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Routing Techs & Tools Task

- Active RFID vs Passive RFID:

1- Passive RFID:
- Passive RFID systems use tags with no internal power source and
instead are powered by the electromagnetic energy transmitted from an
RFID reader.

- Passive RFID tags are used for applications such as access control, file
tracking, race timing, supply chain management, smart labels, and more.
The lower price point per tag makes employing passive RFID systems
economical for many industries.

Types of Passive RFID:

- (125 134 KHz ) Low Frequency (LF) An extremely long wavelength
with usually a short read range of about 1 10 centimeters. This
frequency is typically used with animal tracking because it is not affected
much by water or metal.

- (13.56 MHz) High Frequency (HF) & Near-Field Communication (NFC) A

medium wavelength with a typical read range of about 1 centimeter up to 1

- (865 960 MHz) Ultra High Frequency (UHF) A short, high-energy

wavelength of about a one meter which translates to long read range. Passive
UHF tags can be read from an average distance of about 5 6 meters, but larger
UHF tags can achieve up to 30+ meters of read range in ideal conditions.

Pros of Passive RFID:

- Smaller tags
- Much cheaper tags
- Thinner/more flexible tags
- Higher range of tag options
-Tags can last a lifetime without a battery (depending on the wear and

2- Active RFID:
- Active RFID systems use battery-powered RFID tags that continuously
broadcast their own signal. Active RFID tags are commonly used as beacons to
accurately track the real-time location of assets or in high-speed environments
such as tolling.

- Active tags provide a much longer read range than passive tags, but they are
also much more expensive

two different types of active RFID tags:

1- Transponders :
- In a system that uses an active transponder tag, the reader (like passive
systems) will send a signal first, and then the active transponder will send a
signal back with the relevant information.
- Transponder tags are very efficient because they conserve battery life when the
tag is out of range of the reader.

2- Beacons:
- In a system that uses an active beacon tag, the tag will not wait to hear the
readers signal. Instead, true to its name, the tag will beacon, or send out its
specific information every 3 5 seconds.
- Active tags beacons can be read hundreds of meters away, but, in order to
conserve battery life, they may be set to a lower transmit power in order to reach
around 100 meters read range.

Pros of Active RFID:

- Extremely Long Read Range
- Increased tag abilities with partnered technologies (GPS, sensors, etc.)
- Extremely Rugged tag options

Comparison between two types :

developed white cane :-
- A white cane is a typical supporting device for the visually impaired.
They use a white cane while walking for the detection of obstacles around
- In their known area, they can walk independently using a white cane.
However, they cannot walk without help of others in their unknown area,
even if they use a white cane, Because, a white cane is a detecting device
for obstacles and not a navigation device that gives them a route to the

- Therefore, a navigation system that supports the independent activities

of the visually impaired is required.
Proposed Model:
# Tools:
1- A buzzer was added to produce various types of sounds, each
signaling a different instruction, to the user
2- The vibrator motor was used to indicate that the user is moving on
the correct path.
3- The bottom of the cane was fixed with a metal base, This base
contained three IR sensors, each indicating a different direction-
left(L), right(R) and center(C) .
4- A free-wheel was attached behind to enable ease of movement of
the cane.
5- Microcontroller, It senses the environment by receiving inputs
from a variety of sensors and can affect the surroundings by
controlling lights, motors etc. It needs to be coded in order to
function as per the desired purpose.
6- Black navigation lines, They are cheaper to obtain and more
readily available, These lines can be installed in indoor spaces like
hospitals, colleges or even shopping malls.
#Working Of Model:
- The user is supposed to walk along the black line to stay on the safe
- The user holds the cane at the handle which has a buzzer and a vibrating
motor attached to it.
- While the user is walking in the straight line i.e. along the safe path, the
vibration motor vibrates, notifying the user that he/she is moving along the
right path
- the bottom of the cane is T-shaped, and has 3 sensors, from which
vibration occurs when central sensor (C) is on the line. That means as long
as C is on the safe path, the vibrator vibrates and the user knows he/she is
on the right track.
A- Going straight:
- when (C) is on the line, the vibrator vibrates. If C is not on the line, that
implies either (R) or (L) is on the line.
- Let us consider a case of accidental deviation towards the right-side,
when the navigation line is still going straight.

