Sustaining Organic Farming in Kerala: Farmers’

Apprehensions & Appreciation – Approach & way

A Project Report Submitted In Partial Fulfillment Of The Requirements for
the degree of Master Of Business Administration [MBA]

Major Project/Institutional Training

Done By :

Santhi Krishna.B.S

Department of Economic Analysis and Research
National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development

September 2015


This is to certify that the Project Report titled ‘Sustaining Organic Farming in Kerala: Farmers’

Apprehensions & Appreciation – Approach & way Forward’ submitted by Santhi Krishnan.B. S,

Reg. No 14MBA1113 to VIT Business School, VIT University, Chennai in partial fulfilment of

the requirements for the degree of Master of Business Administration is a bonafide record of

work carried out by him / her under my supervision. The contents of this report, in full or in part

have not been submitted in any form to any other institute or university for the award of any

degree or diploma

Programme Manager Faculty Guide

Internal Examiner External Examiner



I, Santhi Krishna.B.S, a Bonafide student of the VIT Business School, VIT University, Chennai,
hereby declare that the project report titled “Sustaining Organic Farming in Kerala: Farmers’
Apprehensions & Appreciation – Approach & way Forward” in partial fulfillment of the
requirements of the Degree of Master of Business Administration of the VIT University, is my
original work.


Place: Chennai

Santhi Krishna.B.S
Reg. No.: 14MBA1113



Balakrishnan and my uncle Dr. G. invaluable advice and for propelling me further in every aspect of my academic life.S 14MBA1113 4 . His presence and optimism have provided an invaluable influence on my career and outlook for the future.B. Baskaran. Mrs. I consider it my good fortune to have got an opportunity to work with such a wonderful person. Shankar. I would also like to thank Senior HR Manager (Welfare) Mr. V. all our departmental staff members and well-wishers who encouraged me to do this work and all those who contributed directly or indirectly in completing it. On the onset. Usha K. I would like to thank my mentor at NABARD. Lastly I would like to thank my friends. I would also like to thank my father Mr.J Xavier and the Program Manager Dr Sudarsanam for their kind encouragement. I am greatly indebted to him for his constant encouragement. for constantly supporting me in making my project during my training period. It’s my privilege to express heartfelt thanks to the Executive Director Dr. who has been the guiding force behind this work. G. who was in charge of implementation of this project and other management team at NABARD who directly or indirectly helped me in my project. I would like to express my deep sense of respect and gratitude towards my advisor and guide Dr. Santhi Krishna. Anand Samuel for the consistent encouragement shown to us through our course of study. M. who courteously responded to my queries and guided me in giving the final shape to the report.I deem it a privilege to record my sincere thanks to Vice-President Mr. Selvam and Pro- Vice Chancellor Dr. Sathish. M.

Conduct a farm income analysis to evaluate the economic sustainability of the organic farms and provide appropriate recommendations to State for formulation of agricultural policy that would promote sustainable farming practices and deliver necessary support to organic farmers. It requires a gradual change and the concerted efforts of various government departments. Wayanad (WOACS) and International Competence Centre for Organic Agriculture . Department of Agriculture. Forestry. Kerala Agricultural University. The measurement scales used here is a combination of nominal. Design/methodology/approach: Structured interview were conducted with the various stakeholders including State Horticulture Mission. Kasaragod (ICCOA). Mankulam (KADS). Most of the schemes implemented by agencies using SHM funding are concentrating on certifying farmers. Kudumbashree. Idukki (HOPS). Land use board. VFPCK. A questionnaire was designed to investigate unique characteristics and challenges faced by farmers of Kerala. very less marking effort was done for domestic market. 5 . 25 from each district including Kasaragod. Thus certification via agencies concentrates on exporting products and does not improve food safety or sustainability of Kerala. SHM. Vegetable and Fruit Promotion Council Keralam. Kerala Agricultural Developmental Society. Organic Agriculture consortium society. ordinal and Interval scales. Practical implications: The findings indicate that making Kerala hundred percent organic cannot be achieved within a short period of time. Originality/value: The paper provides useful information for organizations promoting organic farming or the authorities planning to improve the adoption of organic farming in Kerala. All these departments should work in sync to encourage Organic Farming practices. Government schemes should be redesigned to increase production and promote domestic market. Findings: Though Kerala government is spending substantial financial amount for organic farming. and Agriculture University. Executive Summary Abstract Purpose: The main purpose of the project is to understand the unique characteristics and challenges faced by organic farmers belonging to the state of Kerala. Though some of these agencies work on exporting cash crops from the certified farmers there by providing premium price for them. Government of Kerala should create policy covering ten years: involving coordination among various government departments such as Irrigation. Idukki and Thiruvananthapuram who represented the total population of the farmers in Kerala. Wayanad. Tribal development. The survey was conducted among 100 farmers. it is not reaching the farmers in the appropriate manner. Vetenary. The survey was also conducted among the various agencies such as High Range Organic Producers Society. Kerala.

1 Chapter Introduction 30 6 .6 Significance and Need of the study 13 1.1 Chapter Introduction 18 3.6 Data Collection 28 4.2 Review 18 3.4 Statement of Problem 13 1.5 Sampling and Sample Size 28 4.4 Scales 28 4.1 Chapter Introduction 15 2.2 Benefits of sustainable agriculture 11 1.8 Limitations of the study 14 Chapter 2 Organization Profile 15 2.2 About the Organization 15 2.3 Chapter Summary 26 Chapter 4 Research Methods 27 4.8 Research Design 28 4.1 Chapter Introduction 27 4.3 Challenges 11 1.9 Chapter Conclusion 29 Chapter 5 Analysis and Interpretation 30 5.1 5.1 Principles of Organic Farming 10 1.7 Scope of the study 14 1. CONTENTS Chapter Title Page No Chapter 1 Introduction 8 1.5 Objectives 13 1.3 Chapter Summary 17 Chapter 3 Literature Review 18 3.3 Sources of data 27 4.2 Instrument Used 27 4.7 Statistical Techniques used 28 4.

1 Chapter Introduction 52 6. sustainable cultivation is the production of food.2 Organic Standards 30 5.3 Organic Certifications 30 5.6 Agencies working on marketing and certification 47 5. animal 7 .2 Suggestions 52 6.3 5.4 Chapter Summary 57 Chapter 7 Conclusion 58 Chapter 8 References 59 Chapter 9 Appendix 63 Appendix 1: Tips for improving yield 63 Appendix 2: Models that can be replicated 64 Appendix 3: Interview schedules 65 Chapter 1 Introduction The Oxford English Dictionary defines “organic” as “produced without artificial fertilizers or pesticides”. public health.3 Proposed business model for organic farming clusters 55 6. In simple terms.7 5.6 5.5 Analysis of Farmers survey 35 5.2 5. plant or animal products using agricultural methods that protect environment.3 6.4 Official Stakeholders for organic farming 31 5.5 5.2 6.4 6.8 5. fibre. 5.7 SWOC Analysis 50 5.4 5.1 6.8 Chapter Conclusion 51 Chapter 6 Suggestions 52 6.

Oil seeds .5 million hectares).welfare. Tea. Uganda (189. As per the Agricultural and Processed Food Products Export Development Authority (APEDA) (2013-14). Dry fruits. Basmati rice. The organic agricultural export realization was around US$403 million. functional food products and other value added products.2 million hectares). A method of farming that exploits natural resources or pollutes the natural environment is soon deprived of its ability to produce quality food products. The total area which is organic certified in India is 4. Cotton. Organic Farming in Kerala The emerging global prospects for organic farm produce and the realisation of long-lasting damages caused to soils by chemical fertilisers and pesticides have propelled a shift to organic farming methods.088 Metric tons including 16. All the three are important to sustainability and they must be in harmony. Organic products are usually exported to New Zealand. India currently ranks tenth in terms of organic certified farmland among the top ten countries. Coffee. Willar (2015) observed that organic agriculture is developing exponentially. Spices. This also included US$183 organic textiles which registered a 7. Pulses. Among the products exported.1 million hectares which constitute one per cent of the agricultural land of the world is being organically cultivated by about 1.000 farmers). USA (2. During 2013-14.73per cent increase in export compared to the previous year. Middle East. Pulses and Lentils (1%) and others.322 Metric tons of organic textiles. Canada. processed food products (5%).4 million hectares) and Asia (3.000 farmers) and Mexico (169. Sugar (3%).24 million Metric tons of organic certified products including Vegetables. The regions with the biggest area of organically cultivated farming land are Oceania (17.Soybean accounts for 70% of the export followed by Cereals & Millets other than Basmati (6%). Sugarcane. India exported about 135 products with a total volume of 1. Australia. In India about .71 million hectare (15%) and remaining 3. South Africa etc.72 million hectare. India produced around 1. 43.2 million hectares).3 million hectares).000 farmers). This method of farming helps in producing healthy food without affecting ability of future generation to do so.4 million farmers. Spices (1%). and future human generations. Further the ill effects of chemical farming on health have forced the state of 8 . United States. economically viable and ecologically sound. The countries with the largest organic farm land are Australia (17. The largest area under organic certification among all states is in Madhya Pradesh followed by Himachal Pradesh and Rajasthan. The countries with the highest numbers of producers are India (650. Oil Seeds. The certified area includes farming area of 0. Basmati Rice (4%). Latin America (6.98 million hectare (85%) is forest and wild area. Fruits. European Union. dry fruits (1%). Europe (11. across 170 countries of the world. Tea (2%).2 million hectares) and Argentina (3. 94.5 million hectares are under organic cultivation. South East Asian countries. Switzerland.4 million hectares). Farming is sustainable if it is socially responsible.

ginger. near Angamaly.Kerala to adopt sustainable organic farming. The Netherlands. and soil integrity. Organic food manufacture has certain features: 9 . The meet could also identify business opportunities. cut flowers. Panchayats and Assembly constituencies in the state achieving the set goals in total organic farming will be honoured and rewarded. cinnamon. The district of Kasaragod has been declared fully organic in 2012. cashew. Banana. targeting a full switch over to organic agriculture by 2016. pepper. the government. During the Non-Resident Keralites (NRK) Global Meet held at Kochi on Jan 2015. natural plant fertilization. Micro level campaigns. mango. All its activities. As per the Kerala State Organic farming policy. aromatic and medicinal plants are some of the National Horticulture Mission (NHM) mandated crops for organic farming. Poly-house cultivation is one of the flagship programmes in the current State Plan. Experts from the Wageningen University. In such a scenario. plans to popularize organic farming in the entire state in a phased manner. The Netherlands will transfer the required technology for the centre. A global meet was organised at Kochi from 6- 8 November 2014 to provide more impetus to this initiative. biodiversity. natural pest management. help forge business partnerships. clove. The state government has also initiated the promotion of the brand “Safe to Eat”. ecological balance.1 Principles of Organic Farming The organic way of food manufacture maintains principles of sustainability. the Indian Association Sharjah expressed their willingness to do organic farming across Kerala over a minimum area of 50 acres in all 14 districts in Kerala. Kerala has signalled a Bio farming Mission. The government-certified agency will give organic certification to the farming clusters after soil sample testing and leaf analysis for three years. litchi. Kerala has lacked a strategic vision in the promotion of Organic farming till date. the present steps taken by the State Government provide a positive vision for the organic farming community and to the consumers as a whole. until now. which can now. be hopeful of a truly “fruitful” venture ahead. 1. share best practices from different countries with farmers and showcase Kerala’s potential for organic farming. passion fruit. under the aegis of the National Horticulture Mission (NHM). guava. along with Kerala Agricultural University will train master trainers in poly-house farming. pear. strawberry. cocoa. The State Horticulture Mission (SHM) has also kept in pipeline the possibility of Organic Certification for farmers. pineapple. The meet provided a platform for Kerala farmers to exhibit their organic products. loose flowers. rest assured. At the three-day Global Agro Meet and exhibition of organic products BIOFACH India 2014 at Kurkutty. starting from panchayat level is underway. turmeric. have been under the aegis of the Central Government.

They provide the space and freedom to birds and animals to behave naturally. (VanTine and Verlinder. soil life and soil nutrients. Organic farmers encourage useful bio-predators that eat pests. meat and egg are produced in farms that use organic feeds to feed animals. This reduces consistent pest attacks and improves the quality of soil. This involves considering soil structure. rooting etc. and well cared for.  In a more sustainable arrangement.(Granatstein. 2009). animals are permitted to carry out their natural behaviours.  Organic products are created on farmland that is free from toxic chemical pesticides and manures for at least three years prior to certification.2Benefits of sustainable agriculture  Preservation of Environment 10 .  Organic farming is done by farmers who use farming methods in equilibrium with the natural environment.  Organic poultry. and adequate growing conditions.  To produce a healthy crop an organic farmer needs to manage the soil well. An organic farmer is dedicated in maintaining the natural balance of the ecosystem by maintaining biodiversity. Chemical pesticides and fertilizers are not used for cultivation. 2003). (Frick and Johnson. 2009). A farmer using sustainable organic methods of farming give the animals’ ample space to move around naturally and are comfortable. crops are cultivated on a rotation basis. 2006). using materials and methods that reduce adverse effect on the surroundings. Crops belonging to different families are rotated in the field. They do not use antibiotics or additional hormones to promote growth. 1. like grazing or pecking. Cover crops such as clover are cultivated to prevent weeds and increase nutrients to the soil. Composted and recycled crop wastes and animal manures are used.  In organic farms. (Granatstein. healthy. fostering healthy soil.

 Upholding Animal Welfare Sustainable farmers treat birds and animals with care and respect. Good Agricultural practices (GAP) prohibits large scale extension of organic farm production.  Many studies conclude that organic farms require significantly greater labour input than modern farms (Knoblach 1990). consume a natural diet. Through responsible and careful management of livestock waste. engage in instinctive behaviours. create more jobs and build strong societies. The period depends on the damage already done to the soil. nutritious food and high quality crops to sell at a good price. Hence organic farmers have to bear the extra cost of labour which increases the cost of production. which in turn increases long-term soil fertility. Similarly sustainable livestock farmers nurture animals without using hazardous practices like use of arsenic-based growth promoters or non-therapeutic antibiotics. 11 . 1. By growing a diverse variety of plants and using methods such as pasture-based livestock husbandry. Farmers in sustainable farms raise animals and produce crops without depending on genetically modified seeds.  Farmers are not well versed with pest surveillance. food processors.3 Problems  Adverse climatic conditions pose threat to profitable organic cultivation of certain crops. which forms a n important part of sustaining organic farming  Lack of expertise on creation of organic manure. This could range from three to eight years depending on the quality of soil. and other hazardous pollutants. Sustainable farms also strengthen regional and local economies.  Public Health Protection Sustainable organic farms avoid harmful pesticides and fertilizers. and neighbouring communities. sustainable farms protect biodiversity and promote the maintenance and development of healthy environments. pathogens. providing farmers. or other natural resources and toxic chemical manures and pesticides. By raising livestock on pasture. farm-workers and others employed in farming with a sustainable income and fair and safe working environment. This is time period between lowering of chemical inputs and restoration of sufficient biological activity to the land (Reijntjes 1994). crop rotation. sustainable farming also protect living beings from exposure to toxins. farmers. practices that degrade soil water. these farmers enable their animals to move freely. conservation tillage and crop rotation..  Sustain farmer Communities An important concept of sustainable farming is the ability to remain economically sustainable. They implement animal husbandry practices that protect animals’ health and wellbeing. They grow vegetables and fruits that are safe for customers. They produce feed for animals.  Farmers most often experience a reduction in output while converting their farms to organic. and avoid the stress and illness associated with confinement.

