You are on page 1of 16

DISHA SAREEN(1000378) INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY

12/04/16

DISHA SAREEN(1000378) INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY 12/04/16 MPU 2063 INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY ASSIGNMENT 1 MOVIE-REVIEW- ‘SHUTTER ISLAND’

MPU 2063

INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY

ASSIGNMENT 1 MOVIE-REVIEW- ‘SHUTTER ISLAND’

NAME : Disha Sareen ID NO. : 1000378

MANIPAL INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY

1

DISHA SAREEN(1000378) INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY

12/04/16

 TABLE OF CONTENTS

SERIAL NO

TOPIC

PAGE NUMBER

  • 1. Introduction

 

3

  • 2. Review

 

4-11

  • 3. References

 

12-13

MANIPAL INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY

2

DISHA SAREEN(1000378) INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY

12/04/16

 INTRODUCTION:

This section of the review explains why I chose this movie and what my methods of research were.

The movie I chose is SHUTTER ISLAND. The primary purpose of selecting this movie was to allow me to study more in depth about Dissociative Identity Disorders (DID). DID patients have more than one sense of ‘self’ with or without being aware of it (depends from patient to patient). It is intriguing to understand what a DID patient feels when they do not even realize that they are suffering from this mental illness. Watching this movie provided a lot of facts and interesting ideas that are related to DID. Being able to understand the capacity of the brain to save the human from harm/depression/suicidal tendencies is also explored in this review. Shutter Island also throws light on the efforts of the psychologists/ psychiatrists to treat mentally-ill patients with psychoanalysis rather than lobotomy. The film depicts a part of the change that came in the medicine of mentally –handicapped people.

In order to do this review, I researched online websites that had written about this movie. Apart from that I also took part in healthy discussions with my friends who have knowledge about the movie and tried to understand what they grasped form the movie as some parts of the movie were open to the viewers’ interpretation. It was interesting to listen to and understand other people’s point of view.

MANIPAL INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY

3

DISHA SAREEN(1000378) INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY

12/04/16

REVIEW:

Released in 2010, Shutter Island is an American psychological thriller film directed by Martin Scorsese which has Leonardo DiCaprio as its protagonist. This film is based on a novel named ‘Shutter Island’, written in 2003 by Dennis Lehane. Shutter Island is set in the 1950’s and focuses on Dissociative Identity Disorders (DID). It focuses on how trauma affects the human brain. The movie also depicts the plight of the mental institutions in the 1950’s and how mental sicknesses were treated with physical treatments like lobotomy. The movie shows us how the mind tries to remove itself form pain-causing memories by doing anything it possibly can. The human brain develops various features that allow it to block certain parts of its memories. One drawback of this is that it becomes susceptible to hallucinations, which is well depicted in the movie. The film covers the domain of how emotional burden may lead to the dismissal of hope and desire all together. It also shows the viewers that realizing the truth isn’t enough rather it is the will to work towards it that is challenging. The doctors in the film use psychoanalysis as a trial treatment for Andrew to try to introduce this method of treatment in order to reduce lobotomy.

The movie revolves around Leonardo DiCaprio’s character Andrew Laeddis/Teddy Daniels, who along with his partner Chuck, is brought on a ferry to Shutter Island to investigate the case of a missing patient at the Aschecliffe Hospital for the criminally insane. The mysterious disappearance of the patient Rachel Solando was a serious case as she was admitted into the asylum after she drowned her three children for no evident reason. On investigating the matter, ‘Teddy’ finds a note in Rachel’s room which says “What is the law of 4? Who is 67?”. This further complicates the matters for Teddy as he was told there are only 66 patients at Ashecliffe. According to the Plot Summary by IMDB, this inclines Teddy to develop the belief that there is another patient on the island that the hospital authorities are not informing him about. Teddy begins to doubt everything - his memory, his partner, even his own sanity.