- This would imply that L alone is now on the line. C is no longer in contact
with the line. When this happens, the buzzer beeps with a particular
sound/frequency, notifying the user about the right drift and he/she now
realizes that the cane is to be brought back to the left.
- Similarly, when deviation towards the left-side occurs, R alone is on the
line .Now, a beep producing a different sound than the former case, is
activated. This set of beeps is specific to right - deviation and signals the
user to shift back to the right. The user needs to be made familiar with
these sounds which is not a difficult task.
B- Turning Left:
- Suppose the straight navigation line now diverts into a left hand turn.
This is an intended left-turn, not an accidental one.
- the base of the cane is elongated. As a result, at this junction, not one,
but two sensors will rest on the navigation line.
- The Central sensor will rest on the straight part of the navigation line
,while the Left sensor will be in contact with the line corresponding to the
left hand turn, Thus, C and L are on the line at the same time.
- Two simultaneous responses would be generated by the cane. As the user
is still on the correct path, a vibration would still occur. Also, the left-hand
buzzer will begin to produce a set of beeps . These beeps would be specific
to the left-turn alone
- Due to the combination of the vibration and the left beep, so, the user
knows that it is time to intentionally turn left.
C- Turning Right:
- A similar phenomenon as described in Turning left occurs in case of an
intentional right turn.
- Upon encountering an intentional right turn, both C and R will be in
contact with the navigation line. As a result, vibrations will occur on the
cane and the Right-hand buzzing gets activated. This signals the user to
turn right.

RFID Tags Only Or Functioned With A

White Cane:

First Proposed Model:

- The kind of tags used in this system are low frequency RFID tags (134.2
kHz) and are planted along the pathway or, at least, in path intersections
- The system in composed by three subsystems:
1- The navigation runway:
- which consists in pavement blocks with built-in RFID tags and whose
function is to help in the user navigation
2- The communication module:
- a user interface module and a data module. Its task is to process the
information obtained by tag readings.
- The reader reads the information contained in the RFID tag and sends
this information to the microprocessor, via RS232 interface;
3- The remote navigation server:
- handles the task of calculate the route between the two places. The
server receives information regarding tag ID and destiny location, and uses
this information to calculate the quickest route and send it to the
navigation device.
- The communication module interacts with the server using a GPRS
connection only when the navigation has started or when the user gets out
of course. In this case the user calculates a new route based on the
information contained in the tags the user has read.

Second Proposed Model:

- This system is composed by : a tag network, a RFID tag reader and a
PDA with a system specially developed for this project. The tags are buried
in the floor, along the pathway to provide all the necessary information to
the system.
- The tags are buried in the floor, along the pathway to provide all the
necessary information to the system
- The RFID tag reader is installed in a plastic white cane, very similar to
the ones used by blind persons and the antenna is placed in the cane
extremity, moving very close to the ground.
- The antenna is connected to the RFID reader controller which, in turn,
connects to the PDA using Bluetooth technology
- The reader's power supply is a set of batteries that can provide autonomy
of about three hours, continuously reading the tags.

- The PDA processes the information through software responsible for the
navigation. The interface is done by audio signs, using headphones.

- The RFID tag reader reads the tag ID, which is unique, and sends it to the
PDA. With this information the algorithm generates an audio signal that is
transmitted to the user through the headphones so that he stays on track,
moves on the right way and avoids obstacles.

Third Proposed Model:

- this system is composed by high frequency passive RFID tags, placed
bellow the street walk pavements, building corridors and classroom, and
These tags provide information about the surrounding area and, therefore,
no database or remote server is needed.
- All information is captured by RFID tag reader placed in the white
cane and in one of the user shoes. The data is sent by Bluetooth to a PDA
or Smartphone supporting JAVA.
- In the case of outdoor environments, the tag will provide
latitude and longitude information previously obtained by GPS. Each tag
will have recorded information like details about a building's room, some
objects found inside this room, and the user's location relative to the tag.
All this information can be stored using XML format(All tags have their
own information stored, in XML format).
Fourth Proposed Model:
- The system is composed of RFID tags, a RFID tag reader, a mobile
phone and a remote server.

