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2016 Fourth International Conference on Information and Communication Technologies (ICoICT)

Lambda Value Analysis on Weighted Minkowski

Distance Model in CBR of Schizophrenia Type
Ause Labellapansa Akmar Efendi Ana Yulianti Evizal Abdul Kadir
Informatics Engineering Informatics Engineering Informatics Engineering Informatics Engineering
University of Islam Riau Universitiy of Islam Riau University of Islam Riau University of Islam Riau
Pekanbaru, Indonesia Pekanbaru, Indonesia Pekanbaru, Indonesia Pekanbaru, Indonesia

AbstractAccording to The Global Burden of Disease The system developed is using case-based reasoning (CBR)
conducted by Murray in collaboration with WHO and the World to determine the type of Schizophrenia the patients have
Bank predicts that mental illnesses will occupy the second consisting of Paranoid Schizophrenia (F20.0), Hebefrenik
position after cardiovascular disease in 2020. One of the mental Schizophrenia (F20.1) Catatonic Schizophrenia (F20.2), Post-
illnesses is Schizophrenia Psychosis disorder. This research uses
Artificial Intellegence case-based reasoning (CBR) method for
schizophrenic Depression (F20.4) and Residual Schizophrenia
diagnosing types of Schizophrenia disorders. Each Schizophrenia (F20.5) contained in PPDGJ III. This study uses Minkowski
new case will be calculated using Weighted Minkowski similarity distance model and compares which distance parameter is the
method. This study focuses on determining the most efficient most efficient to be used when the value of lambda 1, 2, 3.
Lambda (r) between the values of 1, 2 and 3 on Minkowski
CBR is a technique to solve new problems by adapting
distance model. Data obtained from the medical records of 95
cases of which 80 cases used as training data and 15 cases are
solutions that have been used to solve previous problems. In
used as test data. Based on the results of tests performed, lambda CBR, the cases that already exist are stored in the case base. If
value that has the best accuracy rate is at 3. In order to diagnose there is a new problem occurs, old cases which considered
the type of schizophrenia, Minkowski Distance Model with a most similar to the new one will be retrieved. If the case
lambda value of 3 can be used. retrieved considered similar with the new one, there will be a
process of reusing old cases to solve problems in new cases.
Keywords case based reasoning;lambda;weighted minkowski; However, if the old case does not resolve a new case
Schizophrenia considerably, then process of revising where the case that has
been revised will be retained for later use in solving upcoming
I. INTRODUCTION new cases and stored in the case base [3].
The terms psychiatric disorders / mental disorders are the This study consists of several chapters, chapter 1 contains
symptoms or behavior pattern that can be found in clinical- the introduction, chapter 2 basic theory, chapter 3 study of
related stress and in most cases associated with impaired literature which is a comparison with other research studies in
function of a person [1]. Prevelence of psychiatric disorders terms of methods and the issues raised. Chapter 4 conveys the
according to the report by Indonesian National Health Policy research methodology conducted CBR to determine the type of
Research (RISKESDAS) based on the survey of the Indonesian Schizophrenia and finally, chapter 5 contains the conclusions
population aged 15 years was 11.6%, which means between and suggestions for further researches.
about 19 million people there are around 2.2 million people
who have a psychiatric disorder [1]. II. BASIC THEORY
Research on mental illness "The Global Burden of Disease" A. Case-based Reasoning
performed by [2] collaborated with WHO and World Bank
Case-based reasoning (CBR) was first presented by Roger
predicts that mental illness will occupy the second position
Schank and R. Abelson in 1977. CBR is a technique to solve
after cardiovascular diseases in 2020. Five biggest psychiatric
new problems by adapting solutions that have been used to
illnesses have most significant impact is unipolar depression,
solve previous problems. CBR has been widely applied in
alcohol use, bipolar affective disorder, schizophrenia and
various fields such as law, medicine, language, history, food /
obsessive compulsive disorder.
nutrition, routes findings and the environment.
By knowing the facts above, causes a system that utilizes
In CBR, the cases that already exist are stored in the case
artificial intelligence methods to help working professionals in
base. If new problem occurs, old cases which considered most
the field of psychiatric medicine is needed. Researchers feel the
similar to the new one will be retrieved. If the case retrieved
need to do research to develop a system that helps paramedics
considered similar with the new one, there will be a process of
in upholding psychosis diagnosis of psychiatric disorder.
reusing old cases to solve problems in new cases. However, if
the old case does not resolve a new case considerably, then