Insurance cover is not available against wild animal and pest attack.  Majority of farmers are lease land farmers. 1. Thus the statement of problem is “whether organic farming can be pursued in a sustainable manner. in Pattambi and Thiruvananthapuram. storage and package facilities. which markets and distribution channels to choose. Lease land cultivators do not prefer organic farming as their aim is to extract maximum output from the farm land within short period of time. Insurance cover is now available for only adverse weather conditions and is not attractive for farmers pursuing organic farming. Farmers and extension staff hardly ever receive adequate training. Unavailability of required information is a major obstacle to conversion to organic method of farming (FAO 1999). Therefore organic farmers in developing countries require technical and financial assistance in order to use production techniques to get the desired results and meet required standards from organic farming practices. do not have the facility to test organic fertilizers.  Farmers and marketing firms wishing to sell organic products should hire organic certification agency for certification.  Another main problem is the dominance of small farmers with less initial and working capital. in developing countries. The State Government is yet to come out with a vision document on organic farming.5 Objectives The objectives of the present study are 12 .  Developing countries suffer from number of constraints including the poor logistics.  The lab tests by National Centre for Organic Farming in 2010 also proved that more than 35 per cent of the 983 samples of organic manures were found to be ‘substandard’. But the state of Kerala is not currently self sufficient in food production. institutional support for organic farming is insufficient and most often are not effective (FAO 1999).  Most developing countries suffer from inadequate market information such as which products to grow. what are the apprehensions and appreciation of farmers with respect to organic farming methods.4 Statement of Problem Kerala government is planning on converting Kerala to be hundred per cent organic by 2016. Also a sustainable model should be developed and sufficient data for policy formation should be collected. In this scenario it is important to increase food production in Kerala through sustainable organic farming. competition and market access. very low purchasing power and poverty. lack of processing. It depends on imports from other states for its food requirements. 1. the approach to be followed and the way forward. Individual third party certification could be an expensive service. The two government run Fertiliser Quality Testing Labs. It is important to study the prospects and problems of sustaining organic farming in the light of the apprehensions and appreciation of farmers with respect to organic farming. Furthermore. This includes annual inspection to confirm that they are adhering to organic farming standards. The imported food materials received from neighbouring states are inlaid with chemical pesticides and fertilizers which are harmful for the health of the consumers.  Studies related to organic farming methods are insufficient.

Chapter 2 Organization Profile 2. The study will identify the constraints in the supply chain and suggest means to overcome the same. The geographic scope of the study is the state of Kerala. 1) Find the organizations responsible for implementing vision of making Kerala fully organic state by 2016. This restricted the survey to four districts of Kerala state including Kasaragod. Conduct a farm income analysis to evaluate the economic sustainability of the organic farms.1 Chapter Introduction: The organization in which the internship and the project were done by the researcher was National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD) which is located at 13 . There is no organized study done on the status. 1. existing organic farmlands in Kerala are yet to be studied.6 Significance and Need of the study: Despite the substantial number of researches that supports organic farming. backward and forward linkages and the apprehensions and appreciations of farmers on organic farming. 4) Provide appropriate recommendations to State for formulation of an organic farming policy that would promote sustainable farming practices and deliver necessary support to organic farmers. 2) Conduct survey among organic farmers in Kerala. Study has to be done on the various organic farming methods being practised for organic farming. These were the only limitations of this project. For organic agriculture to be accepted as a viable substitute. Hence there were limitations in terms of time and cost. farmer’s preferences with regard to crops cultivated. 3) Understand the unique characteristics and challenges faced by organic farmers. Studies have to be done on the possibility of applying organic agricultural techniques uniformly in the context of the diverse climatic. prospects and problems of organic farming in Kerala. The topical scope of the project is to get a complete idea about organic farming in Kerala. The current research attempts to close this gap so that the information created would be useful for implementation of milestone of making Kerala hundred per cent organic. 1. study has to be conducted to identify the critical factors affecting sustainable organic farming in the state. There is a need to develop a replicable model for sustainable organic farming in the state. status. agricultural and altitudinal circumstances prevalent in Kerala. State government support should be made available for implementation and propagation. Idukki and Thiruvananthapuram. Wayanad.7 Scope of the study: The output of the study will identify the type of organic farming being practiced.8 Limitations of the study: The project was done as part of two months internship project at National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD). The farmers in these four districts are expected to be representative of those in Kerala state as a whole. which enable determination of the status of the extent of organic agriculture in the state. In view of the eco-climatic- cultural changes in Kerala’s farming. 1.

It has been accredited with "matters concerning policy. Sub offices and District Development Offices spread across India. NABARD’s mission is to promote equitable and sustainable farming and rural prosperity through effective credit support. dry land agriculture and post watershed development Production Credit:  Production credit/ crop loan for organic production of short duration/ annual crops  Crop loan support provided to State Commercial Banks (SCB). 2. channelizing Government of India’s Capital Investment Subsidy Scheme (CISS) for production of Organic inputs. Policy planning: NABARD is closely associated with National Centre of Organic Farming (NCOF). State Cooperative Agriculture and Rural Development Banks (SCARDB) Investment Credit: 14 . Its main objective is uplifting rural India by increasing credit flow for the improvement of agriculture and rural non-farm sector. NABARD is active in developing financial inclusion policy and is a member of the Alliance for Financial Inclusion. 2. Potential has been found to exist as a part of Wasteland development program. Kerala. financial interventions: refinance. planning and operations in the field of credit for agriculture and other economic activities in rural areas in India".2. Promotional support and developmental initiatives. Maharashtra with Regional Offices.2 Role of NABARD in promoting Organic farming NABARD had identified organic farming as a thrust area for development through credit. It promotes organic farming through support systems by way of potential mapping. National Horticulture Board (NHB) and National Health Mission (NHM) and Coconut Development Board Potential mapping: Potential Linked credit Plans (PLP) is created to identify the exploitable potentials under agriculture and other activities for development through credit. related services. Through SFP. It is headquartered in Mumbai.1 National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD) NABARD is an apex development bank in India.2. NABARD was established on 12th July 1982. NABARD assesses the potential for promoting organic farming. institution development and other innovative initiatives. Government of India now holds 99 per cent stake in NABARD. The internship was taken up in the department of Human Resource Management and it proved to be very useful and informative. Rural Infrastructure Development Fund (RIDF) loans to State Governments.2 About the Organization 2. PLPs are consolidated at the state level to create State Focus Paper (SFP) which is discussed at the state level.Thiruvananthapuram. Potentials are also assessed through investment specific studies such as Organic tea in Darjeeling.

15 . cashew and forestry species (periphery) in the tribal belt of Maharashtra and Gujarat through NGO.63 lakhs for compost units) Cluster Development Under Cluster development support was provided to Cashew Processing cluster in Sindhudurg.Agricultural Development Finance Companies (ADFC) and Non-Banking Financial Company(NBFC) RIDF Support RIDF loans granted to state governments for infrastructure development. E. State Cooperative Agriculture and Rural Development Banks (SCARDB) and other Financial Institutions such as Primary Urban Co-operative Banks (PUCB). Banana. Ginger.North Eastern Development Finance Corporation Limited (NEDFi). of Rs. State Commercial Banks (SCB). Turmeric. Mango.24 lakhs for bio-fertilizer or pesticide units and Rs. Government of India  Eligible Activities: bio-pesticides. Maharashtra and Organic Vegetable cluster in Bhilangna in Pherigarhwal. For organic production of long duration or tree crops or organic input production units through eligible Institutions such as Commercial Banks or Regional Rural Banks (RRB). funded by NABARD from its Tribal Development Fund (TDF) Developmental Initiatives NABARD has prepared and introduced 3 model schemes on  Compost making unit (Coir pith. Channelizing Government of India’s Capital Investment Subsidy Scheme (CISS) for Organic Input Production Units  Implementing agency: Ministry of Agriculture. Vermicompost)  Bio pesticide units  Bio Fertilizer units NABARD has published model bankable schemes for organic cultivation of Mango.  This programme is being replicated throughout the country. Tomato and Chilly.g. Passion Fruit.  Corporate like ITC procure the default organic produce from the Wadis. As a spin off effect to irrigation projects financed under RIDF. Coffee. organic farming could be promoted as a downstream activity. Uttarakhand Wadi based Tribal Development Programme  NABARD is actively involved in developing WADI/ Orchards. bio-fertilizers & fruit/ vegetable waste compost  Credit Linked Back ended Subsidy: up to 25% of the TFO (subject to the max. Grapes.

1 Chapter Introduction: There has been an exponential increase in literature on organic agriculture in the last decade. Bangalore  Special Training Program on Organic Mango at Theni.  Economic feasibility study on Organic cultivation of Rose onion and Gherkin. Chapter 3 Literature review 3. Research & Development Fund (R&D) Under the R&D Fund. Capacity Building for adoption of Technology (CAT) NABARD supports exposure visit for farmers 2. solar driers. 16 . Tamilnadu  Two tailor made training programme for all stake holders of North Indian States at Banker Institute of Rural Development (BIRD). Rural Innovation Fund (RIF) Some of the projects supported under RIF are  Conversion of Mango peel into Organic manure in Tamilnadu  Organic production of vegetable seeds/ seedlings in Orissa  Development and preparation of bio-pesticides through Self Help Groups(SHG). It included the history of the organization which extends to more than thirty years.Indian Institute of Horticultural Research (IIHR). Lucknow Watershed Development Fund (WDF) Under WDF.3 Chapter Summary: This chapter helped in understanding about the organization in detail. These studies can be classified under three categories. indicating its increasing significance. Uttar Pradesh  Production and marketing of Organic milk through women SHGs in Himachal Pradesh Farm Innovation and Promotion Fund (FIPF): Assistance has been provided to Uttarakhand Organic Commodity Board for. in Kanpur. the following trainings and research project has been supported by NABARD. grant/ loan component was provided under the Prime Ministers Programme for development in 31 distress districts.

” As per Eyhorn. water. 3. ii) Those dealing with the guidelines and practices of organic agriculture iii) Those that study the effect of bio-inputs. and mechanical methods. A slow gradual conversion from conventional agriculture to organic farming has been recognised as the main solution to address the current problems in farming. zero budget farming. as well as minimize all forms of pollution thereto that may result from agricultural practices. This circumstance has resulted in a spurge of studies in organic agriculture and related farming techniques. cultural. a collection of internationally recognized standards from the World Health Organization (WHO) and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) “Organic agriculture is a holistic production management system which promotes and enhances agro ecosystem health. 17 . as opposed to using synthetic materials. 3. An organic production system is designed to a) Enhance biological diversity within the whole system. b) Increase soil biological activity. f) Promote the healthy use of soil. taking into account that regional conditions require locally adapted systems. biological. economic. i) Those explaining the issues of modern farming methods and proposing alternative farming methods like permaculture. This was done so as to get a clear picture about sustainable organic farming which will be helpful for preparing the interview schedule. revenue quality of farming produce and cost benefit analysis.1 Sustainable organic farming As codified in the Codex Alimentarius (1999). These papers were then read by the researcher and the review was written. biological cycles and soil biological activity. e) Rely on renewable resources in locally organized agricultural systems. a number of journals were read and reviewed. In process of understanding the concept of sustainable organic farming. It emphasizes the use of management practices in preference to the use of off-farm inputs. various terminologies and statistical information related to it. the researcher focussed to have a clear knowledge about sustainable organic farming. Organic farming has a long tradition as a sustainable agriculture system and the same has been adapted for varying local conditions and climatic zones. F (2007) Organic farming is a systemic and all-encompassing approach to sustainable living. d) Recycle wastes of plant and animal origin in order to return nutrients to the land. natural farming etc. thus minimizing the use of non-renewable resources. Organic farming gives due importance to all the relevant factors of influence for sustainable development. It gives due importance to physical. The research articles were grouped based on various factors to get a clear picture. This is accomplished by using.2. where possible. environmental social and cultural factors. c) Maintain long-term soil fertility. including biodiversity. and air. to fulfil any specific function within the system.2 Review: Initially.

confirm that Organic farming is now being practised across the world.2. The statistical studies conducted by Yussefi. Thus Rachel Carson’s scientific predictions became true. Official interest in organic form of farming has increased in many countries. consumer and land 18 . Despite the determinations of the influential chemical fertilizer companies to denigrate Rachel Carson. He had been the Advisor for Agriculture in India from 1905 to 1924.Furthermore as confirmed by El-Hage. it has an accepted potential as a strategy for rural community development. without converting wild lands to agriculture and using Natural fertilizers. It has been confirmed that traditional farm lands consume 32 per cent to 55 per cent less energy per hector compared to modern farm lands.2 History The first exploration on the dangers of inorganic fertilizers and pesticides was established by Rachel Carson’s Silent Spring (1961). Food. farmer. This marked the commencement of era of organic agriculture and search for non- chemical agricultural techniques. It was then that the world understood the dangers of chemical fertilizers and pesticides. 3. The demand for organic produces is also growing exponentially. which highlighted using compost to nourish the soil. Albert Howard’s “An agricultural testament” (1940) marked the beginning of modern organic agriculture in the developed countries. but also in the developing countries. the Food and Agriculture Organization reported as below: "Conversion of global agriculture to organic management. (2003). M and Mitscke. although yields do decline initially when converting from high-input systems and almost double when converting from low- input systems". various toxic chemicals in different names were used in the farmlands. It thus includes an entire operational agriculture system with a consistent track record for excellent result. She proved the scientific certainties of the adverse impacts of inorganic pesticides that affect ecology. The main advantages of traditional method of farming are that it includes a set of mutually optimized adapted practices. A premium price is required to reward the work of organic producers for their contribution to conserve nature and human well-being. Even though DDT was banned in the developed countries and its use was abolished in the farm lands of developing countries. would result in a global agricultural supply of 2640 to 4380 kcal/person/day. Sustainable intensification in developing countries through organic practices would increase production by 56 per cent. M. Silent Spring continues to be the greatest classic in environment protection sphere. Scialabba and Hattam (2002). Added to this the organic certification offered for authentic Organic products confirms premium prices for farmers. not only in developed countries. The share of organic farmland is increasing. However. The method was holistic. and not analytic. At the International Conference on Organic Agriculture and Food Security 2007. He established a method of farming. Organic yields on average are comparable to conventional yields. Studies and trials on traditional farming methods and also new methods of crop and soil management originated. Price premiums also encourage new conventional farmers to convert to organic method of cultivation.

we allow them to pollute our water. Permaculture is a location specific farming method. R. Soil and energy resources are being depleted. The ultimate goal of natural farming was "the cultivation and perfection of human beings". Fukuoka called his agricultural philosophy as natural farming. It is rooted on an idea of “working with nature and not against it”. In the future we may be forced to make radical adjustments on such agricultural practices. ploughing or tilling of land are not necessary for farming  Pruning of fruit trees is unnecessary  Preparing fertilizers and compost are not necessary 19 . The permaculture wave also had a major impact in Kerala.” 3.2.3 Types of organic farming Blake’s (1987) “Organic Farming and growing” is a manual on animal husbandry utilizing the concepts of traditional farming. Instead of recycling our wastes back onto land as fertiliser. “The side-effects of the modern agricultural chemicals and machines raise serious questions about the overall benefits of the new technology. Agricultural chemicals. human cultivation. He is believed to have developed this idea from farming practices in India.constitute the holistic system. This type of farming was found to improve soil fertility. Fukuoka saw agriculture not merely as a means of producing food but as a spiritual and aesthetic way of life. conserve water and improve efficiency of farms. The permaculture or permanent agriculture experiments conducted by Bill Mollison and Holmen (1970) gave hope to many organic producers all over the world. The works of Fukuoka. Chemical fertilisers and pesticides pollute our air and water. We use non-renewable energy resources to produce artificial fertiliser. One Straw Revolution (1978) and The Natural Way of Farming (1985) and could be considered as the first experimentation on natural farming. Many farmers who adopted this method of farming found that it is one of the best farming methods that can be accepted for Kerala with its heavy rainfall and topographical differences. Oelhaf. It aims at creating farms that are economically viable and ecologically sustainable. It provides step-by-step guide to those considering converting from conventional to organic forming method.C‘s “Organic Agriculture” (1978) is a turning point in the history of agriculture. Howard developed composting technique based on his experiments while in India in 1920s. including hormones and antibiotics leave residue in food that may cause cancer or genetic damage. Below are the five principles of Natural Farming:  Use of powered machines. The system is based on the identifying the complexity of living organisms that constitute an environment and exploiting it. It is one among the few initial studies that analysed traditional agriculture using modern scientific methods.

