some ancient Greek towns,

rather

than surrender

the beautiful statues of gods adorning their temples, preferred to undergo the extreme miseries of a pro-

any European callous enough to say that there are no such precious ideals enshrined in the hearts of each of the numerous nations
Is

tracted siege.

and peoples of Europe ? Can not all of them say to the levellers Noliu adire^ nam ct heic T)ei taut/ " Do not approach, for here too are gods
:
!

Having repeatedly insisted that Imperialism is an inevitable Scheme of National Life, the indulgent reader cannot, we hope, reproach us with clandestinely

mocking
are

at

the
for

heavy
their

sacrifices

imperialist

nations
certainly

clearly that

pointing out homogeneity without which the American Empire could not have been built up.
social

not

paying to be

glory.
for

We

ought

censured

IMPERIALISM AND
In the

MAN
fairness,

41

same sense of absolute

we

add,

that to Europeans outside Russia

which

is

the only

such homogeneity is unit as the price of a great Empire proper, they are more than loth to endure It was its shortcomings without its advantages.

Empire in Europe Not needing bearable.
real

finely said

:

Tout

comprendre ccst

tout

pardonner
all

;

but
to

may we

not add, that to understand

is

also

comprehend why some persons cannot
?

forgive

certain things

In

the

Russian,

or

the

third type of Empire,

we
and

find therefore a

new blend of features
Russians,

American
than
the

Roman.

The

no

less

citizens

sake,

of other Empires, arc ready, for Empire's to take upon themselves the burden of

political
It is

homogeneity, the sacrifice called Tsardom. for their Empire, and not from illiteracy or
backwardness, that
Social

intellectual

they

submit to an

Empire, which had long before their advent been peopled by thousands of different tribes and nations, was
autocracy.

homogeneity

in their vast

an impossibility.

The Americans by degrees. The
provinces
already

themselves peopled up (the States Russians found their new imperial
inhabited

by

socially

most
Social

divergent
le

and extremely populous

nations.

veiling-down being thus impossible, the Russians

42

IMPERIALISM
political

were inevitably driven into the acceptance of
levelling-down
the
that
is,

into autocracy.

To weaken

power of the Tsar is to weaken the Empire that is, to undo what the Russians have these
three hundred years been establishing at the fearful
price

of

political self-destruction.

Such tremendous

revolutions

in

the

whole mental attitude of an
only

immense population can be brought about
by very extraordinary national
disasters.

He who
1905,
national

thinks

that

the

Russians
the

will,

say in

seriously

insist

upon
is

Tsar's

government

to take the place of the

allowing old

tyrannical

bureaucracy,

grievously

mistaken.

The Russian people will do nothing of the kind. The present war in the Far East is a real godsend to the Tsar. The secular ambition of the Russians
has naturally intensified
their

imperial

pride

very

much more than their ment. The stronger

desire for

popular governprevail.

passion

will

The

greater the difficulties in

Manchuria and the more

obstinate the resistance of the Japanese, the greater and the more obstinate will be the determination

of the Russians to save the honour of their Empire. If Port Arthur should fall, the Russians, far from
turning
Tsar,
their

calamity-born

energy

against
in

the
his

will,

quite on the contrary, acquiesce
still

autocracy with

greater enthusiasm.

IMPERIALISM AND
So
spite
far

MAN

43

in (December 1904) the Japanese have, of signal advantages in numbers, strategic

base,

and sea-power, not been able to drive the

Russian

Army beyond Mukden.

It

is

not likely

But even so in the next six months. they will do the people if they should, that would only render of Russia ever so much more obdurate in their
belief in

Should indeed the Japanese arrive on the Volga River, then, and then alone, the Tsar would be obliged to flee for life from There is a far cry from his own enraged people.
autocracy.

Mukden

to the Volga.

of In the preceding remarks on the three types out only a few preEmpire we have pointed of each of the three liminary features characteristic In the subsequent section of this part
types.

of our pamphlet we
detail

shall

enter

into

much more
For
that

characteristic features. regarding other
it

the

present

may

suffice

to

say,

Roman,

American, and Russian Imperialism, although they have features in common, are each of them all
instinct with forces different

from one another.

to a short sketch of ought now to proceed the fourth type of Empire, the Chinese Empire.

We

From
own

this

we must, however,
not justified
in

refrain.
is

The author
a

has never lived in China, and
opinion,

therefore, in his

passing

judgment

44
on
a

IMPERIALISM
their

great people and which he has gathered his
only.

Imperialism

about

data from mere

books
the

A
will

few

incidental

remarks on
in

China

author

attempt to

make

the course of the

following chapters.

The Roman
"

fifth

type of Empire is represented by the Of this it seems more Catholic Church.
to
treat

expedient

separately

in

the

chapter

on

Imperialism

and
also

Religion."

Incidentally

we
in

shall

speak

of the

Mahometan Empire

the past

of Empire is the British Empire. To the consideration of the peculiar nature of this Empire, the third or last part of this work will
sixth type

The

be devoted.

Of
reader
a

the temporary
as
also

Empires of Charles
the
propos of
in

V.,

or
the

Napoleon,
will

of
4

find,

Spanish Empire, various questions,
section

short
this

consideration

more than one

of

work.

now propose to study the influence of Imperialism on women generally, and the women
of some of the types of Empire severally.

We

II

IMPERIALISM AND
seems
to

WOMAN

nothing less evident than the plain fact that each nation consists of men and women, and, therefore, that we cannot

be

THERE

less

adequately understand the history of a nation unwe have adequate ideas both of her men and
her
treat

women.

As
as

a

rule,

historians

and statesmen

women
precise

a
It

subject
is

scarcely

worth

their

serious attention.

thus but too natural that

the

influence

of

women on

history,

or

the causes that co-operate in the formation of one or another type of women, are as yet not cleared

probably no exaggeration in saying that nineteen readers out of twenty of a pamphlet on Imperialism do not expect a chapter such as the present, at all. What have women to

up

at

all.

There

is

do with Imperialism
with

?

What

has Imperialism to

do

women
is

?

When,
perialism

however,
not

we do not
45

forget

that

Im-

merely a series of military and

46

IMPERIALISM
when we an entire Scheme be much less in;

naval or economic measures of defence
firmly grasp that Imperialism
is

of National Life,
clined

then
at

we

shall

to

wonder

the

and

Women.
instance,

In fact,

of Imperialism women, together with men,
question

are indissolubly connected with Imperialism.
for

When,
the

we dig deep enough
failure
all

to

reach

bottom causes of the
find that they

of Napoleon, we shall converge on one broad cause
:

the Frenchwoman.
It
is

quite correct to say, as the author has

done

before this, that of single nations the French themselves were the

main cause of the downfall of the

great Emperor.
really
in

and

For had they, in 1814 or 18x5, resolutely rallied round Napoleon, as

1792 they did round Dumouriez, even united Europe could not have done more than deprive

Napoleon
provinces.

of

German, Italian, Napoleon was beaten at
wilful

his

or

Dutch
;

Waterloo
can

but

nothing short of
to

prejudice

blind

one

the

fact

that

cannot

definitively

be

general like Napoleon beaten by one lost battle.
in

a

Napoleon himself beat the Austrians

more than

twelve pitched battles, yet the Emperor of Austria, weak, insignificant Francis, did not consider himself
definitively

beaten.

After Waterloo, on the other
definitively beaten because the

hand, Napoleon was

IMPERIALISM AND

WOMAN

47

French would not support him as they supported Dumouriez in 1792, or Louis XIV. in 1709, after
the defeat at Malplaquet.

But

when

we

inquire

into

the

real

reason

of Napoleon's apparently sudden unpopularity in France in 1814 and 1815, we find that it came
almost
exclusively

from

his

unpopularity
France,

with
in

"Madame."
1805,
at

The women

of

even

the time

successes at
his

Ulm

of Napoleon's most splendid and Austerlitz, did not care for

They shrugged their shoulders Imperialism. at the incessant string of new victories over far-off
Austria,

Russia,

or

Prussia.

With

characteristic

energy of insight and tact they felt that Imperialism was not the atmosphere in which their peculiar thrive. They felt that Imperialism, gifts could
in

order to be permanent and powerful, requires women of quite a different type ; women less bent

on centring all their efforts and charms on the home, on the education and constant supervision
of their children, on personal participation in every detail of their husband's business.
In
short,

Imperialism

wants

imperial

women.

Volncy, when travelling in French America, in the eighteenth century, was struck with the difference

between the French and the English wives of the settlers. The French wife insisted both on having

48

IMPERIALISM

her " finger in every pic," and on rendering the had settled so attractive place where the family

and cosy
the the

as

to

very idea "wilderness."

husband with disgust at of pushing more westward into
fill

her

Had

French

women

been the

wives of Colonials in the thirteen British Colonies,

and had they not changed the Colonials would istics,

their

French characterhave crossed the

not

Had Alleghany Mountains to the present day. Napoleon had American or English women married
to his

French subjects, ten Waterloo* would not He would have have sent him to St. Helena.

maintained his former hold over the hearts of

men

and

women

in

France

;

and even as

his

mighty

armies could not put down the Spanish in seven so the Allies could not have done years* warring,

more than perhaps reduce his power. There is, indeed, no doubt whatever
Imperialism,
as
it

that

requires,
;

so

it

also

breeds t
different

peculiar type of

from the
contained
the

women a type essentially " women of mere " countries
polities.

or

self-

smaller

Who

has

not

made

remark that

the

essentially different

women of the Odyssey are from the women of Sophocles

In Homeric times the idea of and Euripides ? There Imperialism was unknown to the Hellenes.

were

only

small

kingdoms.

In

the

times

of

IMPERIALISM AND
Euripides, on Athenians were on the full

WOMAN
other

49

Sophocles and

the
tide

hand, the

of Imperialism.

The Athenian women changed
do
Is

accordingly.

We
and

not

hear

anything

more

of

Penelopes

Nausikaas.

Other types have come to the fore. not the hatred of women so characteristic of

Euripides a consequence of the imperialisation of
the

women of Athens
arc

?

Women
as

as exacting, as imperious,

and interfering
because they

French women,
all

albeit or just

clothe

their interminable claims to attention and

obedience in forms of singular charm and esprit such women are impossible in imperial countries.
Imperialism requires in likely to be weakened

charming femininity. reason that induced Mahomet to allow polygamy
to
his

such qualities as are by an undue influence of This is, we take it, the deepest
the

men

followers.

From
the

outset he desired to the outset,
there-

establish
fore,

a vast Empire.
felt that

From

he

undue influence of femininity
Nothing
could
effect

must be more

eliminated.

that

fully

than

the introduction, or

rather con-

A woman knowing that secration, of polygamy. she is only one of four wives of her husband, cannot
make good women.
the claims nor the attractions of French

We

note the same tendency in

Napoleon.

He

4

5o

IMPERIALISM
women, and
there
his Code
is

disliked
to them.

far

from favourable

In his rather harsh treatment of

Madame

de

Stael

anger.

was much more than momentary Madame de Stael was just the full-fledged,
superior

Napoleon, as an Empire-builder, did not, and could not, humour. He could not introduce In her he hit her type.
genuinely

femme

that

polygamy

but he effectively tried to lower the importance of women. It cannot be overlooked that in Empires women
;

much of that femininity which no or physical accomplishment can replace. other mental hear that in China women suffer an artificial
necessarily lose

We

distortion of their feet.

mere odd custom.
feminine

from being a Some disfiguring of the truly
is

This

far

must be resorted to
it

in

imperial States.

The

Chinese choose to locate

in the feet
it

of their

ladies.

This may be queer

;

is

at

the

same

time quite in keeping with the irresistible tendency of all Imperialism, in reference to women. Yet it

goes without saying that this peculiar disenchantment of femininity varies very considerably according to the different types of Imperialism.

A

rapid

sketch

of the female element in

those

different

types will

show

this

more

clearly.

The Roman matron, from
Imperialism had reached
its

the times

when Roman
that
is,

maturity

about

IMPERIALISM

AND WOMAN

51

the middle of the second century B.C. to the end

of the

century A.D. was rapidly becoming the notorious unfeminine woman whom all the serious
first

satirists

and moralists of

Rome

have made the

subject of their indignation.

the

philosophers and heartless wife

Historians and poets, epigram-writers, all tell us of

of the

Roman

propraetor

who

proved to be a greater plague to the provinces, She is constantly than even her rapacious husband.
about and present at all the assemblies (convert tus) of the provinces intriguing, browbeating, mining

and sapping everything and everybody. At Rome she is the same callous creature bent " on nothing but to have a good time." Festivals, eastern and strange banquets, the circus, the theatre,
rites are

her passion.

in point

of

athletics,

She wants to outdo every man and shrinks from no muscular

exercise.

She also wants to excel
;

men

in

mental
learned

pursuits

and she has about

her

some

Greek with
She
she
is

whom
a

she discusses Plato or Epicurus.
degree.
in
all

over-mentaliscd to a
feverish

Apparently
the
latest
is

takes

interest

products of literature, science,
connoisseur, and
bright,

and

art.

She

a

a great traveller.
is

To

be bright,
desire.
;

very

bright,

her
life

most
is

febrile

The

obscurity of family
flees,

loathsome to her

maternity she

and the

fifteenth divorce finds

52

IMPERIALISM
the marital
tie

her as eager to renew

with some
her
first

important
divorce.

man
is

as

was the case

after

Sensation
equals,
in
;

the dearest wish of her soul.

Nothing

sensation

her opinion, delight of creating a except creating more sensations than
the

do her

rivals.
tall,

With
fine
in

all

that she

is

beautiful

well-

featured,

flesh,

inexperienced,

interesting.

imposing, and, to the Of her profound im-

morality
well

we need
is

not say

much.

It

is

but

too

known.
no doubt a
terrible

This

picture.

Every
it

student of

Roman
It

history

knows

that

is

not

overdrawn.

might be

said, that the

women

of

whom we hear must not be taken as the type of the numerous Roman matrons who were virtuous
and good, but of whom we never hear. Much to the dishonour of humanity, this remark is not true. We can indeed easily " show," that is, compile, a long string of learned quotations from the
inscriptions

indicating

much

family virtue,

honest

family life, and goodness to husbands, children and in the second Such slaves, even century A.D.

quotations cut a very proper figure in footnotes meant for the consumption of academic judges. Real force they have none.
It
is,

alas

!

but too true that those undoubtedly

IMPERIALISM AND
numerous women
life

WOMAN

53
passed

in the

Roman Empire who

correctly and even virtuously would through have turned just as wicked or superficial women as

had they only had a chance of getting into the monde ou I'on Their virtue was accidental ; their bent s'amusc.
described

were the

women

above,

to vice potential.

Had

the

profligate

matrons of

Rome

been a mere

local

affliction

of the

Roman

Empire, a mere exception, then have fallen.

Rome

could never

At

all

times,
arc,

and

in

all

countries,

there have

been, and

women

that are

no women.
an

But

they do not

constitute nor express

irresistible

tendency
the

in

the rest of the nation's
really

women.

Had

Roman women

been family-loving,

faithful,

sound wives and mothers, a hundred new Cornelias would have given birth to a hundred new Gracchi.

The
It

eating into Rome was, however, contaminating not only a few families, but the Family.
rot

was a cancer

affecting,

actually

or

potentially,
in

every one member of

Roman womanhood

the

Empire. need not remind the reader that the influence

We

of

Roman

Imperialism

on Roman women
of any Empire.

is

not

altogether the regular influence of any other type

of Imperialism on

women

But we

must make bold

to say that, as

Rome

is

the classical

54

IMPERIALISM

so are her matrons in some type of lay Imperialism, ways the actual or potential prototypes of women

any Empire. In Russia, women have long shown but too readable symptoms of Roman matronship.
in

The

Russian lady, whether she chooses to undertake the study of law, medicine, or politics, or

whether she remains a mere grandt dame^ has always manifested the strongest inclination towards ftminisme

and emancipation of the

sex.

From

the innocuous
all

Bohemian
to
ruthless

to the female anarchist they

trample

upon

the

frailties

attempt of their sex with

and daring, ovcrPiquante energy. mentaliscd and self-relying, they plunge into the depths of abstruse metaphysics with the same
febrility as into conspiracies

and
of

plots.

The more
sects

excessive
societies

one
in

the

innumerable
be,

or secret

Russia chances to

the

more

it

is

countenanced by the

woman of

Family life, conjugal steadiness, love of children, are thrown overboard as mere obsolete
Russia.

Already the Polish woman, under the decomposing influence of Polish Imperialism in
prejudices.

the sixteenth

developed and untrammelled,
the duties of

and seventeenth centuries, had long the dangerous graces of women free
rendering
life.

women
Polish

averse

to

home

The
of

process of

attrition

which

in

the

centuries

Imperialism

IMPERIALISM AND
decomposed
features of

WOMAN
but

55
useful
in

the

less

attractive
in

more

womanhood

Poland,

finally,

the

eighteenth century, Not the liberum veto, but the Polish
the downfall of Poland.

became positively

deleterious.

women
the

hastened

There seems
in

to be a tragic

revenge
is

in

all

Imperialism,

that

Empire

the end politically decomposed by the very persons whom it was the first to decompose ethically.
in
It is

likewise necessary to consider the

American
1

woman.
short

In

a

former work of

the

author's,

a

chapter
in

was devoted to the statement that
deficient
in

women
hood
in

America are

true

womanalso

as developed in continental,

and largely
has

English, women.

This

statement
all

been

received in America with an

but general outcry

The of indignation. Nothing is more natural. proper study of womanhood in history or sociology
works with trustworthy information about the women of America are so rare ; the
is

so young

;

gallantry of

American men

to their

women

is

so

great

that

any attempt

at telling the truth

cannot

but be condemned by Americans, and also by so many Englishmen who labour under a singularly

odd misconception of American womanhood.

The simple fact is men were bound to
1

that just as

the American
features of

suppress certain
1904.

Suafss among Nations.

56

IMPERIALISM
in

European manhood
task

view of the

totally different

before them, even so American

women were

necessarily driven into a constant neglect of certain features of womanhood as on the con-

developed

tinent of Europe.
close

What Europeans have dom
years, the

on three thousand

Americans

tried

to do, in an equally large territory, in the course of a few generations. Evidently the work of the
tions

American nation resembles those vast generalisaof facts under which a thousand fine details

arc to

bound

to get slurred over.
civilise

A

nation that wants
size

people up and

a territory of the

of Europe, in a period of time that did not suffice for the Athenians alone to consummate their history from Solon to Pericles such a nation cannot
possibly hope, nor even seriously desire, to things besides.

do many

Both

in

number and
select

in

quality, such a nation
issues.

must needs
cannot

broad and simple
try

They

afford

to

wholesale,

full

development

of

all

the

human

capital, together

with the immense

impcrialisation,

of a vast continent.
in fact,
it is

too immense

who
all

impossible. Greeks, were, as a rule, desperately bent on developing the human capital ; the Greeks, who believed in

The The

task

is

nothing more fervently than in the cult of complete the Greeks could for humanity, of nature rondc,

IMPERIALISM AND
this reason alone

WOMAN

57

never seriously think of Empires
is

larger than

what

now

a

moderate

principality.

Aristotle rightly held that the United Hellenes could

have easily defeated the rest of the then world. But had the Greeks united, they would have
ceased to be Greeks
;

and

in this, the deepest, sense

Greeks could never unite.

They had

to choose

between lessening their beau idial^ and expanding into an Empire. They elected the former. The
Americans, had they tried to do what they actually have done, and also to become like the Greeks ;
in

other words, had the Americans essayed to be
at the

Greeks and Romans
have signally
as political
failed,

as

same time, they would did the Germans as long

power was almost exclusively in artistic and intellectually over-strung South and Central

Germany.
power,
it

It

was only when

Prussia

got

into
intel-

was only when an

artistically

and

lectually

very much less developed portion of Germany obtained the ascendency, that Germany found her Bismarck.