Once Rachel Solando is found, Teddy is thanked for his services and is asked to leave. But because of his increasing suspicions about what is actually happening at the hospital, he is bent on finding out the truth and confirming his beliefs. He becomes

MANIPAL INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY

4

DISHA SAREEN(1000378) INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY

12/04/16

paranoid and starts to suspect that Nazi-Brain-Experiments are going on at the hospital which the authorities are trying to hide from Teddy since he is an official US Marshal.

As the movie progresses towards its climax, Teddy is made to realize by Dr. Cawley, who is the head of the facility, that Teddy himself is in fact patient 67, named Andrew Laeddis, who was admitted to the hospital two years ago on account of murdering his wife Dolores who had drowned their three children. He was admitted as he developed multiple personalities because of what he had gone through in his past. It is explained to Teddy that his whole ‘investigation’ was actually an elaborate role play by all the members of the hospital as an attempt to join his personalities and in turn bring him back to reality.

The experiment is successful and the doctors are extremely happy about it, because now lobotomy could be prevented for people suffering with similar mental disorders and other treatment options could be explored for the mentally handicapped.

However, the last line of the movie by Teddy/Andrew- “Which is worse? To live as a monster or to die as a good man”, shows to the audience that he could not live with the fact that he murdered his wife, who had drowned their 3 kids. He preferred to live a life without memories as the pain of the past was too much for him to bear. He thus pretends that he has regressed back to being Teddy and has again gone into the fantasy world he made for himself to escape the truth. He is, with much regret and sadness, taken by the guards to be Lobotomized so that he, according to him, can “die as a good man”.

The movie Shutter Island explains to us the mystery that is the Human Brain. The human brain is complex and what it does is sometimes extremely baffling. The movie is based on trauma and Dissociative Identity Disorder. Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) was previously called Multiple Personality Disorder(MPD). DID is a severe case of dissociation of a person from their thoughts, memories, feelings, or sense of identity. DID is believed to be caused by some form of trauma that a person has suffered. In this the person develops another personality in his mind, which is basically a coping mechanism by the brain. Cases of DID very from person to person. Some DID patients may be aware of the other personalities in them, while others may be clueless about

MANIPAL INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY

5

DISHA SAREEN(1000378) INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY

12/04/16

them. DID can account from two to even 17 personalities in one person. People with emotional and abuse issues before the age of 9 are said to be more prone to getting DID later in life.

In the movie, the lead character Andrew Laeddis has suffered a major trauma in his life which becomes the reason he develops another personality –Teddy Daniels. It is shown in the movie that he was married to a beautiful woman named Dolores and they had 3 children between them.

He can be examined on many of Sigmund Freud’s theories about the unconscious. According to Jordon Alexa Perry, while he is living in his fantasy life as an investigator on the island, his unconscious thoughts often appear in his dreams. It is interesting to know that the trauma Andrew suffered was not only what happened to his family, but also what he saw and experienced in his service in the World War two. He suffered from some Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) after his service at the war front in WWII, due to which he started drinking. His PTSD was a result of death and bloodshed he saw during his service there as a soldier. He was involved in the shooting of a number of Nazi soldiers when they captured their camp. He was able to comply at that time and do his duty because he was obligated to do so. But once the realization of what he had done dawned on him, it was strenuous for him. PTSD symptoms may vary from person to person, and they lead to disturbed thoughts, sleep, and also cause hallucinations.

During the time that Andrew suffered from PTSD, Dolores’s personality started changing. She started showing symptoms of depression and suicidal tendencies. But Dolores’s personality change was clearly noticeable after the birth of their third child. Andrew continued drinking to hide his pain in terms of the PTSD and also in terms of how his wife was changing. This served as a stress factor for Dolores and she got more and more upset. She had attempted to kill herself once before by setting their apartment on fire. Seeing all this, Andrew moved his family to a secluded lake house where no one would recognize Dolores’s illness. Dolores has thought to have suffered from Postpartum depression and the subtraction of friends and family in the new lake house, added to her mental instability.

