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# Cairo University Fluid Mechanics

## Faculty of Engineering 2nd Year Civil Engineering

Irrigation and Hydraulics Department 2010 - 2011

Fluid Mechanics
Laboratory Manual

## Irrigation and Hydraulics Department

2010 2011

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Cairo University Fluid Mechanics
Faculty of Engineering 2nd Year Civil Engineering
Irrigation and Hydraulics Department 2010 - 2011

Description of the Hydraulic Bench 3
1. Weir Experiment (Rectangular and Triangular)... 5
2. Impact of Jet .... .9
3. Flow through Sharp Edged Orifice .13
4. Bernoullis Theorem Demonstration ..18

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Cairo University Fluid Mechanics
Faculty of Engineering 2nd Year Civil Engineering
Irrigation and Hydraulics Department 2010 - 2011

## The Hydraulics Bench

The standard Hydraulics Bench is used for all the laboratory experiments carried out during this
course. The Bench has a closed water circulating system to facilitate mobility. Water is stored in an
enclosed tank at the bottom of the bench then pumped up to the experimental setup situated on top of
the bench from which water flows into the upper tank. The upper tank has a drain controlled by a plug
to collect and gauge the water in the upper tank after which water is drained to the bottom tank. The
volume of water collected in the upper tank (in liters) can be measured using the graduated scale fixed
at the side of the Hydraulics Bench. The switch of the water pump and the control valve that regulates
the amount of water that flows to the experimental setup are at the front side of the Hydraulics Bench

Pump
Scale of Switch
the volume
(liter)
Control
Valve

## Plug and sink

to drain water
to the lower
tank

Upper tank of
the bench

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Cairo University Fluid Mechanics
Faculty of Engineering 2nd Year Civil Engineering
Irrigation and Hydraulics Department 2010 - 2011

Scale of Pump
the volume Switch
(liter)

Control
Valve

## Plug and sink to

drain water to the
lower tank

Upper
tank of the
bench

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Cairo University Fluid Mechanics
Faculty of Engineering 2nd Year Civil Engineering
Irrigation and Hydraulics Department 2010 - 2011

## Objectives of the Experiment

1. To demonstrate the flow over different weir types.
2. To calculate the coefficient of discharge for different weir types.
3. To study the variation and dependence of the relevant parameters.

Theory
For the rectangular weir: For the triangular weir:

3 5
2 8
Q = C d . .B. 2g .H 2 Q = Cd . . tan . 2 g .H 2
3 15 2

## where Cd = Coefficient of discharge

B = width of the rectangular weir (3 cm)
H = head above the weir crest or apex
= angle of the triangular weir
g = acceleration of gravity

Experimental Setup

Point
Gauge
Stilling
Baffle

Open
Channel

Weir Plate
(V-notch)

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Cairo University Fluid Mechanics
Faculty of Engineering 2nd Year Civil Engineering
Irrigation and Hydraulics Department 2010 - 2011

1. The rectangular or triangular weir plate is attached to the regular Hydraulic Bench as shown
in the photographs.
2. A stopwatch, a hook or a point gauge are also needed with the experiment.

1. Make sure that the Hydraulic Bench is leveled.
2. Set the Vernier on the point gauge to a datum reading by placing the tip of the gauge on the
crest or the apex of the weir. Take enough care not damage the weir plate and the point
gauge.
3. Put the point gauge half way between the stilling baffle plate and the weir plate.
4. Allow water to flow into the experimental setup and adjust the minimum flow rate by
means of the control valve to have atmospheric pressure all around water flowing over the
weir. Increase the flow rate incrementally such that the head above the weir crest increases
around 1 cm for each flow rate increment
5. For each flow rate, wait until steady condition is attained then measure and record the head
(H) above the weir.
6. For each flow rate, measure and record the initial and final volumes in the collecting tank
and the time required to collect that volume. For each flow rate, take 3 different readings of
the volumes and time and record the averages.