Can
refuse

the
to

most

passionately
this

patriotic

American
and
it,

acknowledge
?

evident
is

historic

human
human

truth

And

if

he

unable

to

deny

must he not

by evident implication admit that nature has in America necessarily been left

fallow in

many

a field

?

58

IMPERIALISM

have already seen that the otherwise natural tendency of men to intense differentiation has, in
America, under the pressure of an inevitable, precocious, and extremely rapid Imperialism ceased
giving place to an amazing homoIt cannot reasonably geneity and sameness of type. be supposed that American womanhood could
to

We

work

at all

;

amazing sameness. As American men have been bound to pucker up their nature, so to speak, into a few hardworked bundles
develop on
lines

of

less

of nervous energy, otherwise their immense task could never have been done in so short a time ; even
so

American

women were

compelled

in-

stinctively to

drop a goodly portion of that feminine

tenderness, naivete, spontaneity, charm, and

modesty
does not

which were of no use whatever
that their

in

the one task

men had

set themselves.

One

use string-quartets as fog-signals. The rude and rugged work of rapidly impcrialising a territory of the size of Europe requires women
to

whom

any spot

in

America

will

be acceptable

;

any change welcome ; any danger a pleasant sensation ; any husband more or less agreeable ; and any
publicity unobjectionable.
will

In

fact,

the more they
intellectually,

resemble their

men

ethically

and

the

more they

will help
life

them

in

reducing every one

great problem of

outside tht great problem of

IMPERIALISM
Imperialism.

AND WOMAN

59

Women, when

highly differentiated
interfere with his

from man,
engage his
ordinary than do

excite his imagination, trouble his heart,
interest,

and generally
like the

work very much more,

women who,
men.

nay, infinitely more, wives of the imperial

Spartans, are, as far as
it,

practically

crude Nature will permit Spartan Imperialism was not

great

territorially.

Yet
into

even

so

it

forced

the

Spartan

They

unseemly unfemininity. wrestled in a state of nature with men. They

women

an

did not

mean to remain childless, even when married to a man who had no progeny by them. The extraordinary nature of American Imperialism

compelled American women to become more and more like men. Given that all Imperialism must, as we shall see later on, browbeat Nature to a
greater or lesser extent, American, that
is

excessive
to

Imperialism

could
It

not

but

do so

in

relation

woman

too.

unwomancd them.
deep
interest to him.
little,

A

woman,

when only

physiologically different from

to be a subject of

man, ceases She appeals

to his imagination but very
at all.

he to hers none

Continental peasants true love-affairs are exceedingly rare. Once the great balancing- rod of woman, marital love, has become hollow, she

Among

walks over the rope of life's Niagaras as in a dream. She runs up to heights of ambition or

60

IMPERIALISM
;

energy with the recklessness of a child

she tumbles
feels that

down
her

just as readily.

She instinctively
and

her

position in the country has

wronged her

in

some of

human

aspirations

;

in her frantic attempts

to get the even
into the

balance of

womanhood, she rushes
eccentricities.

most

drastic

and absurd

In

order

to

browbeat

Nature

in

her

most

elementary cravings, the American woman becomes a violent temperance-sister ; an anti-tobaccoi
an anti-theatrist
Scientist
;
;

an anti-Antisabbatarian

;

a Christian

spearian

;

a Shakcspearc-Baconist, or Bacon-Shakeshe attends innumerable lectures ; she
learn

learns or tries to

constantly

;

she

is

every science ; she travels resolved and determined to be

up-to-date in everything. To the earnest student
the

of

the

human

heart

sight of the terrible corrida or bull-fight of American womanhood is pitiful in the extreme.

Here
States

is

the bull of American

Imperialism fiercely

rushing for the tender limbs

of the

woman

in

the

she attempts to escape his gorings, and ; about wretchedly in the most eccentric fashion, leaps all the time pretending to laugh and to enjoy the
sport.

After a short time she

is

despatched by the
the

infuriated bull,

and other

women renew

game

of the female toreador.
incredibly large

Who

has ever
lives

seen the

number of wasted

amongst the

IMPERIALISM AND
countless old

WOMAN

61

maids of the States, where men are much more numerous than women, without very

feeling

something of the sickening pain
?

at the sight

of a Spanish bull-fight

Mr. Roosevelt,
upbraided
the

Imperialist

par

excellence^

gravely

American

women for the neglect of their duties of maternity. The gods, on reading Mr. Roosevelt's paper, smiled Or does Mr. Roosevelt not see that it is bitterly.
the extravagant Imperialism of the States, so

much

encouraged by himself, that that neglect of maternity ?

is

the direct cause of

The
all

evils

of American womanhood have, singly,

been noticed by American women themselves. language here used is coldly academic in comparison to that of numerous articles and books

The

written on the question

by American women.

They
little
is

know
a

that

American
In

women
ladies

have

very
it

spontaneity.

London drawing-rooms,
and
are

true,

number of English
American

gentlemen think

that

women

natural.

How

indeed spontaneous and this conclusion is arrived at, it is

Women lose much of their impossible to divine. spontaneity under the influence of any Imperialism.
Common
Nature.
experience has

shown

that

any desire

to rule others implies the necessity of browbeating

A

father,

wishing to dominate the educainevitably violate his natural

tion of his child,

must

62
tenderness
for

IMPERIALISM
the
child

and punish

it

severely.

A

judge does similar things every day of his life ; and a thinker anxious to dominate in the realm
of ideas must necessarily repress some of the most natural promptings of his being. Imperialism, or
the necessity of ruling over vast numbers of people

must,

fan

passu,

browbeat
but

Nature

much more

violently.

This

latent

undeniable correlation

between Imperialism and spontaneity was the real cause of the gravest deficiency of Latin literature,
its

lack

of

na'ivctf.

With perhaps one
none of
that

or

two

exceptions,

there
naivcti

charming
.

overpoweringly of Greek literature in anything
ever
is

is

that

the

Romans

wrote.

Even
none

in

English
;

there ^nitcraturc proper
v in

a sad lack of naive figures
at
all.

American

literature there are
this
evil,

To

remedy

as

so

many

other evils

of excessive Imperialism, is possible only by the American decomposition of Imperialism itself.

women

have

tried

to

spontaneity and natural " schools of education," by

remedy their lack of charm of female deportment
"
lectures

ment/'

and

similar

hopeless

on deportnostrums. Sweet

womanhood cannot be
wonder
It

the Americans
a

No taught in paragraphs. arc such great humorists.

superhuman effort to suppress the most scathingly humorous remarks on the constant

would take

IMPERIALISM AND
attempts in

WOMAN
Nature

63
while

America to

stimulate

browbeating it. The wholesale mendacity of this, the main drift of social life in highly imperialised
countries,

cause that the Spanish, the English, and the Americans alone have given us humorists proper of the first order. Nature,
is

the true

constantly

browbeaten,
rise to

yet

constantly

rebounds.

This gives

the most touchingly or drastically

humorous
humour,
life, is

situations

and

scenes

;

and

American

the great redeeming feature of American

intimately connected with American Imperial-

ism.
in

Mark Twain,
is,

for a

European,

is

only funny

;

America he

in reality, a great ethical power.

The

excesses and evil consequences of

American
be

Imperialism remedied.

on
It
is

American
in

woman
that
ideal

cannot
a

vain

many

noble
at

American woman works with

energy

the

bettering of circumstances that she bad. She will not make her point.

knows

to be

American Imperialism exists, will be what it is at present.

As long as American womanhood

A

hundred thousand
or
lecture
halls

more

colleges,

public
;

libraries,

may

be established
the
;

a

hundred
of

thousand

more
"

" societies for

feminisation

women

may
any
in

be established
sensible

all

these will remain

without

effect

on

the

peculiar

womanhood

America.

64

IMPERIALISM
The optimism
of
the
**

in everynot grotesque ; American," strange, thing in their conviction that everything is for the yet best in the country of the Great All Right there

bounded
"

confidence in
is

Americans, " America and
if

their

un-

is

much

truth.

In

the present case, for instance,
is
tc

in regard to

American women everything
that
it

all

right,"

in

cannot

be

otherwise.

No

European
of

critic sees

more

clearly the self-conscious-

ness, coldness, calculating

women

in

and scheming callousness America than American women
the

themselves.

Hence
in

abominable

spectacle

of

humorous women

America.
is

A

humorous

woman
and

like

a

painted

man.

profound mendacity of life that has produced so many male humorists in America, has, aided by the greater similarity of American men and women, produced also a number
wholesale

The same

of female

humorists

in

literature
in

and

endless

would-be female humorists
the

prototype
a

of benign,
!

ordinary life. naive Nature

Woman
herself;

woman

humorist

A

humorist

who,

be

it

remarked, scoffs at Nature, and not at those
violate Nature.

who

Mark Twain,
against,

in his better

works,

uses his
of,

humour

as a flaying-knife for the simulators

and

trespassers

Nature.
in

American
that

women

delight

in

indulging

the

humour

IMPERIALISM

AND WOMAN

65

makes fun of every ray of natural simplicity, of and the more scathing and naivete, of spontaneity
;

vitriolic

humour, the more contentedly will her male relatives and friends chuckle over her
her
brightness."

"

At

the present time,

when Imperialism

in the

Europe, Africa, and America is apparently carrying everything before it, it becomes indispensable to know at least what prices it exacts. One of the
East, in
prices of
is

American Imperialism, one of its victims, In that is also the sole the American woman.

consolation for her, and the sole refutation of her

A European cannot but dislike American womanhood but an American woman
adversaries.
;

may
"

rightly reply to him,

We

are not
It

womanly
is

;

and with true dignity but we do not mind it
:

seriously.

through and by our type of lessened femininity that our men were enabled to If we are no build up an unparalleled Empire.
Nausikaas,

we

are Iphigenias.

We

are

immolated

to Diana, the fierce unfeminine goddess, in order to

secure a fair

wind
or

for the sailing

army of our men."
in

We
of the
to the

have so

far seen

that

womanhood

Empires
world's

Roman

sub-Roman type cannot develop

loveliness of femininity which the

greatest poets

sung in immortal tones and the strongest of men and heroes have admired and
have
5

66

IMPERIALISM
The
Imperialism of their

loved even unto death.

uncountry stunts their growth ; depletes them ; them ; or, as they express hinges and unbalances " renders them
it

themselves,

terribly sophisticated."

They

manifest,

it

may

be admitted, various forms

of depletion or poor equilibrium.

The American woman is not quite the Roman matrona. The causes of these varieties do not interest
us here.
that

For our purpose it is sufficient to state whenever we study the effects of protracted

Imperialism, we find that its fundamental force is the irresistible tendency to browbeat Nature ; and
this

tendency, by assailing Nature's
her, depletes

own

prototype,

woman, decomposes
composition

her to a greater or lesser extent.

her, unwomans With that deparallel

of

women
in

there

decomposing
activities

process

some

goes a of men's

noblest

such as poetry,
influence.

art, literature in

general
indirectly,

on which the unbroken woman
a

has,

if

profound pointed out that the lack of a language entirely and exclusively their own will for ever prevent the
Americans, as
it

In

other

works we have

has prevented the Belgians or Swiss,
first-rate literature.

from producing a

In addition to this linguistic or external

remark

we may
based as

state
it

that

such

an

American

literature,

necessarily

would be on women deprived

IMPERIALISM AND
of most of their
highly
best
artificial

WOMAN
It will

67

naturalness,

cannot but become
in

and sophisticated.
to

the

case

stand

European
Greek.
is

literature

as
is,

Latin
art

literature stands to
its

Music, that

in

absolute naivete,

quite impossible in

America.

In Russia,

where the process of imperialisation
penetrated into the various small that dwell on Russian territory in
there
is
still

has

not

yet

nationalities

Russia,

we

say,

some music.
still

It

has,

however, never been, and will be
future, a great music.
dress.
It is
It
is

less in the

folk-music in Sunday

formless, structureless, decousue.
;

Germs
of

there

arc

plenty

but

the

ever-rising

steam

As England Imperialism will soon sterilise them. had her Shakespeare in her period of transition, one Empire and before the after the loss of
acquisition of another
;

as

Germany had
and

her Bach,
before

Mozart,

Goethe,

Lcssing,

Schiller,

Germany was
great

imperialiscd,

even so Russia has her

musicians before Imperialism has completely penetrated into the masses.

From
stay
in

personal

experience
States,

the

United
the

during a five years' the author is fully

cognisant

with

reply

which
after

of

course

all

Americans vouchsafe one
poor
is

remarks on

their

literature or music.

still

" so young."

They say, that America They believe that literature,

68

IMPERIALISM

music, and similar "nice things" arc a matter of Moreover, growth, of time, of "evolution."
sophisticated

and
in

intellectualist

as

they

are,

they

teachability of all things. firmly They hope that by getting over to America great teaching musicians, music will be spread in America ;

believe

the

and
is

similarly

with

science

and

arts.

The

truth

none of the great accomplishments of men can be taught. Liszt had numerous pupils ; but
that

the only

man who came

near

him

as a pianist

was

were not made

taught. graces Vulcan*s workshop ; they were the daughters of Vulcan *s wife Venus by Apollo.
in

Rubinstein,

whom

he

never

The

Ill

IMPERIALISM AND RELIGION
being a Scheme of National Life,

embraces religion IMPERIALISM,
little

as

well.

In

fact,

there

is

doubt that religion stands to Imperialism
:

in

a twofold relation

a specific kind ; (ii) tions helpful or antagonistic to Imperialism.
the most cursory glance at to establish the sufficient
that

Religion as imperialism of Religion as one of the institu(i)

Surely
is

modern Imperialism
fact
in

Imperialism
Catholic

proper
neither

has

not

succeeded

Roman

countries.

Neither the Russians nor the Americans,
the Japanese, arc, on the

the English nor

whole,
fair

Roman

Catholic.

The Germans, who
are

bid

to start a

new Imperialism,
fact

mostly non-

Catholic.

Such a broad
If

cannot be a mere accident.

we attempt
it

Roman

to get at the vital point of the Catholic Church, we cannot long miss the

truth that

was, from the very beginning, meant to be an Empire ; the most universal and powerful
69

70
of
all

IMPERIALISM
the

Empires.

Without
of

in

the

least

con-

templating a

discussion

theological

we
be

are at a loss to sec

how any

problems, other term can

used.

Every one
is

characteristic
in

symptom of
the

Imperialism

manifestly existing
;

Roman

and considering that it is of all the Empires the most comprehensive, in space, as well as in time and intensity of rule, it displays
Catholic Church

those symptoms and factors not
also

only clearly, but

and pre-eminently in most plastical clearness. found that in Empires proper there is, of or necessity, a sameness of type, whether social

We

political, that

amounts to a tyrannical pressure upon
for

any

desire

individualism.
is

In

the

Roman
in

Catholic Church that sameness

realised

one

of the most intimate and powerful concerns of man, a concern that by its very nature seems almost
to preclude
all

levelling -down

and

all

uniform
subjects of

the religious

and moral

interest.

The

the Catholic
at

Empire must abandon

the very attempt

forming their own religious and moral ideas. All the innumerable and delicate problems, in which
be

religious

and moral sentiments arc concerned, must submitted to the autocratic behest of the

Catholic
are

dogma.
a

But

religious

and moral ideas

only

part of the

mental interests that the

Catholic Church claims as being exclusively of her

IMPERIALISM AND RELIGION
own
jurisdiction.

71

All intellectual interests too are
to

categorically

declared

be

ultimately

dependent

on the findings of that Church only.
are
it.

Catholicism expressly teaches that human beings unable to create truth ; they can only grasp All fundamental truth, whether philosophical or

otherwise, has been revealed by

God

to the Catholic

Church, and

properly appointed officials of that Church alone can dispense it. Accordingly " the entire modern idea of " progress in knowledge is wrong. Such progress is based on the assumption
the
that

some thinkers
truths.
us,

will

in the
i.e.

course, say of the
create,

twentieth

century, invent,

new fundaChurch
moral

mental
teaches
truth
is

This

is,

the

Catholic

impossible.

All

mental

and

Church,

already in the possession of the Catholic and believers arc, under threat of the

gravest penalties, bound to accept the interpretation of truth as given by the Catholic Church. have moreover seen that all Empires proper

We

have an
Nature.

irresistible

tendency towards browbeating

The

Spartans, in their resolute attempt to

imperialisc, first the Peloponnesus, then all Greece,

introduced a constitution that
the most natural
ruthless

literally

human feelings manner. The child was
its

in

trampled upon an absolutely
allowed
to
;

not

belong to

mother

;

nor the wife to her husband

72

IMPERIALISM
Expression

nor the slave to his owner.

of pain

was despised, and boys were systematically trained Conversation was practically forto suppress it.
bidden, and the accumulation of wealth prohibited.

We
at

have seen above that
discount, as
case
it

in

America Nature

is

a

was

in

the

Roman Empire.
Church
the

In

the

of the

Catholic

de-

humanisation of
in the

men and women was

carried out

By
that

"

most uncompromising and systematic manner. " men and women are meant, of course, the

persons forming the
is,

members of the Church proper
clerics

;

regular and secular

and nuns.

To

begin with the women.
the

The Church,
"
:

already, by

mouth of

St.

Paul, declared
;

Let your worn*
is

keep silence in the churchei

for

it

not permitted

This, interpreted in the light of the preceding remarks on the position of women
in

unto them to speak"

Empires proper, means

that

women have no

great say in Empires ; that they, quA u*me* 9 must keep quite in the background, or wreck their true

womanhood.

The
xiv.

entire preceding chapter
is

on Imperialism and
(i

Women
33)

in

these

if

we

only

words of St. Paul read " Women arc

Cor.
in

silent

Empires proper," which is, in modern terms, the true sense of the much-maligned and misunderstood

The

Catholic Church, built on the true

IMPERIALISM AND RELIGION
principles of Imperialism, did not permit

73
to

women

be accepted as priestesses or clerics, as had done so many other religious systems built on a psychologically
less

profound
that
else.

basis.

become a nun
but nothing

is,

an

The woman might unwomaned woman
;

With regard

to

man

the Catholic

Church pushed

A

the process of dehumanisation to its extreme limit. regular, or monk, was at all times compelled to
in

abstain,

the

most solemn
principal
:

and

binding

form,
has

from the four
implanted in us

desires

that

Nature

(i)
;

the

desire

of marrying and

founding a family

(ii)

the desire of acquiring one's

own
in

property ; (iii) the desire of being one's own master ; and (iv) the desire of moving about freely
the world.

Monks

were forced to remain in
;

absolute

celibacy
;

poverty

and chastity to submit their own

to

vow
their

perpetual

will

to that of the

Superior

;

and to be riveted to

monastery

(stability loci).

When Pope

Gregory

VII.,

in

1074 and the

following years, categorically confirmed previous church laws to the effect that henceforth neither " monks or " regulars," nor priests or " seculars

should
relation

be allowed

to

have

any

sort

of

marital

minor

whatsoever with women, the bishops and Europe rose in priests of all Catholic

74

IMPERIALISM
mad
" wanted

" indescribable uproar against the
they said, manifest command."
in

to

tread

on

pope," who, Nature's most
letters,

Neither in the

nor

the

his

of Pope Gregory VII. do we find direct and open answer to these violent and
bulls
it

" natural " objections of his enraged bishops.

But we may take
met
"
his trusted
in

for granted that

when he
to

friend Mathildis, the Countess of

Tuscany,

his

council-room,

he

said

1

Otto, Bishop of Constance, and his followers in the Teutonic realm and elsewhere, accuse me of

trampling upon

Nature.

Precisely.

This

is

just

the very thing that the Holy Ghost urges me to do. shall we conquer the realm of Grace

How

without abandoning the realm of Nature ? Could I have won your powerful friendship, my fair friend, without disregarding every other possible
tie

between us
is

?

