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Transactional Analysis Journal

The Prince or Princess, the Tadpole, and the Frog: An Inquiry into the Natural Child, the
Spell-Binding Parent, the Spellbound Child, and the Spell-Lifting Adult
D.E. Harding
Transactional Analysis Journal 1987 17: 264
DOI: 10.1177/036215378701700102

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Clinical Applications
The Prince or Princess, the Tadpole, and the Frog
An Inquiry into the Natural Child, the Spell-binding Parent,
the Spellbound Child, and the Spell-lifting Adult
D. E. Harding

Abstract of this on trust, but to test aUrigorously and

In the opinion of Steiner (1975), "The Ilrst in actual practice.
and most important concept ... which Berne
introduced to psychiatry is embodied in his The Prince/Princess
aphorism 'People are born princes and We have four sets of clues - four different
princesses, until their parents turn them in- sources of information - as to what the natural
to frogs'" (p. 2). The present paper, taking child (i.e., the prince or princess) really is. And
this view, examines its historical background by really is we mean what the child is for itself
and its theoretical and practical implications where it is, in contrast to what it looks like to
for today. It goes into such questions as: How us over here, its central reality in contrast to
does the parent work that magic? What are all these regional appearances which that reality
the essential differences between the prince is giving rise to, the insider's story as the sub-
or princess and the frog? How does it feel ject in contrast to the outsider's version of it
to be the former, then be reduced to the lat- as an object.
ter? Can the mature frog learn to reverse the (i) The first set of clues are supplied by the
magic speD and turn itself back into the child directly, before it learns to talk, in the
prince or princess? Which is the deep shape of its behavior. Thus the toy that is drop-
therapy - this abrupt switch of identity, or ped out of sight is not looked for: presumably
graduaUy becoming a more together and disappearance means annihilation. Thus remote
self-sufficient frog jumping energetically objects such as the picture on the wall or the
round the bog? To what extent is this slow moon in the sky are fingered; presumably
development the precondition of that abrupt distance does not exist for the child. All is taken
metamorphosis? Does the parental black to be present, no less its own than those legs
magic ever disfigure - let alone destroy - the and arms are. Thus its face in the mirror is not
original face of the prince or princess? Or singled out for attention; presumably it is just
do those royal features remain intact, hid- an ordinary feature of the scene. Thus the child
den under the frog-mask that - speDbound has a way of burying its face in a cushion, then
- the players have to wear in "The Face looking up and laughing; presumably it is hav-
Game" or "Confrontation" (Harding, 1967, ing fun annihilating and recreating the world.
1986)? If the aim of TA is that one should (ii) As soon as the child starts to talk clues
become game-free (Berne, 1964, pp. 178 ff.) multiply fast. One of the author's young friends
and not just trade in bad games for better burst out with; "I'm very big!" Another (and
games, and this means dropping even the this in his experience is not unusual), when
best masks one is hiding behind, how is this counting those present, insisted on leaving
done? These questions are tackled by the herself out; counting herself in would (it seems)
writer - a long-time and enthusiastic TA have been like counting the room in with the
amateur - in the light of his experience over people, or the purse with the money. Another,
the last thirty years encouraging people to bringing home a panoramic photograph of the
face that crucial issue: what is my true (i.e., whole school, successfully named everybody
game-free) identity? And by the reader who, - except for one total stranger. Herself, of
as a TA professional, is urged to take none course! Another child, standing in the bath and

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staring down at himself, exclaimed; "I don't appears on the whole to have been backed up
have a head!" One five-year-old boy warned by the Seers' lifestyle - by their spontaneity,
that, if he ate any more rice pudding, he would their manifest enjoyment of the world's
hit the ceiling; at that moment he did not see simplicities, sense of fun, capacity for love,
himself as a little boy. A Canadian girl, as old grace in movement, and all manner of
as nine years, wrote this poem: "Do you know behavioral nuances that are in the very best
what it's like to be nobody - just a tiny speck sense childlike.