Farmers can grow local varieties of crops without using chemical pesticides or fertilizers. It is proved that one local cow is sufficient to implement this method of farming on thirty acres of land. and hence their willingness to play more for these particular produces reflects their actual behaviour. The total market potential in India is estimated to be around Rs. All that this system requires is native breed of cattle which in most cases form an integral part of farming families in rural areas.2. The survey conducted by Athanasios Krystallis and George Chryssohoidis. The study analyses results of a customer survey which shows that customers are confused about the significance of the word “organic”. senior managers in the farming sector must initiate change in marketing strategy. He proposes that organic farmers should consider strategic marketing planning and customer research for satisfying a competitive market which has better prospective than what is presently realized. The present techniques for marketing and labelling of organic products are not found to be effective. The study concludes that the market potential for organic produce in top eight metros of the country was about Rs 562 crore in 2006.4 Marketing Hutchins and Greenhalgh (1997) studied marketing strategies used in the field of organic farming. developed by Subash Palekar which is being practised in Kerala. A survey was conducted by the International Competence Centre for Organic Agriculture (ICCOA) in 2006 among top eight metro cities of India (which include about five per cent of the households in India). The 20 . fertilizers seeds and other plant protection chemicals. 3. (2005) for organic fruits and vegetables shows that they are perceived differently from other products by consumers in Greece. Thus. Consumers exhibit high degree of willingness to pay more for organic fruits and vegetables.1452 crore. by manual cultivation or by herbicides. Fruits and vegetables are among the very few organic products easily found in the Greek market and are the organic produces that most Greek customers buy. Since it requires zero budget this type of farming needs no institutional credit and dependence on hired labour is also reduced. Instead use minimal weed suppression with fewer disturbances to the environment. insecticides and pesticides are not necessary As discussed by George and JafriZ (2014) Zero Budget Natural Farming is a sustainable method of farming. customers are more familiar with the idea of paying premium price to buy organic produce.2. It took into account present purchase patterns of consumer in modern retail format. Weeding. It requires zero monetary investment for purchase of farming inputs like pesticides.5 Subsidies The researcher also probed into impact of government subsidies and found that Lohr and Salommonson examined the impact of conversion subsidies in organic farmers in Sweden. Subash Palekar developed several natural pesticide formulations that can easily be made from ingredients available to farmers. For this effort to be fruitful.  Use of herbicides. is unnecessary. 3.

Another significant study was conducted by Van der Werf. On an average conversion took about three to five years. E and de Jager. Mondelaers et al. transitioning from inorganic to organic farming methods. soil. The study shows that net returns per hector and cost-benefit ratio were significantly higher in case of vermiculture than that in conventional farming. The farm pairs were analysed with reference to agronomic and financial performance. The study was conducted to analyse impact of organic agriculture on yield. 3. Suryavanshi et al. There was no significant difference in the labour required per hectare. As per the study conducted by Srivastava and Dhar (1982) the quality of the food produced in soil containing combination of organic manure and phosphate is superior to that which utilized inorganic fertilizers. (2009) performed meta-analysis of the literature comparing the environmental impacts of inorganic and organic methods of agriculture and connecting these to differences in management practices. are analysed. As per Ainsworth (1989) the only sustainable agriculture is profitable agriculture. It concludes that in spite of the embryonic phase of organic agriculture. ecology. poor access to extension services and insufficient infrastructure have great trouble in understanding new techniques and concepts in organic method of cultivation. Hence it is concluded that the success of any institutional policy design aimed at transforming inorganic farms to organic ones depend on higher efficiency and productivity achieved by the individual organic farms. when 21 . It is found that the amount of vitamins. Farmers with less literary rates. The study analyses two studies on organic farming in India. Organic agriculture contributes to natural biodiversity (wild life) and agro-biodiversity (breeds used by the farmers).2. A (1992). expenditure and income of three hundred organic producers in Pudukkottai district of Tamil Nadu. The relative performance of seven farm pairs constituting one organic and one inorganic farm was studied. debt. It concluded that a gradual approach is very important for the victory of organic farming. health. The study concluded that on an average soil in organic farms have a greater content of organic matter. livestock and trees were found to be more than that in conventional farms. One of the most important studies in the field of organic farming was conducted by Margasagayam N. In organic found that providing extension services and market information to famers are more useful than conversion subsidies in promoting organic farmers.6 Cost benefit Studies on the financial advantage of organic farming have been the area of interest for many researchers. protein and minerals are significantly higher in organically produced food items. the outcomes are heartening. Practise and experience of 12 farmers. and T Selvin Jebraj Norman (1997) on organic farming conducted in Pudukkottai of Tamil Nadu. (1997) conducted study among the grape farmers in Maharashtra. The study concluded that the cost benefit ratio was higher for organic farming for some of the major crops. Traditional farmlands were found to achieve similar financial results as that of inorganic farms. The duration of conversion period depends on the earlier system of farming and the amounts of inorganic pesticides and manures used in the farm. Organic agriculture scored better than inorganic farming for phosphorous and nitrate leaching and greenhouse gas emissions.

oilseeds. 3. rubber.3 per cent over the past two and half decades. spices. Kerala stretches North to South along a coastline of 590 square kilometres with width varying from 35 to 120 km. The highlands zone is wet and relatively cool. rural Kerala are blessed with homestead farms that contain a wide assortment of plants and trees.36 hectares are the main features of Kerala’s agriculture. As per Madhusudanan (1995). coffee and tea had reduced the production of food crops. Cardamom (70%). 20 per hectares between 1990-91 and 2010-2011. Kerala has been growing at an impressive rate of over 6. Rainfall varies from 1942mm to 3668mm. Kerala is separated into 3 different zones: highlands. However.231 per hectares to Rs 97. since land use efficiency of organic farms in developed countries is lower. Coconut (43%). social life and economy of the inhabitants. This had an adverse effect on farming and on the culture.expressed per production area. But in the last few decades. Below mentioned were found to be some of the major problems in the field of Kerala agriculture.17 per cent of the total land area of India. In spite of high density of population and comparatively smaller size.7 Kerala General Kerala is a narrow strip of coastal land flanked by Arabian Sea on the west and Tamil Nadu on the east. The highlands comprise of the mountain range of Western Ghats along the eastern part of Kerala. this positive result articulated per unit product is less pronounced. In addition to paddy fields and plantations.8 Kerala Agriculture As per the Kerala Perspective Plan 2030 (2010). Kerala has a variety of elevation from the sea level to about 2692 m. 22 . Prevalence of annual tree crops mainly rain fed farming and very small operational holdings of an average size of 0. Cashew (85%) and Ginger (60%). Pepper (96% of India’s production). Verghese (1995) studied the various problems in the Kerala agricultural sector. However. intensive cultivation was preferred against traditional agriculture. The midland contains a diverse terrain of small hills with valleys in between. Lowlands consist of alluvial. It has large forest tracts.2. cashew. It is the most densely populated among the three regions. Thus it is a narrow strip of land forming 1. Improvement in agricultural productivity is a major reason behind this upswing of VOP from Rs 54. 3. Kerala is responsible for several vital agronomic produces: Rubber (92%). varied farming schemes had developed in the state of Kerala. In Kerala the conversion of “agriculture” to “agri-business” is pretty obvious.  Acute shortage of skilled farm workers.  Contamination of food products due to chemical manures and pesticides. it accounts for 2. midlands and lowlands. horticulture. It is located in southwest India.  Increased construction of brick kilns and residential houses. Value of product (VOP) from agriculture per hectare of net sown area increased considerably in the state. modern. Temperature varies from 20-26 oC to 26-38oC. ecology. sugarcane.76 per cent of the total population of the Indian union making it the ninth most densely populated state in the country. low-lying.2. and fertile coastal land on the western part of Kerala. Floriculture.

The Green Revolution substituted the time- honoured variety of crops with high yielding crops. century old practices became extinct. reservoirs. to those that seek to minimise their use through appropriate crop rotations. Alternate farming systems range from systems which follow only slightly reduced use of these inputs through the better use of soil tests. rivers. cultivation of crops only on soils best suited to them. Many species of organisms and natural pest became extinct.  Reduction of the area under paddy farming mostly because of translation of farmlands for paddy to coconut plantations. Most of the farm produces were infested with harmful chemicals. As per Kerala Land Use Board (1997) “The current farming systems lay emphasis on high yields which are achieved by intensive use of fertilisers. integrated use of pest management. and other water bodies and affected 23 . soil lost its fertility and vitality. These varieties needed huge amounts of inorganic fertilizers and pesticides. tanks. it should include a spectrum of farming systems ranging from organic systems that greatly reduce or eliminate use of chemical inputs to those involving the prudent use of antibiotics to control specific pests and diseases” 3. More importantly food safety and food security became a frightening challenge. water. income of farmers stagnated and cost of cultivation increased.2. India began its own Green Revolution program of plant breeding. Studies conducted by Pillai et. to realise the target growth..  Fragmentation of land. etc. wetlands. In India the aerial spraying of pesticides was first used in Konni forest division of Kerala in 1965 to control the teak defoliators. financing of agrochemicals and irrigation development. The physically and mentally retarded or handicapped children of Padri village of Kasaragod established the tragedies that aerial spraying of chemical fertilizers and pesticides could impose on living beings. Indian government cooperated to import hybrid varieties of wheat seed from the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Centre (CIMMYT). water demand increased. microorganisms declined. So for agriculture to be sustainable. lakes. The Modern methods of agriculture resulted in contamination of air. (1994) have shown that increased fertilizer usage does not essentially lead to higher productivity in Kerala. The runoff from the agricultural fields polluted the ponds. Biodiversity in the farm lands became history. Also studies by Thomas (1999) concluded that the other major aspects assumed to contribute to productivity such as High Yielding Varieties (HYV) and scientific irrigation techniques have not resulted in increasing productivity of crops per hectare at state level. integration of livestock with crop husbandry. In short. Time tested traditional varieties disappeared. mechanical or biological control of weeds and less costly buildings and equipment. Almost 163 non- target varieties of arthropods were destroyed within two days. India was on the verge of mass famine.  Reducing significance of farming as a source of livelihood.9 Challenges faced by farmers of Kerala In 1961. sustainability of agriculture systems collapsed.  Declining share of farming in the individual earnings and total domestic production. To fight these issues. pesticides and other off-farm Increasing use of these chemicals let to multitude of environmental issues. more quantities of inorganic pesticides were used. These new varieties of crops foreign to soil resulted in creation of new diseases and pests.  Change to long term cash crops from short term food crops resulting in reduced employment potential. It also led to outbreaks of existing pests. The eternal connection between the farm land and farmer was destroyed. and soil.

Sudden withdrawal of the inorganic pesticides. 17 per cent under rubber alone. The introduction of intensive chemical agriculture and its popularity in the state for over fifty years has led to near stagnant levels of productivity. Cultivation of food crops became non-profitable. Economic liberalization and World Trade Organization policies increased the miseries of the farmers by drastically reducing the prices of agricultural products. Those who returned from modern intensive farming to organic agriculture confronted varieties of issues. such as Wayanad are confronting intense water shortage. a system having a broad principle of “live and let live”. A gap of over thirty years produced a gap in the knowledge of organic farming techniques. Rice fields were sold to non-agricultural activities. Thus organic method of cultivation.aquatic life. fertilizers and other inputs led to reduction in yield. Farmers were caught in the trap of debt due to loan taken to meet the high cost of cultivation. but that under food crops decreased to a meagre 10 per cent of the total area of cultivation. Cash crops became more attractive and food crops became less attractive. increased soil erosion. Low External Input Sustainable Agriculture (LEISA) gained acceptance in many areas. The balance between extensive and intensive farming methods is uncertain. To summarise challenge for the future generations is that the agricultural lands are degrading and are fast becoming unstable. In the past ten years. This led to soil erosion which in turn resulted in loss of soil fertility. 24 . These led to increasing occurrences of farmer suicides. As a result net profit of farmers reduced while that of the industries supporting farming flourished. The high yielding hybrid variety of seeds had to be substituted by organic seeds. Farming knowledge over the years has revealed that disparity between existing natural resource and crop production methods has disturbed ecological balance. Moreover the government policies for opening retail sector to multinational companies impose significant danger to right of safe food and food sovereignty. total productivity and economic viability of organic farming is yet to be established. Investment in farming has diverted from farmers to the industries producing inputs for cultivation. The farmers of Kerala are now sure that the sole way out is to get back to organic ways of farming and avoiding damaging the environment. The organic producers are dispersed across state with very few farmers following it earnestly. Though it has been proved that the traditionally cultivated crop has superior quality. Health hazards became unimaginably high. Area under cash crops expanded. to make agriculture sustainable. Incidence of fatal diseases increased. The responsibility of taking up this challenge is on organic agricultural science. and increased pests and diseases. The potent danger of monopoly of seeds by multinational corporate bodies and introducing genetically modified crops could result in permanent damage to agriculture of Kerala.As an alternative. many farmers in Kerala had started doing organic agriculture quite sincerely. reduced soil fertility. Many districts in Kerala. The existence of chemically intensive farming in many of the nearby farmlands made it challenging to preserve organic purity of the atmosphere and soil. was accepted all over the world. Fishes contained high doses of chemicals and heavy metals.

Survey was conducted among hundred farmers located in Thiruvananthapuram. some respondents did not understand certain jargons used by the researcher in the interview schedule and few questions were complicated and caused confusion to the respondents. Interview was also conducted among the various agencies such as High Range Organic Producers Society. Majority of the facts found were implemented in the instrument (questionnaire). Vegetable and Fruit Promotion Council Keralam. 4. 4. Idukki (HOPS). removed and edited according to the advice of the valuators. The reason was that. the literature review proved to be a major factor to formulate the research.1 Chapter Introduction: Initially structured interview were conducted with the various stakeholders includingState Horticulture Mission. Department of Agriculture. Kudumbashree. These discussions helped the researcher understand the status of the schemes introduced to promote organic farming and the corresponding challenges. Kerala Agricultural Developmental Society. Wayanad.2 Instrument Used: The instrument used in this project is a structured interview which was prepared completely by the researcher. The instrument was pretested with 30 non sampling respondents and discussed with the organization’s manager and the researcher’s project guide. Few questions were added. Wayanad (WOACS) and International Competence Centre for Organic Agriculture .7 were eliminated. Thus.3 Sources of Data 25 . Kasaragod and Idukki districts of Kerala. Kerala Agricultural University. To check the reliability of the instrument. Cronbach's alpha was used and those questions which did not have a score of 0.3 Chapter Summary: Thus the researcher understands about Organic farming right from its origin till the current trend. The observation has been done both qualitatively and quantitatively which has helped the researcher get a clear picture about her research.3. Kerala. Kasaragod(ICCOA). Organic Agriculture consortium society. The list of farmers was obtained from the Agriculture department. Mankulam (KADS). The interview schedule was a combination of different types of scaling and it helped in collecting huge data in a short span of time. CHAPTER 4 Research Methods 4.