MANIPAL INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY

6

DISHA SAREEN(1000378) INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY

12/04/16

Postpartum depression can make women feel very sad, hopeless, and worthless. In terms of pregnancy, it happens after miscarriage, childbirth and stillbirth. In some cases, like in that of Dolores, the health of the mother deteriorates into postpartum psychosis. Postpartum psychosis is a condition that may involve psychotic symptoms like delusions or hallucinations. Dolores, suffering from postpartum depression (PPD) had fleeting thoughts of suicide or of harming her baby. Because of suffering from not only this, but also postpartum psychosis, she felt the need to act on these thoughts. PPD does not disappear on its own, rather it needs counselling and appropriate medication. If Andrew had done that for his wife, she probably would not have become so consumed by her disease and his family would have still been alive.

The moment that Andrew saw what his wife had done to their three children, was the moment that he lost his mind. On a Saturday morning, when Andrew was out of the house, Dolores took their three children and drowned them in the lake behind their house. (Clyman, 2010). On returning home, Andrew saw this site and was shattered. On taking out their bodies from the lake, he was heart-broken especially when he saw that Dolores was not comprehending what she had done. Dolores told Andrew to put her out of her misery and complying, Andrew shoot Dolores and ‘set her free’. This is the reason that Andrew was convicted was murder of his wife Dolores.

On diving into the mind of Andrew, it is evident that all of this was extraordinarily painful for him. Seeing the love of his life lose her mind, kill their three children and he killing his wife was hugely painful for Andrew and to cope up with which his mind made another personality named Teddy Daniels. In his new ‘self’ – Teddy Daniels, he did not have any children and some person name Laeddis was the one who murdered his wife. Doing so he essentially removed himself from the guilt, as in his mind he was the victim not the criminal. It is revealed in the end that Andrew makes anagrams for all the names his new personality uses. Anagrams is what the ‘Law of 4’ was for Andrew/Teddy. He subconsciously rearranges alphabets to form names for the fantasy world of Teddy. He rearranges ‘Dolores Chanal’ (his wife’s maiden name) into Racheal Solando, and ‘Andrew Laeddis’ into Edward Daniels (Teddy). Him making anagrams shows us how his mind still relates to the two different senses of self within him. It is a symbolism of

MANIPAL INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY

7

DISHA SAREEN(1000378) INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY

12/04/16

the mind as to how he is one entity trying to make more of himself, in which neither of them know each other consciously but are related sub-consciously.

Psychoanalysis, which is used in this film, is a system of psychological theory and therapy that aims to treat mental disorders by investigating the interaction of conscious and unconscious elements in the mind and bringing repressed fears and conflicts into the conscious mind by techniques such as dream interpretation and free association. It basically means that our behavior is influenced by not only our conscious-self, but also our sub-conscious collection of feelings, thoughts, urges and so on.

Psychoanalysis perceives DID as a syndrome of defense where the patient has used splitting and dissociative defenses, which involve the passive and active removal of an aspect of knowing in order to “preserve the good self and the good object”. (Marmer,

1991).

Sigmund Freud was known as the father of Psychoanalysis and he stated that we have two drives in us that motivate and influence our thoughts, behaviors and actions.: Life and Death. The Life instinct brings and an increased tension whereas the Death instinct focuses more towards self-destruction and death. These are survival techniques which help us stay alive and away from eminent danger. They also help us to compose our three elements of personality: ID, Ego and Superego. For Andrew, the fact that he killed his wife, shattered his ego, which is the part of the personality which deals with reality. Two avoid the guilt imposed on him by his superego, his ID took over and created two alters.

While patients with DID have different alters, some symbols in the unconscious mind are transferred from one alter to another. In the movie, Andrew (believing himself to be Teddy) sees his wife and daughter’s faces in dreams. He sees fire and water and blood in some of the dreams symbolizing his past. In his dreams his dead wife and children may be an extended representation of himself that has crippled him with guilt and he tries to drown his children deeper into his subconscious to avoid attaching himself to the crime.

MANIPAL INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY

8

DISHA SAREEN(1000378) INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY

12/04/16

DID involves the splitting of the original personality into multiple ones essentially removing the parts from the main personality that may hinder the aspect of “good” for the person. In this, the person (willingly or unwillingly) shifts the personality and lets the other one take over which is more capable of doing so, allowing the person to exist in as many parts as necessary to satisfy his life and death instincts. DID is a defense mechanism that the brain uses and the different personalities have elaborate fantasies that allow the patient to prevent anxiety from similar stimuli.