The

reproach

of

my

rebellious

bishops

my

greatest glory."

The
political

Catholic

Church, grafted on the deepest psychology of the Greeks, and the most
traditions
realised

mature

political

and
clear

instincts

of

the
all

Romans,

fully

the

principle

of

absolute Imperialism to wit, that imperial can be won only at the expense of the
capital.

power

human
to

This,

and
for

this

alone,

accounts
influence

a
a

modern mind

the

incredible

of

IMPERIALISM AND RELIGION
man
like St. Bernard, in the first half

75

of the twelfth

century.

The Abbot of
a

Clairvaux was neither

head of the Cistercians, nor deep scholastic, nor a great scholar
neither charitable nor tolerant
;

the legal a cardinal ; neither
;

he was
military

neither a

leader, nor a great statesman. dominating figure of his time.
in

Yet he was the

For

in

him, and

his

personal

asceticism, or well-nigh

complete
oratory,

dehumanisation,

coupled

with

his

fine

the people of the twelfth century necessarily beheld the great Empire-builder of their time. It was

through personalities exhibiting an ideal of dehumanisation that the great Empire of the Church
could be and was established.
In
St.

that

lay

the

power of the new orders.
of the
severely

A

Bruno,

the

founder

ascetic

Carthusians, although he completely withdrew from the world to the wilderness of the French Alps,

and although he ceded to Pope Urban
to
St.

II.'s

invitation
relief

Rome

only after anxious

prayers

for

Bruno was nevertheless one of the
Norbert

principal

master-builders
St.
St.
;

of Catholic Imperialism. So were St. Francis of Assisi ; St. Dominic

;

Ignatius de Loyola.
a
different

They
the

are historically, if

in

type of Moses, Lycurgus, Solon, or Themistocles. Did not even

manner, of

76
Solon

IMPERIALISM
browbeat

Nature

by

forcing

his

fellow?

citizens to nullify the debts

of their debtors

The

Catholic

method of meeting the needs of

the Church in periods of great danger, such as the Reformation, by the foundation of new orders of

monks

that

is,

humanisation
process
is

by intensifying the process of deand multiplying its devotees this
in

quite

of Imperialisation.

Ascetic orders

keeping with the true policy of monks, far

from ceasing to arise or to spread in the near future, will, on the contrary, be more numerous than ever. This irresistible tendency to browbeat
Nature
that in

so intimate an organ of any Imperialism, Empires such as the British or American,
is
is

where the Catholic mode of dehumanisation
practicable,

not

other and

equally drastic

methods of

trampling upon Nature have long been introduced. To these belong the exaggerated value attached to

temperance and total abstinence from drinks of any kind. The less it can be proved, either from a
study of drinking nations, or from
experiments
spirits

physiological
beer,

on
not

individuals,

that

wine,

or

arc

wholesome, the more

tcetotalism

will spread in the

in ultima analyst, not a question

It is, English-speaking Empires. of national hygiene ;

but

of

that

inevitable

desire

for

curtailing

the

human

capital,

whether of physical or mental vigour,

IMPERIALISM

AND RELIGION

77

which must grow up in Empires in proportion to their nearer or more remote similarity to the classical
the Roman Empire. In type of all lay Empires the Roman Empire that tendency to do away with Nature became rapidly so strong, that it succeeded
in establishing, already in

the fourth century A.D.,
ruins of the

the

Empire of Grace upon the

Empire

of Man or Nature. To argue with total

both stupid and a sign of ignorance. Stupid, because their cause cannot, in Empires, be baffled unless some other process of dchumanisation is introduced in the place
abstainers
is

of theirs
stainers

;

ignorant, because

"on

in arguing with abone evidently misses the principle,"

real point
is

of the question.

The

reply to abstainers

vigorous campaign against tea-drinking ; or " at homes." smoking ; or music ; or dancing ; or
a

Some method for trampling on the natural desires of men and women must, in Empires, be found. The abstainers have found one. To defeat their
nostrum, some other nostrum for browbeating Nature must be introduced. Nothing is more
cogent,

more

conclusive.

Church, then, represents the most consummate form of Imperialism, based

The Roman

Catholic

on the fundamental principle of all Imperialism, to the effect that we must first remove several of

78

IMPERIALISM

the strongest natural desires of men, like so many or rocks, before the fine interfering roots, shrubs,
cathedral

of an

saying this, sneer is in the writer's mind.
to praise, nor to

In Empire can be constructed. not the shadow of indignation or a
It is

intended neither

blame

;

but to

state facts.

The

again asked to consider that in the author's conviction Empires are as inevitable under certain

reader

is

circumstances as arc city-states.
repeatedly in history

The

latter

have

shown

their signal capacity for

raising nearly every one element of humanity to a very high degree of perfection. To Athens, Syracuse, Florence, Venice or Genoa, mankind is

under a profound obligation. On the other hand, it cannot be overlooked that
all

the five city-states mentioned were incipient or small Empires ; and that their beatific influence was

restricted only to a

few people.
is

the

work of humanity

In Empires proper done lets intensely, but it
Is
it

reaches incomparably larger masses.

not true

that the vast majority of people find moral comfort

much more
than when
is

easily
left

when members of

a big group,
?

to their
in

own

petty circles

There
remote

greater joyfulness
;

towns
feeling

than

in

villages

there

is

more

of

life

and safety

in a nation

than in a clan.
tastes,

Individuals

endowed

with delicate

and careful only to cultivate a

IMPERIALISM AND RELIGION
few
select

79
thus

friends,

are the

exception.

It

is

" salvation " done impossible to deny the work of by vast institutions such as the Catholic Church ;

more
is
it

especially in

the

early

Middle Ages.
in

Nor
the

here denied.
his

In

General

History,

now

the

press,

author has repeatedly pointed out the incomparably
beneficial

by the Roman Catholic Empire. What we must insist upon here is the undeniable fact that these benefactions were ob-

work

done

tained at the price of the wholesale dehumanisation

of hundreds of thousands of

clerics.

This

is

only

To do the immense what might be expected. work of the Roman Catholic Church implies,
psychologically, a series of equally
fices.

immense

sacri-

It

is

well

known
at
all

that

the priests

of the
nay,

Catholic

Church

times

yearned

for,

courted, martyrdom.
felt

Very properly.

They deeply

that since their aims were vast, their sacrifices

too
the

the yet

The lay student, on other hand, cannot, in common fairness, accept historic benefactions of the Roman Church and sneer at the sacrifices made by her members.
must be extraordinary.
have so
far tried to sec
it

We
is

what shape religion

taking

when

aspires to a Universal Empire.

This was the
Imperialism.

first

of the relations of religion to
shall

We

now attempt

to

show the

8o
influence

IMPERIALISM
of religion
as

an

institution

favourable

or antagonistic to Imperialism. There is, in the introduction

to

all

physics, a

"

law," or rather a common-sense statement, to the
that

effect

place at

two bodies cannot coexist in the same the same time. The same " law " applies

to Imperialism.

Two
at

same country

Empires cannot coexist in the the same time. This is the key to
fact

many
into

a

momentous

of history.

It

is

evident,

" driven " to begin with, that such peoples as were

Empire-building on a grand scale could not look upon the Roman Catholic Church with a
favourable

This Church, being an Empire, absorbs some of the best forces of a country for
eye.
its

own

use.

It

moreover

cannot

favourable
the people.

to

vigorous

initiative

be sincerely on the part of

Being established to rule, to

command,

any
to

popular tendency to the contrary is antagon
the great power of the times prevented the rise
in
politics,

it.

In France, for instance,

Catholic Church has at

all

of two great lay parties
representative

and thus of

government proper.
it

The
many

Catholic

Church where

is

powerful invariably attracts to
assimilates

much
that

interest,
all

and

so

partisans,

political

lines

of cleavage are determined

by

ecclesiastic

or anti-ecclesiastic issues.

Lay

parties

IMPEL \LISM AND RELIGION
proper cannot
is

81

rm, and parliamentary government

Moreover, imperial instincts are more directly and more magnificently gratified by the old historic dignities of the universal Catholic
impossible.

Church, and so are deflected from channels of lay Wherever therefore a nation was Imperialism.
placed in

of attempting, as a national necessity, the great work of Empire-building, the people could not but be instinctively antagonistic
a

position

to the Catholic Church.

So
in

it

was

in

England
in the

in the sixteenth century
at
all

;

the

Byzantine
;

United States and
the

Empire Dutch Empire
exception circumstances

times
;

;

in

the
;

in

Russia
is

apparent

of

Spain
leading

fully

explained

by

the

to

the

establishment of the Spanish Empire.

This famous

established, almost exclusively, not by necessity, but by marriages and by easy victories The renowned marriages by over feeble natives.

Empire was

which

the

Netherlands,
the

the

Milanese,

Germanic

Franche-Comte, the Empire, and most of
directly or indirectly,

modern Austria-Hungary

fell,

into the hands of the Spanish

Hapsburgs implied,

by necessity, an acceptance of the Catholic Church, in that they were all made previous to the
Reformation.
Peruvians,

The

and

easy conquests over Mexicans, other American natives, brought

6

82
vast
territories

IMPERIALISM
under
Spanish
rule

with

such

astounding rapidity
the

(from

1519
it

Spanish,

for reasons already

1540) that mentioned above,
to

to

could
those

not

possibly

deem

practicable

miss

unprecedented opportunities by involving themselves at the same time in great conflicts On the other hand, with the Catholic Church.
the

Portuguese
a

Empire
and

under

Pombal
hostile

at

once
the
first

commenced
Catholic

series
;

of measures
Portugal

to

Church

was

the

Catholic country to expel the Jesuits (1759). The historic relation of the English to Catholicism,

which

is

of more immediate interest to us,

is

very

the English in the sixteenth century plain. became more and more conscious of the fact that

When

from

their

situation in the

due centre of the then

world they ought also to have a large share of those imperial provinces which, for different motives,

above indicated, they needed for the
their defence
at

fortification of
felt

home,
to
all

they
their

keenly
national

that

the

great

antagonist
Catholic

desires
political

was and

the

Church.

The

greatest
in

military

power was then

the

hands

of the

ultra-Catholic King of Spain ; and all the home disturbances in England were caused by conflicts with the Catholic Church, then in the full swing of

the

all

but victorious Counter-Reformation.

IMPERIALISM
Under
these

AND RELIGION
it

83

circumstances

can

astound

no

one- that Catholicism appeared to

most high-minded
all

English
great
hateful.

patriots

the

thing most hostile to

the

interests

of

England,
words,

and
the

therefore

most
second

In

other

nascent

Imperialism of England rebutted with all its might its latent enemy, Catholicism. The terrible outcry " " was pre-eminently a political, an Popery against
imperialist,

watchword.
;

The
it

religious question

was

given rise to a single great literary onslaught on Catholicism in any way
quite secondary

nor has

comparable to similar attacks
or nineteenth-century France.

in

eighteenth-century

The
the

English, long

trained in Imperialism, clearly felt that they

would

never

be

able
if

to

build

up

Empire they so
a firm hold

much

needed,

Catholicism retained

on the country.

The example
view.

of France has fully borne out this France has vast colonies ; but no Empire.

There
in

is

no

imperialist sentiment, sense, or vocation

French people. They have allowed them" natural " too much inselves to remain too ;
the clined to

the

Hellenic
intent

type

of

full-blooded

on keeping their women humanity ; too much in short, as well-balanced as are their mature men
:

the French

have

never

been

able

to

undergo or

to submit to the sacrifices entailed by Imperialism.

84

IMPERIALISM
reason
that

The
fact

for this

is,

to

some

extent,

in

the

such

sacrifices

such Frenchmen

as

were vicariously made by became members of the Catholic
maintaining

Church
fluence

;

the

latter

her

intimate

in-

on the French people through all the ages. In England, on the other hand, the sacrifices

of

human

capital

were,

by the

rising

Puritans,

gladly

is to the English the Statutes of the monastic what the Rcgula, or The British Sunday orders were to the monks.

undertaken.

Puritanism

is
is

to
to

other days of the
Parochialism.
it.

No
part

week what Imperialism legislation can ever do

away with
factor
in

of that voluntary selfmortification which, as we have seen, is an integral
It
is

any high-strung Imperialism. Having no monastic orders proper, the British naturally and
least

voluntarily cloister themselves tt

one day of
;

the week.

The
;

British

Sunday

;

Total Abstinence

Mrs. Grundy and several other social features are all part and parcel of that sacrifice of some of the light

and beauty of
Puritanism

life

so indispensable in all Empires. was not a temporary, accidental

movement arising about 1567-70 as an imitation of Dutch Calvinism, which was then in full revolt from Philip II. Nor was it merely a religious
movement
It

arising

from

theological

dissent
;

only.

was imperialist from the beginning

it

was the

IMPERIALISM AND RELIGION
mould and
British,
cast

85

of the rising Imperialism of the as the Essenes and the Therapeutes were
Christian
;

the

Empire and as we see in the case of the Romans, who, unconsciously imperialist in tendency from the very start, observed
an ethical rigour that even the staunchest of English Puritans would have found too exacting. At the present time we note in Russia a Puritan
teacher

mould of the

of

of extraordinary force, if apparently also unusual absurdity. Tolstoi abhors Russian
;

Imperialism

he

is

really

its

first

great product

and

its

chief
its

abettor.

No

Imperialism
;

can

do

without

Puritanic

element

and as Dutch and

English Puritanism was helped on by Calvin and Knox, so Russian Imperialism is now being taken
in

hand by Tolstoi.
that

The

latter

will

deny and

does deny
perialism.
Institutio
is

So

he has anything to do with ImIn the did Calvin and Knox.
Rcligionis
;

Christiana

of

Calvin

there

it has nevertheless word of Imperialism been the modern textbook thereof. Athens, but

not a

faintly

imperialist,
in

saw Puritanism

at a late stage,

and only
'lies

the form of harmless
cast a

Cynics.

The

gloom over England in the first half of the seventeenth century were prompted by
the most powerful, because secular and indispensable,
instinct

who

of the English

by Imperialism.

86

IMPERIALISM
To

the present day the cheerlessncss of life in England, which no serious observer can deny, is
part

and parcel of the rigour,
in

Roman

gravity,
that

and
feed

unemotionality inherent

the instincts

the love and power of Imperialism.

The
the

systematic

gloom of

cloisters

and monasteries of the Catholic
directly

Empire corresponds

to

unsystematic
in

yet equally necessary want of grace and charm

most English middle-class families. In both cases the forces and power of Imperialism are bought at
the expense of human brightness. Should the English lose their Empire to-morrow,

they would within one generation become precisely like the French. And vie/ vena the French,
:

clinging

more

heartily to their
ideals

national brightness

and cheerfulness than to

great power, undid their greatest chance for Imperialism under Napoleon, and at present take their colonies very

of

indifferently.

Nor

will

the

Italians

ever

become
will

Imperialists
all

;

and the Spanish only when they
carefully think

turn Protestants.
If

now we
we

out the relations
Imperialism

so

universally

ignored

between

and

Religion,

shall easily see that the English, ever

and necessarily desirous for an Empire, could not
accept Catholicism as their religion.

According to the unalterable organisation of the Catholic Church,

IMPERIALISM AND RELIGION
a

87

Catholic Archbishop of Canterbury would, in a

Catholic British Empire,

become
him.

the most powerful

person

of

all.

Combined
resist

with

the

King,

no
with

parliament

could

Combined
King a mere

parliament, he might render the

figure-

head.

Already during the first great period of English Imperialism under the later Plantagenets, there was

England a very marked tendency to cut loose from Rome. Had Crecy and Poictiers led to permanent results, Wyclif would have died the
leader

of

probably

the

majority

of Englishmen.

What Wyclif
results

failed to do, owing to the ephemeral of English Imperialism in his time, the Puritans of the seventeenth century succeeded in

establishing

once for

all.

By

resolutely breaking

the power of Catholicism they paved the way for an Imperialism that did not require the sacrifice of
all

political

liberty too.

In the same
dullest

way

it

became quite evident to the
that unless the irresistible

mind
to

in

England

tendency
similarly

Imperialism was accompanied by a strong moderation of the King's preImperialism

rogative,

would

naturally

the hands of the Crown.

What

an

play into uncontrolled
exact,

King of England could allow himself to
the people

had learned under the Tudors.

What

88

IMPERIALISM

an uncontrolled English Emperor of a vast Empire might indulge in, the popular mind shuddered
to

think.

Puritanism

was

thus

the

main lever

of British Imperialism

hood
It

are the
is

main

; and priestforce of the Catholic Church.

as monasticism

thus quite clear that the feebler forms such as Protestantism, Luthcranism, have come to prevail in non-imperial countries; while Holland, England, and America have always shown a strong to the more Puritanic forms of leaning

of

Nonconformism.
promise between

The Anglican Church,

a

comitself

Rome and

Geneva,

is

by

neither imperialist nor andimperialist ; it has thus, on the whole, played an indifferent rtle in the
British history Imperialism. other hand, the Catholic Church

of

In France,
is
;

on the

necessarily

more

imperialist than the

French nation

and should the

French one day quite abandon or lose their colonies, the French people will manifest a very strong tendency towards complete secularisation of their social
life.

Rcnan and
truth,

his

school have,
little
;

in

point of
to

hist.

done very history of
an
unhistoric

with

regard
his

the early
is

Christianity

and

Life of Jesus

quite worthless, because

fundamentally vitiated by conception of Jesus. as

one of the great attacks on the Catholic Church, Renan's work is very
important.

However,

IMPERIALISM AND RELIGION
But
as

89

long as the still outstanding question between France and Germany is not settled to the

of France, the Catholic Church in that not seriously endangered. For the country Freemasons, Comtists, and other sectarians of mere
satisfaction
is

lumiere-vrorship
will,

in short,

Us

intellect if els

in

France

unaggressiveness and love of peace, never be able to repair the tarnished honour of France ; and accordingly the Catholic

owing to

their studied

countenancing, as she does, war, will continue to have a powerful hold on the French

Church,

people.

Mere

rationalism, as

may

be seen, cannot

possibly secure a firm hold

on

either the

Americans
former

or the English

;

because both nations

are, the

excessively, the latter

strongly, imperialist.

They
be.

need more than anything else an over-rigorous code

of moral

views, whatever

their

actions

may

They

stand in absolute need of sombre and gloomy, not to say superstitious and intolerant, ethics and
religious beliefs
;

be inclined to part with them only after the dissolution of their Imperialism. The French, on the other hand, may very well
will

and

arrive
if

at

a purely

"rational"

religion,
in

especially
last

they

content

themselves, as

the

thirty

years they have, with a share of merely academic
influence

on international

affairs.

The

intimate

connection

between

Imperialism

9o

IMPERIALISM

and Religion helps us even in the comprehension of the strange phenomenon of the Jews. The orthodox among them form, all the world over, a sort of
union that
elements.
to
is

not without

a

tinge of imperialist

For

this reason alone

they arc

bound

keep up their sombre and forbidding attitude In the States, where the to the rest of mankind.

Jews have

largely relaxed in their ritual rigour, they
all

have alone of

Jews, deliberately withdrawn from
social circles.

most non-Jewish
Christianity,
classical

precipitated

into

existence

by the

type of lay Empires, by the Roman Empire, without which it could scarcely have spread in

Europe
tion

Christianity rapidly took
spiritual

up the
Empire.
of

organisa-

and powers of a vast
both

When,
the

since the sixteenth century,
possible,

new

lay

Empires became
Europe,

west

and

east

Catholic
flict

Empire

necessarily

came
the

into lasting con-

Dutch, English, and Russian, that were determined to build up Empires of their own.
nations,

with

such

as

This
Its

conflict
is

is

going on
It
is

to

the

present

day.

issue

unknown.

certain that, as

long

as either English, American, Russian,

German, or
vitality,

Japanese Imperialism retains the Catholic Church stands

its

powerful but a poor

chance
for

of regaining

lost

territory.