Kerala. Out of the total population of organic farmers obtained from Agriculture Department. The secondary source of data was the farmers list provided by the Agriculture department. A simplified Likert scale was used because it is less biased. The data was collected during June 2015.8 Research design: The research design used in this project is Descriptive or Survey research design. Kerala which was used to randomly select the farmers for completing the interview. 4. The reason why the sample is said to be representative is because. Kerala Agricultural Developmental Society Mankulam (KADS). Thus. Kasaragod and Idukki districts of Kerala. Vegetable and Fruit Promotion Council Keralam. Descriptive statistics was used so as to describe the sample size which selected a particular category. it represents the population without any bias or forced response. 4. the researcher understood that these were the districts having maximum number of certified farmers and most of the organic certification agencies were also located in these districts. that is. Descriptive research method is used because the researcher wants to describe specific behaviour as it occurs in the environment. Department of Agriculture. 4.6 Data Collection: The data collection was made possible. Wayanad.5 Sampling and Sample size: The type of sampling done for this research is Simple Random sampling. hundred farmers were selected randomly at the rate of 25 from each district Kasaragod. 4. Kudumbashree. during the pretesting process.4 Scales: The interview schedule was a combination of nominal.7 Statistical Techniques used: The statistical techniques used include descriptive statistics. the respondents were selected in a random manner and there was no influence by the management on any respondents. reliable and the best type of sampling technique to make the samples representative. 4. selecting random members and getting the data collected from them using Hard Copy (Photostat of the interview schedule) or Soft copy (Using Google Docs). Organic Agriculture consortium society Wayanad (WOACS) and International Competence Centre for Organic Kasaragod ICCOA (ICCOA). it portrays the response of the entire population. The independent factors truly represent the diversity represented by the universe and that is the reason why these 100 samples were selected. its mean and its graphical representation. Data was also collected from various certification implementation agencies under state government schemes such as High Range Organic Producers Society Idukki (HOPS). It also included an open-ended question and a Ranking Order question. Many of the questions followed the Likert scale. Out of the 26 . Wayanad. Wayanad. Idukki and Thiruvananthapuram were selected to collect samples because. by getting the name list of the farmers from Agricultural Department. The data was collected over a period of one month from 25 farmers per district. This is because it is unbiased. Interview was conducted among the official stakeholders such as State Horticulture Mission. The districts Kasaragod. ordinal and Interval scales. The data is collected by using interview schedule as the tool.The primary source of data is the response to the structured interview filled by the farmers who are located at Thiruvananthapuram. Kerala Agricultural University. Idukki and Thiruvananthapuram.

Certain organic private companies such as Naturland and BIO SUISSE include certain extra criteria in addition to the national standards. Based on these outputs.1 Indian National Standards for Organic Products (NSOP) In 2000. the survey technique has been used for this study. Organic standards have been established at national as well as international levels. Idukki and Thiruvananthapuram who represented the total population of the farmers in Kerala.2. 5. the National Standards for Organic Products (NSOP) was released by government of India under the National Programme for Organic Production (NPOP). It helped in feeding the interview output into the software and obtaining outputs like Frequency distribution etc. 5. This is because. CHAPTER 5 Analysis and Interpretation 5.three types of descriptive design (observational. It maintains that 27 .9 Chapter Summary: Thus the data was collected in an efficient way by using simple random sampling and descriptive and exploratory research design with 100 farmers. The standards of the importing country or target market have to be complied with for certification of produces for export. 4. the interpretation was done logically. case study and surveys).2 Organic standards Organic standards define the minimum conditions that should be complied by a produce or farm in order to be “certified organic”. 25 from each district including Kasaragod. The analysis was done through the obtained data using the tool called SPSS. it will help the researcher to get the accurate information from the respondents.1 Chapter Introduction: The Analysis was done using the tool called SPSS. Data collection was done using a structured interview schedule. Wayanad.

It has been recently promoted as Regional Council for Participatory Guarantee certification of organic farmers.3. organic crop production and organic animal production. They lead farmers in the areas of credit.3. Ministry of Commerce & Industries. but benefits have gone 28 . This type of certification incurs no additional cost and mainly concentrates on domestic organic consumption.1 INDOCERT INDOCERT organic crop production certification provides a cost effective and reliable certification to facilitate the strategic positioning of organic products in the global organic markets. the distribution of information is routed through Master Farmers. 5. an autonomous body with a capital of Rs 1000 crore was formed in 2001 as the successor organization of Kerala Horticulture Development Programme (KHDP). production and marketing. exports and imports. wild products. 5. Tea Board.1 Participatory guarantee system This is type of organic certification in which farmers certify each other.certification and inspection by a nationally accredited certification body is mandatory for labelling and selling products as “organic”. The Self Help Groups (SHGs) established by them form the base units for all the interventions like Value Additions and Exports. The regulations cover domestic trade of the organic products.1 Vegetable and Fruit Promotion Council Keralam (VFPCK) VFPCK. In VFPCK.2 Third Party Organic certifying organizations 5. Participatory Technology Development (PTD).4. credit. The agencies accredited are the Coffee Board. and technical advice from the Council staff. The categories of items covered under accreditation are organic processing operations forestry. SHG membership enables farmers’ access to training. Rural Credit. KHDP was funded by European Union and was one of the highly successful agricultural development projects undertaken in India. Master Farmers are selected in each Self Help Group and are trained for leading the group. Export of organic farm produce can be done only if it is certified by a certification agency accredited for the same purpose. as per National Program for Organic Production (NPOP). Agricultural and Processed Food Products Export Development Authority (APEDA) and Spices Board.4 Official Stakeholders for Organic farming 5. KHDP could successfully address long-standing issues that beset the farming sphere. 5.3. Group Marketing and Extension In every Panchayat organic farmers were identified and organised by VFPCK.2.3 Organic Certifications 5. Government of India. INDOCERT is accredited by National Accreditation Body (NAB).

Agencies provide inputs. provide organic certification and coordinate procurement of food products to be exported or sent to retail shops.4.2 State Horticulture Mission. The extension officers of VFPCK frequently visit the farmers’ fields as per fixed schedule and provide required leadership support and technical advice. The extension approach of VFPCK is unique with features like frequent farm and home visits. Agricultural university has found that 99 per cent food produced in Kerala is not having harmful pesticides. Wayanad and Kasaragod districts of Kerala during 2014-2015. office less extension. Organic retail shops are created at Adimali in Idukki and Kalpetta in Wayanad. The mandate of the project include working out the safe interval between pesticide application and harvest of the crop based on the dissipation of residues. beyond production related aspects. monitoring the pesticide residues in abiotic and biotic components of the environment and devising effective analytical methodology for quantification of pesticide residues from different matrices. Public awareness is created by providing categorized information on the residue present in various vegetable and fruits.4. and mass awareness programmes like demonstrations and campaigns. Kerala SHM under the aegis of NHM is entrusted with implementing organic farming and certification in Idukki. 5. KAU has a hot line to cater to the needs of farmers in distress. Karshaka Santhwanam Scheme: Group of scientists go to farmer’s plot and provide instant advice. trainings etc Maintain demonstration plot: Provide demonstration to farmers on how to prepare organic manure and provide financial support to farmers as part of specific projects. 5. SHM has partially funded 200 vermi composting units.00 lakh per group of farmers covering an area of 50 hectares for certification of organic process. Pesticide residue testing lab: The Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) initiated “All India Co-ordinated Research Project (AICRP) On Pesticide Residues “during the year 1984- 85 with 17 research centres. Extension Services KAU has released adhoc package of practices for organic farming Conducting seminars. impart training for organic farming. 29 . 5. Organic farming research and Education It is offering a one year diploma course in organic agriculture. Assistance is being given over a period of three years in the ratio of 30:30:40. NHM is providing financial assistance of Rs.3 Kerala Agricultural University Kerala Agricultural University (KAU) as the sole agricultural university in the state is engaged in the following activities for the promotion of organic farming. create awareness.

Strategy 1. Malappuram. Rs. Demonstration plot was created which farmers can visit to build awareness and record yield. Farmer clusters are formed for vegetables and banana promoting Organic Farming. Those farmers whose produce were found safe to eat were awarded 15 per cent of the value of the produce.000 for certification. 5. Program formulated for each constituency based on individual conditions. Reduce use of chemical pesticide Sampoorna jaiva karshaka samsthanam (Complete organic farming state): Grass root awareness creation done via 135 meetings held constituency wise which included farmers.4.“Safe to eat” scheme fully funded by Department of Agriculture. Government of Kerala and implemented by Kerala Agricultural University. Marketing facility for Organic products 30 . Total of 3. 4. Palakkad and Kozhikode 500 hectare from each district was adopted and helped from the start for organic certification via agencies. Production of organic manure and bio pesticide in field itself Licence for organic manure and bio pesticide production is given by department to agencies. 3. They collected 378 samples of produces from 21 farmers. SHM is currently providing Rs 10. Creation of Labs to certify inputs. 5. Kudumbashree is helping farmers convert animal waste to bio manure. Rashtriya Krishi vikas Yojana (National scheme for improvement of farming sector): In Kannur. Facility for testing residue in Vegetables and fruits Pesticide Residue Research and Analytical Laboratory under the All India Network Project on Pesticide Residues is available at Vellayani Agriculture University. Kasaragod was declared 100 per cent organic in 2012.4 Agriculture Department. Biogas is given government assistance. Facility for testing organic manure Kasaragod has facility for testing organic inputs.000 for conversion and Rs 10. 2.5 lakh were disbursed to farmers over a period of one year. consumers and technical officers. Plan is there to ban Blue pesticides also. Banning the use of pesticides Red and yellow pesticides are banned in Kerala. Training conducted at school level to promote house farming. 4500 per pit assistance was given in Kasaragod.

5 Analysis of Farmers Survey 5. Products are sold in name of Kathir (Kasaragod) and Jaiva (Kochi).4. Kudumbashree members (females) are only benefitted. Jaivamritham.5 Kudumbashree Kudumbashree was launched by the Government of Kerala in 1998 with the mission of reducing absolute poverty from the State through rigorous community action under the leadership of Local Self Governments. Select best farmers from among group who can train other farmers. Natural farming is being done in all 14 districts. These are sold to local farmers at lesser price. Concept of master farmers is followed by Kudumbashree. VFPCK buys produces and sells it through their shops. Most of these are done by lease land farmers. Creation of Safe to eat brand under government 5. Kudumbashree is nodal agency for implementation of organic farming. Products such as Panchagavya.1 Age distribution Age of organic farmers under the study varied from 36 to 85. Training is imparted to farmers on agricultural practices. 5. Joint liability group of four to ten members is created. monthly markets and special markets during festivals such as Onam and Vishu are organized. Centralized branding is being done. Ajashree (goat manure) etc are produced. Of these 54 per cent of organic farmers depend solely on farming as a sole means of sustenance. Quarterly.5. Creation of Ecoshop in Kasaragod under government assistance. Today it is one of the largest women empowering projects in the country. Only natural inputs are used for farming. Agricultural incentives are given in coordination with state government schemes and Interest subvention scheme. Table 1: District specific age distribution Kasara Wayan Thiruvanantha god ad Idukki puram Kerala Age Below 46 0% 16% 28% 20% 16% 46-55 40% 36% 28% 28% 33% 56-65 28% 24% 36% 32% 30% 66-75 28% 24% 8% 20% 20% 31 . Manure production is done by bio farmers in Kannur having animal husbandry.

5. Rest of the organic farmers cultivated in their own land.31 Std Dev 8. Maximum number of females of about 52 per cent was interviewed from Thiruvananthapuram district. 5.28 52.7 56.56 57.3 Farming area Organic farmers in Wayanad and Kasaragod had largest area of farming. This was due to the media publicityoffered by Agricultural University on the results of pesticide content found in vegetables and fruits. The analysis indicates increased awareness on the importance of farming among the inhabitants of the capital city.1 9.78 8. In order to attract educated new generation population. Table 3: Mean area of farming (in acres) across districts. 80 per cent of organic farmers interviewed were male and 20 per cent were female. 5.028 which indicates that the mean age of farmers among various districts is not the same.The analysis shows that current farming population are aged and there is need to attract new generation into agriculture sector.5. Above 75 4% 0% 0% 0% 1% Mean 60. Organic farmers in Thiruvananthapuram had least area of cultivation as the cost of land was high here. Many working women and retired females in the capital city took to farming in the terrace and many also owned poly house. 20 per cent organic farmers were lease land farmers.55 9. agriculture sector should be projected as a profitable and sustainable means of earning a living. This is evident from the fact that the mean age of farmers in Kasaragod district is higher than all other states.48 56.94 acres. Mean area of farming was about 2. Kasara Wayan Idukk Thiruvanantha Keral god ad i puram a 32 .35 10.96 Significance value of age among the organic farmers belonging to various districts is found to be 0.2 Gender distribution Table 2: Gender distribution across districts Kasara Wayan Thiruvanantha Keral god ad Idukki puram a Gend er Male 88% 96% 84% 48% 80% Fema le 12% 4% 16% 52% 20% The gender distribution across states is given in Table 2.

87 Mean leased land 0 0.81 3.35 0.3 0.5.25 Std dev 0 1.92 0.38 0.00012 which indicates that the farming area of organic farmers among various districts is not the same.94 Std dev 2.6 0. In the case of Kerala.06 0. This is evident from the fact that the mean farming area of farmers in Thiruvananthapuram district is lesser than all other states.94 2. 5.5 Years of farming experience 33 .58 0.81 2.56 0.78 3.Mean Area of farming 3.8 3.98 Significance value of farming area among the organic farmers belonging to various districts is found to be 0.4 Crop preference among organic farmers Crop preferences among organic farmers is depicted in figure 1 Fig 1: Crop preference among organic farmers Clove Tea Cashew Cardamom Nutmeg Paddy Coffee Pineapple Rubber Mango Papaya Tapioca Arecanut Ginger Turmeric Pepper Yam Plantain Coconut Vegetables 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 From figure 1 it is clear that farmers practicing organic farming prefer short duration crops with the exception of coconut. coconut forms a part of the homestead farms where subsistence farming is practised.641 2.5. 5.