A strength in Psychoanalysis is that it emphasizes a patient’s interpersonal experience (Shedler, 2010), which would be very helpful for a DID patient who experiences emotional and cognitive difficulties and needs to identify issues, explore relationships, gain insight in order to change their behavior (Mcleod, 2009)

As for Andrew, his thought barriers became blur as he blamed himself for the death of his wife and children. He felt that he should’ve gotten Dolores help when she was showing signs of the illness, but he didn’t and thus it was his fault that his children had passed away. In his mind, he could not forgive himself for what he had done to Dolores, no matter what she did to deserve it. The traumatic experiences in his life left him with no other defense other than to separate himself from it and make a new self, where he could not blame himself for what happened to his family.

Another dimension of traumas that Andrew faced was the bloodshed, death, and dead bodies he saw during his service in the US marshal, when he went to stop a Nazi Camp. He saw piles of dead bodies of people including those of women and children. He shot the Nazi soldiers without mercy as orders from the US Army. All these things also burdened Andrew’s mind and made him vulnerable emotionally and psychologically. These disturbing images, combined with what happened with his family, haunted his psyche and blurred his psychological lines, removing the distinct partition between imagination and reality.

Dr. Cawley and Dr. Sheenan (Chuck) were sympathetic doctors who wanted to find another way to cure patients like Andrew other than to drug or lobotomize them. They decided to have this experiment on Andrew because a week before he had violently attacked a patient when he called him Laeddis. This aspect shows us how strongly his

MANIPAL INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY

9

DISHA SAREEN(1000378) INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY

12/04/16

mind was trying to separate the two identities within Andrew. Violence is a normal response in DID patients because their mind would do anything not to associate the main personality with what they have tried to hide or deny. This was the Doctors’ last attempt to try to combine Andrew’s personalities, which if unsuccessful would lead to his lobotomy.

In order integrate Andrew’s personalities, they developed a secure and safe environment for Andrew where he could communicate and cooperate with them. The doctors established this role-play as a treatment method to provide a strategic integration of his personalities. They provided subtle indicators or clues so that Andrew’s personalities were able to share memories, feelings, and even dreams. They had to be extra careful as it was possible that Andrew’s system would collapse all together on realizing the truth. The collapse would be caused as he might not be able to deal with the anxiety and depression and would want to re-dissociate.

As for Andrew, the treatment worked when he realized his true personality that he is not Teddy but in fact Andrew. He was allowed to come to that realization, during the course of the role-play. The goal behind the role-play was to show ‘Teddy’ how impossible his conspiracies are about the facility being running Nazi-Experiments. Once he saw that, it would make no sense, leading him to extinguish it all together.

At the end of the movie, Teddy does realize his true identity, that is Andrew. He wakes up to the reality though he is warned by Dr. sheehnan that he has regressed into his fantasy world before. Andrew however is smart. The next morning, he realizes that the doctors and wardens are observing his behavior. What Andrew sees at the moment is the fact that he is surrounded by his own guilt and pain. These emotions are still so heavy on Andrew that he knows he cannot live with them. He knows that he would be suppressed under the burden of the death of his family and he being the reason behind it. Thus, rather than living with the knowledge of his pain, he chose to pretend that he is still Teddy Daniels and let the authorities lobotomize him, so that he can finally be free of his burden.

The last line of the movie from Andrew to Dr. Sheenan is “Which would be worse: To live as a monster or to die as a good man?” This line shows the viewers that Andrew is not

MANIPAL INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY

10

DISHA SAREEN(1000378) INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY

12/04/16

in his delusional state and realizes the truth.