The

Japanese,

IMPERIALISM AND RELIGION
instance, cannot

91

possibly

become
to to
all

Catholics.

They
pope.

are naturally

antagonistic

European powers,

and thus
Since

cannot

submit

a

European
is

Mahometanism, which

attributes

pontifical

powers to the Emperor (Khalif),
wish to become Mahometans.
Christianity has

likewise im-

possible in Japan, the Japanese can never sincerely

For similar reasons

no

substantial

of Asia,
reader

outside

the

hopes in any part Russian dominion. The

may judge
attached

for himself

what

religious value

may be

to

the

immense
in

labour

and

expense of missionary work

Asia.

In Africa,
still

on the other hand, missionary work may carried on with some hopefulness.

be

IV

IMPERIALISM AND INTELLECT
amount and value of
intellectual

THE
History,

work

done,

whether
or

in

Literature,
in

Philosophy,

Science,

Art,

periods

of

Imperialism, are as a rule rather poor.

strong Excessive

Imperialism, such as that of the Romans, the Catholic Church, or the Americans, has an irre-

tendency to render the intellect poor resource, blunted in imagination, dry and stale The literature of the Romans point of ideation.
sistible

in in
is,

on the whole, artificial, cold, unimaginative, and Such Latin classics as do really appeal to poor.
us
for instance,
at

much of
a time

Catullus and Lucretius-

were written

when Roman Imperialism
established,

was

not

yet

definitely

nor the only
written by

mental attitude of people.
Catholic
literature

that

is,

works

or priests apart from its purely theological interest, has rarely risen to anything like the level of great secular writers. No monk or priest of the
9*

monks

IMPERIALISM AND INTELLECT
Middle Ages approaches Dante.

93

The

Benedictines

and the Jesuits have to the present day shown a Their output of works, prodigious literary activity. learned, philosophical, and technical, is nothing short
of vast. Yet not one of them has contributed a " classic " to the literature of any nation. At best, erudite books of reference. they produce

The same phenomenon may be observed
regard
to

with

the

Americans.

Their

excessive

Imlife,

perialism, having long impaired their emotional

has thereby so seriously reduced

their
all

powers of
the nations

ideation and original thought, that of
actively

engaged

in pursuit

of

literature, philosophy,

and

science, the

Americans have contributed the
leading ideas or literary gems.

smallest

number of

by Americans, Yet might not
their
size

This grave deficiency to the "

of course again referred, " of the States. youthfulness
is

their great

immense work of

of Independence, or civilising a continent of the

War

of a few generations, have inspired a few of their innumerable writers to The fact is that a work of imposing grandeur ? of Europe
in the course

American
and

Imperialism desiccated American
cceur.

hearts,

Us grandts pcnstcs vicnncnt du idolatry devoted in America to intellect

The

as if such

a thing existed

by

itself, as

if

the intellect was any;

thing else than the valet of our emotions

the fanatic

94

IMPERIALISM

devotion to excessive reading of books and journals ; to an over-estimation of the value of teaching ; to
a

constant

search

after
all

digests,

condensations, and
bovrils
:

other

rhumls^ abstracts, kinds of intellectual

all this,

together with the countless libraries,

universities,

has

it

and higher colleges in America what Has America given us Darresulted in ?

winism

?

Has

she reformed the historical sciences

?

Has she given us a new philosophical clue ? she broken new ground in any of the great sciences

Has
?

have published useful indexes to European works. They are pre-eminently collectors, sifters, a nation of elder Plinys. They
stand in point

The Americans

of

intellect to

Byzantines to ancient Greece ; reason. The Byzantines too

Europe as did the and for the same
were
excessively

Undoubtedly, the imperialised, hence uncreative. Americans have made several very startling and It must, however, never be important inventions.
overlooked
that inventions stand

to

real scientific

work

as

do mere

happy improvisations to
arc like

real

musical compositions. of haphazard. They

Inventions are mostly matters
lightning-flashes
to

the abiding light of the sun.

man, according to the profound remark of Goethe, is much more gifted by Nature
than

Art, for which

he

is

for

Science

;

Art, man's proper sphere

IMPERIALISM AND INTELLECT
and glory
the sphere where he
is

95

home/* quite himself, quite human ; Art proper is imArt possible in countries of excessive Imperialism.
quite
requires

"

at

unbroken men

:

full-blooded, full-fledged,

Hellenic, or neo-Hellenic humanity. Such humanity, as we have seen, cannot prosper in the sirocco of excessive Imperialism
;

nor can Art.

There may be
are looked into

apparent exceptions,
carefully they are

but when they

invariably found to confirm the

great principle that there never have been exceptions

to

the

working of any one

great

and puissant
and much
can never

national influence such as Imperialism.

The
may

resources of Imitation are great

;

be done that looks like Art.
is

What

be imitated, what
creativeness,

par

excellence a

matter of unique

that

is

real

Art.

The Romans had
no

some

fine

features in their Art; but they had

Parthenon.

What made

the Parthenon were the

the intense tragic sufferings, the jubilant triumphs,
despair,

and the equally intense intellectuality of the Athenians. It takes heaven and hell to build

up

a Parthenon.

The Romans

whose emotionality

was just as blunt as was their intellect the Romans knew of Order and Duty ; but they never descended
into

Hades, nor did they ever
historical facts

rise

to the Elysian

spheres.

As mere

about which there can be

96

IMPERIALISM

no further discussion, it is evident that, with the apparent exception of Spain, all the other countries in Europe have had their intellectual heyday
before they
extent.

were imperialised to any considerable Take England. Shakespeare and Newton
held
to

are

generally

be

England's greatest

in-

tellectual glories.

In a

did

not

possess
;

Shakespeare's time, England single village in France or on

the Continent

Scotland was quite separated from
Ireland

England

;

and

was

being

appropriated

In through long and but too painful struggles. Shakespeare's time England had no Empire at all, the American settlements being mostly in a halfprivate
status.

In

Newton's

perialism

began

indeed

English Imto assert itself; but very
time,

slowly and,

for the greater part of

Newton's

very dimly.
In

Germany,

the

rise

of her greatest poets,

thinkers,

men of
her

with her total
fact,

science, and musicians synchronises absence of any real Imperialism in
;

with

political atomisation

into

hundreds

of petty sovereignties. None of these German glories were born after 1850 ; and most of them before 1800, or still more precisely, from 1724 to 1770. The same phenomenon is evident in Italy,

whose immortals

all

date from the time of small

city-states, or duchies.

To

France

it

is

impossible

IMPERIALISM
to apply

AND INTELLECT

97

our

principle, in that France, except half-

heartedly under Napoleon for a few years, has never In Spain indeed we been sincerely imperialist.

note

that

the strong Imperialism of the times of
II.,

the three Philips (Philip

Philip

III.,

and Philip

IV.) did not materially interfere with the Spanish
intellect,

and some of the

glories of Spanish literain the times

ture and art lived and
three Philips.
It

worked
be

of the

will,

however,
extent

noted
its

intellect far

was deprived of
than

Spanish emotional basis to a

that

the

smaller

was the case with other

For reasons already adduced, the Spanish Empires. people could not launch on their career of Imperialism
without taking upon themselves a profound religious While enthusiasm for a highly artistic Church.
their

excessive

orthodoxy
or

at

once deprived them
thinkers,
it

of great
helped

scientific

philosophical

considerably the rise of dramas and of sacred painting.
Sta,

great

religious

Calderon

and

Theresa were inspired by pretty much the same Cervantes, on holy feeling of deep religiousness.
the other hand,
is

quite in keeping with Imperialism,

in

that

his

immortal

novel

is

born out of

an
so

exquisite

sense

of

the

wholesale

mendacity

rampant
is

in energetic Imperialism.

the

parent

of

true

humour

;

That mendacity and it is as a
7

98

IMPERIALISM

in the great sense of the masterpiece of humour, term, that Don Quixote is admired and loved by the

whole world.

Or

is

not

Don Quixote

Spain herself?

Spain with her apparent power and wealth, and But in spite of her real weakness and poverty.
these

exceptionally
intellect

favourable

circumstances,

the

became decadent, and from Spanish the reign of Charles II. onward lost all force and importance for nearly two centuries.
soon
Intellect too,

we may sum

up,

is

at

a

discount

Imperialism. Nothing can be more than the absolute barrenness of the human impressive intellect in the Roman Empire, after the first century
in

excessive

Surely one might have expected to see some great inventions made ; some extensive work of
A.D.

colonisation and civilisation carried out east of the

Rhine and

Maine Rivers
realised
:

;

some
short,

great

discoveries

of continents
the
later.

in

we might expect
centuries

work

actually

done some

fourteen

Greek

literature,

sufficient to kindle the glorious flame

poor fragments of which were of the Renais-

sance in the fifteenth century, the Roman Imperialists had in its entirety. did it not kindle a Renais-

Why

sance

in

the

third

century
literature

A.D.

?

For the same
art

reason

that all
is

the

and

of modern

Europe

unable

to kindle a true Renaissance in

IMPERIALISM AND INTELLECT
The Romans too had vast but their and many a learned man
the
States.
;

99

libraries,

excessive

Imperialism had long desiccated their minds. They were unable to assimilate creatively what the Greeks

had bestowed upon them. Even in the one great science in which the Romans have left us an imperishable intellectual heritage, in their Private

Law,

already the

first

quarter of the third century saw
jurists.

the

last

great

Roman
was

Nor
great

can

it

be admitted for a
initiated
in

moment
the
as

that that

science

times

of

the

Roman Empire.
called

The

vcteres,

the

Romans

their

great jurists of the time previous to

the

Emperors, had long established the system, The principles, and method of Roman law.

Empire did not produce a jurist greater than Marcus Antistius Labco. It is self-evident that the
Carthaginians, through their excessive Imperialism, completely dried up the wells of poetic or philo-

and even their Hannibal, the greatest military genius of post-Greek antiquity, was
sophic inspiration
;

any literary or artistic of him. The Italians are indeed the shape worthy creators of many of Europe's most precious intellectual treasures ; but it is not in strongly imperial
in

not

celebrated by

them

Venice that we must look for
best.

Italian

intellect at its
;

Venice had her Aldi, her Fra Paolo Sarpi

ioo

IMPERIALISM

but no Poliziano, no Machiavelli, no Lionardo, no

Michael Angclo.

modern, largely imperialised Germany the tendency to sterile erudition is but too evident. In Berlin University there arc mostly men who
Already
in

excel in massivcncss of learning

much more
over
(acts.

than in
In ori-

the

power of

intellectual grasp

ental history
in

Winckler
late

;

in

economics A. Wagner;

history

the

Theodor

Mommscn

;

in

law

Otto Gicrkc, etc. etc., have published books so numerous and so overladen with quotations that
one may with regard to them say what in his time " was said of Onuphrius Panvinius Onuphrius has read so much that one wonders how ever he found
:

the

time

to write a line
fails

;

and he has written so

rruch that one

to understand

how he found
not written by

the time of reading so

many books

himself/*

The

rate at

which a scholar may hope
is,

to write himself into a chair at Berlin

at least,

ten thousand pages closely packed with innumerable quotations from all the books from Pharaoh Pta-

hotep downwards.

With

rising

Cycloparan

in Imperialism Germany this massivcncss will be on the increase,

and one must not despair of seeing a history of Katzencllenbogen in twenty quarto volumes comprising

only

the

introduction

and

general

plan

IMPERIALISM AND INTELLECT
of a work
history.
filling

101

such

a

painful

gap

in

German

scholars
fications

The German Universities turn out who have ready " frames " and " classi"
for

any subject
the

;

so that they will (the

writer vouchsafes

truth

of the

fact) finish

in

a given time a history of the French Revolution,

or the History and Constitution of the English Church, with all the necessary ribbons and garlands of
erudite quotations, without having really the faintest hold on their subject. This is how the Chinese have

long become, through their excessive Imperialism, the compilers of a huge encyclopaedia in several

thousands of volumes, whereas the most extensive

European encyclopaedias do not now go beyond
thirty to forty
It is in

volumes.

vain that people saddled with an excessive

Imperialism attempt with frantic efforts to stimulate and systematise themselves into a more creative
intellectuality.

more
their

eccentric

they become only and grotesque, but do not increase
In

the

result

power of original thought.
cannot have
it

This

is

one of

the heavy prices they pay for their imperial glory.

We

both ways, as a barrister once remarked drily, but very truly. A nation must be conscious, very clearly conscious, of its mental
possibilities, just

as

of

its

military resources.

We

despise people that brag of their martial greatness

102

IMPERIALISM
;

on the strength of a small army
nations that indulge in infantile
their mental equipments.

we cannot admire
conceit

regarding

The
many
always

hard

and incontrovertible

fact is

this,

that

a small nation
will

of the world has excelled and
imperialist

excel

the

realms
is

of intellectual
to maintain
military

elasticity
if

and vigour, and

point thus able

in

itself,

aided by
its

some

geo-political

or

advantage of

country, even against a

very powerful
divided,
as
it

Empire.
has

The world
in

is

evidently

always been

historic times,

between a few very large Empires and a number of small polities. But he commits a profound error who assumes that the world will, in the end, be
impcrialiscd altogether
that
is,

shared out between

two or three great imperial nations, Anglo-Saxon, Yellow, or Slav. Nothing of the kind will ever
take
place.

The

imperialist

nations

will

be

at

a

considerable

disadvantage

in

always point of

intellectual force,

and thus unable to overcome the
rolled
in

ever

new

obstacles

their

progress

of

conquest
nations.

by some small but

intensely

organised

was when the Assyrians and Egyptians were checkmated and shorn of sea-power by the

So

it

small Phoenicians

;

so also

when

the Persians were
;

driven

back by a few

Hellenes

and

at present

IMPERIALISM AND INTELLECT
we
see the Russian

103

Empire thwarted by

little

Japan.

Lord

Salisbury's dictum that there are nations successful and nations decadent, with its evident
is

hint that the successful nations are Imperialists,

hopelessly
that

wrong.

Even Spain

will

now

regain

vigour and progressiveness which her Imperialism caused her to neglect, and then we shall soon see Spain play a very important " role in South Europe. Some of the " small
intellectual

Europe, such as Hungary (18,000,000 inhabitants) stand chances of success fully as great
nations
in
as,

if

The
lect

not greater than, those of some big Empires. world will not be partitioned out by two or

three nations, because man's greatest force, his intelthat
is,

his

powers emotional and

mental

will always

be more intense, more powerful, with
destroyed the

smaller nations than in Empires.

What

after

all

Its inevitable

intellectual dearth.

Roman Empire ? And who availed
and established,

themselves of this

fatal deficiency

on the ruins of the Roman Empire, the Catholic Empire? A few Jews and Greeks. Emperor
Trajan, in his answer to the report on the early Christians sent by the younger Pliny, treated the

whole

affair

as

one of no importance.
the

He

little

suspected

Empire, then at its solid height, and apparently based on the most
that

Roman

io 4

IMPERIALISM
civil liberty,

foundations of power, order, law, and was soon to be overpowered by the
sect

that

both

he

and Pliny held

in

very petty such poor

respect.

by which we mean not only the power of correct judgment and the power of creating of ideas, but also and pre-eminently the power
Intellect

thought such intellect, which presupposes a rich emotional basis, cannot, in the long run, thrive
artistic

in

Empires.

And

the quicker Imperialism develops,
it

and the more absolute and excessive
the less
its

becomes,
its

intellect will

be able to hold
not
in

own.

Delphi, Babylon. Apollo dwells This truth would have long been recognised as one of the elementary propositions in history and
in
politics, if these studies

small

were not almost completely

disorganised by false or half-true notions such as " National " Race," Character," and other latent or

open premisses arising simply from the vanity of
people.

Not one Englishman
to ascribe

in a

thousand

will hesitate

the

political

backwardness of the small

Balkan nations to their

"weak
the

national charact

As

a

matter

of

fact

Balkan

nations

are

completely paralysed would never endure

by the Great
a

Powers,

who

federation

of the

Greeks,

Servians, Roumanians, and Bulgarians, but combat

IMPERIALISM AND INTELLECT
it

105

No nation in Europe by land and on sea. could under these circumstances do more than is
achieved by the Balkan nations. This is the reason why we said above that small nations must be aided

by some geo-political circumstances, otherwise their intellect avails them but little.

From whatever

point

we approach

the problem

of the correlation between Imperialism and Intellect, we always arrive at a corroboration of the great
truth
that

the

intellect

requires

of

emotional
left

forces.

In

being

to

cool off in

very rich soil Empires the emotions early youth, and being
is

a

systematically held in severe check, the intellect

deprived

of

its

richest

affluents,

and so tends to

become dry, formal, lacking

power of a propos. The lack of spontaneous, quick intellect, of what the French call esprit prime-sautier, is also a further
in

cause
is

Empires of the extreme type there such extraordinary value attached to the most

why

in

elaborate systems of education.

No
the

nation

does

as

much

for

education
as

as

do
the
to

Americans.

They cannot

afford,

do

French, to leave the better

part

of education

There the spontaneous forces of social intercourse. In France no are no such forces in America.
long indulge in any of those eccentricities of behaviour or speech which are so
individual

can

io6

IMPERIALISM

Such frequently met with in England or America. an individual would quickly meet with the sharpest rebuke in the shape of scathing repartees on the
part

of

any
each

Frenchman

or

Frenchwoman.
other

In

France

man

educates every

man

or

woman

;

and

vice versa.

There being no

castes,

and there being a rich well of intellectual spontam every sort of crudeness, rudeness, or gawkiness
which
it

is

quickly set right by the acorn and repartee with
is

instantaneously visited.
all
is

To

deprive, as happens in
its

the intellect of

spontaneity,
national

excessive Empires, a matter of great
It
is

concern

for

every

interest.

this

lack of spontaneity that deprives

all social

meetings,
that

"at homes," or "receptions," of

all

charm;

drives people to a nervous hunt for new and ever M new " sensations ; that makes literature approach,

with
that

fatal certainty,

the type of Chinese classicism

;

gives hundreds of religious "cranks'* their incredible chances of success ; that undoes half of
the

work of
the
evils

all

teaching

and instructing

in

the

colleges.

To
moral

English

mind, any
incomplete

statement of great

seems

and

impracticable,

unless one adds

some expression of
It is,

indignation at

the causes of those evils.
for the writer to

do

so.

The

however, impossible lack of spontaneity,

IMPERIALISM AND INTELLECT
or,

107

in

other
like

words,

the

terrible

conventionalism

covering avenues of social

a Chinese lacquer all
life

the pores and in Empires, can and must

be

stated,
;

but
it

can

neither

be

diminished
at

nor nor

removed

must therefore not be sneered

condemned.
the glory
is less

It is another heavy price paid for of Imperialism. In Empires intellect productive of great achievements in Science,

Literature, and

Art

;

and

less

adapted for

those

charms that make

social

life

agreeable.

Both the

Muses and
enchanting

the

Graces have reserved their
for

most
than

smiles

communities

other

excessive Empires.

PART

III

APPLICATION OF PRINCIPLES TO BRITISH IMPERIALISM

109

BRITISH IMPERIALISM
the

preceding

sketch

we

arrived

at

certain

IN propositions
and
effects

of

of some of the prices Imperialism in general, and Imexpressive

perialism other than British.

The

sketch

is

short

and thin
tolerant,

;

yet

we would

ask

our readers to be

and not to confound thinness of outline

with superficiality.
all

The

British

mind, grave under

circumstances, whether dancing or studying, has an irresistible fondness for heavy books with

much show of
Englishman,
Scot, a

laborious learning. and still more so
treating

To
to

the average the average

book

of weighty questions must
in

be

of considerable
it

weight
to

avoirdupois
frivolous.
to
is

itself.