of air, with all those people around you, and (iv) Finally, we come to our fourth set of
you are just not there?" And so on. This is a clues about the inside story of the natural child
small sample of the evidence collected by the - of the prince or princess. It is that crucial and
writer, indicating that the natural child is for clinching piece of evidence which can only be
itself a very different kind of person from the furnished by the reader of this paper. It requires
one we perceive. you to check whether, right now in your first-
(iii) The third order of clues, of evidence hand experience, you are still for yourself as
about the intrinsic nature of the natural child, you were when for others you were a very
is furnished much later in life by Seers - so- small child. This means, in particular, check-
called enlightened men and women who, claim- ing that you are not on present evidence peer-
ing that they have regained their childhood ing out of two tiny peep-holes in an opaque and
honesty and simplicity, announce to an in- very complicated and clearly-defined lump of
credulous or indifferent world that they are the stuff, but are gazing (wide-eyed and single-
very opposite of what they look like to the eyed, or rather no-eyed) out of boundless empty
world. Many of them, for example, declare space so immediately filled with the scene that
that, being wholly emptied of themselves, they it cannot be divorced from it. That you are not,
are wholly filled with others. They experience on present evidence, a millionth of an inch dis-
themselves as nothing but space or capacity for tant from this printing, or from the rest of the
everything. Some point out that distance is for things around. (Where would you measure to
them no more than a useful fiction, and for the at the "near" end, and anyway how long would
rest of us a very costly one. Taken seriously, the tape-measure read when viewed end-on?)
it progressively parts seer and seen - resulting That you are not, on present evidence, con-
in alienation from the universe, loneliness, fronting those faces in the room with one of
deprivation. Some have come round to look- your own, but resemble a portrait gallery or
ing in their mirrors to see what they are not, film show in which they are exhibits. That you
to remind them that they could not be less like are not, on present evidence, in this world at
what they appear to be. One Zen master ex- all, but rather it is in you. In fact, the writer's
plained he was not sure how tall he was, but suggestion is that there is no end to the
perhaps it was around thirty feet! Others rediscovery of the obvious, this reactivation of
stressed their facelessness or headlessness. the natural child in you, once you get the hang
Most importantly, Seers belonging to different of it. And no end to the entertainment and re-
epochs and very diverse cultures have boldly juvenation it freely offers.
maintained that their true and inmost nature (as To sum up so far, then: we have been ex-
distinct from their superficial human nature), amining four orders of clues about the original
in fact the One they all claim they really are, nature of the child. We have noted some of the
is nothing less than the source and goal of all behavior peculiar to very young children;
things, continually creating and destroying and listened to the sort of thing that older ones have
recreating the world. And of course some to say about themselves; discovered that
notable Seers have stressed that the hallmark childlike Seers tell much the same tale; and
of their kind is that they have become like small have ourselves looked within and (it may be)
children again. In sum, over the past 3,000 found exactly what they find: reader and writer
years or so, these exceptional men and women alike donning the august mantle of the Seer -
have (it seems) been reliving with great inten- as we have a perfect right to do, no matter how
sity essential aspects of their childhood, and brief our exercise of that right. And finally we
assuring us that in reality they have never may conclude that these four pieces of evidence
outgrown it. Moreover, this inner realization dovetail and support one another. In brief, the

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writer suggests that we have uncovered our fulfilling prophecy, as the young child, helpless
original nature. A worthwhile enterprise, if under its powerful influence, gradually learns
ever there was one! to cooperate in cutting itself down to size, in
becoming not OK, a tadpole in all respects. In
Prince/Princess into Tadpole short, very like the small, dirty, inept creature
However, from the start the parent has been which the critical parent perceives.
busy pronouncing the spell which will soon tum Before we go further, let us not forget (if our
the prince or princess into a frog. Actually in- thesis so far is valid) how "in the right" the
to a mere tadpole; it will take decades for that unlimited child is here, how "in the wrong"
inadequate little creature to grow into a pro- is the magic which closes in upon it, how glar-
per, full-size, OK amphibian. ing is the lie which that magic pronounces.
The spell has many versions. Some of them Who but itself is in a position to tell the child
are complimentary - not to say overdone - who and what it really is for itself at center,
"What a heavenly baby!" "Just look at those zero inches from itself? Who has access to that
rosy cheeks!" "Let's see those dimples, that spot but its sole inhabitant, who remains
smile again!" Others are rude. But flattering through life the one authority on what is there,
or the reverse, the effect is much the same - everyone else being wide of the mark by in-
the tadpole is on the way. And the verbal ches and feet? But how could the young child
messages are being supplemented throughout - that solitary interior authority - prevail against
by all manner of approving and disapproving the combined weight of those innumerable ex-
nonverbal ones - tones of voice, facial expres- terior authorities who so consistently contradict
sions, modes of handling - which are essential it? To use picturesque language, is it surpris-
ingredients of the magic. ing that the innocent victim of the plot, outvoted
The effect is multiplied as soon as the child overwhelmingly in a rigged election by falsified
begins to understand the wording of the spell. voting papers, concedes defeat?