After realizing the truth behind all of his

actions it is clear that his life is relatable to many of Freud’s theories which are all used to

aid him in “distorting reality to protect him against pain or threatening impulses arising from

the id” (Friedman & Schustack 77). According to his last line,

if he accepts his guilt and

becomes sane, he will become the monster. His

delusions are his brains way of removing

this guilt and hiding the fact that he ignored his family, did not act on his wife's mental

illness, allowed her to murder their children and then murdered her. By accepting what the

doctors are telling him he will need to go on living in the knowledge that he allowed terrible

things to happen and did terrible things. The doctors will be able to treat him without a

lobotomy but he will be fully aware of the crimes he committed. On the other hand, in his

delusions, he is a good man, who is on the side of the law and whose wife was murdered by

a man names Laeddis. If he chose to continue to believe in his fantasy of being Teddy, he

would be lobotomized which would deprive him of the mental ability to think otherwise. His

power to reason would be taken away, but he would not have the pain or guilt of what

happened to his family and his shortcomings for it.

At this point of lucidity, he makes the decision that he cannot live with his crimes and would

prefer to lie to his doctor as he knows that it will result in his lobotomy.
prefer to
lie
to
his
doctor
as
he
knows that
it
will
result
in
his lobotomy.
I

t’s true that

misinformed therapists who use outdated or ineffective approaches may do damage. But this can happen with any disorder with any inexperienced and ill-trained therapist. Research-based and consensually established treatments for DID do help. (Sabouri, Sadeghzadegan,2013) This inability to help Andrew was what lead to his decision of being lobotomized.

This decision of Andrew gives an insight into the human emotional capacity. This tells us

that making a DID patient aware of his dissociative personalities isn’t enough. The important

process is what follows after which allows the person to have some hope to be able to live

with himself after the realization strikes him. Teddy was given no tools to deal with his
with himself after the realization strikes
him. Teddy
was
given
no tools
to
deal with
his

MANIPAL INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY

11

DISHA SAREEN(1000378) INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY

12/04/16

issues or work through them, which is what eventually led to his choice of being
issues
or work
through them, which is what eventually
led
to
his
choice
of being

lobotomized. Had he be given proper treatment post his realization, he would have been

able to cope up with his past and would have been able to try to move forward with the

reality. The time was a major factor for the doctors as they didn’t have enough. On looking

into the matter closely it is evident that had Andrew been given more time the point when he

reached his sanity to the time of the lobotomy, he would have been able to attain some

determination to hold on to reality with the help of therapy.

From an analytic point of view, the events in chronological order are the entrance of two US

marshals(Teddy, Chuck) to Aschecliffe Hospital investigating the escape case of a patient,

Teddy’s flashbacks of his wife whom he loved beyond words, hunting for his wife’s killer

Laeddis, searching for patient 67,facing the truly missing patient,

the thought of being

drugged by the shrinks, and endeavoring to end the evil experiments carried out at the

hospital, and finally coming to terms with reality. Shutter Island depicts what the mind goes

through emotionally and how it manages to cope up with the traumas it may face. The film

explains to us that what we expose ourselves to, thinking of it as harmless, may in fact be

damaging to our mind in the long run. One interesting factor about the movie is that is

shows to the viewers that reality is just a state of perception. Reality for one person may not

be the same for the other. The sane or the insane, both believe in what they see. They do

not only view it, but also hear, feel, taste, and sense it. It is thus not easy for a person to

realize and comprehend that what they have been believing to be reality is in fact a bed of

dreams and fantasies woven by their brain to escape the bitter truth. Shutter Island also

makes clear the fact that for a human being to survive, their social, and emotional needs in

terms of a family need to be fulfilled. It is not just the worldly pleasures that make a person

complete, the support and love of family and friends is equally important. By portraying the

case of Andrew Laeddis, the viewers experience an insight into the minds of the mentally

DISHA SAREEN(1000378) INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY

12/04/16

make a person face reality. The real work comes in when they are given the tools to work to

accept the reality. To be told that this/that isn’t real without providing him proper treatment

and therapy may eventually lead to a DID patient’s downfall. All in all, Shutter Island is an

eye-opening film. It allows the viewers

to

understand that there are people who have

suffered so much in their lives that they are broken mentally and as humans it is our duty to

understand what and why a person is like that and try to help them the best we can. The

film also describes the effort by people in the field of psychology to help find new and more

effective techniques to treat mental illnesses in people.