Otherwise
they

appears

them

Might
that
a

not

possibly be
well

man may very
fact

brought and if he

reflect

honest, will in
neatly and

formulate his thoughts the more
the

briefly

more
?

deeply
in

and

carefully

he

has

worked them out

ii2
Surely nothing
ness of Galileo's

IMPERIALISM
is

more

striking than the small-

Newton's Principia, as against the hugeness of tomes written on physics or a hundred years before Galileo or Newton. fifty
Dialogi, or

much smaller books contain not only what Newton knew, but also most of what
At
present very

has been found out since.

The
is

riper the thought,
its

the

more
has

pregnantly
a
certain

brief

form.

The
after

reader

means of finding out,
If

a few weeks, whether a book, small or big, popular

or erudite,
the

is

or

is

not a good book.

some of

teachings of the book will come back to the reader's mind, a frofos of some facts or news, with
the force of a sudden flash of light, surprising
afresh, re-energising
in

him

subjects

him, and re-engaging his interest hitherto neglected by him, then the

reader

may

be sure that the book did contain new

and good matter.

In the opposite case, the reader ought invariably to conclude that the book is either not fit for him, or not fit for anybody else either.
It is this

subsequent
so

effect

of

ideas, ever so baldly

put,
that

ever
tells.

much deprived of
all

learned evidence,

Many
or

an author has been told that some

of his but "

of them, arc " perhaps brilliant," This witty remark docs not hardly solid."
ideas,
real

necessarily stand in conflict

of the

with the preceding test value of the book. For, various dons,

BRITISH IMPERIALISM
editors,

113
,

and

scholars,

who

volunteered this ingenious
later,

remark, have, a year or so " ated that " brilliant

quietly appropriit

idea, passing

off as their

'

original author, although the plagiarist, welcomes the plagiarism, as despising complete refutation of the judgments of his pon-

own.

In this

manner the

derous
big

critics.

Some honest
reference

authors will not write

books,

except

books.

They know

they cannot.
requires

They have nothing new
stout

three

volumes.

to say that Heraclitus of

Ephesus has profoundly
thinkers,

affected thousands

although we have, in not quite four pages of his sayings. The lightness or thinness of the outline does
not
at
all

of great number of words

the

impair the fineness and genuineness of Let the reader fill it out. Let the design.

reader too
labour,

go through some of the mental
which
every
last,

trouble,
infinity

and incessant reconstruction of an
honest

of

facts,

author

has

gone
insight

rose

through, before, at on the horizon.

the sun of clear
repeat
it
:

We

the weightier

the subject, the more it is possible, nay, imperative, to arrive, after years of close study, at a brief and pregnant solution. He who cannot do so has

not
it,

really

mastered

his

subject.
;

He

can

play

painfully, in single notes
in

he cannot march over

it

bold octaves.
8

u4
Few
that

IMPERIALISM
than British subjects at present are weightier it is here not attempted to deny and ;
its

Imperialism

many of
of
hand,
it

problems do lead to a compli-

cation

details

other

On the defying brief statement. may be said that whenever the
Imperialism
details

problems
tangled
in

of British
conflicting

become so enbrief statement

that

of their relation and correlation

to

one another

becomes impossible, then ten
not bring us

folio

volumes

will

much

nearer to a fair solution cither.

Such problems must be left to time. But when we approach British Imperialism
outside Greater Britain, as
are,
it

after

a comparative study of Imperialism in the past and

we have done
to

here,

we

may be assumed,

in a position

sim;

matters to a

considerable

extent.
life
it

Having
in

seized

the great outlines of the organic we are prepared to recognise

of Imperialism,
the organism

of
a

British

Imperialism
illustration

too.

Not only

has

many

British

perialism

in

pages, but it too must pay Imperialism.

of the prices paid for Imgeneral been given in the preceding is also self-evident that Great Britain

some of

the very heavy

prices of

This, as

we know from
makes
of

daily

experience, docs

not trouble your

average British Imperialist
light
it.

very
If he

much.

He

Naturally.

BRITISH IMPERIALISM
did

115

not

make

light

of

it,

And if at heavy price. need of deliberately taking resolutions in regard to British Imperialism ; if matters were suffered to
glide along as they were in the major part of the
last fifty

he would not pay the present there were no

years

;

there

would indeed be no

necessity

of stock-taking, of counting up merchandise and
prices
;

and

British

Imperialism

might very well
it

be

where people fondly believed best of things in the best of worlds.
left

to be

:

the

However,
every
citizen

this in

is

Great

no longer the case. Nearly and Greater Britain is
at

now very keen on
resolutions with
British

arriving
to

deliberately

made

regard

the great problems of

Imperialism.

This cannot be done without

conscious and conscientious stock-taking of goods and prices. It is for this reason that we shall
here
first

briefly state

to what extent British

Im-

perialism

shares the peculiar drawbacks and shortin all

comings inherent
which,

Imperialism.

Having done
British

we

shall

try to
all

differentiate clearly

Imperialism from On the basis so

the other types of Imperialism.

won we may
saw,

then proceed to a

study of the problems of the future.
Imperialism,

we

must

from

an

inherent

necessity constantly

beat Nature

and increasingly tend to browthat is, to stifle that spontaneity and

n6
elasticity

IMPERIALISM
of the

the real

spring of

mind and of the heart which is all social charm and intellectual
great

creativeness.

The

teachers

of Catholic Im-

perialism have long taught that the realm of Grace

[read

:

the

Empire of the Catholic Church] cannot
the realm of Nature.

be

won without abandoning
is

Nothing
tion

more true

;

and the orthodox formulaSt.
is

of the doctrine of grace as taught by Thomas Aquinas and other Catholic doctors

of the " heret Protestants, the Janscnists, and other Attention has already been called to the well-

immeasurably superior

to

the

doctrines

ascertained fact that the Spartans, resolutely deter-

mined
"

as they

were to impcrialisc the Peloponnesus,
browbeat,

abandoned," that is, most explicit fashion.
different
in

Nature

in
;

the

So did the Romans

so

do the Americans and the Chinese.
largely
their

The

British,

Imperialism, as

we

shall

have accordingly not yet arrived at the stage where Nature is totally thrown overboard.
soon
see,

There
side

is

still

some spontaneity
and

left

in

them outof which

social

gatherings

Art,

both

are conventionalised and sophisticated

to a degree.

But the

terrible

and unmistakable tendency of

that Imperialism-begotten self-consciousness to en-

upon an increasing number of forces of the mind ; to spread its deadening lacquer more
croach

BRITISH IMPERIALISM
and

117

more

over the

sincerities,

sympathies,

and

spontaneities of our hearts ; this terrible tendency is and always has been evident in British Imperialism It has too. deprived English prose-style of half

the figures of speech

;

of

all

the fine

movements

of query, astonishment, exclamation, delicate irony, subtle undercurrents, and other forms of natural
vivacity

and spontaneity
:

and crippled adverbs
not
Atticised,
sterilised British

has tabooed adjectives, in short, it has Laconicised,
;

it

English
music.

prose.

It

has

for

ever

Imperialism
quantities.

and

music

are

two

incompatible

At
a

the time

when
of

British Imperialism

was

at

its

lowest in the sixteenth and seventeenth

centuries,

English music were able to push their delicate blossoms through

few

violets

fine

the cold surface

;

and

in

Purcell there was promise

of music new and exquisite.
in

But

as the Prussians

Germany,
the

Imperialists

by historic necessity, have
musician, so the English,
their

never produced a great
after

commencement of

second

great

have period of Imperialism (tempore Queen Anne), been unable to match their great poets with great
musicians of their own.
Poets, indeed, the British

have had

abundance, and a number of them rank with the great poets of modern times.
in

Unlike other types of Imperialism,

British

Im-

u8
there

IMPERIALISM
On
style

pcrialism has so far not sterilised poetry.

the
a

contrary,

is

in

English
a

poetical

wealth of forms, a musical cadence, an Attic Jin

and

delicacy

of expression,
all

sentiments endowed with
land,

morning-dawn of the charms of dream-

one rarely meets in the poetry of This peculiar excellence of English other countries.
such
as
is

poetry

owing

to

the

fact

that

English

young

men

develop at a

very

early age, in

fact before their

teens are over, a virility and

vigour of character

which, coupled with their youthfulness, make them a singular blend of youth and manhood, of dawn

and blossoms.
fine poetry.

and noon, of imagination and judgment, of buds This is naturally productive of a
Their early manhood
carefully
is

the gift

of
yet

their Imperialism ; manifest youthfulness they
their

hidden
the

owe

to

influence

of their women.

England have undergone much of the influence exercised by Imperialism on womanin

Women

hood
hold
scorns

in general.

duties
all

is

Their very aversion to housepart of that inner Imperialism that

pettiness

and

small ness.

If

English-

women

in the country cared more and poultry than for social advancement, England

for their fowls

might very well produce, amongst other things, the eggs for which now over ten million pounds

BRITISH IMPERIALISM
are

119
alone.
in

paid

annually to

Denmark and France

The

disappearance of spontaneity and

naivete

Englishwomen, or the
Imperialism,
in

direct consequence of secular

has

made but too marked
English

a progress

poet after Shakespeare has succeeded in creating a type of female naivete at once true and beautiful. Shakespeare himself

our time.

No

does not excel in those types, although Imperialism in his time was only nascent ; and the greatest

male

type

of naivete

in

English literature

was

created by an Irishman, by Goldsmith, in his Vicar

of Wakefield.

This
greatest

fateful

influence

of
is,

Imperialism
to

on

the

charm of women

any unprejudiced
the totally differ-

observer, completely proved by Their ent character of Irishwomen.
fascination

beauty
are
that

and
pre-

are almost proverbial.

They
in

eminently
captivate

the

femmes

dangereuses,
their

they

men both by

physical

beauty

and

by

their intellectual vivacity.
is

In their feline grace
;

there

something uncanny
their

and
as the

their

voices overflow
shells

words,
All
the

sea

vibrating does the
cannot,

on the beach.
account
It

these

qualities

however, of Irishwomen.

for
is

singular

attractiveness

their naivete that constitutes

the essence of their charm.

The Irishwomen,

with

few exceptions, are

not

120
Imperialists.

IMPERIALISM
At any
rate, their dislike

of England
against

and

English militates in Imperialism introduced by the
the

them

the

English.

Out of
naivete
If

an instinctive antagonism to the influences of Imperialism,

Irishwomen

cultivate

the

very

that

Imperialism dries up in

men and women.

people only dropped the preposterous notions of " ceased explaining Irish traits from race," and " c< Celtic consideration of the so-called temperament,

they would have long ago seen that as Imperialism has written the bass of everything English, antagonism to Imperialism has moulded the great
features
febrility

of

Irish

character.

Even

the

strange
Irish

and demoniac changcablcness of the
is

character

due

to

the

constant

yet

ineffective

opposition to the ambient air of this kingdom, to man or woman living in an atmoImperialism.

A

sphere that he or she cordially dislikes, must in the end become demoralised ; and thus unhinged,
over-excitable,
febrile.

So
in

arc

the

Czechs
;

in

Bohemia

;

the

Poles

Germany or Russia

and

now

also the Alsatians in the Reichsland.

one must admit, largely Yet, imperialised out of the women of England. the Englishall the loss of her with spontaneity,

Womanly

naivete

is,

woman Roman

has not yet

come very

sensibly nearer to the

or American

type of imperial

womanhood.

BRITISH IMPERIALISM
She
is

121

still

intensely
full

served, and

modest, meek, of quiet dignity.

yielding, re-

When

a girl,

she does not in the least attempt to browbeat " " and in England one ; by her brightness

men
still

meets
or
in
is

women who

riches,

never speak of their knowledge both of which they frequently possess

a high degree.
excessive
;

Her

conventionality,

it

is

true,

and she has therefore a horror of

being held natural, or of giving free vent to her spontaneous sentiments. To be "genteel" is her " " ladylike principal ambition ; to be considered
her greatest object in
life.

This

is,

as

everybody knows, the consequence

of the peculiar step-pyramid called English society, where each person is singularly anxious to climb

from

his native

"
step

"

to the next higher " step,"

looking down with contempt on the people beneath him. However, we shall see that the maintenance

pyramid of Sakkarah is one of the of England, in that Imperialism has greatest boons thereby been prevented from either democratising
of
this British

or

autocratising

this

country.

The women of

England, then, by careful scrubbing and repairing of the social step-pyramid, are rendering their a country a very great service, if at the price of

them of conventionality and formalism that deprive

much of

their

human

capital.

122

IMPERIALISM
women are still necessarily men in petticoats, and thus
is

Such
being

very
their

far

from

influence

on
In

young poets another book
has
tried

one of great national value.
(Success

among
fuller

Nations)

the

author
various

to

draw

pictures
in

of

the

types
it

of
is
is,

womanhood
needless
to

Europe and

America, and
descriptions.

repeat here these

It

what

in the author's Success

however, necessary to mention, could not be dwelt upon,

that the English or
is

American type of womanhood
French, having at no proper, have developed a
;

due almost
been

entirely to the influence of British or

American Imperialism.
time
Imperialists

The

womanhood of

a totally different kind

just as the

women of Tanagra were totally women of Sparta. Accordingly,
phase of female
life,

different

from the

take just one in France young girls are kept
to

in absolute seclusion
social

and are allowed

practically
in
litx

no

intercourse
great, in

with

they enjoy

young men ; America excessive,

England

compare Englishwomen with French or any other type of Continental women is quite legitimate,
providing one never overlooks the dominating fact that Englishwomen are within, and meant for, an
Imperialism
Continent.
that
is

To

practically

unknown
as

on

the

Undoubtedly
as

the splendid qualities

of

Frenchwomen

householders,

mothers,

and

BRITISH IMPERIALISM
dames
sale
in

123

the salons easily mislead critics to a whole-

condemnation of most Englishwomen, more Yet particularly those of the cheerless middle class.
it

is

the

women

height of injustice to expect imperialist to be what non-imperialist women alone can
be.
it

and should

equally unjust and hopeless to claim for Englishwomen that crown of female
is

On

the other hand,

perfection that Imperialism cannot allow.

It

is,

to

those

who know,

a matter of pity that so

many

writers

and public speakers,
to the echo, are

by lauding Englishfalling into

women

more and more

the poor mistake of the Americans. In America, where naive womanhood has reached, and necessarily too,
its

decrescends this

sombre

fact

is

dis-

guised by the loudest proclamation, in innumerable " of the " absolute
superiority newspaper articles, " of the American and the " immaculate perfection woman. The Americans or any other imperialist

nation

might just
is

as

well

claim

the

greatest

musicians, sculptors,

and

painters.

Women inherently impossible. thing under the influence of Imperialism will inevitably be
The
impaired
in

some,

eventually in

most,

of

their

womanly qualities. Nothing can be more certain. One may glory in it, for reasons already given ; one may deplore it ; one cannot materially change it.

i2 4

IMPERIALISM
laborious

The
social,

attempts
to
4<

"

made by
the

a

number of
mental
or

Englishwomen
of

raise

status,

women

in the

United Kingdom by more

refined systems of education,
lectures,

by books and
little.

'*

by scries of instructive " Unions all this can do
:

but very

The

type of

woman

in

England

as

developed by the secular Imperialism of the country
can undergo no

marked change.
the
point,

Nor

shall

it.

And
reform

here

is

where

some

lever

of

may with
at present,

alter in its

be applied. To try to essence the type of English womanhood,
profit
is

as

it

is

impossible, as long as British

But Imperialism remains what it is at present. should British Imperialism be artificially wrenched out of its natural path ; should it, from being an
Imperialism
poised
kind,

of a
be

singularly

moderate
into

and

well-

twisted

excessive and boundless,

Imperialism then indeed there will be

an

a change in the type of English

womanhood.
of the

She

will with appallingly rapid strides, eventually in

one

single generation, approach the type

or

Roman American woman more and more closely. Her
of modesty, dignity, reserve, She disappear like perfume in the swamps. become not only Americanised, but American-

distinctive excellencies
will will

ised with a vengeance.

BRITISH IMPERIALISM
People

125

who

still

cling to

the obsolete and long-

race," cannot prevail upon exploded notion of themselves to believe in a rapid and wholesale revolution of the mental and moral powers of a " race." Such people hold that Englishwomen are

"

as they are because they are Anglo-Saxons,
Celts,

Anglo-

Norman-Saxons, and what

not.

However,
conceptions.
;

history

mocks

at

all

these

childish

our blasonry they do They not bite, nor do they defend us, although we take much pride in them. Once British Imperialism is
are like the animals in

of progress deviating from what has hitherto been its road to success, British women

pushed on
will

lines

be, as in

all

excessive

Imperialisms,

its

first

victims.

They

will

be decomposed
will cease.
;

ating rapidity.

Homes
;

with exasperMeals will be

provided by companies

children will be educated

by

telephone

and

since

women

in

excessive

Imperialisms do not want to be mothers, children will be imported from the Transvaal, from the

Greek

Islands, or

from South

Russia, in accordance

with Acts of

Marriage will be a contract limited to a period of one year or less ; and the majority of women will prefer to swell
Parliament.
the

ranks of old
will

maids.

When

all

these

great

achievements
will

be

realised,
its

the British

Empire
its

be drained of

all

blood, and of

vital

126
spirits,

IMPERIALISM
and
a
will

combination
it

of

Belgians
part

and
its

deprive Portuguese dominion after the other.

of one

of

This

is

how Englishwomen
in

and directly interested
British

most seriously the great problems of
are

Imperialism.
St.

Let

them

remember

the

passage from

Paul and the

real

interpretation

thereof given above. Let them see that Imperialism is not merely a question of territorial conquest, of
fiscal

reform, of colonial relations

;

but

also,

and

pre-eminently, a question of National Life, of the

whole scheme and organism of the men and women of a country. As any atmospheric change at once
reacts

upon

the delicate tension of a violin-string,

so docs any

atmosphere at mind and character.

fundamental change in the political once alter the delicate web of women's

The women of England
ally,

oppose

British

cannot, speaking generIn doing so Imperialism.

they would only

condemn

themselves.
all

They ought,

however, to oppose, with
Imperialism,
either
as a

their

danger

far greater to

might, excessive them than
or
to

to

the

nations

to

be

conquered,

Englishmen conquering them. Englishwomen ought to hold that, while they have fully done their
national duty in sacrificing

some of
ideals
in

their

womanly

and maternal claims and

order to help

BRITISH IMPERIALISM
their

127

men

in

the

great

and noble work of Imwilling

perialism,

they

are

not

to

sacrifice

all

the
let

treasures
their

of

fine

womanhood
in

in

order

to

men
must

indulge

the luxury of excessive

Imperialism.

There
always
will
it

be

a

limit

to

sacrifices.

Not
of

will

Diana

save

Iphigenia.

Not always
tide

be possible to hold back

the

mad

jingoism.

British Imperialism may be held in check by the other Great Powers of Europe. This may very well be the case ; we shall treat of that

later on.

But
to

this is

no consideration for EnglishTheirs
is

women
weigh
to

dwell

upon.

the

duty to
it
is.

all

Imperialist proposals mainly with regard

the maintenance of British Imperialism as
radical

All

reforms meant

to

make

the

British
or,

Empire
in

exclusive,

forbidding,

self-contained,

word, Byzantinised, imply by necessity an inevitable tendency to sterilise, to unwoman,
to

one

defeminise

the

Englishwoman.

Such

radical

reforms

ought therefore to be opposed, combated, and destroyed by the women of Great Britain. We shall at once attempt to show what constitutes

an
so,
it

excessive
is

Imperialism.
to
recall

Even
again

before
to

doing
that

necessary

the

women of

this

country that the general attitude
in

they ought,

their

own

highest

interests,

128
to

IMPERIALISM
assume,
is

one

countenancing

moderate

or

old-British

To the strongest Imperialism only. arguments of excessive Imperialists, Englishwomen do not want to beonly to retort:
ought

"We

come
lose

like the

our
sons

If we matrons of Imperial Rome. feminine force altogether, whence shall

our

take

their

manly vigour?
without Cornelia?
all

Can
Let

you
us

imagine remain Englishwomen by

the

Gracchi

means

;

but women as

much

English" That Englishmen were formed and moulded by no influence more profoundly than by their secular

as

cither of Imperialism, none but people ignorant can fail to sec the English, or their history, " racial " elements tons of books written on the

of the English nation have produced no psychoEven the character of Englishmen. logical clue to
if

scholars had
so-called
its

succeeded

in

allotting

to

each of

the

"constituent races"
share

of the English

people

due
that

of

influence
in

on
least

character,

would not

the

English help us

to construe therefrom the character of the English.