ISBN: 978-1-4673-9879-4 (c) 2016 IEEE

process of revising where the case that has been revised will be Equation (2) is used to calculate local similarities if there is
retained for later use in solving upcoming new cases and stored a symbolic features and (3) is used to calculate numeric
in the case base [3]. features [7].




Researches in the psychiatric disorders domain have been
done. Labellapansa and Hartati did this study using a rule-
based reasoning (RBR) for diagnosis of psychiatric disorders
psychosis and case-based reasoning (CBR) for diagnosis of the
type of Schizophrenia [8]. The study results that there are 80%
of the cases that have similarity score> 80 (high category).
Researches for psychosis disorder to diagnose Schizophrenia
done by developing DSS involving three specialists, but this
study experienced difficulties due to the absence of an
agreement between one specialist with one another in looking
Fig. 1. CBR Cycle [3] at the symptoms related to schizophrenia [9]
Based on Fig. 1 there are several stages in the CBR cycle as Seetha, et al have compared the lambda value of 1.2, 3, 4
follow: and 5 to perform the classification of satellite imagery. The
results showed that when the value of lambda 3 used, it
Retrieve, a stage where the old case found that most reached maximum possible accuracy of 80.36 [10]. Umam
closely resembles the new cases that exist. and Labellapansa analyzing the Minkowski distance models
Reuse, reuse solutions that have been found from the for the determination of the current high school majors
stage to complete the retrieve new cases. lambda value of 1.2 and 3. Number of data used is 500 with
the most accurate lambda value when the value lambda 1 [11]
Revise, is a step to improve or adapt the solutions that
have been proposed. Among CBR in stress domain to diagnose stress levels
incurred by Begum et al. [12] by seeing the difference in the
Retain, save the new solution as part of the new cases temperature of fingers as well as Ahmed et al. [13] which
and update to the case base. combines the signal time series data and patient document in
seeing stress levels. Along with that, utilization and importance
B. Weighted Minkowski Distance Model of ontology-based system for mental health interventions have
Equation (1) is the formula of Weighted Minkowski [4]: also been shown by Coyle and Doherty [14].
Several other studies using CBR done by Tomar et al . [15]

Making a CBR clinical decision support system prototype for

 diagnosis of pulmonary disease due to work by using 127 cases
for 14 kinds of chronic lung diseases due to work on 26 kinds
of symptoms. Retrieval usedis Nearest Neighbor. Development
TABLE I. FORMULA DESCRIPTION of this GDSS will be able to help the pathologist to decide level
of testing for sensitivity 95,3%. Similarity method used is the
Symbol Meaning
d(Ci,Cj ) : The value of the similarity between the case Cj and the Cosine Co-Efficient threshold value of 0.8. Gu et al. [16]
: case Ci applied CBR to reuse knowledge of dental medical record in
Ci : new cases making a new medical record. Retrieval is done by using
Cj : old case several methods namely Fuzzy Mathematics method,
n : The number of attributes in each case Euclidian-Lagrangian Distance and weighting optimization
k : Individual attributes, between 1 s / d n
w : The weights given to attribute to k
with PULL&PUSH. Own revisions done by using rule-based
r Minkowski factor (positive integer) acquired from experts in the field of dentistry. Cases collected
up to 1000 cases and 100 cases for testing with the treshold
value of 0.6. When number of cases reaches 100, one case
Value is a positive number r 1, (between 1 to infinity). If found as the most similar case but if the weighting is applied,
r = 1 is known as a manhattan / city block distance, if r = 2 is then two cases found similar.
known as euclidean distance [5] and if r = infinity (infinity) is
known as Chebyshev distance [6] . Based on literature studies done previously, this study uses
CBR using Weighted Minkowski distance model and compare
the results when the lambda values of 1.2 and 3 to determine existing data. Table III is the result of the 15 test data. Each
the lambda value which has the most efficient results. value on r, mean average value is calculated so average
accuracy rate for each r can be found.
Diagnosis use CBR consists of several steps which are TABLE III. EXAMINATION RESULTS OF 15 TEST DATA