The rosy cheeks and dimples and so on start But defeat occurs only after much struggle
taking shape. So do other, less charming and hesitation. For years the prince or princess
characteristics. Here is one real-life version of has some stamina left, some residual immuni-
the spell which molds them: "You are not OK. ty against social fictions and magic spells. At
And why? Because you are 'small, dirty, clum- first this super-spell (you are whatyou looklike)
sy, in a world controlled by tall, clean, and deft works intermittently. When happily playing,
adults. 'I That's how you must see yourself."? not confronted by grown-ups and not guilt-
But of course this truly bewitching spell, aimed laden, the signs are that the child is still for
at shaping the child's future but put out as a itself immense, the only real grown-up around,
statement of present fact, too soon does become at large, 1st Person singular, no-thing and
such a statement. Here is the perfect self- everything, free. And that, conversely, when
unhappy and under pressure, faced by (and
'New YorkTimes Magazine, Nov. 22,1972, Interview with faced up by) those disapproving frowns and ad-
Thomas A. Harris as quoted in Steiner (1974) p. 10. monishing or accusing fingers (so sure they are
2This version of the spell, masquerading as a statement of pointing at something right here), why of
fact, is reminiscent of medieval animal psychology which course this something has to be just an under-
described the nightingale's song as the passionate outburst
of love welling from the bird's heart and addressed to its sized and awkward creature that needs to
adored mate, the snake as wicked and filthy, the peacock develop as quickly as possible into one of those
as conceited, and so forth. In fact, that old-time an- self-assured and clever grownups.
thropomorphism hardly went so far as this modem counter- The writer has observed that this uneasy
part, which - in the case quoted - goes out of its way to
attribute to the natural child a view of itself which has no
alternation between the unadapted and adapted
relation to the one it surely does have. As we have seen, child may go on for as long as ten years or
the indications are that the child is for itself far bigger than more, or stop short as early as three or four
the biggest of those adults around, andfar more powerful. years - so widely do individuals differ. All the
As for the notion that the periodical warmth, accompanied same (unless the child remains unadapted for
by that pleasurable sensation andthat interesting smell, is
dirty in the natural child's own experience - what could life, and very likely subject to institutional care)
be more absurd? (We are of course referring to its it does in the end become, for itself no less than
defecating and urinating.) for the world, an object first and foremost, a

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a young thing rapidly becoming an older one, plus many other commonplace delusions or
a hopeful tadpole well on the way to the full superstitions. (The reader is invited to check
dignity of froghood. that they are superstitious the next time she or
When we remember how much of the child's he travels by car.) As for the more specialized
development is the developmentof its language, and plainly harmful sort of belief, think of the
and how much of that language is frog variety of mutilated bodies and minds and
language, it is surely astonishing how some behavior sequences taken to be the seal of
children can hold out for so long. But given adulthood among highly cultivated peoples, let
time the spell wins, thanks largely to its in- alone "primitives." And if we modem west-
sidious and rarely noticed double-talk. Here for erners imagine we impose no comparable con-
the reader, as always, to check is just one of ditions of entry into our superior culture pat-
its duplicities. Since the predicates are the same tern, we really are spellbound to the limit!
in the sentences "I eat" and "you eat," we take Some of our beliefs, to a candid visitor from
it that the facts are the same, The truth is that another galaxy, must seem unbelievably odd,
"you eat" means "alien substances are being if not actually mad.
pushed into a toothed slit in a small and tightly-
packed sphere, where they remain insipid," Tadpole into Frog
while "I eat" means "they are being pushed Sooner or later, if everything goes normal-
into an unbounded void, where they become ly, the not-OK tadpole, having long ago forgot-
tasty." Because our language suppresses it, the ten about its royal ancestry (or happy to have
immense contrast between these two happen- grown out of that childish nonsense), grows up
ings is progressively obscured as we grow up. to be a more and more OK and self-confident
The general effect of such semantic confusion, and successful frog. It may even go on to
which is paralleled in the life of all our senses, become a super-frog dominating the bog.