There

is

no arithmetical addition
is

in psychology.

no complete concourse " " of opinion with regard to any one of the racial What will, on the other hand, furnish theories.
a matter of fact, there

As

us

with

a

psychological,

i.e.

clear

and

verifiable,

BRITISH IMPERIALISM
clue

129
secular

to

the

English
It
is
;

character

is

their

Imperialism.
history
;

the
its

broadest

fact

of

English
It is

its

oldest

most

influential.
soil

the

very

atmosphere, climate, and have already seen history.

of

English

We

why
or

islands
else

must
the

necessarily
risk

become

Imperialists,

run

of being, as in nearly all known cases they have been, annexed by some Continental Great
Power.
This
is

the

keynote to English
It
is

history to the

present day.

also the

keynote to the fundaImperialists
as

mental

features

of

Englishmen.
such
the
the British

encountering

obstacles

Romans, the
and
will-

Catholic Church, or

have encountered

must

necessarily develop

their character

The power very much more than their intellect. greater the stress they must lay on their will-power,
the
less

importance

they

will

ascribe

to

their

Between will-power and intellect there is a Animals feud dating from Adam and before Adam.
intellect.

higher intelligence because their reckless Look at the cat in the will-power devours it.

have

little

moment
stops
it

it

prepares to

jump

at its prey.

Nothing
for
its

;

no

reflection, doubt, or
It

mental hesitation
straight

makes

it

waver.

shoots forth

object, unfailingly, relentlessly.

Look
has so

at the over-

" inullectutl" mentalised

He

many
9

ideas,

1

30

IMPERIALISM

doubts, and mental reserves, that his action remains
abortive.
It
is

likewise

quite

evident

that

the

English,

of character appreciating, as they do, qualities
will-power
naturally

and
will

much more
prefer

than

anything
to

else,

the

inductive

the

deductive

method of thinking.
to

The

inductive

be almost

exclusively

method appears a matter of persistence,

hard labour. The deductive patience, and honest method appears to be mere superficial brilliancy.
In
reality,

of course,

there

thinking without appearance of the contrary is quite sufficient to fill the average Englishmen with indifference, if not
inductive

no such thing as deductive. Yet the
is

with contempt, for any book or mental work that does not display the well-known symptoms of

much drudgery
as

or, at

any

rate,

of laborious
is

effort.

In English no serious small as

book of great fame
ft

a

book

Montesquieu's Grandeur

Decadence*

Lessing's Laokoon, or Machiavclli's Principf. Considering the preceding fundamental truths,
are prepared to understand

we

why England's

greatest

poet both

and

her

most

brilliant

prose-writer

why

Shakespeare and Bacon were children of a

time (1561 to 1626) when England's first period of Imperialism (1066 or 1154 to 1453) had long subsided, and her second period of Imperialism

BRITISH IMPERIALISM
had not yet begun.
to
after

We

are

likewise

prepared

in the comprehend, study of types of Imperialism other than British, that Englishmen, having been under the actual or

what we have seen

potential

influence

of

Imperialism

these

eight

centuries, have necessarily toned down their emotional life, and have therefore less need of, and
less

aptitude for, those social graces that presuppose

a richly developed emotionality.

On
is

of people living
totally

the other hand, the pettiness and mesquinerie in a closely limited society or State

absent

from the imperial Britons, and

they have thus, outside Politics, religious or private towards interests, the greatest natural inclination " " fair and justice. But the English play practising

too have long manifested, and will always manifest, that fondness for brooding over ethical and religious

problems which, as a phenomenon in huge masses, Nor is is an unavoidable effect of Imperialism.
the reason far to seek.
tenacious

men who
and

Imperialism requires hardy, do not shrink from the less
exigencies

sympathetic
real r

prosaic

of

brutal

In fact, to be

imperialist

a

nation must, as

we

have seen, breed

men

ready to ignore the amenities

of

and face many of the hardest and most Such uncongenial tasks of rule and subjugation.
life

1

32
cannot

IMPERIALISM
possibly
let

men

their

mothers or

sisters

exercise a preponderant influence of tenderness
delicate sensitiveness.

and

The

quicker the boy leaves

the sphere of maternal influence, the more likely he will be to attain the true end of his imperial
character within a short time.

This

ethical influence

of

grandmother, sisters, and other female members of the family can, however, never
the

mother,

be quite replaced.
thus quite true that, in Empires proper, the unit of the community is based on the individual
It
is

and

not on the family

;

and

in

the extreme case

of Imperialism, in the Catholic Church, this true unit of Empires is established by an unalterable But it is equally true that the ethical dogma.
influence of mothers

on

their sons,

up

to the age

of twenty, can never be replaced by any subsequent effort on the part of the son. It is for this reason
that
for
in

every Imperialism

men
and

constantly
for

hanker

some

new

religious

force,

some

new

"

revival," for a fresh moral

ethical re-energi-

sation

of their souls.

Having

shelved

won

and having thus deprived themselves of the irreplaceable ethical influence of mothers, the men in

Empires necessarily and constantly yearn for new This is the religious or semi-religious institutions.
clear

and indubitable cause of the innumerable

si

BRITISH IMPERIALISM
religious
fads,

133
British

and

"
evangelists

"

in

or
was,

American Imperialism.
as every

The Roman Empire

one knows, saturated with such new " reChristianity obtained the upper

ligions," until

hand

over

most of them.

The number of

religious

denominations stands in direct proportion inefficiency of mothers.
materially differ

to

the

In this respect too, British Imperialism does not

from any other Imperialism.

Should

some of
carried

the

out

;

proposals of excessive Imperialists be should the British Empire become

so close-knit, so

thoroughly

imperialised

that

is,

as the Roman Empire was from the Byzantinised second century A.D. onward ; then, it may safely

be predicted, the rush and mania for ever new " moral " stimulants will assume dimenreligions and
sions
that

nobody

will

be

able to

control.
;

The

men and " Welsh Revival " and similar " the present evangemovements will spread as they have never lising"
greatest religious convulsions will seize
shall undoubtedly again see spread before. the grotesque and terrible spectacle of the wildest
civil

We

commotions caused by popular differences on matters of the subtlest theological and metaphysical
problems
;

and the
be

city

of London

will,

a

new

Alexandria,

sacked

by

conflicting

theological

their view of the Trinity parties, each proclaiming

134
as the
citizen.

IMPERIALISM
most
vital

concern of every honest British

We

have so

far outlined, in addition to incidental

remarks in preceding
Imperialism
less

parts, that influence

of British

on the

British

which

is

in

more or

complete agreement with the influence exercised

by Imperialism, Roman, American, or Catholic. We now hasten to point out the peculiar difference
between British and non-British Imperialism. This It difference is indeed very great and essential.

by ignoring it, it is by placing British Imperialism on all fours with Imperialism in America, or elseis

where, that

made,

or,

many of the gravest mistakes have been we beg to submit, are being made, by

politicians

and statesmen with regard to the future

of the British Empire. saw above that one of the most marked and

We

most injurious consequences of Imperialism

is

the

well-nigh irresistible tendency to level down people There is little in one essential respect or another.

doubt that many,
Imperialism

if

not

all,

of the deficiencies of

may

be

traced

back

to

this

fatal

uniformity of
it

social type, will, or intellect.

Now,
that

is

the

inestimable

privilege of the British

this

uniformity has at no time, in the British Empire, reached a degree of intensity in any
baneful

BRITISH IMPERIALISM
way comparable with uniformity
in

135

the

Roman,
all

American, Chinese or Catholic Empire. On the contrary, the British have at
manifested

times
for

an
in

almost
the

fanatic

predilection

individualism

widest

sense

of the word.
in

Compare

pronunciation of vowels and consonants from county to county in England, with the absolutely uniform

the

unmistakable

change

the

pronunciation from

New York

to

San Francisco.

Compare

the excessively individualised, not to say

atomised, law of the English, deposited in thousands of volumes of Precedents, with the clear,
short Codes of the

Romans.

Compare

the English

fashion, not to say mania, for individual occurrences, or facts, and their positive dislike of generalisations, or de-individualised facts, with the love of system
in

America

or

France.

Compare

the

British

antipathy to maps, in which a thousand individual features of a country are generalised into one line, with the admiration and love of maps in Germany,

Hungary, America, and other countries. Compare the deep-seated ambition of most Englishmen or Scotsmen to individualise themselves in the
Austria,
intensest manner, regardless of the risk of

becoming

ridiculous or grotesque, with the anxious care of " crank." an American not to appear a

These

precious

features

are

not

what history

136

IMPERIALISM

has taught us to expect in an Imperialism. They are due to the fact, unique in its kind, that the
British

Empire has never formed, and never can

It consists of form, one contiguous territory. (i) a small double-island, Great Britain and Ireland,

thousands of miles away, of various huge This geographical colonies and dependencies. feature has prevented the rapid spread of those

and

(ii),

uniformity which Imperial The has, as a rule, never failed to set in motion.
forces

making

for

England her Empire ; the sea likewise saved England from falling a victim to one of the most
sea gave

injurious effects of Imperialism. In Australia indeed, it being a large continent,

uniformity has clearly made but too serious an inroad on that British individualism which, as the
to great counterpoise

consequences of Imperialism, is of the utmost national importance. In Canada, thanks to the "parochialism" of the French Canadians, there is less of that " Amcricani" sation or levclling-down of types and characters
that

some of the

fatal

one but too frequently meets

in

Australasians.

By cultivating rugged, if angular, individualism, men in England perform, and ought to perform,
the

same

kind
as

of

national
seen,
life

sentinel-duty

that
their

Englishwomen,

we have
social

over-conventionalised

perform by and adoration of

BRITISH IMPERIALISM
caste.

137

England cannot afford to be des natures rondes, and thus to sacrifice the dearlybought but most wholesome principle of individualism which the French, for instance, do not need and so can very well afford to change into their
in

Men

principle of D'abord, soyons aimables.

This
then,
that
is

English, intimately connected with the central fact

precious

individualism

of

the

Imperialism is grafted upon, and chiefly maintained by, a small home country ; a country, which from its very smallness is naturally

British

endowed with
institutions,

all

the forces that love to individualise
tastes,

classes,

and

political

interests.

All the countries of Europe, outside Russia, small even Sweden, owing to relatively
sterility

are

the

of so much of

its

area,

being

a

small

country

and
that

all

of them have for many centuries
bent
small

shown
endless
folklore,

Hellenic
In

dividualisation.

high-strung Bavaria there is
customs,

for

in-

an

number
mental
etc.

of

individual

beliefs,

and
etc.

moral

attitudes,
it

costumes,

amusements,
country in ventured to

So

is

in

Europe, which,
call
is
it,

as

the

every other author has

is

the true Greater Hellas.
to Italy.

England

to

Europe what Venice was

Of

Republic it used to be said that it was a State in Italy, without being an Italian Stat&
the Great

138

IMPERIALISM
say
that

Of England we may

she

is

a State in

Europe, without being a European State. In this one geo-political and all-decisive circumstance is

consummated the

distinctive character not only of but also of the British Empire. Although England, long an Empire proper, England is yet but one

of the "countries" of Europe, sharing in the first place that pre-eminently and exclusively European
It or neo-Hellenic tendency towards individualism. character that England, is by this her European

alone amongst

Empires proper, has been enabled to stave off that intellectual decomposition and
all

desiccation which, as

we have

seen,

is

threatening
vitality

every

Empire
all

and

undermining

the

of

excessive Imperialism.

Alone of
intellectual

Empires, England can point to her achievements with the same pride as to

her impcrialising activity. The Romans, let alone the Byzantines, Russians, or the Americans, have

never produced geniuses such as England The in, even in the eighteenth century.

gloried

Romans
Caesar,
;

had

their

Scipios,

their

Gracchi,

their

Augustus,

Hadrian,

and

Marcus

Aurelius

but

can the elder Pliny compare with Newton ? Or with Shakespeare ? Or Seneca with Bacon ? Virgil

The

average Englishman has perhaps an exaggerated idea about the exceeding value of English literature ;

BRITISH IMPERIALISM
and he
is

139

perhaps with the exception of the French, no other modern nation has a literature equal to that of the British. This
apt
that,

to

assume

cannot be maintained seriously. Other nations too have marvellously gifted authors, and much might
be said against English prose
literature.
it

But however
British

that

may

be,

is

certain that the

and

have produced a body of literary works, even works of art proper, of imperishable
first

value, of the

magnitude. No other Imperialism proper has ever done that. We said above that England's greatest poetic genius was given her
at

a

period

of

lull

in

British

Imperialism. the

This

does

not

in

the

least

impair

statement just

made of
perialism

the

specific

relation

between British ImIt
is

and British

Intellect.

part
it

of the

very nature of British Imperialism that
to a

has,

owing

European country, England's character as never quite escaped retarding or even blighting influences from the Continent. Repeatedly (from
1369 to 1374; from 1429 to 1453; from 1563 to 1564; in 1588; from 1664 to 1667; from 1688 to 1692 ; from 1775 to 1783; to mention some of the cases), repeatedly England was
only

made

to

feel

that

peculiarly

European
vive

state
;

of

mind of being on
cessantly

the

constant qui

or in-

on the

alert

imminent and great against

i

4o

IMPERIALISM

dangers, which on the Continent each country has been and is undergoing, without any notable interruption, to our

own

days.

For over two generations after 1815, it is true, England was in a position radically different from
of any other European country, in that her shores were practically immune from even the
that
possibility

of invasion
a
certain
of.

;

no other European nation,
the

except

to

extent

French,

having a
this

navy

to

speak

At
"

present,

however,

of England is once again most clearly evident. Not only does England share exposure to sudden invasion with all the rest of the nations in Europe, but it is in a situation of
uropcan
character
far greater

exposure than most European nations. In fact, it cannot be seriously questioned that England is at present, of all European countries,
the most threatened, the most exposed to a Titanic

struggle for existence.
consideration, there
is

Leaving the Turk out of no nation on the continent

now apprehend an unprovoked invasion. Each of them may be invaded at any given moment each of them is bound to
of Europe that need just
;

maintain a never-flagging vigilance, as of old.

Yet

none of them

is

entitled to say that

its

has a serious or vital interest to attack
j& fully

it.

neighbour France

aware of the absolute unaggressiveness of

BRITISH IMPERIALISM
Germany with regard
not
;

141

to France. Germany does dream of appropriating one single town in France and as to the French Colonies, Germany
is

equally conscious

of the

fact

that

a naval

war

with France would inevitably entail a naval war with England at the same time. Rather than fight both

England and France on the sea at a time, Germany would certainly prefer to fight England alone, and
eventually
victory.

secure

far

better

colonies

in

case

of

From
France

all

this

it

follows irresistibly that neither

nor Germany need apprehend sudden war
it

with one another unless they provoke

deliberately.

The Frenchmen now

power never provoke war with Germany. knows,
is,

in

will, as all the

world

As

to
rereal

Austria-Hungary, there
peatedly

as

the author has
the
slightest

essayed

to

show,

not

danger for a
or Austria as
time to come,

war with Germany. A weak Austria, she is now and as she will be for some
is

a far better asset for

Germany than
be.

the doubtful conquest of
Italy, Spain,
detail.

Bohemia would
full in

Of

Holland, etc., it is Russia has her hands too

needless to treat in
the Far

East to think of being aggressive

in

Europe.

With England
will

it

is

quite

different.

England
In

have, both

in

Europe and

in

Asia, resolute

and powerful adversaries to confront ere long.

1

42

IMPERIALISM

Europe, Germany is inevitably committed to a policy of aggression against England. In Asia, Russia is

bound
to

to gravitate

to

the

Indian Ocean

that

is,

come

" were two or more " systems of such as that traditional hostilities on the Continent

into conflict with England.
as there

As long

between the Bourbons and

and the

Spanish, were, as umpires or as partisans often in English " a commanding position. These " systems arc at in complete or quite latent abeyance ; and present
the possible direct interference of

Hapsburgs, the Dutch Prussia and Austria, etc. the

Continent
character.

is

England on the becoming more and more of an academic

This very abeyance of continental hosof increasing tilities has, in addition to reasons commercial rivalry, and spreading wealth, population,
filled

the

Germans with

a natural desire for impt

expansion.

This they might very well realise, even diplomatically, by incorporating Holland and her vast
colonies with the

German Empire, without

attainting

the national or political individuality of the Dutch The Dutch, if consenting, would enter the at all.

German

Empire on the same conditions that Bavaria or Baden has joined it. They would retain
and administrative organisa-

their political, judicial,
tion,

and yet form part of the German Empire.

BRITISH IMPERIALISM

143

This, however, England cannot, and will not, allow, Not only has it always except if forced to do so. been a set principle of British policy for the last

two hundred years that he who touches on Holland touches on England, but there are moreover
other and far more cogent reasons for England's opposing any attempt of Germany on Holland.

The Dutch
considerable
it

have, as every

one knows, a most
in

Colonial

Empire

Asia.

In

fact,

area, seven-elevenths of the territory in is, India under direct British administration, while the
in

population of the Dutch Colonies Indies amounts to about 36,000,000.
vast territories,

in

the

East
these

If

now

so close

to

British

India,

should,

by the incorporation of Holland with the German Empire, fall into the hands of Germany, England would, in Asia, be wedged in between Russia and

Germany.

It

is

evident that Java, Sumatra, most
etc.,

of Borneo, Celebes,

in the

hands of the weak

Dutch represent
and
infinitely

a neighbourhood

more convenient

less

would be when
pause a

expensive than these colonies in the hands of the Germans.

Before, however, pursuing this subject

we may

well

moment

to concentrate

our attention on

the main issue of this pamphlet.

Given, that of
also the British

all

countries England, and thus

Empire, are the most exposed to

i

44

IMPERIALISM
formidable
original

attacks of a
clear

kind,

it

becomes
with

at

once

that
to

the

question

which we

started

wit, whether the problems of British Imperialism are matters of Home or of Foreign must now be definitely decided as referring Policy

The reader may not yet mostly to Foreign Policy. convinced that England is the most exposed feel
of

European countries at the present period, He which includes the next four or five years.

may even
on
sea,

think that Russia

is

far

more exposed,

being, as she

interior

seething her vast population. would here ask the reader

the Japanese is, signally worsted by and morally beaten on land ; while Russia's " u is with a formidable unrest of

We

to suspend

his

judgment, and to wait for subsequent remarks As to on the international position of England. Russia, the author can only repeat what he wrote
in

August

1904

(published

in

the

Fortnightly
in

Revitw, January 1905),

Should the Japanese

the present war signally defeat the Russians, Russian absolutism will inevitably come out stronger than As long as the Japanese continue ever before."
to

be

victorious,

there

will

be

no revolution

in

Russia.

The Tsar
but

or a
;

number of individual

officials

may be

assassinated

there

may be

local revolts

and
will

disturbances,

a

revolution

proper

there

BRITISH IMPERIALISM

145

not be before the end of the present war. As to the probable ultimate success of the Japanese we
shall

speak

later on.

Given, then, that England and British Imperialism are at present largely a problem of Foreign Policy,

we must
British

the proposals, suggestions, or councils of statesmen as to the future of
naturally
all

examine

Imperialism, not only from the probable effect of those proposals and suggestions on the home

or interior

situation of the

Empire, but also and

more

particularly

from

their probable effect

on the
was

international position of England.