MANIPAL INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY

13

DISHA SAREEN(1000378) INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY

12/04/16

REFERENCES

Advocaat, V. (2015, April 10). Re: Why does Teddy arrive on Shutter Island by boat?

[Web

log

comment].

Retrieved

from

http://movies.stackexchange.com/questions/33136/why-does-teddy-arrive-on-

shutter-island-by-boat?lq=1

Cherry, A. K. (2005, March). Multiple Personality Disorder: Fact or Fiction? Retrieved from http://www.personalityresearch.org/papers/cherry2.html

Clyman, J. (2010, February 23). Shutter Island: Separating Fact from Fiction. Retrieved from https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/reel-therapy/201002/shutter- island-separating-fact-fiction

Dissociative Identity Disorder (Multiple Personality Disorder). (n.d.). Retrieved from

http://www.webmd.com/mental-health/dissociative-identity-disorder-multiple-

personality-disorder

Dissociative Identity Disorder (Multiple Personality Disorder). (2012, March 29). Retrieved from https://my.clevelandclinic.org/services/neurological_institute/center- for-behavioral-health/disease-conditions/hic-dissociative-identity-disorder

Feeling

depressed

after

childbirth.

(n.d.).

Retrieved

from

http://www.nhs.uk/conditions/pregnancy-and-baby/pages/feeling-depressed-after-

birth.aspx

 

Flynt,

S.

(n.d.).

Shutter

Island

Diagnostic

Assignment.

Retrieved

from

http://jenniferseportfolio19.weebly.com/abnormal-psychology.html

Friedman, H.S. & Schustack, M.W. (2008). Personality: Classic Theories and

Modern

Research

(4th

Edition)

Retrieved

from

https://www.pearsonhighered.com/program/Friedman-Personality-Classic-Theories-

and-Modern-Research-5th-Edition/PGM274310.html

MANIPAL INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY

14

DISHA SAREEN(1000378) INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY

12/04/16

Goldberg, J. (2014, May/June). Dissociative Identity Disorder (Multiple Personality Disorder). Retrieved from http://www.webmd.com/mental-health/dissociative-identity- disorder-multiple-personality-disorder

Holtreman, V. (n.d.). Shutter Island Ending Explanation & Discussion. Retrieved from

http://screenrant.com/shutter-island-spoilers-discussion-vic-46052/

Marmer, S. S. (1991). Multiple Personality Disorder: A psychoanalytic perspectiv. Retrieved from http://psycnet.apa.org/psycinfo/1992-05707-001

McLeod,

J.

(2009).

An

introduction

to

counselling.

Retrieved

from

https://openlibrary.org/books/OL25562966M/An_introduction_to_counselling

Muller, R. T. (2013, January 19). The Media and Dissociative Identity Disorder.

Retrieved

from

https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/talking-about-

trauma/201301/the-media-and-dissociative-identity-disorder

 

Perry,

J.

A.

(n.d.).

Teddy

daniels.

Retrieved

from

http://psyc2301.wikispaces.com/teddy daniels

Sadeghzadegan, M. M., & Sabouri, H. (2013, February). Distress and Psychological

Distortions

in

Dennis

Lehane’s

―Shutter

Island.

Retrieved

from

http://www.academypublication.com/issues/past/tpls/vol03/02/22.pdf

 

A.

(n.d.).

Synopsis

for

Shutter

Island.

Retrieved

from

http://www.imdb.com/title/tt1130884/

Myths-Dreams-Symbols-Dream

Symbols/Death. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://mythsdreamssymbols.com/dsdeath.html

Tartakovsky, M. (n.d.). Dispelling Myths about Dissociative Identity Disorder. Retrieved from http://psychcentral.com/lib/dispelling-myths-about-dissociative- identity-disorder/

What

is

Psychoanalysis.

(n.d.).

Retrieved

from

http://www.freudfile.org/psychoanalysis/definition.html

MANIPAL INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY

15

DISHA SAREEN(1000378) INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY

12/04/16

MANIPAL INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY

16