is to water them down, to take the tang and And therefore still more OK? It by no means
sparkle out of them. Until it is challenged and follows. There are so many well-known in-
reversed, the effect of language thus misused stances of nothing failing like too much suc-
is to devalue the rich immensity of our 1st Per- cess. The names of tragic personalities at the
sonhood, and to collapse us into mechanical ob- top of the worlds of entertainment, the arts, and
jects from which practically all inwardness or business immediately occur to one. Nor need
subjectivity has been drained. Thus the prince this unhappy outcome greatly surprise. Our
and princess are talked into froghood. This is contention is that playing "Frogs" is not just
a version of Berne's view (1964, p. 178) "that one more game and self-deceiving pretense:
seeing and hearing have a different quality for that it is the game and the lie - also known as
infants than for grownups." "The Face Game" or "Confrontation" (Hard-
Small wonder, then, if the spell works a near ing, 1967, 1986) - the Game from which all
perfect magic in the end - one so potent that lesser games derive. That in fact it is that most
it is now far from being a merely external in- ancient and deep-rooted - and exclusively
fluence or imposition. Increasingly, it seems, human - fiction which, though workable (and
the growing child experiences a need to become necessary) in the life-story of the species and
just like them, a thoroughly normal and paid- of the individual up to a point, goes on to prove
up member of the human club, unquestioning- increasingly counterproductive and finally
ly obedient to its taken-for-granted rules, disastrous.
however arbitrary. In fact, so insistent is its Our thesis goes on to propose the following:
urge to belong, to be welcomed into the magic The better one plays this Game of games the
circle, that it tends to believe and do practical- worse off one is in the long run, the more pro-
ly anything it is told to believe and do. For in- found is one's self-deception, and the more
stance, there are the virtually universal and severe its attendant troubles. In other words,
seemingly harmless beliefs that, on the the more magnificently self-sufficient, power-
highway, THIS one, in her or his actual ex- ful, independent (and in this sense OK) one
perience, is rrwvingalong at 50 m.p.h., through seems to be as a frog, the less OK one really
the still countryside, looking at it through two is. In fact, there can no more be a thoroughly
eyes, and seeing its wide range of distances - OK frog than there can be a thoroughly true

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OK frog than there can be a thoroughly true is already home, and has been there all along.
lie or factual fiction; for frogs have a built-in The scientist has only to reverse the arrow of
flaw - they are make-believe, a game or pre- attention, to look in at what he or she is look-
tense, not real. The whole matter of OKness ing out of, in order to round off the job and
is apt to be misconceived and inverted. By arrive at the inside story of what he and she
nature the child is OK, as Berne maintained, and all beings essentially are. Responding to
and grows up to become more and more not- our invitation earlier in this paper, it may well
OK the more that child is superseded. It is the be that the reader has already taken that same
grown-up who is mature enough to know that definitive step which was no step, conducted
he or she has outgrown very little, in fact the that ultimate experiment in physics which leads
one whose frog-mask is getting more and more straight into metaphysics, made that last frog-
uncomfortable and awry, who is liable to find leap out of the bog into the palace. Seeing into
it slipping off altogether. And revealing? Why his or her intrinsic nature as this nameless,
the prince or princess, of course! spotless, silent, still, colorless clarity, the
reader is capacious of the world's endless
Frog into Prince/Princess riches, and truly royal. As this aware no-thing,
But we anticipate, and must go a long way he or she is everything. All this is set down here
back in our story. for verifying, or falsifying, as the case may be.
From the earliest times competition between If the former, what has happened at long last
groups of humans - for food, mates, shelter, is that the parent's magic spell, initially so
territory - worked increasingly to the advan- powerful but in the end powerless against reali-
tage of those who were more able to look at ty, has boomeranged, has worked its own
their world objectively, more open to new ways destruction. Driven by its own inner logic, it
of processing the data. Fortune favored those leads back to the prince or princess who has
who learned humility in front of the evidence. been sitting quietly at home and in good health
Their science, gathering speed, grew increas- all the while, and never did become in the
ingly scientific and far-reaching, and the more slightest froglike. In other words, the truly adult
technically advanced societies won on almost frog whose business (solely in frog interests,
all counts. of course) is the processing of reality, is obliged
In due course practically all the scientist's to cultivate the truthfulness and impartiality
discoveries about the external world are turned which lead towards the rediscovery of his or
back and applied to the scientist. As a scien- her own identity as no frog at all, but royalty
tist, one becomes one's own subject matter and in disguise. The science of the objective world
field of study, and always the aim is to extend leads into the science of oneself as an object
control over that intimate field. Closing in on or 3rd person, which in tum (given this leap
oneself from outside, one tends to refer out of frogland) leads into the science of oneself
everything inwards. One's overall view of as the subject or 1st Person (Harding, 1974).