## Calculations and Results Interpretation

A. Rectangular weir:

## Fill the following table of observations

Reading Crest level Water level Initial volume Final volume Time (T)
(C.L.) (mm) (W.L.)(mm) (I.V.) (liter) (F.V.) (liter) (sec)
1
2
3
4
5

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Cairo University Fluid Mechanics
Faculty of Engineering 2nd Year Civil Engineering
Irrigation and Hydraulics Department 2010 - 2011

## Reading Volume = F.V.-I.V. H = C.L.- Time Q= volume/time Log Q Log H H1.5 Cd

(liter) W.L. (cm) (sec) (cm3/s)
1
2
3
4
5

Plot Q against H, Q against H1.5, log Q against log H, Cd against H, and obtain the Cd from the slopes
of the two linear graphs. Compare the three obtained values of the Cd

B. Triangular weir:

## Fill the following table of observations

Reading Crest level Water level Initial volume Final volume Time (T)
(C.L.) (mm) (W.L.)(mm) (I.V.) (liter) (F.V.) (liter) (sec)
1
2
3
4
5

## Reading Volume = F.V.-I.V. H = C.L.- Time Q= volume/time Log Q Log H H2.5 Cd

(liter) W.L. (cm) (sec) (cm3/s)
1
2
3
4
5

Plot Q against H, Q against H5/2, Log Q against Log H, Cd against H, and obtain the Cd from the slopes
of the two linear graphs. Compare the three obtained values of the Cd

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Cairo University Fluid Mechanics
Faculty of Engineering 2nd Year Civil Engineering
Irrigation and Hydraulics Department 2010 - 2011

## Suggestions for Conclusions and Comments

1. Is Cd constant? Give comments.
2. Can the Q-H relation be described by an empirical formula? If so, assume the relation
is in the form of Q = kH n and find the constants k and n.

## H = C.L. - W.L. volume time Q

2.5 2/5
(cm) (lit) (sec.) (cm3/s) H Q
2 5 76 65.79 5.66 5.34
2.3 5 53 94.34 8.02 6.16
2.5 5 41 121.95 9.88 6.83
2.8 5 32 156.25 13.12 7.54

180.00
160.00
slope = 11.974
140.00

120.00

100.00
Q

80.00

60.00
40.00

20.00

0.00
0.00 2.00 4.00 6.00 8.00 10.00 12.00 14.00
H^2.5

Cd = slope*15/(8* tan . 2 g ) = 0.507
2

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Cairo University Fluid Mechanics
Faculty of Engineering 2nd Year Civil Engineering
Irrigation and Hydraulics Department 2010 - 2011

2. Impact of Jet

## Objective of the Experiment

To demonstrate and investigate the validity of theoretical expressions for the calculation of the
force exerted by a jet on objects of various shapes.

Theory
From momentum principle,
Q
Fy = Q( v v. cos ) where v=
A
Q2
For flat plate (90), Fy =
A
Q2
For 120 plate, Fy = 3
2A
Q2
For hemispherical target 180, Fy = 2
A

## FLAT PLATE HEMISPHERE 120 DEG CONE

o
90

Experimental Setup

1. The impact of jet apparatus is placed above the regular Hydraulic Bench as shown in the
photographs.
2. A stopwatcher.

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Cairo University Fluid Mechanics
Faculty of Engineering 2nd Year Civil Engineering
Irrigation and Hydraulics Department 2010 - 2011

Weight pan

Pointer Water
bubble
(spirit level)
level

Target Plate
From Glass
Pump housing Nozzle

Weights

Plates with
different shapes

1. Remove the stop plate and transparent casing to measure the nozzle diameter and place the
flat plate (90) on the rod attached to the weight pan. Then, reassemble the apparatus.
2. Connect the inlet pipe of the apparatus to the outlet of the Hydraulic Bench.
3. Level the base of the apparatus using the bubble balance.
4. Screw down the top plate to datum on the spirit level.
5. Adjust the level gauge to suit datum on the weight pan.
6. Add masses to the weight pan. Allow water to flow in the experiment and adjust the flow
by the control valve of the Hydraulic Bench so that the pan will be re-adjacent to the level
gauge.
7. Before taking readings the weight pan should be oscillated upwards and downwards and
rotated to minimize the effect of friction.
8. Take the readings of the initial and final volumes and the time of accumulation.
9. Record the masses on the weight pan.
10. Repeat the experiment for different masses on the weight pan.