47 4 Mean cost of 616.19 Std dev 16.7 labour 506. 5.7 Animal Husbandry 34 .8 Std dev 112.4 283. Many had used conventional method of cultivation using chemical fertilizers and pesticides during the green revolution.19 467. 5.5. 216.91 14.53 9 19 per cent of organic farmers used their own family members for cultivation.62 10. Kasaragod district had the largest mean years in organic farming indicating that transition to organic means of cultivation started here well ahead of other districts. 551.47 252.8 used 287. Cost of labour per day was highest in Thiruvananthapuram and least in Wayanad. 119.55 Mean years in OF 16. Lack of skilled labours and high cost of labour was stated as one of the main problems faced by organic farmers.Table 4: Mean years of farming (in years) across districts.5. 276.85 5 91.03 20.0 Std dev 360.47 8. They have later realized the ill consequences of using chemicals and have shifted to organic means of cultivation.14 12.31 7. Organic farmers have to accept the high cost charged by labourers due to non availability of labour at the time of need. Remaining 81 per cent organic farmers used their own family as well as outside labourers for farming.9 Most organic farmers were traditional cultivators and had more than 30 years of farming experience.55 11.62 3 109.73 81 62.6 73 56. Mean labour days were highest in Kasaragod and least in Thiruvananthapuram.17 19.24 25.68 29.39 67 684.74 8.74 Std dev 19.72 40.87 18.12 32. Kasarag Wayana Thiruvananthapu od d Idukki ram Kerala Mean years in farming 33.28 10.7 1 256.6 Source of labour Table 5: Source of labour across districts Kasarago Iduk Thiruvananthap d Wayanad ki uram Kerala Source of labour Own family 16% 4% 24% 27% 19% Hired labour 84% 96% 76% 73% 81% Mean labour days 206.20 7.05 46.

47 per cent of farmers said that yield from organic farming was better than that from conventional farming. Immunity of plant to withstand climatic variation increases with organic farming as stated by 98.5622 2. Most organic farmers have animal husbandry and they prepare their own manure at the field. 35 .057938 change 3 0 3 0 71 29 828 1.8914 2. Weeding and Pest is high for organic farming as confirmed by 72 per cent and 68 per cent respectively.9206 0.3015 0.81394 2.6191 2.019268 * Irrigation 5 3 35 25 2 38 681 1.98378E.72743 2.006540 ** Cost 5 1 87 45 71 29 529 1.5 per cent and 49.39583 1.8032 0.8910 1.80622 1.3968 0.08348E.625 39 06 1.1587 0. ***p < 0:001(high significance).6774 0.5714 6.5670 2. This is mainly due to more manure required.94648 2. *** Shelf life 3 0 3 0 2. Marketing avenues and Income are less for organic farming as stated by 75.8778 1. *** Pest 1.4615 0. “more” (coded as 3). frequent application of pesticides and manures which demands more labour and high cost of labour.35523E.4285 0.437 0. This reduces the cost involved and reduces dependence on external low quality inputs.8836 0.375 0.7 per cent of farmers.026098 * Profit 2.296170 NS Marketing 1.5714 0.9749 1.6190 0. All of the certification agencies confirmed that animal husbandry is compulsory for organic farming and included the same as compulsory criteria for selection for certification.4285 0. *** Weeding 5 5 32 6 86 61 06 0.687 0. This is mainly due to lack of separate market or shop for organic farming produces.9285 0.7977 0.5549 0.4 per cent farmers.437 0.8 Comparison of organic and inorganic means of cultivation Table 6: Comparison of organic and inorganic means of cultivation Natural Organic Partial organic Mea Std Std Std Significa P n dev Mean dev Mean dev nce 2. Response options were: “less” (coded as 1).66666 2. ** p < 0:01(medium significance).3571 0.5 24 897 0.0714 0. 5.65 19 42 43 45 941 0. NS not Significant. It could be as high as three months for cucumber.5 7 48 12 71 29 06 Adaptation NS to Climate 2.375 6 79 61 29 29 397 Notes: Statistical significance of differences between group means: * p < 0:05(less significance).1 per cent farmers.562 0.2142 0. 96 per cent confirmed that the shelf life of organic product is high.7460 0. Cost for organic farming is high as stated by 58.284368 NS Yield 5 8 3 57 2.7559 0.7559 0.5. “same” (coded as 2). 58 per cent farmers stated that Irrigation requirements for organic farming are same as that for conventional farming.

This included farmers who sold their produce to Thanal (Thiruvananthapuram). There was significant difference in variables: shelf life. pest attack.9 Price realisation About 24 per cent of organic farmers said that they were not getting any premium price for organically cultivated produce. VFPCK (Kasaragod) KADS ( Idukki). Comparison was done with inorganic means of farming which they had previously practised and the organic farming method which they were pursuing now. ginger. organic and partial organic farming methods were collected. Weeding requirements and pest attack is found to be significantly less for farmers following natural farming method.5. There was no significant difference among the group of farmers for the variables: Yield. These organic farmers were selling their produce to private shop and were getting same price as that of a chemically cultivated produce. weeding requirements. While 16% of farmers used zero budget farming. Organic farmers reported moderately high cost of cultivation and partial organic farmers reported very high cost of cultivation. adaptation to climatic change and Market availability. They also required less external manure which in turn reduced labour requirements and the hence cost of cultivation. Irrigation requirements were found to be very high for partially organic farmers and least for natural farmers. Organic farmers reported high Weeding requirements and pest attacks while it is moderately high for partial organic farmers. Natural farmers reported less weeding and pest attack. Profit was highest for natural farmers due to reduction in cost of cultivation and was less for partial organic farmers as they might not receive full benefit of the premium price for organic products. rice etc. 5. Cost of cultivation is found to be least for natural farmers. Shelf life of products produced by organic and natural methods of farming are found to be very high while that created using partial organic means is found to be lesser. 26 per cent of organic farmers were getting premium price for all varieties of produces. 6 per cent of farmers used pure chemical method of cultivation. WSSS (Wayanad) 36 . This could be due to leaching of inorganic inputs to organic farmland thereby affecting shelf life of the product. Thirteen per cent farmers used chemical only for certain crops such as rubber.Perception of farmers on Organic Farming The perceptions of farmers practicing natural. Rest of the 65 per cent of farmers used organic means of cultivation. cost of cultivation. Many organic farmers who cultivated rubber used organic method since intercropping was being practised. irrigation requirements and income received by the three groups of farmers.

arecanut etc. Organic certification does not ensure good price to farmers.5. Many of these farmers had taken insurance previously but never got their claims or received very less claim amounts. None of these agencies have local organic shop that procures all products of farmers.About 50 per cent of organic farmers said that they were getting premium price for certain crops such as coffee. These agencies are working on organic certification of farmers. 5.10 Certification. 37 . Farmers get premium price for certain export oriented products such as pepper. Therefore it can be concluded that these agencies working on certification and procurement of export oriented products does not cater to the domestic market or improve food security of Kerala. They provide training and support during the first three years of conversion period. Rest of the organic farmers sold their produce to local shops and were not getting premium price. Hence farmers who are certified do not find it financially viable to renew the annual certification.11 Insurance 89 per cent of organic farmers did not have any insurance. Some of the certified farmers are selling their products to private shop due to lack of procurement agencies for organic produce. Many farmers find is challenging to transport their produce to the appropriate shop. banana. SHM is implementing schemes via agencies such as ICCOA (Kasaragod). For the remaining products such as vegetables and plantain farmers does not get a premium price. coconut. KADS. pepper. Lack of processing companies and huge transportation cost also affects the profit that the farmers receive. The amount of insurance and the duration was found to be ineffective. An agency or shop that locally procures organic produces and pays premium price to farmers is necessary to ensure that farmers get a premium price. Most of these farmers sold their produce to local shops. 42 per cent of farmers who had organic certification reported getting good price for certain products from VFPCK. ICCOA and HOPS procures certain products from organic farmers..5. Some of these uncertified farmers who sold their produce to shops such as Thanal. 5. Sangamaithri and VFPCK reported getting premium price. KADS and WOACS do not work in the organic marketing space. Fair trade shop ( KZ). KADS and HOPS (Idukki) WOACS (Wayanad). 11 per cent organic farmers took insurance as part of the eligibility criteria for taking loans. Many organic farmers were not able to get the benefits due to technical reasons such as: Validity of insurance is only for one year. There are also cases were farmers who were certified went back to inorganic ways of cultivation as they were not having any proper marketing mechanism for organic products. WSSS and private shops. Kudubbashree. After this no marketing support is provided to organic farmers. Marketing and Transportation 58 per cent of the organic farmers did not have organic certification. coconut and coffee.

000 00 5. Remaining 5 organic farmers who took loan from multiple banks took certain amount at 4 per cent and remaining at higher rates.21.0 (Rs) 0 0 0 1. Interest free loan of one lakh given for farmers were availed by 5 farmers.5.13 Reasons for changing to organic farming Fig 2: Reason for changing to organic farming 38 . 49 per cent of organic farmers had loans varying from 10. Table 7: Loan for organic means of cultivation Kasarag Wayan Thiruvananthap od ad Idukki uram Kerala Use of loan Yes 60% 60% 52% 44% 49% No 40% 40% 48% 56% 51% Mean amount of credit 1.agricultural loan at higher rates.5.00 1.90.12 Loan 51 per cent of organic farmers’ interviewed did not have any loan for agricultural purposes. Table 7: Insurance for organic means of cultivation (Figures in %) Kasarag Wyana Trivadru od d Idukki m Kerala Use of Insurance Yes 28 4 4 8 11 No 72 96 96 92 89 5.83.00 2. 8 farmers took loan at 10-16 per cent interest rates due to delay in getting agricultural loans.43. Delay in getting agricultural loan sanctioned was stated as reason why farmers took non. 31 farmers availed loan at 4 per cent interest rate.Insurance amount is 2 Rs per plantain which does not even cover the cost of cultivation.000 to 8 lakhs.00 1. Many farmers discontinued taking insurance due to these reasons.60.

Organic agriculture does not utilize 39 . come into frequent contact with pesticides. permaculture. etc. 5% 22% Emotional.1 Concern for human health: The population groups most affected by pesticide use are farm workers and their families. 9% Need for more freedom in farming and self-dependence 16% Preservation of traditions 9% Increasing crop diseases and pest infestations and 12% 12% Increasing risks Increasing costs and dependence on external sources for labor and manure Decreasing net farm income 5. natural farming.13. Their families and children are then exposed to these pesticides through contact with them and their clothing.5. who tend to and harvest the crops. Children living in areas with high pesticide use are at great risk of health effects because of their high susceptibility to pesticides. Reasons for health Concern for human changing to organic farming Concern for environment Depleting health of the soil Sustainable long-term agriculture 2%2% 1% 0% 5% Influence of other organic farmers. philosophical and ideological reasons 5% More revenue due to premium price. These people live in communities near the application of toxic pesticides. pesticide applicators and fieldworkers. Farm workers. where pesticide drifts and water contamination are common.

organic fertilizers and minimum tillage are central to organic practices. 5. It aims to produce food while establishing an ecological balance to prevent problems with soil fertility or pests. inter-cropping.13. improving soil formation and structure and creating more stable systems. occurring slowly over time. and their communities. cover crops.13. Organic farmers are convinced that chemical means of cultivation is neither sustainable nor profitable for long term. pollution of groundwater courses with synthetic fertilizers and pesticides is a major problem.14 Perception about Kisan SMS 64 per cent of organic farmers were not getting Kissan SMS. Many farmers reported lack of microorganisms in soil in the case of chemical means of cultivation as the main reason for converting to organic cultivation. In turn.16 Problems faced by Organic farmers Fig 3: Problems faced by Organic farmers 40 . As the use of these is prohibited in organic agriculture.13.5. compensating for the non-use of mineral fertilizers.5. Couple of farmers said that Kissan call centres never pick up calls. 5. Farmers mentioned that climate related advices were useful. Organic agriculture reduces non-renewable energy use by decreasing agrochemical needs.these toxic chemicals and thus eliminates this enormous health hazard to workers. Organic farmers lives in sync with environment and refrains from any activity that harms the ecosystem. symbiotic associations.5. Organic agriculture contributes to mitigating the greenhouse effect and global warming through its ability to sequester carbon in the soil.3 Depleting health of soil: Soil building practices such as crop rotations.5. These encourage soil fauna and flora. Organic agriculture considers the medium and long-term effect of agricultural interventions on the agro-ecosystem. they are replaced by organic fertilizers enhancing soil structure and water infiltration. their families. 5. 5.15 Perception about Kisan call centre and Kisan Credit card Many organic farmers were not aware of Kissan call centres or availability of Kissan Credit card. Hence there is a need to encourage organic farming specific SMS services which would be useful to organic farmers.4 Sustainable long term agriculture: Many changes observed in the environment are long term. Organic farmers take a proactive approach as opposed to treating problems after they emerge. nutrient and energy cycling is increased and the retentive abilities of the soil for nutrients and water are enhanced. Such management techniques also play an important role in soil erosion control.2 Concern for environment: In many farmlands. 5. 5.5.5. Many who were getting SMS did not find it useful as it gave advice on outdated materials like Cevin whose production is stopped or chemical pesticides or manures which were not useful to organic or natural farmers.

seeds and pesticides 5% 2% 1% 15% Lack of availability of organic Lack of consumer/ market 6% inputs such as manure. diseases. Also there is lack of skilled labourers and most labourers are not willing to do the farming work. price Unavailability of labor & Lack of affordable good exorbitant wage rate. The introduction of MNGREA scheme has made farm labourers adopt the scheme which resulted in a dearth of labourers for farmers. 5. 9% Lack of financial support Artificially created price 14% during transition to organic slump in the harvest season 13% 13% farming. organic farmers have to accept the high wages enforced by the labours. awareness regarding organic 8% 15% seeds and pesticides produce. Problems faced by farmers Pest infestations and More labor required.16. Being part of a collective farm restricts innovations and adaptation of different techniques. forces small-scale farmer to sell at lower price. Some of the MNGREA workers 41 .1 Unavailability of labour and extreme high wages for labours Unavailability of labour and extremely high wage rate was major issues. erratic Unavailability of premium rains. quality organic inputs such as manure. Climatic changes. Since labourers are in high demand and less in supply.5.