This international

position

is

now

radically different
is

from what
all

it

before 1870.

This

the clue to

the questions.

He who
to

overlooks that;

he

who deems England

where she was before the Unity of Germany, the immense expansion of Russia, the rise of the Japanese, etc., commits a fateful blunder.
be
still

The well-known

saying

that

Europe

is

an

organism, and not, like Africa or Asia before the advent of the Europeans, a mere conglomeration of peoples and tribes, is fraught with great consequences.

A

fundamental change

in

one of the

organs of Europe, say, Germany at once reacts most perceptibly

or Austria-Hungary,

on every other

country in Europe. Since 1870 there have been more than- one or two such fundamental changes.

10

146
Shall

IMPERIALISM
England alone of
?

all

the countries escape their

influence
evident.

It

is

needless to dwell on a point so

The
British

central

fact,

then, of

all

the
that

Imperialism,

the

fact

problems of bears most

heavily on each of the
British

issues
is

and queries regarding
altered

Imperialism,

the

international

position of Great Britain.

Most
all

seriously rivalled

by the Germans

in

nearly

commercial and inis

dustrial enterprises, Great Britain

moreover very
as an aggressive

seriously threatened

by the Germans

naval

power.

One need
political

periodicals

and

only read the current literature of the Germans for

few weeks, to be quite convinced that it is the German nation, and not only the German Governa

ment, that is, with regard to England, filled with one of those historic antipathies and hostilities that must
before long

come

to a head in the shape of a war.

Such deep-seated animosity does not require much
kindling.

The Germans

consider themselves, and with no

poor show of reason, as one of the most powerful and best endowed nations in the world. In war
they have proved to be superior to their southern and western rivals ; in peace they may boast an of intellectuality envied at least by the Professors
all

the other nations

;

an

art,

music, in which they

BRITISH IMPERIALISM
are

147

supreme

;

and a

trade

and industry rapidly
Considering that Europe with

outstripping rivals east

and west.

they are cooped
a population

up

in

the centre of

just a trifle
that

of close on sixty millions in an area larger than France, it is but too natural
colonial

they

must think of

expansion,

ot

Imperialism.
there
is

To

this, their great
:

aim and

object,

We
mean
Empire.

only one serious obstacle England. have already mentioned that the Germans
incorporate

to

Holland
that the

with

the

German

We

now add

Dutch themselves

may

at present

to the

German

be infinitely more inclined to listen The rise of Loreley, than before.
is

\

Japanese

Imperialism

a

great

European
writing

nation, except

to the

danger Dutch. At

to

no
this

(January 1905), the Japanese are indeed credited with ultimate victory over the Russian

Army

as

well.

This,

however,

may

safely

be

discounted as a piece of prediction based on wrong An island people cannot definitely strategy.
drive

out

a

great

continental

nation

from the

We already remarked that the English continent. in the Middle Ages, in spite of brilliant single
victories,

could

not

hold
;

France

;

nor could the
Hellenes

Swedes hold Germany
hold Persia.
It is

nor could the

inherently impossible.
will establish

But the Japanese may and probably

148
an
island
;

IMPERIALISM
Empire
in

the

Pacific,

and the Indian

Ocean

and one of the
will

first

to suffer at the hands

of the Japanese
is

be the Dutch.

This statement
that
is,

a

mere

restatement

of geographical,

unalterable, facts.

The Dutch
natural

colonies in the East

Indies

are

the

objective of the Japanese,

whose advanced

post,

Formosa, furnishes them with

an excellent naval base.

The Dutch, in

their natural

anxiety not to lose their colonies to the Japanese, will be much more willing to listen to German proposals of Incorporation.

protected by the
likely

The Dutch colonies, offic enlarged German Empire, arc
the

not

to

fall

into

hands

of the Japanese.

Those

colonies must, unless they are taken in hand
fate

by a Great Power, share the
colonies in the

of the Spanish

West

Indies.

However, one might say that this protecting Power may be England. But apart from the cnt Anglo-Japanese alliance, England has no
possible

under
cannot.

machinery to take Holland offic her protection. Incorporate Holland she
legal

A

special

offensive or

defensive
"

alliance

between Holland and
be considered
as

England would
"
unfriendly act
the

necessarily

an

and

by remains

Germany
therefore

at

same

time.

by Japan, There
only
:

one

possible

solution

Holland's incorporation with the

German Empire.

BRITISH IMPERIALISM

149

But no sooner have the vast Dutch colonies become German, than Germany has driven a wedge between Australia and British India and a semicircle of
lines

British

of direct attack on the southern portions of India. How under these conditions a

conflict

between
it is

Germany and
to see.

England can be
all

avoided,

difficult

This

conflict,

be

it

noted, will in

probability

not be started by the Germans without a concurrent conflict between Russia and England. The Germans

have

for

the

last

conflict

whatever
likely

143 years with Russia ;
have one
reasons,
in

had

no

military

nor are
the near

they

in

the

least

to

future.

Apart

from

other

both

Germany

and

Russia have, in their Polish questions, a bond of Both amity stronger than all counter-interests.

Empires have, on the other hand, the common interest of weakening England. Even should the

German

never be equal to the British, it would yet tax British naval resources to the utmost to carry on simultaneously a naval war with Germany
fleet

and a land war with Russia.
can no longer be overlooked that the danger to England sketched in the preceding lines is of a
It

very serious character. That under these conditions the English will soon be compelled to think of creating a modern army of about a million highly

150
trained

IMPERIALISM
and equipped men, seems manifest.
equally certain is those solid alliances
the
necessity

But

what

is

of en-

which, ever since the suring Peace of Westphalia (1648) the Great Powers of Europe have always carefully studied and cultivated.
Alliances are not half as useful in actual war, a^

the preventing of war. This is a very considerable advantage. possible alliances, that with America is

Of

these

of court.

In

spite

of

all

quite out pleasant talk about the

kinship of the "Anglo-Saxon race" (a "race** in America consisting mostly of Dutchmen, Austrians, Hungarians, Bohemians, Russians, and negroes) ;
in spite

of

all

allegations of a
it

to

the

contrary,

is

few ponderous journali as plain as a b c that an

Empire like the United States cannot seriously wish to become the real ally of another Empire, such as
the British.

Apart from Canada, which the States never lose sight of, there is in the alliance of two
interests that
trial.

Empires an inherent contradiction of
will

never stand the test of the

first

We

saw above

that

Russia

may and

probably

will join

Germany

against England.
it

alliance is

no. true alliance;

However, this would merely mark
to
strike at

the intention of Russia and

Germany

England simultaneously, but not with joined armies. Between the British Empire and the American there

BRITISH IMPERIALISM
is

151

no common
nations,

political or

commercial
are
least

interest.

Of
the

all

the
It
is

British

liked

by

Americans.
to

hopeless to contest a fact patent
visitor to the
States.

any non-English

Nor

is

there anything to marvel at in this singular antipathy of the Americans. The Briton as an individual

mental and moral economy, the very opposite of the American. However great the similarities between the two imperial nations qua
is,

in the

whole of

his

Imperialists,

their

more

intimate

differences

are

most marked and mutually most unsympathetic. Moreover, every nation, as it wants a great Ideal
of

Hope and

Ambition, so
its

it

also

wants a Great
passions
with.

Hatred to feed
But even

more sombre

The Americans have none but
if
all

the British to hate.

this

antipathy

of the Americans

towards the English should abate, or even change into sympathy, America can never be of any
particular

use

or

assistance

to

England
real life,

in

the

coming struggles with Russia or Germany.
Anglo-American alliance there is no It is, on the contrary, but too point.

In an

no true
that

likely

between the States and England there will be more than one point of friction, as soon as the Panama
or
the

Nicaragua Canal
Pacific

will

be completed, and

thus

opened for the competitive

activity

of

both nations.

iS2

IMPERIALISM
Alliance being out of the question,
in

The American

Europe. Now that there is a solid entente cordiale with France, the first step towards a well-balanced foreign policy
there remain only alliances

has

been

made.

France,

temporarily
intellectuels,
is

under the
in
reality

influence of a few barren
a poor ally.

England
;

is

threatened by most warlike

adversaries

France

is

not.

England

will

soon have

to face war,

on
it

sea

and on land.

declares

that

docs

France publicly not want war either on sea

or on land.
as

With a philosophical government such the Cabinets now changing hands in France,
assume that the incorporaof Holland by Germany would sensibly the Platonic mind of France. This tends
is

there
tion
ruffle

no reason

to

to

suggest the idea that the entente with France is not a very great asset for England, unless France, maintaining her sympathetic attitude for

England, fundamentally changes her attitude to the rest of Europe. This she will ; there is little

doubt of

that.

France always turns excessively

humanitarian
defeats.

and

peace-loving

after

crushing

After

the

Peace of Versailles
to

in

1763,

when

France was humiliated

a

then

extent, Rousseau's send men talism

unprecedented and stnsibilite at

once became the rage of

all

France.

So

are

now

BRITISH IMPERIALISM
Us
intcllectuels.

153

principal revels in a hero of his novels literary representative,

Anatole

France,

their

who

meekly

philosophises

at

the
is

sight

of

his

outraged marital honour.

This
at

typical.

So even of the

do the

intellectuels

behave

the

sight

outraged military honour of France ; they philoOne day sophise they talk lumiere and humanite.
;

they will be categorically told to stop their Byzantine rhetoric, and then France may indeed make an
alliance with

England such

as will

redound to the

glory and profit of both nations. It would be a grave error to assume that France " is the only possible ally or " good friend of

England

in

Europe, and that

the

other

Powers

may safely be neglected in diplomatic considerations. Some twenty or thirty years ago, the average
Briton did indeed think that Continental Europe consisted mostly of a number of Montenegros
rotating
to

round the

British
is

Sun.

There

is

reason

hope that this view majority of the British nation.

no longer held by the

quantities.

Neither Italy nor Austria-Hungary are negligible They may eventually become of first-

rate importance to

England.
lesson

If there

is

one

clear

and

unmistakable
it

history,

is

the

European taught by of interests and the solidarity

possible

or nation of importance of any one State

154

IMPERIALISM
to
all

Europe with regard
It
is

the rest of the nations.

very probable that the neglect of Hungarian interests by Napoleon III., in the sixties of the
nineteenth
century,

deprived

France of Austro-

1870. The small nation of the Hungarian Roumanians proved to be of signal assistance to the Russians in the Turkish War of 1877-78.
help in

Given

that

England

is

still

in

Europe and, with
it

regard to the population and wealth of the United

Kingdom,
beg
to study

still

preponderantly in Europe,
interests

is,

we

to submit, a matter

the

and

of the utmost importance influences of all the

Powers of Europe in order to place British Foreign The present crisi Policy on a sound basis.

Hungary,
have an

as

can easily be shown,

may

very well

immense importance for England, in that Hungary, ever more disfranchising herself from

Austria even as an ally or confederate state, may ultimately gravitate towards the Balkan Peninsula

and thus become a serious factor

in

the Near East.

The upshot of

the preceding considerations
still

was

the statement that England, preponderantly a has most urgent motives to study European Power, the interests and forces of all the other Powers of

Europe, before deciding on any new scheme of
British Imperialism.
It
is

impossible to judge any

BRITISH IMPERIALISM

155

reform or scheme bearing on the future of British Imperialism, from consideration, of the interests of
British Colonies

and the " Mother Country "
it

alone.

In
all

fact,

the tendency to excessive Imperialism, with
entails,
is

the grave drawbacks

fostered

by

nothing more
regard

of

all

effectively than by a deliberate disinterests other than those of the

Colonies.

Even
character,

if
it

these

interests

were

all

of the same

would be

a serious blunder to sacrifice
international interests indicated
as a

to

them the study of

by the nature of England
Canada,

In reality, the interests of the
conflicting.

European power. Colonies are most

geographically at any rate, not unlikely to be absorbed by the Americans, is for this reason alone essentially different from
Australia, that has no such absorption to dread or

harbours a large number of profoundly disaffected members of the British Empire ; and he has never read a line of
to anticipate.
still

South Africa

Boer

documents,

lieves in

or newspapers who bethe absolute loyalty of the late enemy.
letters,

India, as a

mere province,
special
it is

and needs quite
conditions

again totally different, Under these treatment.

is

evident that

the problem

of the

British Colonies, being by far the

more complicated

and

less

general,

must be preceded by the study

156

IMPERIALISM

of the international position of England, as the more general and less complicated problem.
In this respect

we cannot but

see that the pro-

posal of a blocus britanniquCy or in other words the proposal of Mr. Chamberlain, suffers from most

of the defects that
tinental

its

predecessor, the blocus con-

to

its

of Napoleon, suffered in its time. Reduced simplest terms, Mr. Chamberlain's proposal
to this, that the British

comes
the

Empire

shall imitate

example of Napoleon's Empire in 1806, almost hermetically close itself from the rest of
the world by a series of preferential tarifls in favour of the Colonies. Napoleon's scheme was a complete
failure,
tells

as every

one knows

;

and General

Marbot

us in his most valuable Mtmoires,

how

Napoleon was compelled to connive at the open breaches of his blocus at the hands of his own
Marshals,

who

sold licences for British import

A

blocus britanniquc

would be the

deliberate isolation
its

of Great Britain, the undoing of
geo-political
set

natural

and

position

as

a European

Power.

To

her up in defiance to and seclusion from the rest of Europe would render hopeless any attempt

European forces of assistance or friendship by means of alliances or ententes cordiales. Suppose the tariff, as proposed by Mr. Chamberat utilising
lain,
is

introduced.

Can any one

seriously think

BRITISH IMPERIALISM
that
in

157
interest

France would then

have

the

same

an Anglo-French alliance that she has at present ? cannot possibly restore Alsace-Lorraine England to France ; in other words, cannot render

England

France the only great service France
of.
If,

is

in

need

now, England, by

a protective tariff, sensibly

reduces the
in trade with

financial profits

made by Frenchmen
France
in

England, the entente cordiale will soon

have

little

heart left in her.

may
case

indeed

do England a
mishap
in

of any priceless service, the North Sea. France can at once

offer substantial naval assistance.

No

British
it.

colony

can do as much.

Geography

is

against

Alliances

are only of value as long as they are based

on an

accurately measured and equalised "give-and-take"

vain for protectionists to point out that Continental countries are nearly all protectionist,
It is in

and yet have
seen

alliances.

The

Continental countries
Britain.

are utterly different

from Great
they

We

have
in

how

different

necessarily

must be

mental

and moral temper, not being imperialist. In matters political and financial they are also

different.

geographical render immediate service to its neighbours position, each of them is thus sure in case of emergency ;

Each of them

can,

by

its

neighbours will be glad to conclude treaties of friendship or even alliance without being
that

some of

its

158
induced
thereto
is

IMPERIALISM
by merely financial advantages. in no such geographical position.
that

Great Britain

The

chief services

Great

Britain can render

to Continental countries are only

two

:

one, a very

great and vital politico-military service ; the other, economic advantages. The politico-military service is to contain the undue aspirations of Germany.

By giving Germany
national

a

wholesome lesson

in inter-

modesty by reducing German Imperialism to proportions of moderation Great Britain would
render a service of incalculable value to the minor
nationalities,

especially to

Austria- Hungary.

Just

as

the

weakness of
out
in

military Japanese by revealing Russia (a weakness clearly pointed

the

real

the
the

author's

Success

before

Russo-Japanese

among Nations, long War) have silenced

Slav arrogance in Austria to a considerable cxt

even so Great Britain, victorious over Germany, would infinitely strengthen the hands of the

Magyars in Hungary, and thus indirectly of all the Danubian and Balkan nationalities. If Germany
beat Great Britain too,

on

sea,

then the absorption

of most of Austria-Hungary by Germany would be a mere question of time. If Great Britain allows

Pan-Germanism
tion

to

grow

excessive, the Gcrmanisa-

of Central and South-eastern Europe would
inevitable necessity.

become an

BRITISH IMPERIALISM
toning-down of Germany, as we have seen, in England's own This
so

159
necessary,

interest, is also

undoubtedly necessary in the interest of numerous minor nations in Europe. As long, however, as

England has not accomplished
greatest service

measure, the renders most Continental England

this

nations

is

the very Free Trade which the proposal

of the protectionists means to abolish. With the cessation of Free Trade, one vast political conse-

quence

is

absolutely

certain

to

ensue.

We

shall

speak of it forthwith. The economic consequences of the contemplated abolition of Free Trade, are, to be honest, quite in the dark.

The
on

interminable

array

of

statistical

facts,

economic reasonings, and argumentation published this question in the last twelvemonth has sufficiently

proved
is

but

one

thing

:

that

Political

Economy
scientific

not yet in

certainty
increase
It

a position to decide with whether Protection would or
the
financial
this

would not
country.

prosperity of the

has,

for

reason,

been

deemed

superfluous to worry the reader with a thousandth and ten thousandth repetition of statistical fireworks.
It
is,

on the other hand, quite

different with the

political

Few
certain

consequences of the abolition of Free Trade. can be more things in European politics
than the
necessity

of changing the whole

160
military
Britain

IMPERIALISM
and
naval
organisation

of

both

Great

and the Colonies,

in case that

Free Trade
Britain has

should ever be abolished.
cut her strongest
nations,

Once Great

bond of amity with Continental her Free Trade policy, she will inevitably
into

be driven

militarism

of an

extreme

kind.

An army

of one million highly trained men may
;

be sufficient

conscription will probably be necessary.

Moreover, the Colonies will be compelled to have numerous highly trained armies of their own and,

more

particularly,

contribute

substantially

to

the

British Navy, and not, as hitherto, only nominally. This consequence follows the abolition of Free Trade with mathematical certainty.

Great Britain

practising

a

blocus

brit antique

is

no longer of much
nations,

interest

to
at

the

Continental

unless

she

develops

the

same

time

into a military

of the of
such

first

power, on land as well as on sea, It is order. pl.iin that the burden

militarism

would
alleged
It

eat

financial

prosperity

to
is

up most of the ensue on the

abolition
that

of Free Trade.
britanniqut

equally undeniable
all

a blocus
in

leverage
c<

making
"

deprives England of alliances or in coming

to

understandings her of many an

that

may

eventually
costly

relieve

awkward or

position

or

emerge

i

BRITISH IMPERIALISM
Cobden
certainly erred in

161

the main assumption

He thought underlying his belief in Free Trade. that the world was, thanks to spreading "civilisation,"

ever

more nearing
similar

hostilities,

and

altogether.

He

the

most part

is civilisation for forgot that the direct outcome of those very

the time when wars, " barbarities " would cease " <c

wars he so

show

much deprecated. It is how Cobden 's anticipation of
discounted

needless

to

a

European

Peace has been
since his time.
in

by European history

He

was, however, apparently right

assuming that Great Britain would, for a long
free

time, be

from any warlike operations
for
in

in her

own

territory.

England was, indeed, tions after Waterloo

more than two generaa
state

of

practical

immunity

from

attack.

Accordingly

the

State

revenue of England might during that time very well remain a moderate one, and taxation need not
rise

in
if

proportion

to

the rise of national wealth.
in

But

assuming that this immunity would continue for more than two or
three generations, the protectionists at present are

Cobden was mistaken

equally

wrong

under

all

without
standings

seeking
"

assuming that England can, circumstances, rely on her own resources, " <c or " underfriendliness
in

for

among

the rest of the

European Powers.
II

1

62

IMPERIALISM
protectionists

The

are right in

saying that the

main assumption of Cobden, i.e. England's practiceased to be cal immunity from attack, having operative, the British State-Revenue too ought to
undergo a change that of defence, to be raised.
of the Revenue
shall
is,

ought,
this

for

purposes

How

augmentation
however, a

be

realised

is,

made

mere question of financial detail. It cannot be It cannot into the "soul of the nation."

be bloated

up

into

a

measure of
it

the

greatest

national importance.