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Cairo University Fluid Mechanics
Faculty of Engineering 2nd Year Civil Engineering
Irrigation and Hydraulics Department 2010 - 2011

11. Repeat the previous steps with different shapes of plates (120 and the hemispherical
target).

## Reading Mass on weight Initial volume Final volume Time (T)

pan (I.V.) (liter) (F.V.) (liter) (sec)
M (gm)
1
2
3
4
5
Nozzle Diameter = 8 mm
g = 9.81 m/s2

## Reading Mass on weight Volume = Time Q= volume/time Q2

pan F.V.-I.V. (sec) (cm3/s)
M (gm) (liter)
1
2
3
4
5

## Plot mass M on weight pan with Q2

From the analysis, verify that the slope of the graphs should be:

Flat plate =
gA

120 plate = 1.5
gA

Hemispherical target = 2
gA
Calculate the Coefficient of Impact = (Fact / Fcalculated)

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Cairo University Fluid Mechanics
Faculty of Engineering 2nd Year Civil Engineering
Irrigation and Hydraulics Department 2010 - 2011

## 1. Comment on the coefficient of impact.

2. Comment on the results of the computed slope and the shape of the target plate.

## Example (flat plate)

Q
2
m (gm) V (lit) T (sec) (cm3/s) Q
280 5 13 384.6154 147929
230 5 14 357.1429 127551
180 5 16 312.5 97656.25
130 5 20 250 62500

300

250
solpe = 0.0019
200

150
m

100

50

0
0 20000 40000 60000 80000 100000 120000 140000 160000
Q^2

=0.0202
gA

slope = 0.0019

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Cairo University Fluid Mechanics
Faculty of Engineering 2nd Year Civil Engineering
Irrigation and Hydraulics Department 2010 - 2011

## 1. To study the path of water jets issuing from orifices.

2. To determine the coefficients of discharge, velocity and contraction from a sharp-edged
circular orifice.
3. To study the variation and dependence of the relevant parameters.

Theory
The coefficient of discharge Cd is the ratio of the actual discharge Q act to the theoretical discharge Qth.
The theoretical discharge is given by the following relationship where A is the area of the orifice and H
is the total head on the orifice centerline and the actual discharge can be measured.

Qa
Q th = A 2gH & Cd = < 1.0
Q th

The Path of the jet from the orifice is given by the following equation where x is the horizontal
distance, y is the vertical distance and v is the flow velocity from the orifice.

## x = vact t & y = 0.50 gt 2

2
x
y = 0 . 50 g
v 2 act
x2
y = 0.50 g 2
c v * 2 gH
x
cv =
2* y* H

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Cairo University Fluid Mechanics
Faculty of Engineering 2nd Year Civil Engineering
Irrigation and Hydraulics Department 2010 - 2011

Experimental Setup

Scale
Paper

Constant

## Metal piece Pointers

for over flow (thin pins)

Orifice

## The regular Hydraulic Bench is used in this experiment

1. The orifice plate apparatus is placed above the regular Hydraulic Bench as shown in the
photographs.
2. A stopwatch is needed.
3. The adjustable stainless steel overflow pipe near the top of the tank is used to adjust the
level of water in the tank.

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Cairo University Fluid Mechanics
Faculty of Engineering 2nd Year Civil Engineering
Irrigation and Hydraulics Department 2010 - 2011

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Cairo University Fluid Mechanics
Faculty of Engineering 2nd Year Civil Engineering
Irrigation and Hydraulics Department 2010 - 2011

1. Turn on the pump of the hydraulic bench and allow water into the constant head tank to
build up above the orifice. Wait until steady condition is achieved.
2. You can control the level of the water into the constant head tank by pulling up and down
the adjustable stainless steel overflow pipe as shown in the photograph.
3. Measure the head (H) above the orifice using the graduated scale.
4. By setting the thin pins so that they just touch the issuing water jet, draw the path of the
water jet on the given graph paper.
5. Measure and record the initial and final volumes and the time of accumulation for each
6. Repeat the previous steps for at least four more different heads (H) by changing the position
of the adjustable stainless steel overflow pipe.