Organic farmers who do not have animal husbandry find it very difficult to get good quality seeds.17 Perception about Krishi Bhavan Perception about organic farmers about the effectiveness of Krishi Bhavan varies according to the location.5. Organic farmers experienced more pest attack if the nearby farmers were practicing chemical form of farming.3 Lack of separate marketing mechanism and lack of premium pricing for organic products Lack of proper marketing mechanism and lack of premium pricing is another major issue for many farmers.16.5. Hence for success of organic farming also depends on the type of farming used by nearby farmers.mentioned that they were being given useless jobs. This is a very disturbing trend that can affect the food security of the state of Kerala.5. Due to lack of separate market for organic products.2 Attack from pests. Many organic farmers have stopped cultivating yam varieties due to the same. They said that they would have been happier if they were allowed to work under farmers. Many consumers prefer chemical products due to their pleasing appearance to organic products.5. 5. Many organic farmers said that they were not getting premium price due to low cost imported products from nearby states cultivated using intensive chemical methods. Not getting seeds or manure on time reduces the usefulness of the same. Farmers who were not getting premium price for organic products have reduced intensive cultivation and have confined cultivation of vegetables to their own needs.16. For example in areas such as Aayampara.4Lack of quality inputs and unavailability of agency to certify quality of inputs Lack of quality inputs and unavailability of agency to ensure quality of input is another major problem. 5. Farmers have stopped collecting inputs from Krishi Bhavan. Most of manure and seeds are delayed or are not enough. 5. Udayapuram and Periya (Kasaragod) farmers were relatively happy with the subsidies and trainings conducted by Krishi Bhavan. Currently there are no agencies for certifying the quality of inputs. But farmers at Oolattu (Kasaragod) expressed deep dissatisfaction at the conduct of Krishi Bhavan. Organic farmers said that they do not want low quality inputs or subsidies instead if government can provide a way to market organic products separately they would be satisfied. Organic products have to compete with chemical products which appear superior due to their beautiful appearance. Some of the lease land farmers said that MNGREA workers should be made available to them as well. 5. Many organic farmers also complained that after passing of a 42 . these products have to be sold in the same shop selling chemical products.16. fertilizers and pesticides. deadly bees and animals Organic farmers also mentioned increased attack from deadly bees and animals who feeds on yam items. They procure inputs from other organic farmers or buy it from authorized places at very high cost. Most of the organic fertilizers and seeds supplied from Krishi Bhavan are of poor quality.

results were not given and no appropriate way forward was suggested. manure. Karshaka pension was not given to farmers for last two years. Farmers who cultivated using chemical fertilizers and pesticides said that the main reason why they don’t convert to organic means of cultivation was because of the subsidies to chemical fertilizers and pesticides made available by government via Krishi Bhavan. Production bonus for pepper and plantain  VFPCK award  Panchayat award  KB Subsidy for Sprinkler. Farmers said that if government stopped subsidies to chemical fertilizers and pesticides. farmers would automatically shift to organic means of cultivation. Farmers who are well aware of the working of Krishi Bhavan follow up on benefit while those who are ignorant of the same miss the benefits. seedlings  SHM Subsidy for manure. But many mentioned apprehensions on quality of advice and the lack of field visit to confirm the problem. Though government is supporting organic agriculture on one side they are also promoting chemical inputs manufacturing companies on the other side by providing huge subsidies to chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Many organic farmers said that in case of issues they would contact Krishi Bhavan for advice.subsidy it does not reach them. financial support for farming  KAU : demonstration plot financing  Sangamaithri : Subsidy  Kerala gandhi smaraka Nidhi: best farmer and female farmer awards  Azhakulam jaiva karshaka samithi: Tour to see farm lands.  NABARD : Watershed  NABARD : Organic shop  UPASI United Plantain Association : Tea and Rubber good advice and research  Spices board subsidy for pepper  Tea board subsidy  Award mathrika krishi toottam  ATMA : Honey bee training and financial support  Kudumbashee group farming incentive  Krishi vigyan kendram : Financial help for kayyala 43 . polyhouse. Many organic farmers complained that Krishi Bhavan was providing subsidies to chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Some organic farmers mentioned that though soil testing was done by Krishi Bhavan.18 Perception about various government schemes Organic farmers reported having benefited from below schemes  National Application Innovation Products: International tour  Vibrant Gujarat Award Rs 51000  RKVY : Subsidy for plantain  ATMA : Training. 5.5. Also advices provided by Krishi Bhavan encouraged use of chemical pesticides and fertilizers.

In Kerala they are concentrating on districts Calicut. They are currently getting premium price for coconut. International Competence Centre for Organic Agriculture (ICCOA): International Competence Centre for Organic Agriculture started as a knowledge centre for all stakeholders involved in the organic sector and was registered as a society in 2004. Farmers working under Fair Trade principles are given a premium price for their products and sustainable farming means that protects and nurtures the land as well as the farmers. During this time producers were not even getting the cost of production for their product. They are running this shop but are facing problems due to unavailability of continuous supply of products. This led to concerted action with producers. GPS mapping of farmlands is also being completed. Farmers at Udayapuram were certified by LACON with help from Fair trade. financial assistance. They have also submitted proposal for a project for processing plant worth 12 lakhs. consumer organisations. Their long term plan is to develop bio villages (self sustaining villages). Plan for Virgin coconut oil processing plant is in progress. ICCOA as an interface organisation not only complements and strengthens the activities of the stakeholders and the organic movement but also complements the efforts of the government. Vegetable and Fruit Promotion Council Keralam (VFPCK): VFPCK in the Bekal fort area of Kasaragod are doing excellent work in the marketing space. FTAK aimed to address the problem and find solutions. research institutions and government departments in India and South Asia. Lack of regular supply for vegetables is one of the main problems that they suffer. distributors and consumers to create a system where trade is not just to make profit but is an exchange with a human face. These farmers also got NABARD funding of about Rs 90 thousand for starting an organic shop. They are planning to form tie up with Elements and Lulu hyper market. Under SHM scheme to provide organic group certification to farmers Calicut and Malappuram projects were completed and handed over to control union: Elite green and Sunstar overseas. farmer organisations. Tamilnadu and Sikkim for over 10 years. voluntary organisations.5. The organization was established as a response to the crisis of poverty and indebtedness that gripped agriculture sector in Kerala during the beginning of the 21st century. Kasaragod Fair trade: Fair Trade Alliance Kerala (FTAK) is an organization of small scale organic farmers from the hilly regions of the Western Ghats of Kerala and was established in the year 2005. They provide expert help. Nagaland. corporate bodies. Kasaragod project for certification process is in progress. manure. Srilanka. They collaborate and network with individuals. pepper and cashew. training. They have strict selection criteria including basic data collection and survey (three times). They work in 12 states of India reaching out to around 270 member organisations and more than two lakh farmers directly and indirectly. They procure produces from 44 . ICCOA had been undertaking projects from Kerala. help in marketing and exporting. Malappuran and Kasaragod.6 Agencies working on certification and marketing Below are the details of agencies of working on certification and marketing.

VFPCK bargains with traders so that farmers get premium price for their product. WSSS helped 348 clusters of farmers including 12600 farmers in Wayanad get certification. They created domestic market support with PGS for 34 farmer groups. It aims at Socio-economic empowerment of the target group consisting of women. and also register farm clubs for NABARD. Wayanad Wayanad Social Services Society (WSSS): Major objective of Wayanad Social Service Society has been to form village level people’s organizations in order to empower the poor and weaker communities since its establishment in 1974. They have a resource centre for Organic Farming which has documented success stories of organic farmers.  NABARD : Waadi TDF Tribal development fund  NABARD : Water shed development project completed last year  NABARD : farm club promotion group of farmers  Capacity adoption and technology (CAT): Exposure visit and trainings. manure and seedlings to organic farmers. They are also promoting organic farming in Nilgiri district of Tamilnadu since 1999. They also provide trainings.  MEDP : Micro enterprises dev program Skill training  Spices : certification quest  Coffee : processing and marketing unit  KINFRA : processing and marketing unit  SHM : Conversion time support  IFARM : standard for OF and Organic farming training Lack of government support and quality inputs are the issues being faced by tribal. They have been appointed as Regional council for PGS certification. manure. financial assistance. They have Radio station: radiop matinee (6hrs organic) and Vikaspedia in web. They help in providing the following certifications  Fair trade certification (FLocet)  Organic certification  Rainforest alliance certification  JASS certification (Japan) They have completed the following schemes  NABARD UPNR: Umbrella program for natural resources for OF. They also have Relience mobile package. They provide training. help in marketing and exporting. small and marginal farmers through participatory development policies. They received Best industry award last year and best Paristhithi Mithra (Friend of environment) award this year. As per farmers. 45 . In Kerala they are concentrating on 25 Panchayats of Wayanad. expert help.

Poothadi panchayats of Wayanad district get organic certification under SHM scheme since 2003. Thiruvananthapuram 46 . Highrange Organic Producers’ Society (HOPS): HOPS is an organic farmer collective based in Adimaly.Wayanad Organic Agricultural Consortium Society (WOACS): Wayanad Organic Agricultural Consortium Society is a collection of number of societies following organic farming in Wayanad District. Noolpuzha. But no marketing facility is made available for the certified farmers. LuLu shop (Packaging procuring). They provide Certification from IMO Bangalore and LACON. They are a Charitable Society registered in 2006. WOACS has been helping farmers of Pulpalli. Initially about 2000 farmers were certified (LACON) with partial financial support from Spices board. It has a governing body (working committee) comprising nine members including four representatives from Agriculture Department. responsible and prosperous life. promotion and practicing of eco- friendly agriculture. farm women. They were doing marketing at their own expense and were able to get premium price for pepper and cocoa. farmers. Ernakulam. One of the farmers Jolly Varkey (Thodupuzha. Idukki) complained that KADS collected 500 Rs for three years but never gave certification. Idukki under SHM scheme. Betheri. Many of the farmers who were certified felt certification was useless after the three years conversion process and discontinued renewal process. farm children and farm labourers. 'HOPS' was formed in the backdrop of the drastic decline in productivity and health problems caused by indiscriminate use of toxic manures and pesticides in the high ranges of Idukki district. Certification of about 2000 farmers was completed and next set of 1035 farmers is in progress. hence certified farmers do not often find it financially viable to renew organic certification annually. They present an alternative way of farming and a holistic vision of human-nature co-existence that will support the farmers to lead a dignified. The objective of KADS is promotion of quality organic production. Currently they are not working on the marketing part. Meenagaadi. KADS had been helping cluster of farmers from Idukki and Ernakulum in getting organic certification since 2001. Lack of continuous supply and transportation are the major issues faced. secure premium price for farmers by avoiding middlemen and provide assistance in sustainable management of natural resources through awareness campaign. IOFPCL. JTT Exporter. Currently next set of 500 farmers are in the process of certification (IMO) under SHM scheme. They have tie ups with Jeevagram kaladi.5 crore last year was main problem sited by them. Highrange Organic Producers Society (HOPS) has been giving group certification (Indocert) to about 280 farmers in Devikulam taluk. Lack of fund usage by government resulting in lapse of 3. Continuous facilitations and trainings are proposed for capacity building through periodical training to elected people’s representatives. Idukki The Kerala Agricultural Development Society (KADS): KADS is a voluntary organization of farmers registered in 2001.

counteracting threats A simplified SWOC analysis is used to evaluate organic farming sector in Kerala. extension work and sensitization among marginal farmers in various locations of Kerala thereby increasing the supply base. They do continuous inspections to make sure that farmers are strictly following organic method of cultivation. Thanal has been found to the best model for marketing which can be emulated in large scale. Issues that they face are lack of continuous supply of products and lack of support for transportation. The identification of external opportunities and threats and internal and external strengths and weaknesses can be successfully done by using SWOT analysis as per Houben 1999 and Collett 1999. utilizing opportunities. 5. Consumer sensitization and awareness programmes also played an important role in attracting more consumers to support Organic Bazaar. producers and consumers together for efficient exchange of organic products. sector or a company a good performance is the result of correct interaction of management with its internal and external environment. They ensure that farmers get premium price for all their products. As per Balamuralikrishna and Dugger (2001) decision making using SWOT analysis involves increasing strengths. Strengths  Superior quality of the product  Land and water conservation  Shelf life increases several times  High domestic demand  Cultivation as inter/mixed crop Weaknesses  Low productivity/revenue during initial three years of conversion  Insufficient supply of good quality inputs  Increase in cost of production  Pests and diseases  Lack of sufficient experienced labour  Less government support for marketing and promotional activities  High dependence on weather 47 . reducing effect of weakness. Later the frequency of the bazaar was increased gradually and now it functions on all working days of year. This feat was made possible through consistent capacity building. USA) to bring Organic farmers. They procure all produces from selected farmers and provide transportation to collect products from farmers.7SWOC Analysis For a country. They also provide training to farmers on organic methods of cultivation. It was introduced as a once in a month: Second Saturday bazaar. They select farmers using strict selection criteria.Thanal: Organic Bazaar was launched by Thanal in 2003 inspired by Berkeley Farmers Market (California.

 Leaching of inorganic inputs from nearby farm lands or from mountain areas (Most often Rubber is cultivated at top of mountains. Kudumbashree.1 Chapter Introduction: Based on structured interview of 100 farmers from Thiruvananthapuram. Department of Agriculture.8 Chapter conclusion: Thus the various analyses were done using SPSS software and the outputs and interpretations of the descriptive statistics were done in this chapter. Kerala Agricultural University. Kasaragod and Idukki Districts of Kerala and results generated from the analysis done using tool SPSS. Kerala. Lack of technical knowledge  Mind set of farmers should be changed about organic farming. Vegetable and Fruit Promotion Council Keralam. Chapter 6 Suggestions 6. Data was also collected from various 48 . Wayanad. Data was also collected from official stakeholders such as such as State Horticulture Mission. Inorganic input from the Rubber farms passes to low lying farms) Opportunities  Increased global demand  Change in life style and food habits  High domestic demand and less supply Challenges  Increasing production and high productivity in competing countries  Price fluctuations  Depletion of water sources  Change in climate 5. interpretation was done.

certification implementation agencies working on state government schemes such as High Range
Organic Producers Society Idukki (HOPS), Kerala Agricultural Developmental Society
Mankulam (KADS), Organic Agriculture consortium society Wayanad (WOACS) and
International Competence Centre for Organic Kasaragod ICCOA (ICCOA).
This chapter will explain how these outputs can be decoded for implementing changes in the
State, how much these outputs are important for the stakeholders of the State and the limitations
of the study.


1. It has been found that leaching of inorganic inputs from neighbour’s farm lands defeats our
efforts to pursue organic farming. Hence organic cultivation has to be in a contiguous area and
cluster of farmers may be identified for organic cultivation.
2. Organic Certification agencies have limited presence and cost of certification is not affordable to
the farmer. The process of certification should be group certification and more agencies should
be encouraged to take up organic certification
3. A supply chain management approach has to be pursued to promote sustainable organic farming
in the state.
4. State government may provide incentives (like the subsidies being provided for manufacture of
fertilisers to promote inorganic cultivation) for the production of organic manures and fertilizers
5. The quality of the organic inputs being produced is not uniform. There is a need to fix quality
standards for organic manures and pesticides.
6. The findings of the study indicate that the cost of production is more for organic farming
compared to inorganic farming but it is the least for zero budget farming. Further, the study
indicates that labour requirement is more for organic farming and the least in zero budget
farming. This has great relevance to the state of Kerala where farm labour is scarce and wage
rates are extremely high. Hence more focussed research is needed to establish the type of organic
farming best suited for Kerala
7. The observations of farmers on organic farming have been varying with regard to cost of
cultivation (CoC), labour requirement and yield. Hence there is need for research to establish the
relationship between organic cultivation and CoC, organic cultivation and labour requirement and
organic cultivation and yield.
8. Farmers have developed organic inputs locally. These have to be tested for it efficacy and
documented to encourage organic farmer clusters to produce their requirement of organic inputs
locally. This is very relevant in the context of organically produced inputs where the shelf life is
very less.
9. Many farmers have expressed interest to switch over to organic farming. However, lack of
expertise in this line deters farmers to pursue organic farming. Organising exposure visits,
awareness training programmes and promoting master farmer concept to transfer the technology
may go a long way to popularise sustainable organic farming.
10. There is a demand for organic products. Organic production of products is being pursued by
farmers in Kerala, However, the farmer is unable to market his produce as organic and earn a
premium price for it. This is adversely affecting the sustenance of organic farming in the state.
There is an urgent need for a dedicated marketing channel for organic products. The demands for
organic products have to be established and supply adjusted according to the demand.


11. During the conversion period from inorganic to organic farming, farmers are experiencing yield
reduction and thus it affects their income generation. Some form of assistance during this period
will attract more farmers to organic farming.
12. Organic Farming has risks attached to it. Hence suitable insurance products are essential to bring
more farmers under organic farming.
13.Price fluctuations and the lack of a premium price for organic products is dissuading farmers to
continue organic farming. A suitable price formula is essential for organic products to sustain
organic farming

6.2 Way Forward: Empowering Organic farmers
The NITHI Ayog may bring out a vision document on Organic Farming. Based on the vision
document, a long term policy covering 10 years may be formulated. Efforts are needed to
coordinate the work of various government departments and agencies such as Irrigation,
Veterinary, Land use board, Forestry department, Tribal development department, SHM,
VFPCK, and Agriculture University.