For

is

more than proble-

matic to say that by the adoption of a Protectionist Tariff alone can England be enabled to * retain"
her Colonies and Empire. " ' Empires arc not retained by tariffs. did not " retain" the

William

Domesday Book
1066.

" he " retained England by the Battle of Hastings, and by similar measures after
;

Conqueror

England

by

Napoleon did not "retain" his Empire by his Berlin and Milan Tariff-decrees ; but by the battles of Austerlitz, Jena and Friedland.

German Unity was

not

made by

the

Zolfocrein,

but by the battles of Sadowa and Sedan. The arguments of numerous Canadians tending to " show the " inevitable absorption of the Dominion

by
It

the

United

States

are

very

strong

indeed.

seems, at any rate, quite certain that

Canadian

BRITISH IMPERIALISM
loyalty will not be sensibly strengthened
tariffs.

163

by mere

Loyalty is not born of money-considerations, nor can it be strengthened by them. Loyalty is the result of national pride. Feed that pride,

and you may

rely

on

its

offspring, loyalty.

Let

Great Britain, by victorious conflicts with Germany or Russia, again demonstrate the great power and
far-seeing

wisdom of the

the

allurements of the

Empire, and all Americans will be unable
British

to shake Canadian loyalty, whether there be Preferential Tariffs or no.
all

The

Irish

have been given

the advantages in the
;

Empire Empire

man may enjoy
preferred
to

yet the

any Englishmajority of them have
altogether.

that

leave

the

The

Boers are being promised the free use of all the financial and political resources of the Empire
yet there
is

;

not five per cent, of them who have sincerely attached themselves to the Empire. Has not the study of the history and nature of
Imperialism, as sketched in the preceding chapters,

clearly

on

and conclusively shown that Empires require the part of their citizens a readiness for
?

sacrifices far greater

of small states
such
sacrifices

than that entailed upon citizens Is it meant to be given out that

can

be

made

acceptable

or

even
gained

entirely

removed

by
tariffs

payments of sums
?

by advantageous

Or

is

it

really intimated

164
that
if,

IMPERIALISM
e.g.,

Australia should be offered better

tariffs

by Germany, Australia would therefore cut loose from Great Britain ?
If

we

take into consideration that Australia will
vital

very soon have a military interest of the most
force to contribute substantially to the British

Navy

and to cling with the utmost loyalty to the " Mother Country," we cannot but consider
quA imperial tonics, as very Australia may poor and superfluous nostrums. very soon have close to her northern borders
Preferential
Tariffs,

cither
latter

both
as

Japanese and the Germans or the successors of the Dutch
the
;

the the

Japanese alone

or the Japanese, the Americans, and the Germans, the latter as possessors of part

of

Guinea, the Bismarck Islands, the Mariana The mere possibility of such a Islands, etc. neighbourhood will induce every patriotic and

New

prudent Australian to hesitate a long while before
deciding on his loyalty to the British Empire on the strength of mere tariff profits.

The same
South Africa.
will
instil

species

The

of remarks holds good for evident disaffection of the Boers

British

patriotism into most citizens of
efficiently

Cape Colony or Natal more
possible
tariff

than

any
will

could ever do.
there
is

The

Colonies

soon learn that

no part of the globe

BRITISH IMPERIALISM
where European Great Powers

165

in general, let alone

Great Britain, can be disregarded without imminent
penalties.

Taking matters simply on the basis of interests, of cold and calculated interests, there is no reason
whatever
to

assume

that

any one of the

self-

governing colonies of the British Empire can afford to cut loose from the " Mother Country," within
the

next

two or

three

generations.

The Cape

cannot think of secession, from the natural apprehension not only of a renewed Boer rising, but
also of the loss

of the immense Hinterland of the
to

Cape from the Orange River

Egypt, which an

Empire alone can hold
Great Powers.

against

all

Australia and

New

competing Zealand cannot

the

secede, for reasons given above.

An

outbreak
is
;

of

war

between

Germany
blow

and
at

England
Australasia

a

direct
is

and

immediate

so

is

war between Japan and Holland ; an aggressive American policy in the neighso
a

bourhood of the Philippines ; so is the inevitable arrival of Russia on the southern shores of Persia.

The
and

south-east of Asia
in

is

clearly destined to

become,

great a
in

no long time from now, the theatre of as and naval activity as has political, military,
last

the

two hundred years been

the case with

the north-west of Europe.

166

IMPERIALISM
under these circumstances can Australasia

How
did
so

afford to secede

from Great Britain
she

?

Even

if

she

would, a few days later, be compelled to implore the alliance of Great Britain
to-day,
at

any

cost.

Elementary common-sense

will

tell

any Australasian that since European Powers have
the

major influence in south-cast Asia, i.e. in the immediate neighbourhood of Australasia, it would be the height of folly to estrange one of the greatest
Powers, and on sea the greatest Power of Europe. And since the African, Australasian, and Indian
at all likely portions of the British Empire arc not either to wish or to be able to secede, it is
less likely that the

Canadians should wish to abandon

the

glorious

heritage

of

their

ancestors.

Their
if,

imperial sentiments cannot but
as
is

become stronger

to be presumed,

difficulties

England will meet the coming \Vc with adequate means of success.
that

have

seen

even

ignorant

Russians,

for

Imperialism's sake, abstain from unduly pressing the their claims to popular government during

Russo-Japanese War.
again venture to predict (January 29, 1905) that there will be no revolution in Russia And shall Canadians during the present war.
rate,

At any

we

forsake
tion of

England
British

in

her fight for
?

the

consol

Imperialism

To

assume such a

BRITISH IMPERIALISM
possibility
in

167

an

were to underrate national amour propre The very dangers elementary manner.

threatening England and her Colonies are a complete guarantee of solid cohesion between the Mother and

her Children.

To

doubt that cohesion,

is

to mis-

construe or ignore those dangers. The American Colonies did not secede from Great Britain during the great war from 1755 to 1763, when

was obliged to

fight for her imperial
all

England and even her

home

existence,

over Central Germany, in North
in nearly all the seas.

America, in India, and

The
and
her.

Colonials seceded from 1775 onwards,

when England
power,

was

at

an

unprecedented height
but too
clear.

of

practically safe

from attack unless provoked by

The

lesson

is

Add
author
History)

to this, that the

Colonials seceded (as the

has

shown
the

in

his

Foundations

of Modern
vast
causes,
in

from

concourse
can

of two

neither

of which

be said to be

operative

One of these causes the present British Colonies. the fact that the American was purely geographical
:

Colonials

that theirs during 1755-63 was, and ought to be, the most valuable Hinterland

learned

any country outside Europe has ever possessed. The other cause was the combination of several
that

great

European Powers

against England.

The

geographical cause

holds

good

neither

in

1

68
nor
is

IMPERIALISM
in

Canada
England

Australia
to

;

and

even

if

it

did,

not likely

repeat the

blunder of

George III. to prevent Canadians and Australians The political from occupying their Hinterlands.
cause does

hold

good

to a certain extent, in that

Germany and Russia
England ; far from

arc both

decidedly hostile to

but, for reasons given above, this hosti

the Canadians or the encouraging Australasians to an attempt at secession, cannot but

confirm them in a whole-hearted loyalty to England.

In
selves

the preceding reflections
deliberately
selfish,

we have
prompted

placed our-

on the

basis

of considerations

purely
material

egoistic,
It

and

by

sheer
so,

interests.

was necessary to do

in

order to show that the principal thesis here maintained will stand examination from any given
legitimate
principle

standpoint.

This
every
that

thesis,

underlying
is

one
the

pervading statement here

this

advanced,
being in

the

fact

British

some ways
deviate

radically different

Empire, from similar

Empires

either in the past or in the present,

must

necessarily
political

from

them

in

all

measures

or financial as well.
it

other than British are,
protectionist
;

Systems of Imperialism cannot be denied, decidedly
in

and even

the

past

they

nearly

always were.

BRITISH IMPERIALISM
This
fact,

169

far

argument
British

in

from being able to serve as an favour of British Protectionism, is

evidently militating against such an argument.

The
as

Empire, being sui
British

generis^

must be
fares

treated

accordingly.
did, for a

Imperialism

largely

long time, the greatest
It
is

land, Shakespeare.

of Engstrangely mistaken, misintellect

Keeping aloof, as we must do, from mere jingoism on the one hand and from mere philanthropic or socialistic Little
Englanderism on the other, we cannot but the following view of British Imperialism
arrive at
:

interpreted, ignored, or disliked.

The

British

were already

in the twelfth century

A.D. driven into Imperialism.

no other choice

;

and

later

Their kings then had on, in the sixteenth and
itself

seventeenth centuries the people
in historical space in a

was placed
other than
said,
;

manner

that left the British

no possible way out of their
Imperialism.
i.e.

difficulties

Whatever the
about
their

British

may have
and

Empire spoken however pooh-poohingly they may have talked of their oversea dominions, all this was only part
of that

Colonies

any and which, as we have seen, is the fountain Empire, of that characteristic humour of Empires, from Lucian to Mr. Mark Twain.
In utter contrast
to

make-believe which

is

inevitable

in

the

American or

Russian

1

70

IMPERIALISM

type of Imperialism, the British Empire has grown up so slowly, with so many interruptions, apparent reversals, and pauses, that it has never quite lost In this " dual character," its original dual character.

we

take

it,

the very essence and distinctive soul of
is

Great
racter

Britain

consummated.
that the British

By

" dual chaconsists
(ii)

"
is

meant

Empire

of

(i)

a small, self-contained double island,

and

of

a vast
Britain

number of
by oceans.

territories

separated from Great

This duality gave Great

Britain,

amongst

all

Empires, the inestimable gift of being able to retain many of the forces that, in smaller, self-contained
countries, such as France, have always

made

for a

richer and more intense development of the human and moral ; and, at the same capital both mental

time, to win those
that, if

new and Imperialism-born

forces

bought at heavy prices, arc yet undoubtedly productive of much that is noble, humanitarian,
and great.
chapters of this pamphlet we have tried to show the unmistakable teaching of history to the effect that the attempt of some nations at
In

the

first

being Athenians and Romans at the same time has Excessive Imalways been doomed to failure.
perialism does desiccate

many of
;

the forces of our

human

intellect

and heart

excessive

Imperialism

BRITISH IMPERIALISM
does

171

unnature

woman

in

one way or another;

excessive Imperialism does drive people into a dead and into an undue brooding over uniformity

In the end, topics. excessive Imperialism drains of their vitality, people as it did the Romans. All this, as we have seen,
religious
is

and hyper-ethical

evident
to

from
the

relating

study of innumerable facts growth and spread of excessive
the
clear

Imperialism.
It
is

likewise

that

the

most
typical

intense

in-

tellectual

work and

the

most

productions

of the human mind and heart have invariably been found in small centres such as Athens, Syracuse,
Florence, Geneva
;

or in countries that
in

by reason

of their extent or
spirit

view of their anti-imperialist
called

Empires Such countries were England herself in France the times of the Tudors and the Stuarts
proper.
;

can

under no condition be

at all times

;

the Southern and a few Central States

of Germany, that have produced by far the greatest, in fact over ninety per cent., of Germany's great

men Not

;

and a number of other small
every small country of
alone,

States in

Europe.

Europe

has, for this

of thought ; but the great intellectual movements of Europe all came
reason

produced leaders

from small
It is

centres.

the unique and priceless advantage of Great

172
Britain
to have

IMPERIALISM
been able to build up an Empire
their

proper, and yet to preserve her original character
as

one of the small countries that by
are

very

intensity
gifts

endowed with

great possibilities and

counteracting the baneful consequences of ex-

cessive

Imperialism. Excessive Imperialism, we must make bold to repeat, does desiccate many a force of the human

intellect

and heart For

;

so

it

has,

at

times and

for

shortened periods, done in England too.
for a

Yet only
periods

time.

even

in

one of

the

of triumphant Imperialism, England produced her Thomas Young, her Darwin.
Excessive
so
it

Imperialism

does

unnature

woman

;

has done to a certain extent in England too.

Yet what dignity and womanly reserve arc still to What modesty and be found in Englishwomen
!

calm
love

disdain
are

of

all

loud

display

!

What

true
to

Englishwomen capable of
Imperialism

devoting

their husbands.

Excessive

does

drive

people

into

an undue brooding over hyper-ethical and religious subjects ; as it did the Romans ; as it does the

Americans and the Russians.
the English.

So

it

has at

all

times

"Revivals" and "Evangelists," and
in

morbid hatred of the most natural desires of men,
have been and are but too rampant
England.

BRITISH IMPERIALISM
Yet

173

England where Keats, Matthew Arnold, Swinburne, and
it

is

in

Shelley, Byron,
a

number

of

other great writers have, in accents of rapturous beauty, preached the gospel of Light and Grace and Tact.

On

analysing these distinctive features of British
as

greatness,

grounded upon the

essentially

dual
see

character of British Imperialism,
that
it

we cannot but
which
is,

is

British Individualism

as against

the wholesale levelling predominant in all the other Empires, the saving force of British history. The
desiccating

and draining processes inherent
types

in all

the

other

of

Imperialism

are
it

all
is

directed
for
its

against

strong

individualism,

and

this

reason
ends.

that excessive

Imperialism

defeats

own
is

British Imperialism, then, as

it

is

to-day,

the

juste

milieu

between

all

the

types
Is

of Imperialism
it

hitherto developed
alter
it

by

history.

necessary to
?

this,

its

gloriously distinctive
to

character

Is

necessary

hasten

the

process by which

the

moderation and
perialism
really
shall

fine proportionality

of British ImIs
it

be disturbed and distorted?
to

so urgent

quite
life

un woman

dry up British intellect, to woman, and to hand over social
" Revivalists "
?

to the guidance of

The man
the
idea

in

the

street,

who

instinctively

dislikes

I

74

IMPERIALISM
has

of "getting Americanised"

long

declared

his

staunch antagonism to excessive Imperialism.

That the excessive type of Imperialism is not needed for statesmanlike reasons, we have tried to

show

in

the

preceding

pages.

Is

it,

then,

the

irresistible

desire
?

of

the

citizens

of

Great

and

Greater
the

Britain

Scarcely.

Unless

we
the

misread

entire

character
it

of
is

Britons

of Great

and

Greater
historical

Britain,

certain

that

secular,

individualism

of
at

the

ruling
their

people
force

of

the
their

British
pride.

Empire

is

once

and

Any measure
;

that tends to

weaken
inthis
is

this

individualism

any proposal that means,
to
for

tentionally

or

unconsciously,

tone

down

sturdy

and vigorous bent undoubtedly not welcome

differentiation,

to

the

majority

of

Britons.

Can
if

there be any serious doubt that Imperialism,

carried

on according
has
a

to the

ideas of latter-day

tendency to pull down those ramparts behind which British individualism The has been flourishing these eight centuries ?
protectionists,

clear

Empire, closed up against all the rest of the countries by the Chinese Wall of a Preferential
British
Tariff,

must inevitably develop those

levelling forces

that have, in other

Empires, wrought such havoc with the most precious funds of human capital.

BRITISH IMPERIALISM

175

Empires do not subsist on money alone. They subsist on living forces of intellect, heart, emotion,
character
life
;

and

it

is

precisely these true factors of

by excessive Imperialism be blighted and dwarfed. should the British Empire " " be represented by an comImperial Parliament

that will

Why

prising

deputies
?

from
not

all

the

dominions of the
in

Empire
British

Why

continue,

individualism, to have

a series

keeping with of Parliaits

ments, each corresponding to the needs of organic part of the whole Empire ?

own
cultiIt
is

Why
vation

should the evident tendency to the of local idioms be discouraged ?

infinitely

more

in

harmony with

the all-pervading

of British history, to tolerate, perhaps to encourage, the rise of Welsh, Irish, and any
principle

other idiom helping to further Differentiation. there is not, and should not be, One Law
the
British
;

As
in

Empire, so there should not be One
nor

Language

One

Tariff; nor

One

Religion.

All

the questions necessarily subject to greater unification, such as the Army or the Navy, might very
well be
settled

Imperial

by Inter-Colonial Committees, by It is a mere question Delegations."
detail.

of technical

But
history
;

if
if

there

be

any

value

in

the

study

ot

the past

can teach

us anything worth

176
listening

IMPERIALISM
to

whenever
Policy

vital

questions of National
it

and
is

Imperial

are

under consideration,
that

to

our mind certain

treasure

and

force, is not in
in

her

England's greatest Navy nor in her

Wealth, but

that Individualism, which

no doubt

frequently exceeds its aim and turns angular and grotesque ; but on the whole constitutes an asset,
a

force

greater

that

that

of any other Empire.
in

Karl
is

Marx much of

used to say that
the

the English there

Romans and of

the Carthaginians.

It is

truer to say that in the British there is

much

of the

Romans and of the Athenians.
history,

Nature and
in

that

is,

the

two

greatest

space and time, have endowed England powers with chances and forces that bid fair to realise at
least a portion

of those

ideals that

have immortalised

the Hellenes and the

any ambitious statesman be allowed to turn England away from
Shall

Romans.

her

unique career and steer her into the path of

excessive Imperialism destined to failure ? Let each one of the British Colonies

her

own

individuality, political, social,

develop financial, and

intellectual.

The more

intensely differentiated they

will

become, the better for them, the better for

the Empire.

An

organically differentiated

can

never and will

never desire to

Colony become part

cither of a small whole,

or of one of the other

BRITISH IMPERIALISM
levelled

177

She will for ever have the Empires. feeling of her natural and necessary adhesion to and cohesion with that old and glorious country which
alone of
all

Empires has known how to combine
Intellect with

Freedom with Power,

Heart, Wealth

with Art, Individualism with Patriotism.

THE END

Pnmttd by HattU. WaUon

&

Vinty, Ld. London
t

and AyUsbury.

12

A companion work

to Sir Harry Johnston's great book on the Uganda Protectorate

UGANDA AND
By
J.

ITS

PEOPLES
F.Z.5.

F.

CUNINOHAM,
Sir

F.R.O.5.,

With an Introduction by
/M /MM
L ...'..J,
111 "Ml
.,
r,

Harry Johnston, K.C.B.
^;

... ,

'

--^* _fX
.

1

_-.

.

^^

MI-I'M fcrf i

on Engntk *H p*fier, wi* Mm? mmt *ti lllu*trm*on* chffy from PhotoCotomnm Puttf, Ifttff graphs AswM by tht Atttkor, tnttmmtf

mm

24*.

nft.

The Author has spent many years In Uganda in an official podttai and has made a special study of its peoples. The illustrations by the Author are unique, and add largely to the value of the work.

A

delightful

Book

of Travel Pictures In Spain

LETTERS FROM CATALONIA
By ROLAND THIRLMERE
In two tolt.. 4tmy **>, cbtk gOt mml g* lef, pvofruify fliirtasjt* mtk tokmnd mmi omtr Pb*tfrom ongimml 4rvmJnft by Sfymom- Lmm\ R A
,

tfilMm aVfn0M^H^TM

v

^

AC ^1
.

.

t

\9lOF99

//all//, /V./.,

a%Z9*^T*t

T99&F wPBrnWH^

R.B.A., Gtlbtrt

Rogm, Tom tot mm, mml mt Sfimtuk Pmmttr, Jo*' MX. AVn>, mml from Phomgr+k*, 24*. mt.
It

This beautifully written book has a unique charm.
a most acceptable present
paints

would make

The Author
pictures
;

gives vivid impressions; he
is

warmly coloured word

he

able to

show what he saw

and takes the reader along with him. It is a book of delightful impressions about a bit of Spain the Spain which is practically unknown

ground to the ordinary English person.

LONDON

:

HUTCHINSON

ft

CO, PATERNOSTE* Row

969

DO NOT REMOVE CARDS OR SLIPS FROM THIS POCKET
PLEASE

UNIVERSITY OF

TORONTO

LIBRARY

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