oneself from a distance - systematized into the As the enemy of lies and therefore of games,
disciplines of history, anthropology, sociology, science has scored a double triumph.
behavioral psychology - is filled in by nearer Note the foundation on which true science
views - systematizedinto physiology, cytology, has been built from the start, namely on un-
biochemistry, chemistry, physics, particle prejudiced perception, on looking to see, on
physics. One is getting nearer and nearer home, refusal to rely on tradition or belief or un-
ever closer to what all things - including checked theory or mere speculation, but instead
oneself, the scientist - really are at center, to on the humble and patient reading of meter
the ultimate substratum beyond the quark. rods, dials, timepieces, and so on. Medieval
One seems to be almost home, almost in science did not get off the ground until people
possession of the inmost secret. But one can stopped settling questions about the universe by
never gain admittance from outside - say by fur- looking up the answers in the Bible or Aristo-
ther sorting out the space-time continuum or tle or any other authority, and dared just to in-
chasing the Quark beneath the quark. One will spect and experiment with what was actually
never make that final step or terminate that on show. The scienceofthe objectis no sounder
asymptotic curve. Nor does one need to. One than theperceptualbaseon whichit rests. Now

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exactly the same is true of the science of the vigorous than all that frenetic leaping around
subject, of the 1st Person, of the prince or the bog ever was.
princess. Turning the direction ofthe scientific
inquiry round 180 0 , from the observed to the The Six Spell-Breakers
observer, does not reduce the necessityfor rely- (i) As a rule the magic spell is amazingly ef-
ing on the evidence provided here and now by fective, so deceitful and addictive that its vic-
looking to see and discarding all beliefand opi- tims are for life quite unaware of its existence.
nion imported from other times and places. 1 Indeed, when they sense the slightest danger
Consciously to revert from being a frog to be- of its losing its grip they are apt to be very
ing the prince or princess is to be game-free, upset, without knowing why.
and this is to be a Seer; this is to see what one And this in spite of the fact that it is
really is at center in and for oneself, seeing demonstrably ridiculous. "You are what you
what is actually on show here and not trying look like" is surely so naive it is not worth
to see what one is told to see, or hopes to see, serious consideration. How could I be, at 0
or happens to feel comfortable with. inches from me, what I look like 100 inches
away? I have only to look right here to see what
The King/Queen 1 am getting, and over there in my mirror to
Of course one does not permanently revert see what you are getting, to see there is no
to being the prince or princess from the mo- similarity at all between them. Laughter seems
ment of first sighting one's intrinsic nature. The the only spell-breaker that is altogether ap-
spell is not so easily shaken off. What took so propriate. But, for good measure, here are five
long to bind me, then went on tightening its grip others. The first two recapitulate what has gone
year after year, is going to take a lot of patient before; the rest are additional.
unbinding. In other words, a lot of coming to (ii) Look at, listen to, and learn from young
my senses, again and again and again. I have children who have not yet fallen under the spell,
to keep on nudging myself awake from my and adult Seers who claim to have broken free.
coma, repeatedly bringing my wandering atten- In various ways they tell the world that they
tion to where I am coming from and what I am are boundless capacity for it.
looking out of, until in the end it is quite natural (iii) The third and indispensable spell-
to be natural, to stop pretending to be what I breaker requires the reader to recheck-in his
am not, to play games no longer, to live from or her immediate experience at this moment -
the no-thing-l-am. And my experience assures that there is no thing (awareness is not a thing)
me of this: It is as efficient to live from this cen- that is taking in this line of printing, this
tral no-thing-I-am as it was inefficient - stressful paragraph and this page, the furniture in the
and debilitating - to live from the peripheral room, the view from the window. Failure to
thing-l-am-not, from one or another of my ap- go on checking, to continue making quite sure
pearances. To put it mildly, the Game was not that the seer altogether vanishes in favor of the
worth the candle. seen, inevitably means that the seer - out oflong
Now at last the prince or princess has grown habit - falls again under the spell that makes
up into the king or queen. And has surely done a something of him or her.