1) Authority for implementing Organic Farming

Centralized authority should be incorporated to implement Organic agricultural policies with
help from various government departments and agricultural university

2) Organic Farmer Groups

Set of 40-50 group of farmers similar to Anand Pattern Co-operative Societies (APCOS) set up
by former units producing milk. Voting authority is to be given to farmers based on quantity of
output produced. This group will have a federated structure which ranges from block, taluk,
district and state. People in the union will be farmers and will be interested in protecting the
interest of farmer groups. This group of farmers may be able to build cold storage facility,
transportation and marketing as a group. Government should provide financial support for 3-4
years to these groups for converting to organic farming.

3) Input certification agency

Establish certification agency for verifying the quality of inputs such as organic manure,
pesticides and seeds.

4) Vegetable and Fruit Promotion Council Keralam

Participatory Guarantee System Certification should be done in coordination with this
organization. Procure and provide organic seeds to the organic farmer groups. Determine
financial help required by farmer groups on case to case basis. Visit organic farming sites and
help farmers prevent/solve pest infestations.


5) State Horticulture Mission

Provide financial and technical support and monitor end use,

6) Veterinary Department
Work in sync with organic farmer groups and help them by giving them timely veterinary

7) Civil supplies Department

The civil supplies departments and shops can be used for marketing, procurement and selling of
organic inputs as well as produce. Government can rent out portion of the shop to a group of
organic farmers for selling organic produces.

8) Land use board

Certain percentage of land from each taluk should be allocated for Organic Farming. Land being
used for Organic Farming should not be converted for any other purpose

9) Kerala Agricultural University and Krishi Bhavan

Research should be conducted on new techniques for sustained organic farming. Create package
of practices for products such as Cardamom, Rice etc which are difficult to convert to organic
due to intense pest attack. Krishi Bhavans should stop providing subsidies to chemical fertilizers
and pesticides gradually. The quality of inputs supplied through Krishi Bhavans should be
ensured by input certification agency.

10) Irrigation Department

Ensure provision of quality irrigation water. Take responsibility to create awareness on water
conservation and collection and management of rainwater.

11) Roof top gardens

Increase production and help Kerala achieve self-sufficiency in vegetables and fruits by
encouraging roof top gardens and promoting cultivation among students through schools. Free
grow bags and seeds should be given to citizens through various government outlets.

12) Customer behavioural changes:

Provide awareness sessions to consumers on the need for paying premium price to organic
products. Create awareness to customers that slightly infected vegetables and fruits are actually
healthy and can be consumed after removing the infected part. Also educate consumers that it is
healthier to eat locally available seasonal varieties rather than imported ones. Good Food
Movement Campaign should be encouraged for healthy food from school level itself.


Inputs from farmers should be considered while designing insurance schemes. This bonus would be reduced over period of time. 14) Leaching from other areas Provide awareness to farmers on how to prevent leaching of inorganic matter from nearby sites. Farmers should be encouraged to do Animal husbandry. 52 . Provide incentives to farmers whose produce are found to be free from pesticide residues by the Pesticide residue testing lab at KAU. This would reduce acute labour shortage and exorbitant wages of labours which is one of the main problems faced by the farmers. Insurance schemes to be implemented for organic farmers in case of  Pest infestations  Climatic variation  Yield reduction during first three years of conversion to organic farming. Index based crop insurance scheme should be implemented for promoting organic farming in the state. Concentrate on making insurance terms and conditions easily understandable by farmers and enable eligible farmers to get appropriate benefits. Government should provide part of (50%) salary and remaining 50 per cent should be borne by farmers. etc. fisheries.13) Government should allow MNGREA workers to work in organic farms. Encourage farmers to reduce inorganic inputs gradually over period of time. 18) Homestead based organic farming with diverse crops has to be encouraged. This organic manure would be provided to organic farmers at very less cost. quackeries and similar enterprises as part of the mixed farming programme to ensure integrated farming and the availability of farmyard manure and urine. 15) Kudumbashree: Kudumbashree will collect organic waste from urban population and convert waste to bio manure. bee keeping. Agricultural Insurance schemes should be redesigned to include long term insurance and remove unnecessary terms and conditions. 16) Insurance for pest infestations. 17) Production bonus to organic farmers: Bonus would be provided to organic farmers in proportion to the quantity and quality of product produced. Encourage farmers to sell excess manure from animal wastes to other farmers.  Bio fencing using Neem/erukku  Buffer zone: 1 Meter area from which harvest is not taken. Develop Bee-keeping.

5) Organic food is sold to urban customers and organic waste created at the customer household is collected and sent back to the Farmer clusters. They facilitate organic farming and also promote trade of organic commodities through knowledge sharing. 3) Clusters of Farmers divide the customer requirements among themselves and cultivate based on the customer requirements. Farmer Clusters also help with group certification and brings down the costs considerably. 8) Organic tourism would be encouraged to accumulate more foreign direct investment in the sector. Government should use Information technology for schemes to improve logistics. 6) Financial Institutions provide farmers with credit for converting the land to organic farm.3 Proposed Business Model for organic farming clusters 1) Clusters of farmers are created who would help each other and create organic products based on requirements from customer. 9) Organic farming policy is created by the state and the Commodity Board ensures continuous market for the products by using advertisements and word of mouth. After three years the cultivation would become completely organic and the farmer would start reaping benefits from premium price available for organic products produced. seeds and manure happens easily among farmers in cluster. 6. The financial assistance would be extended over a period of three years to compensate for reduction in yield during the period. Also weekly or bi-weekly organic shops can be organized at collages and offices. 7) Regulatory agencies certify the organic food products and organic inputs on regular basis. 4) Organic food produced is transported to customers in urban areas via optimized routes. transportation and transparent link should be made between farmers.19) Supply chain management: Lack of government support in supply chain management on the field of agriculture remains one of the major problems for farmers and traders. 53 . Interest subsidy to be provided by the State Government for 3 years. Sharing of knowledge. 20) Online organic shops and weekly shops in collages and offices: Infrastructure for online shopping of organic products should be made available which would be an attractive option for the busy citizens of Kerala. consumers and traders which prevent any kind of exploitation. 2) IT services are used for collecting requirements from urban customers. A premium amount is collected from customer for the healthy products. Discount is provided to customers based on the quantity of organic waste collected from customer.

12) Organic products are also made available in mall that offers ample space for farmers wanting to sell their produce directly to consumers. government offices and IT companies. IT companies and offices Organic food mall Rural area Transportation Urban area Organic food Organic waste Organic waste Organic food IT Service Provider 54 Customer . 10) State Agriculture University would focus on launching diploma and certificate courses on organic farming so that necessary manpower can be created for areas such as input management. 13) Self sustaining bio village units are created which recycles organic wastes and produces all varieties of organic products required for all the members. Products are sold in weekly markets at urban apartments. certification and inspection. supply chain management and retail marketing. institutions. local NGOs and KVKs or the agriculture extension service centres may be involved in promoting organic farming. 11) For wider diffusion. Organic Bio Village model Weekly markets at apartments.

some of which are doing away with subsidy for chemical fertilisers. unsustainable agricultural production etc. farmers are not able to get a premium price for their produce. The answer lies in establishing an efficient supply chain management for organically produce products. The demand for organically grown food is increasing day by day. Organic cultivation needs timely attention and care. there are no exclusive insurance products for organic farming. would lead to sustaining organic farming in Kerala. However. This has to be essentially backed up by policy initiatives from the state government. Chapter 7 Conclusion The ill effects of inorganic cultivation practices are felt in Kerala in terms of health. ecological degradation. Insufficient supply of organic planting material.3 Chapter Summary: The recommendations of the study will be put forth to the organization so that they can take it forward. enact regulations for quality 55 . Organic food requirements Farmer clusters Premium price Organic Tourism Financing Company Centralized Certification Authority 6. However no attempt has been made to assess the demand for organic products and hence there is a mismatch between demand and supply. Organic agriculture is increasingly being adopted as a substitute to inorganic agriculture. organic fertilisers and pesticides and the absence of any quality control in this respect is hindering sustainable organic farming in Kerala. The recommendations if implemented in the right earnestness. sanitation problems. The supply chain is besieged with various constraints. In the absence of a dedicated marketing channel for organically produced food.

in/files/file/Kerala %20Perspective%20Plan%202030.A Management Tool for Initiating New Programs in Vocational Schools. establish accredited labs. SWOT Analysis . Balamuralikrishna. Iss 4..emeraldinsight. Krystallis. Available from: http://www. (2005). 107 Iss 5 p. C. A. J.pdf 56 . Vol 12 Iss 1 p.and Chryssohoidis.lib. p. (1995). Farm Journal.indiaenvironmentportal. Journal of Vocational and Technical Education. Penn. The Kerala Perspective Plan. Balaram. (1989). 3. British Food Journal. 320 . A..control of organic inputs."Consumers' willingness to pay for organic food". 2030 [Online] Kerala State Planning Board (2010)Available from : http://www. make organic certification easier and cheap and last but not least support market interventions to create a win win situation both for the farmer and the consumer. Available from: http://scholar. LISA Men Have Called You.vt. Chapter 8 Reference 1. (2010).343. Ainsworth. 1 2. G. and Dugger. R. Philadelphia. Vol.

F.. 30 Iss 3 p. Petrou. [Online] CAC/GL 32. 14. (2007) Organic Farming for Sustainable Livelihoods in Developing Countries: The Case of Cotton in India [Online] PhD diss. Verghese.focusweb. 13. 11.(2009) Organic Farming: A 21st Century Agriculture. 219 . R.emeraldinsight. F. D. Eyhorn. 9. VIII Ker. Boston New York. 135-136 16. F. (1978) One Straw Revolution. 12. Reckseidler. And Frick. George.. (2006) Organic crop production : Weed management. Masanobu. Department of Philosophy and Science. Blake. Sc. Vol. (1996). A.and Skuras. 8. and Jafri. (1999) Codex Alimentarius: Guidelines for the Production. (2002)Organic Agriculture. (1987) Organic farming and growing. Sustainable Development Department. Kochi and Balakrishanan. N. C. B. Proc. Washington State University. (2014) Handbook on Agro ecology :Farmer's Manualon Sustainable Practices[Online]Focus India Publications(2014)Available from: http://focusweb. University of Bonn(2007). Paris: FAO/WHO. (1985)The Natural Way of Farming. The Crowood Press. Masanobu.A Mariner Book Houghton Mifflin Company. Friends Rural Centre. R. Wenatchee. and Available from: http://www. Gopimony.235 Available from:http://www. Johnson. N. T. [Online] International Journal of Social Economics. A. WA 57 . January (1996). (1961) Silent Spring. Carson.. Labelling and Marketing of Organically Produced Foods. P. F. Granatstein. and Food Security [Online] Environment and Natural Resources Service. UK. (2003) The socio-economics of niche market creation". 10. Kamalam. 7.fao.. Agriculture and Food. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). Brenzil. A. Early impacts of organic farming on crop productivity. C. Environment. 6. Bookventure. El-HageScialabba. Saskatchewan. B. Con.5. Dimara.pdf 15. E. Rasulia. FAO/WHO (Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization). Processing.. T. Madras..

Clarke-Hill. [Online] Cornell Agricultural Experiment Station AE Res.emeraldinsight. D. 358 – 365 Available from: http://www. S.Available from : http://www. T.sciencedirect. 10-90. Kerala State resource based Perspective Plan 2020 AD (1997). Aertsens.Available from:http://www. 336 – 338. Consumer perception of organic food production and farm animal welfare. W. Available from: http://www. Hutchins. G.sciencedirect. R. P.cabdirect. Howard. 21. A. Govt. (2002).A. K.K. Lenie. L.A.171-173 26. G.emeraldinsight. 103 Iss 5 p. and Braster..[Online]Kerala Land Use Board. and Vanhoof. Bill. Available from: http://www.V(2009) A meta-analysis of the differences in environmental impacts between organic and conventional farming [Online] British Food Journal111 (2009) Iss 10 p.. Vol. S. (2000) Conversion subsidies for Organic production: Results from Sweden and lessons for the United States [Online] Agricultural Economics (2000) Vol 22 Iss 2p. and Hillier. M (1990) Permaculture. N. (1999). Houben. and Greenhalgh. 104 Iss 3/4/5 p. p. Deccan Development Society. and Norman. and Makatouni.17.emeraldinsight..(1997) Organic confusion: sustaining competitive advantage [Online] British Food 22. 58 24. 26 (1999) Iss 2 p. Vol. 27. [Online] Oxford University Press.C. 287 – 299 Available from: (1940)An Agricultural Testament. 133-146 Available from:http://www.of Kerala (1997).G. J. C. and 20.pdf 23. (1990) “OrganicField Crop Production— Review of the Economic 19. 99 (1997) Iss 9 Lohr.kerala. K. L. 125 – 135.emeraldinsight. (1997)A study on the impact of organic farming in Pudukkottai District in Tamil Nadu Journal of Human Ecology (1997) Vol 8 Iss 18. A. Margasagayam.old.A designer’s Manual. P. Mondelaers. [Online] British Food Journal. A knowledge-based SWOT-analysis system as an instrument for strategic planning in small and medium sized enterprises[Online] Decision Support Systems. Knoblauch. Harper. New York and London Available from: http://ps-survival. (2001) Retailing organic foods [Online] British Food Journal. Brown. R. J and 25. M. 1098 – 1119 Available from: http://www.K.

C.S. (1994) Low‐Input Farming: Is It Worth the Work? Factoring‐ In The Labor Cost Of Sustainable 31.Available from:http://www4. D. [Online]Sage Publications India. G. [Online] The FAO Review.S.20‐22. Srivastava S. and Dhar N. . Pillai. and Verlinder. Ecological agriculture in South India: An agro- economic comparison and study of 59 . E. India. C. 29. (1999) p.148 Vol. M. 17-24. K. No.28. (1992). Reijntjes. WVU Extension Service. New Delhi. Lohar N. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.htm 35.Agricultural Situation in India Vol 3 Iss USA.(2015) The World of Organic Agriculture. No..fao. Oelhaf. No.sagepub. 38. Osmun&Co. 141-165 Available from: http://www. Suryavanshi. R. Converting to an Organic Farming System. Publishers. 30. Section A. 32. P M. (1982) Organically produced crops better than inorganically produced crops. P.Sym. Inc..11 (1978) Organic agriculture Allanheld. (1997) An Economic appraisal of Vermiculture Farming in Western Maharashtra. [Online]Publication FiBl (Research Institute of Organic Agriculture) and IFOAM (Organics International(2015) Available from:https://www. VanTine. Thomas. R.1980 Vol 50 Iss 1 36. Leusden. K. 37. The Food and Agriculture Organization reports.26. Nat. Willar H. (1999) Agricultural Performance in Kerala in Kerala’s economic development: Issues & Problems.Statistics & Emerging Trends 2015.S. Van der Werf. A. 34. The Agricultural and Processed Food Products Export Development Authority (APEDA) Available from : http://www. Den Haag: LEI and ETC Foundation. Rice in Wetland (2003). Ceres. and Kundu. (2007) International Conference on Organic Agriculture and Food Security. and de Jager. December (1990). Kottayam.4 July‐August 1994 p.S and Killedar N.apeda. (1990) Integrated Nutrient Management for Sustainable Rice Farming in Wetland Ecosystem.

