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Lope K.

Santos (born Lope Santos y Canseco) (September 25, 1879 May 1, 1963) was
a Filipino Tagalog language writer and former senator of the Philippines. He is best known for his
1906 socialist novel, Banaag at Sikat and to his contributions for the development
of Filipino grammar andTagalog orthography.

Lope K. Santos was born in Pasig, Rizal (now a part of Metro Manila), as Lope Santos y Canseco to
Ladislao Santos, a native of Pasig and Victorina Canseco, a native of San Mateo on September 25, 1879.
His father was imprisoned during Philippine Revolution because Spanish authorities found copies of Jos
Rizal's Noli Me Tangere and Ang Kalayaan in his possession.

Santos was sent to Escuela Normal Superior de Maestros (Higher Normal School for Teachers) for
education and later finished schooling at Colegio Filipino. During Philippine Revolution of 1896, Santos
joined revolutionaries. By the time of the death of his mother, she requested Lope to marry Simeona
Salazar. Marriage happened on February 10, 1900 and they were blessed with five children.

He pursued law at the Academia de la Jurisprudencia then at Escuela Derecho de Manila (now Manila
Law College Foundation) where he received Bachelor of Arts degree in 1912. In late 1900, Santos started
writing his own newspaper Ang Kaliwanagan. This was also the time when socialismbecomes an
emerging idea in world ideology. When Jos Ma. Dominador Gomz was charged and sentenced by
the Supreme Court of sedition and illegal association against the government in 1903, Gomz's labor
group Union Obrera Democratica Filipina (Philippine Democratic Labor Union) was absorbed by Santos.
The group was renamed as Union del Trabajo de Filipinas, but was later dissolved in 1907.

In 1903, Santos started publishing fragments of his first novel, Banaag at Sikat (From Early Dawn to Full
Light) on his weekly labor magazine Muling Pagsilang (The Rebirth) and was completed in 1906. When
published in book form, Santos' Banaag at Sikat was then considered as the first socialist-oriented book
in the Philippines which expounded principles of socialism and seek labor reforms from the government.
The book was later made an inspiration for the assembly of the 1932 Socialist Party of the Philippines and
then the 1946 group Hukbalahap.

Santos became expert in dupluhan, a form of poetical debate during that time. Dupluhan can be
compared to balagtasan which became popular half a century ago before Santos' time. He also
founded Sampaguita, weekly lifestyle magazine.

In early 1910s, he started his campaign on promoting a '"national language for the Philippines", where he
organized various symposia, lectures and headed numerous departments for national language in leading
Philippine universities. In 1910, he was elected as governor of the province of Rizalunder the Nacionalista
Party. In 1918, he was appointed as the first Filipino governor of the newly resurveyed Nueva
Vizcaya until 1920. Consequently, he was elected to the 5th Philippine Legislature as senator of
the twelfth senatorial district representing provinces having a majority of non-Christian population. He was
the primary author of Philippine Legislature Act No. 2946 which enacted November 30 every year as
Bonifacio Day, honoringAndrs Bonifacio.[1]

In 1940, Santos published the first grammar book of the Filipino language, Balarila ng Wikang
Pambansa (Grammar of the National Language) which was commissioned by the Surian ng Wikang
Pambansa (SWF). The next year, he was appointed by President Manuel L. Quezon as director of SWF
until 1946. When the Philippines became a member of the United Nations he was selected to translate
the 1935 Constitution for UNESCO. He was also appointed to assist for the translation of inaugural
addresses of presidents Jose P. Laurel and Manuel A. Roxas.

In early 1960s, he underwent liver operations due to complication. Santos died on May 1, 1963.

The works of Santos include the following:

Banaag at Sikat (From Early Dawn to Full Light), 190306, first literary novel in Filipino
language that incorporates socialist ideas and the works of the united associations of laborers. [2]

Agg "Pagggigggera" (Tulagg Handog sa Kababaiga'gg Tagalog) (The "Pagigera" (A Poem for
Tagalog Women)), 1912, pagigera is a form of early 20th century gambling. [3]

Kundanan...!: Nobelang Tagalog Katha (Deference...!: A Tagalog Novel), 1927, Santos' second
literary novel.[4]

Tinng Pahapw sa Kasaysayan g Pmitikang Tagalog (Few Points in the History of Tagalog
Literature), 1938[5]

Puso't Diwa (Heart and Spirit), three volume book collection of chosen poems of Santos during
American period.

Sino Ka? Ako'y Si... 60 Sagot na mga Tul (Who Are You? I am... 60 Answering Poems), 1946,
collection of philosophical poems.[6]

Mga Hamak na Dakil: 60 Tul (Mean Magnificent: 60 poems), 1950, humorous collection of war-
period poems.[7]

"Makbagong" Balaril?: Mga Pun at Payo sa "Sariling Wik" ("Modern" Grammar?: Views and
Advices for "National Language"), 1951, written in cooperation with Surian ng Wikang
Pambansa director Cirilo H. Panganiban.[8]