so the hard and humbling and only possible (iv) Our fourth is an optional extra. It reex-
way, via that painful cutting down to size, that amines the scriptures of the world in the light
dethronement and demoting of the unique 1st of this simplest and most obvious.- yet (we sug-
Person to the rank of the altogether ordinary gest) deepest - of insights, using it as a metal-
3rd person, and that weird and testing frog- detector to sort out the precious ore from the
charade. What the Seers claim is that in the end huge masses of sand and rock which hide it,
they enjoy a conviction that nothing really went and uncover the gold of our intrinsic nature.
wrong, and a peace which is more and not less It can be truly encouraging to fmd how ancient
and widespread are the search and the discovery
'As a first-hand demonstration of this turn-around through we have been concerned with here.
180 0 , the reader was invited to conduct experiments on
herself or himself earlier in this paper. (See p. 265) The (v) Our fifth spell-breaker (like the fourth,
italicizedpassage here will make sense to theextent to which indicative rather than conclusive) relies on the
he or she actually carried out those little experiments. secular evidence supplied by mythology,

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philosophy, literature, and art. The typical terlude - unless we are gluttons for punishment
fairytale or legend has for hero a lad whose or determined cases of arrested development
foster parents are peasants but whose real - should not be allowed to drag on through mid-
parentage is royal or olympian. His lifework dle age and beyond.
is to regain his lost rank by overcoming a suc- (vi) Finally, there is the spell-breaker of
cession of almost insuperable obstacles - with practice. What are the clinical results of this
some help from above. Plato was only the most in-seeing when it is sustained, this ever-
articulate and celebrated of the many ancients renewed reactivation of the natural child in us?
who pictured the infant coming down from Is it true that all the therapies which overlook
heaven of light and divine knowledge into a the central problem of who requires therapy
dark and deluded world which has long ago prove at best palliatives? That in the last resort
forgotten its supernal origins. How else, in- I have only one malaise - my mistaken identi-
deed, can the child so surely recognize as self- ty, my spineless and pathetic willingness to be
evident such truths as it comes across here whatever they tell me I am - and only one cure,
below, unless by that anamnesis which is a sud- my true identity, my daring to be what I see
den recalling of the wisdom it enjoyed in I am? That so long as my Parent holds any part
heaven? The main theme of Thomas Traherne's of my Child spellbound I am not myself and
Centuries (1908/1960) is the many-sided not well? That until I stop playing the Game
beatitude of the natural child, and the "dirty People Play - call it "Frogs" or "Confronta-
devices" that grown-ups contaminate it with. tion" or "The Face Game" or whatever - I will
Better known is Wordsworth's Intimations of never stop playing one or other of the many
Immortality from Recollections of Early subsidiary games people play, and be free?
Childhood. (1807/1917). ("Trailing clouds of These are questions for putting to the test,
glory do we come, from God who is our a suggested program of research and healing
home ... " But too soon "the shades of the practice for transactional analysts who, begin-
prison house begin to gather about the grow- ning at home, are themselves coming out from
ing boy" [pp. 114-120].) Again, as most real under that numbing and suffocating spell into
artists would acknowledge, all the drawings of a spellbound world that very much needs them.
children are comparable with his or her own
most inspired work - up to the moment when D.E. Harding lives and works in Nacton,
the child, falling under the parental spell, sees Ipswich, England. Please send requests for
itself as an artistic young thing, instead of no- reprints to Virginia Parsell, 3474 Mandeville
thing but space for things - including drawings Canyon, Los Angeles, CA, USA 90049.
- to happen in.
The foregoing is a random sampling of Berne, E. (1964). Games people play. London: Deutch.
humanity's intuition about the exalted status of Harding, D.E. (1%7). The face game. Transactional
the child in its midst. None of it means that we Analysis Bulletin, 6(22), 40-52.
should or could stay like that, and refuse to play Harding, D.E. (1974). The science ofthe 1st person. Nac-
ton, Ipswich, England: Shollond.
"Frogs" till we are proficient at the game. Harding, D.E. (1986). Confrontation: The game people
There is no easy and direct route from the clear play. Transactional Analysis Journal. 16(2), 99-109.
land of the young child to the still clearer land Harding, D.E. (1986). On having no head. Zen and the
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