Keep this mixture for 7 days. and Mitscke M.[Online] Publication FiBl (Research Institute of Organic Agriculture) and SOEL (StiftungOekologie&Landbau) Available from: http://orgprints. 10) Weeds can be retained to prevent soil erosion and improve moisture content in soil. Bad smell starts emanating from the bowl. 8) Planting Marigold reduces attack of pest : nematode 9) Drumstick leaves and coconut water can be used to simulate flowering (2003) The World of Organic Agriculture. 12) Neem is very good for pest control 13) Direct inspection and removal of pest manually is effective in case of vegetables. Yussefi M. Daily care is required. 5) Mix Gliricidia leaves+ cow dung + castor oil cake. 15) Cowdung+ castor oil cake + neem cake+ mysore poovan + jaggery+ Gliricidia leaves.Statistics &Future Prospects 2003. It is prepared by combining Sardine fish and Jaggery. Worms and weeds prevents soil erosion 11) Fermented rice water can be used as effective pesticide against Epi lackna beetle. 7) Aavanippullu after taking oil is kept in bowl of couple of days. 39. 6) Cow dung + castor oil cake is mixed and kept for couple of days. Zerrin Kenanoglu Özlem Karahan. 3) Plantain can be used as shade plant for pepper. 16) Fish amino acid is a very good manure. 60 . (2002). Vol. 14) 8:1 mixture of Ash and turmeric is used as pesticide for powdery mildew."Policy implementations for organic agriculture in Turkey". 17) Vermiwash is a pesticide and it provides extra growth also. 4) Micronutrients Ayar were used to improve Chapter 9 Appendix 1 A compilation of locally developed knowledge collected during the survey of organic farmers is furnished below: 1) Adding calcium to soil reduces acidity of soil and helps it absorb nutrients.pdf 40. This can be used as effective pesticide(1 litre per plant). British Food Journal. 2) Erythrina indica was found to be best support for pepper. Mix 1 litre in 20 litre of water. 104 Iss 3/4/5 p. 300 – 318 Available from:http://www.emeraldinsight. Beetle that affects coconut die by the smell from the same. It is good manure for vegetables. Keep this mixture for 7 days. It is a good pesticide for vegetables.

An organic garden was created at the hospital campus under her supervision. She sells these products to people who come asking for these products. Now customers come to his home to buy good quality organic products by paying a premium price. The hospital staff works in the garden and the products created are distributed among the staff. paayasam. chappatti. Training model Dr. He put in lot of effort in the last four to five years by home delivering his products to neighbours’ homes. etc were created using jackfruit. poori. Irrigation model Jolly Varkey of Wayanad a plumber by profession has created water ponds and canals to collect and utilize rainwater and to prevent its wastage. chakkakkuru. She gives training to other farmers about preparation methods of these value added products. Natural farming model 61 . Due to the marketing effort taken by him he has created a niche market for himself. fries. Various products such as vada. jelly from chavana. chakkakuru podi. Maitrei of Wayanad district advocates the significance of organic products to her patients and co-workers. She also distributes seedlings to her co-workers and encourages them to cultivate required vegetables in their own garden. She also created plates out of coconut (paala). Tharuvana PO (Wayanad) had taken lot of effort in creating a separate market of his own. Appendix 2 Various Agriculture models that can be replicated Marketing model Ayoob Thootholli a farmer at Cherukara. Value added products model Eeliyamma Joseph from Kaanjaar had created a good model for value added products using jackfruit. He also manually transported products to areas where he would get premium price for his products. 18) Cow urine is very good for growth of vegetables.

They do not use any additional organic manures or pesticides. Dr Paus of Aikarakunnel.In Wayanad about seven farmers used natural method of farming or zero budget farming. He said that organic farmers are using huge quantities of fertilizers which is unnecessary. These farmers also had significant reduction in weeding and pest occurrence. He does not plough the land as it would disturb the micro organisms in the soil. how many members of your household are involved in farming? : 9) Total areaof farm land in acres : 62 . Thodupuzha has not applied any external input for the last 14 years. Extra work involved in ploughing and weeding is not required and allowing micro organisms to thrive in the soil improves its health and increases productivity of soil. Appendix 3 Survey: Sustaining Organic Farming in Kerala: Farmers’ Apprehensions & Appreciation – Approach & way Forward. These were the group of farmers inspired by the trainings conducted by Subash Palekkar the advocate for zero budget farming. These farmers reported increase in yield and significant reduction in cost of cultivation. He maintained weeds and used bush cutter to cut off extra bushes. 1) Name : 2) Age : 3) Gender : Male Female 4) Address : 5) Qualification : UG PG SSLCNo 6) Date and Time of Interview : 7) No: of familymembers : 8) Apart from you.

If so name of insurance company. If not why don’t you insure your crops : 15) Total Years of your farming experience : 16) Total Years of your organic farming experience : 17) Items of farming :( Tick whichever is applicable ) PerennialC Perennial Annual corps Annual corps Others Pls orps Corps specify Coconut Areca nut Turmeric Paddy Rubber Cashew Ginger Vegetables Pepper Nutmeg Plantain Yam Cardamom Pineapple Green chilly Amaranth Mango Papaya Tapioca Curry leaves 18) Allied agricultural activities Cow Bee Piggery Poultry Fish/Pra Duck Goat Rabbit Integrated Others Pls wn/Mus specify 63 . premium and source of subsidy towards premium. Fallow land OF(Organic farming) Non OF Perennial Annual crops crops Owned land Leased land Land given for lease Rent given Rent received 10) Apart from agriculture what else do you do for earning? What is income? 11) Laborers Particulars Others Own family Organic farming Other type of farming 12) Perception about labor requirement for Organic Farming: 13) How much do you pay for laborers on daily basis? 14) Are the crops cultivated insured.

Variety of crops. Distribution of food and cash crops. Intercropping. non Organic farming? : 22) If irrigated. 2. Selective weeding. 6. method of Irrigation in the cultivated lands: Sprinkle Well Bore well Pond/ Canal River Government Drip Others Pls irrigation /tube well Tank provided irrigation specify 23) Do you use Biogas? Is the slurry used for Organic farming vs. Animal husbandry 10. Bio fencing and buffer zone 11. 7. non Organic farming? 20) Is it irrigated/rain fed farming? If rain fed. Abundance of fruit trees. Usage of traditional seeds suited to the local conditions. Land protection from erosion and run-off 12. non Organic farming? : 24) Usage of agricultural machinery: No Coconut Tiller Harvester Methiyant Tractor Traditional Others Pls machines Climber ram specify 25) Distinguishing features of crop management : 1. Any other (specify) _________ 26) Types of organic fertilizers used : 64 . Manure creation in the field. 3. 8. why rain fed? 21) Perception of irrigation requirement for Organic farming vs. 3. 5. Drip Irrigation 9. sel 19) How much of organic manure goes for Organic farming vs.

N. Verticilliam. Organic fertilizer including wood ash. ginger and Chilly. Fish meal 14. Press mud 18. Panchagavya 20. 3) Bordeaux mixture 4) Fermented butter milk 5) Jeevamrit 6) Neem oil 7) Panchagavya 8) Cow urine 9) Plant extracts like pongamia. cow dung. Vermicompost 9. 10) Bio-agents like Tricoderma. 15. and poultry wastes. cassia. 2) Manual removal of pests. Biodynamic preparations 10. garlic. Bone meal 17.fixing crop cultivation 3. castor oil cake. Maintain plans as a source for green manure 11. Minerals such as gypsum and rock phosphate 7. Aloe vera. 4. bacteria. Pseudomonas. Any other (specify) _________ 27) Types of organic pesticides used : 1) Manual de-weeding and usage of the weeds as cattle feed or for mulching. HNPV and Bt spray 11) Any other (specify) _________ 28) Are you getting more yield doing Organic farming / non Organic farming? For which crop are you getting more yield? Particulars Organic farming Non Organic farming Yield Shelf life Productivity production/unit area Cost of cultivation Irrigation Weeding Occurrence of pest and diseases Ability to withstand adverse climatic conditions. Jeevaamrith 19. External inputs: Neem cake. datura. N bacteria) 12. 1. Animal excreta 8. 65 . Recycling of organic matter 5. Bio-fertilizers: Bacteria Kit (Ph. Mulching 6. Narayan Devaraj Pandey (NADEP) Compost 13. Green manure 2. bio-controls. Biogas slurry (slurry from gobar gas plant) 16.

. Pest infestations and diseases. 4. 66 . Lack of availability of affordable organic certification agency 5. Preserve tradition 14. fertilizer 9. 3. natural farming. Escalating crop diseases and pest infestations 8. Environment conservation 13. 7. Philosophical Emotional and ideological reasons 7. Influence of other organic farmers. 3. 6. Decreasing profit from farming 6. Changes in climate. More revenue due to premium price.Any other (specify) _________ 41) Problems faced by organic Farmers : 1. Permaculture. Lack of market / consumer awareness regarding organic produce. Lack of financial support during transition to organic farming. domestic price: 36) Items exported: 37) Route for export? NGO/Agency: 38) Is there steady demand? 39) Is there any government support available for exporting? 40) Reasons for changing to organic farming : 1. More labor required. Concern for human health 4. Sustainable long-term agriculture 2. Unavailability of labour and very high wage rate. etc. 2. Decreasing health of the soil 10. Need for more freedom and self-dependence in farming 5. unpredictable rains. Increasing costs and reliance on external sources for labor. Marketing Income 29) Certification: Is your farm certified? If so what type of certification? If not why? 30) Marketing channel and transportation: 31) Income per unit area from Organic farming/non Organic farming: 32) Profit per unit area from Organic farming /non Organic farming: 33) Are you getting premium price for Organic farming products? 34) Countries to which organic products are exported: 35) Excess income from Export vs. 11.

3 = neither Agree nor Disagree. GraminBeejYojana 67 . RashtriyaKrishiVikasYojana b. seeds and pesticides 10. 1 = Strongly Disagree) Items 5 4 3 2 1 1) Good quality organic seeds are available in market 2) Good quality bio pesticides and fertilizers are available in market 3) It is very easy to use bio pesticides and fertilizers 4) I am very happy with using bio pesticides and fertilizers 5) I am happy/satisfied with the rates of crops decided by the Government 6) Using organic method of farming increases my revenue 7) People appreciate me for using organic method of farming 8) Organic products provide better yield 9) Organic products provide better revenue 10) Marketing setup is sufficient 11) Profit from OF is attractive 12) Pesticide and fertilizer poison and hybrid crops residue in food can result in dangers in future. Payback period is high. Lack of availability of organic inputs such as fertilizer. 8. Less shelf life of produce. Lack of affordable good quality organic inputs such as fertilizer. Any other (specify) _________ 42) What are the factors that encourage you to do organic farming? 43) How much is the loan amount that you have taken for farming? 44) Is the loan amount sufficient/Insufficient? If insufficient to what extend? 45) Is credit available at the same extend for Organic farming /non Organic farming? 46) From whom do you take loan? 47) What difficulties have you faced while taking loan? 48) Is there a reduction in yield during first 3 years if so to what extend? 49) Why don’t you sell your crops to the government purchase center? 50) For the following items. National Food Security Mission (NFSM) d. 12. 2 = Disagree. GraminBhandaranyojana c. indicate your choice with a √ mark in the appropriate box. 4 = Agree. Agriculture Technology Management Agency (ATMA) f. National Agriculture Insurance Scheme (NAIS) e. (5 = Strongly Agree. seeds and pesticides 9. 11. 13) I have benefitted from below schemes a.

g. WOACS. Interest subversion scheme of government j. KrishiVigyan Kendra h. Which are the other agencies involved (govt and private)? 2) Which are the districts best following organic farming? 3) Which are the districts not following organic farming? 4) Is there any correlation observed between organic farming and animal husbandry? 5) Is there any correlation observed between organic farming and organic manure? 6) Is there any correlation observed between organic farming and bio gas production in the area? 68 . National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme l. KarshakaSanthwanam Scheme m. Kisan Credit Card i. Subsidy for agricultural inputs like seeds. fertilizers etc. Sampoornajaivakarshakasamsthanam n. ICCOA o. Apart from the above scheme have you heard of any other scheme? (Name)_________ 52) What are the challenges you faced while doing organic farming? 53) Which are the Government organizations such as Krishi Bhavan that are helping you in organic farming? How are they helping? What more do you think can be done by them? 54) Which are the private organizations or NGOs such as Kerala Social Services Forum that are helping you in organic farming? How are they helping? What more do you think can be done by them? 55) What are the marketing techniques used to improve awareness and acceptance of your products? Which are the other organizations involved in marketing of your products? How do you think marketing efforts can be improved? 56) Have you ever got Kisan SMS on your mobile? If not why? 57) Whom do you contact for advice if you have a sudden unexpected pest infestation? 58) Do you have any tips to improve yield of organic farming? 59) What do you think are the areas/ideas government should focus on to improve adoption of organic farming? Stakeholder Interview schedule 1) What are the developments in organic farming? State govt strategy to make Kerala organic by 2016. SHM Agencies :HOPS. KADS. k.

25) Is organic farming finding favour among Homestead/single crop farmers (annual crops/perennials)? 26) What is status of organic farming for lease land cultivators? 27) Marketing system in Kerala for organic products. Are there studies conducted on per cent increase? 69 .7) Are there any models developed for organic farming? 8) What is current status of input availability/quality certifications? What are the challenges? 9) Are good quality inputs available for organic farming? 10) Possibilities for introducing quality certifications for inputs related to organic farming/challenges? 11) What are the related trainings requirements? 12) What are the various stakeholders? What are their roles? 13) What are the bottlenecks which dissuade farmers from taking up organic farming? 14) There is conflicting opinion while pursuing Organic farming what are the possible reasons for this? 15) Is yield from organic farming dependent on the extent of damage done to the soil? 16) What are challenges for taking up Organic farming on large scale in terms of quality of product/shelf life? 17) Are there any documented tips from farmers to increase yield through Organic farming? 18) What are the crops for which organic farming is suitable? 19) What are the crops for which organic farming is not suitable? Have university/department come out with package of practices for growing crops organically? 20) What is the strategy to make organic farming sustainable? 21) Are current organic farming certifications affordable or available If not why? 22) Are current organic farmers (Certified/not certified) getting price premium? 23) Is organic farming finding favour among small/large farmers? 24) It is suitable for large farmers. Has any agency worked model for marketing organically grown crops? 28) Publications/websites related to organic farming 29) SWOT analysis of organic farming 30) Expected yield increase in general. Are there any set up available.

Agency Interview schedule 1) Agency name : 2) Jurisdiction : 3) Location address : 4) Constitutional structure : Quasi government NGO Trust Government OthersPls specify 5) Whose programs are you supporting State/Central? Which all programs? SHM RKVY Agriculture department Other Pls specify 6) Which districts are you concentrating? Are your programs extending across multiple districts? If so which districts? 7) How long has the agency been promoting Organic farming? 8) Which are the area you are concentrating on and to what extend? Training – Which area: manure production/conversion/marketing Provide manure/financial assistance/fertilizer/market Help in marketing Help in getting premium price 9) What are the schemes implemented by Agency for organic farming? 70 .

10) Do you promote individual farmers or cluster of farmers? 11) On what criteria is farmers selected for financial support? 12) Which is the list of farmers benefitted from schemes? 13) Which are the other departments/organizations with whom you are coordinating to meet the objective? 14) What are the apprehensions for Organic farming? 15) What are the appreciations for Organic farming? 16) What are the challenges faced? 17) Have you found correlation between AH and Organic farming? 18) What more do you think can be done to improve the situation? 19) What are the best practices observed in the field? 20) What is the future strategy to meet the objective of making Kerala 100 per cent organic by 2016? 71 .