*** In terms of RFID tags, there are three kinds:

a- Information tags that contain the GPS location, pathway conditions,
information about BUS or stores, or even distance from the current
location to a point of interest.
b- Navigation tags, whose goal is to support the navigation of the blind
users. These tags are placed near stores, BUS stops, etc. and will serve
to alert the user.
c- Guide RFID tags, which are placed in specific places, like BUS stops, or
serve as semaphores in crossings.
- The RFID tag reader is built-in the white cane and connects to the mobile
phone through Bluetooth interface.

- The mobile phone has installed software that translates the information
stored in the tags into audible notifications

- Software to store messages and other information is also installed. The

remote server contains the tag database and a navigation system.
- The navigation server is responsible for calculating the best route
between the current position and the user desired destination using tag
information together with a routing algorithm.

Comparison between the four models :

How The Tags May distributed in the blind's

1- Initially the tags were distributed all over the pathway, along
three parallel tag lines: two lines to mark the path limits and
one line, in the middle, to give alerts like obstacles or direction
change. This configuration may be observed in Figure (a)
2- a single line was placed in the ground and the white cane's
vibrator gives a notion of the path that the user must follow,as
in figure(b), and This solution has proven to be very functional,
leaving only the need to define the tag spacing.
3- Tags concentrated in line Clusters, with 5 tags each, distributed
in one line, figure(c)
System design under traffic-lights mode:
- RFID tags with dynamic contents are used to indicate the traffic-light
- when the visually impaired person gets close to the traffic lights, the
RFID receiver on the cane will identify the RFID tag with dynamic traffic
- The content of this tag is will identify the RFID tag with dynamic traffic
content. The content of this tag is a person can obtain the current light
information correctly via his cane.

System design under obstacle-detection and

business information modes:
- It is often the case that roads are under maintenance and warning signs
are placed around the obstacles. However, visually-impaired people cannot
see these clearly; thus they are at serious risk.
- In order to ensure their safety, an RFID tag with obstacle content can be
pasted on the warning signs
- when the visually impaired person approaches a warning sign, the road
guiding cane will identify the RFID tag containing the obstacle information
Then, a warning is sent to the person via voice
- Because the RFID tag is attached to the warning sign, as soon as the
maintenance is over and the sign is removed, there will be no warning
tags on the original sidewalk
- RFID tags can store not only location, traffic-light signals, and warnings,
but also business information. Shops along the route can place their
product sales as advertisements into the tag in front of their shops; bus
groups can store bus routes inside RFID tags near bus stops.
- public restrooms can also publish their locations. This extensibility may
attract more sponsors to participate in the system construction, either by
putting advertisements or other useful information in the RFID tags.

RFID Road Tags :

In case of outdoor Navigation a proposed
classification of RFID Tags may be more accurate and
aid blind to be aware of the surrounding
environment, This can be achieved by classifying the
tags by their information and functions
RFID road tags are the information source of this
system, which are lain in the blind road to establish
virtual blind road.
Considering the needs of the blind and the
complexity of the road conditions, three kinds of
tags are designed in this system, which are:
information tag, cue tag and guidance tag.
i. Information tag:
- information tag is the most common and useful tag of all, which
is used for recording the location and road conditions information;

- the format of its information content is: tag number | location

information | road conditions, nearby constructions and bus
stations information, e.g. (1000-005 | Direction ** Road ** Room
** | about 10 meters to the nearby municipal library; about 50
meters to the nearest bus station).
- The tag number is the sole identifier of road tags, which can be
used as index to search the tag server to obtain the detailed tag

ii. Cue tag: (fig.1)

- The cue tag could guide the blind, which is lain in the road near
shops, bus stations, remoras and so on. cue tags are lain nearby
bus stations and shops to establish virtual blind road" for
- the cue tag buried near crossings and remoras can remind the
blind. Cue tag enlarges the function of the system and reduces the
management cost; it also allows businessmen establishing their
virtual blind road to provide servers for the blind according to the
tag information criterion.

iii. Guidance tag:

- Guidance tag stores little data, which is lain in the special place
(e.g. crossings, subways, and so on) to establish virtual blind
tracks or to work as traffic light at crossings.
The blind road is the core areas to lay tags. The interval between two information tags is 1-
2 meters. The information tags store the neighborhood environment information; the cue
tags lain in the blind road near constructions, which record the constructions information.
Lay guidance tags in the blind road interruptions and crossings to establish virtual blind
road. Lay cue tags in the warning direction of the blind road.