knowledge acquisition from medical records, concluding

attributes that will be used in a case, representing a case, using Data Test r=1 r=2 r=3
Weighted Minkowski distance model to conclude the most 1 81,21% 93,10% 94,58%
similar case and provide suggested solution as diagnostic 94,87% 99,80% 99,70%
3 94,37% 99,72% 99,88%
A. Knowledge Acquisition
4 60,83% 86,84% 97,59%
To acquire knowledge, data from medical records of a
Psychiatric Hospital have to be retrieved. The database consists 5 91,71% 98,97% 99,87%
of as many as 95 obtained data which 80 of them are training 6 66,13% 88,70% 88,89%
data and 15 of them are test data. Once the data is obtained,
7 93,93% 99,97% 99,98%
then the case is to be presented. Those cases consist of 82 kinds
of symptoms which 80 cases used as training data and 15 cases 8 65,77% 83,12% 94,12%
are used as test data. 90,16% 98,76% 99,70%
B. Representation Cases 10 90,10% 98,92% 98,89%
In this study case representation is used by using frames 80% 93,69% 97,89%
(Table II). As for attributes consists of symptoms, patient data
that contains patient's age and sex, disorder names and case 12 92,50% 99,87% 99,86%
solution. 13 80% 97,95% 98,10%

TABLE II. CASE REPRESENTATION 14 85,76% 97,89% 97,92%

Case : 15 91,66% 99,84% 99,50%

11 15 46 Case (T)
Weight Yes/No
Symptom Symptom
Weight Yes/No Weight Yes/No Table IV provides results of the accuracy of lambda values
1 Symptoms 1 Yes 1 Yes 1 Yes
where the highest accuracy value obtained when r=3. Lambda
r=1 has accuracy of 0,83 and r=2 has accuracy of 0,96.
2 Symptoms 2 Yes 0,7
4 Symptoms 4 Yes 1 Yes
r=1 r=2 r=3
5 Symptoms 5 Yes 1
overall accuracy 0,83 0,96 0,97
6 Symptoms 6 Yes 1
7 Symptoms 7 Yes 1
This study has successfully comparing the value of lambda
8 Symptoms 8 Yes 0,6
1,2 and 3 in the Minkowski formula for the case of diagnosis of
9 Symptoms 9 Yes 1 Yes 1 Yes psychiatric disorders Schizophrenia. From the type of tests the
results obtained lambda value was highest when the value of
No Patient
1 Age 45 1 33 1 35 1 29
lambda 3.
2 Sex Male 1 Male 1 Male 1 Male B. Recommendations
Level of
Confidence (%)
100% 100% 100% This study uses CBR with amount of data consisting of 95
Nama of Disease A A B
cases. This is due to the difficulty of acquisition of the data
obtained from the medical records that take a long time. It
Medicine Dose Medicine Dose Medicine Dose
would be better if the number of cases are more, both to data as
A, B, W, X, A, B, X, Y, A, C, X, Y,
the basis for the case and the data for testing.
C, D Y, Z C Z D Z

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Health Research Report Year 2007), Agency for Health Research and
A. Conclusions Development Department of Health, Indonesia, 2008
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