## Calculations and Results Interpretation

For each reading of head (H), fill the following table of observations

Initial Final
Point(1) Point(2) Point(3) Point(4) Point(5) Point(6) H (cm) volume volume
(liter) (liter)
X(cm)
Y(cm)

1. Calculate the theoretical flow rate using the measured head and the area of the orifice.
2. Calculate the actual flow using the volume and time recorded.
3. Calculate the coefficient of discharge Cd.
4. draw x2-y relationship and determine the coefficient of velocity
5. Repeat the above mentioned steps for various values of measured head
6. Plot Qa against (H)0.5
7. Comment on the graphs and on the slope of each graph.
8. Is the coefficients of the orifice is constant with change of water head

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Cairo University Fluid Mechanics
Faculty of Engineering 2nd Year Civil Engineering
Irrigation and Hydraulics Department 2010 - 2011

Example

## point point point point point point H

1 2 3 4 5 6 (mm) V (lit) T (sec)
X (cm) 5 10 15 20 25 30
Y (cm) 0.2 0.7 1.5 1.8 4.2 5.7
2 400 7 150
X 25 100 225 400 625 900
2 0.5
Cv = (X /4YH) 0.88 0.94 0.97 1.18 0.96 0.99

Dorifice = 6mm

## Qact = V/T = 46.67 cm3/s

Qth = aorifice * vth = 79.17 cm3/s

Cd = Qact/Qth = 0.589

2 0.5
Cv = (X /4YH)
2=
SLOPE = 4HCv 158.28
Cv = 0.995
Cc = Cd/Cv = 0.592

1000

900

800
slope = 158.28
700

600
X^2

500

400

300

200

100

0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
Y

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Cairo University Fluid Mechanics
Faculty of Engineering 2nd Year Civil Engineering
Irrigation and Hydraulics Department 2010 - 2011

## Objective of the Experiment

1. To demonstrate the variation of the pressure along a converging-diverging pipe section.
2. To verify the Bernoullis Theorem.

Theory
v2 p
For ideal flow at any section on the pipe, + + Z = constant.
2 g g
In the experimental setup, the pipe is horizontal (i.e. Z = constant). Therefore along the pipe,
v2 p
+ = constant
2 g g

Experimental Setup

Air
inlet

Control
Water
Valve
Manometer

From the
Pump

To the
Venturi
Pitot
Air Glass Tube
bubble Venturimeter

The Bernoullis experimental setup is placed on the top of the regular Hydraulic Bench.

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Cairo University Fluid Mechanics
Faculty of Engineering 2nd Year Civil Engineering
Irrigation and Hydraulics Department 2010 - 2011

Procedures

1. Level the Bernoullis experimental apparatus on the Hydraulic Bench by adjusting the
screw legs.
2. Switch on the pump and open the flow control valve to fill the entire apparatus and
manometers with water. Ensure that no air is entrapped in the apparatus or any of the
manometers by opening the air valve at the right end of the air chamber connecting the top
ends of the manometers. Make sure to close the air valve again.
3. Adjust the flow rate into the experiment by the flow control value in the apparatus.
4. To make visible the water levels in the manometers, connect and work the hand air pump at
the air inlet (shown in the photograph) to raise the air pressure in the air chamber, thus
pushing the manometer columns down into the glass tubes.
5. Carefully adjust both flow control valves in the apparatus and in the Hydraulic Bench to
provide the combination of flow rate and pressure within the pipe such that the pressure
difference between the highest and the lowest manometer levels is reasonable.
6. Observe the variation of the scale readings of the water levels in each manometer tube.
7. Push the stainless steel probe (pitot-tube) at the right end of the horizontal transparent
section of the pipe into the tapered portion of the pipe. Position its end at stations adjacent
to the manometer openings in the pipe one station at a time. For each position, observe the
corresponding scale reading of the manometer to the probe. Compare the pitot-tube reading
to the manometer reading connected to the same position.
8. Repeat the previous steps with different flow rates at high and low static pressure for
different combinations of valve opening.

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