The tag number is increased on a road, so the blind can judge their walk direction by
portable RFID reader. Guidance tag can be used as traffic light for the blind. As shown on
Fig. 1, information of the guidance tags changes with the traffic light.

Lay cue tags in front of hospitals, banks, public toilets and large constructions to establish
virtual blind road to guide the blind accessing these resources.

Lay relevant tags in the place that the blind often access, e.g. lay guidance tags in front of
the blind peoples workplace to facilitate the blind.

Allow the businessmen to lay cue tag in front of their shops to provide services for the
blind, but the information of the tag must adhere to uniform standard.
The virtual and physical blind road are constituted of a two
channel walking system, as Fig.2.
the blind could know the information of his current
location, the near bus stations, hospitals, crossings, and so
on. The information could meet needs of the blind very well.

Data exchange flow of blind navigation system (Fig.3):

1) A blind man tells the Call Center about his destination by his mobile
phone; meanwhile, the mobile phone sends the blind users location
information to the call center.
2) The RFID reader reads the road tag near the blind man.
3) The RFID reader communicates with the mobile phone
by Bluetooth interface and sends the tag information to the
mobile phone.
4) The Call Center inputs the destination and location
information to the route server.
5) The route server searches necessary data from the tag
information database.
6) The tag information database sends the data to the
route server.
7) The route server produces an optimal route according
to route arithmetic and sends the route to the Call Center.
8) The Call Center sends the optimal route to the users
mobile phone.
The system based on RFID tags only or that was
combined with white cane is the most preferd
system; because According to (RFID) technology is
non-contact automatic identification technology,
which has the virtues of large capacity, long
performance life, long reading distance and mobile
identification that other identification technologies
can not compare.
RFID tags is able to save many of informations
about the surrounded environment and is a low cost
Each RFID tag has its unique identification so,the
interference with other RFID is not a problem
An infrastructure can be constructed based on
passive RFID tags with a reasonable cost to aid
visually impaired persons to navigate independently
Some countries support this technology and many
of research papers propose some prototypes and
achieve their objectives with a good cost
the most important observation is that technology
still in the phase of development and the
researchers not yet achieved final visualization for
an applicable project over a wide areas, however
some student projects have realized good results.

"An Intelligent White Cane :Helping the Blind Navigate", Reena Shaw
Muthalaly, Vitasta Bhat, Nirant Carvalho, International Journal of Engineering
Research & Technology (IJERT)


of Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro, 5001-801 Vila Real, Portugal, GECAD, Knowledge
Engineering and Decision Support Research Group, Institute of Engineering of Porto.

" RFID-Based Road Guiding Cane System for the Visually Impaired", Chen
Liao, Pilsung Choe, Tianying Wu, Yue Tong, Chenxu Dai, and Yishuo Liu, Department
of Industrial Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China

" RFID Information Grid for Blind Navigation and Wayfinding", Scooter
Willis and Sumi Helal, Computer & Information Science & Engineering Department,
University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA
" RFID Based Indoor Navigational Aid for Persons with Severe Visual
Impairments", Andrew Y. J. Szeto, Fellow, IEEE and Satish K. Sharma, Senior
Member, IEEE, Proceedings of the 29th Annual International, Conference of the IEEE
EMBS, Cit Internationale, Lyon, France, August 23-26, 2007.

"The Research on Blind Navigation System Based on RFID" , Bin Ding,

Haitao Yuan, Li Jiang, Xiaoning Zang, School of Management, University of Science &
Technology of China, Hefei, 230026, China