N E WS L E T T ER

OF THE EUROPEAN MATHEMATICAL SOCIETY

S E European
M M Mathematical
E S 25 years Society

December 2015
Issue 98
ISSN 1027-488X
Courtesy Sebstià Xambó-Descamps.
4 Presidents of the EMS.

Editorial Interviews
The EMS Jubilee Louis Nirenberg
25th EMS Manjul Bhargava
Anniversary History
5ECM in Amsterdam George Boole
6ECM in Kraków and Boolean Algebra

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Contents

Editorial Team
Editor-in-Chief Vladimir R. Kostic
European
Mathematical
(Social Media)
Lucia Di Vizio Department of Mathematics
LMV, UVSQ and Informatics
45 avenue des États-Unis University of Novi Sad

Society
78035 Versailles cedex, France 21000 Novi Sad, Serbia
e-mail: divizio@math.cnrs.fr e-mail: vladimir.slk@gmail.com

Copy Editor Eva Miranda
Departament de Matemàtica
Chris Nunn Aplicada I, EPSEB, Edifici P
119 St Michaels Road, Universitat Politècnica
Aldershot, GU12 4JW, UK de Catalunya Newsletter No. 98, December 2015
e-mail: nunn2quick@gmail.com Av. del Dr Maran˜on 44–50
08028 Barcelona, Spain
Editors e-mail: eva.miranda@upc.edu Editorial: The EMS Jubilee – Challenges for the Next 25 Years –
Ramla Abdellatif R. Elwes................................................................................. 3
Vladimir L. Popov
LAMFA – UPJV Steklov Mathematical Institute 5ECM in Amsterdam – A. Ran & H. te Riele................................. 9
80039 Amiens Cedex 1, France Russian Academy of Sciences
e-mail: Ramla.Abdellatif@u-picardie.fr 6ECM in Kraków. Organizer’s Reminiscences – S. Jackowski....... 10
Gubkina 8
119991 Moscow, Russia Problems for Children 5 to 15 Years Old – V. Arnold.................... 14
Jean-Paul Allouche e-mail: popovvl@mi.ras.ru
(Book Reviews) Additive Eigenvalue Problem – S. Kumar..................................... 20
IMJ-PRG, UPMC Themistocles M. Rassias George Boole and Boolean Algebra – S. Burris............................ 27
4, Place Jussieu, Case 247 (Problem Corner)
75252 Paris Cedex 05, France Interview with Abel Laureate Louis Nirenberg – M. Raussen &
Department of Mathematics
e-mail: jean-paul.allouche@imj-prg.fr
National Technical University C. Skau.................................................................................. 33
of Athens, Zografou Campus Interview with Manjul Bhargava – U. Persson............................... 39
Jorge Buescu GR-15780 Athens, Greece
(Societies) e-mail: trassias@math.ntua.gr Recollection of a Singular School – S. Paycha.............................. 45
Dep. Matemática, Faculdade
de Ciências, Edifício C6, A Tour of the Exhibition “MadeInItaly. Mathematicians in Search
Volker R. Remmert
Piso 2 Campo Grande (History of Mathematics) of the Future” – G. Bini........................................................... 48
1749-006 Lisboa, Portugal IZWT, Wuppertal University
e-mail: jbuescu@ptmat.fc.ul.pt Explain Your Thesis in Three Minutes – M. Kreusch..................... 50
D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany
e-mail: remmert@uni-wuppertal.de Mathematical Sciences Research Institute – H. Friedman............. 52
Jean-Luc Dorier
(Math. Education) Vladimir Salnikov
The Portuguese Mathematical Society (SPM) at 75 –
FPSE – Université de Genève University of Luxembourg F. P. da Costa......................................................................... 56
Bd du pont d’Arve, 40 Mathematics Research Unit
1211 Genève 4, Switzerland Campus Kirchberg
ICMI Column – J.-L. Dorier......................................................... 58
Jean-Luc.Dorier@unige.ch
6, rue Richard Coudenhove- Professional Development Centres as Levers for Change in
Kalergi
Eva-Maria Feichtner L-1359 Luxembourg
Mathematics Education – K. Maaß et al...................................... 59
(Research Centres) vladimir.salnikov@uni.lu Connecting Old and New Information: zBMATH as a Hub
Department of Mathematics
University of Bremen Dierk Schleicher Connecting Digital Resources – O. Teschke.............................. 61
28359 Bremen, Germany
e-mail: emf@math.uni-bremen.de
Research I Book Reviews............................................................................ 63
Jacobs University Bremen
Postfach 750 561 Letters to the Editor.................................................................... 71
Javier Fresán
(Young Mathematicians’ Column)
28725 Bremen, Germany Personal Column........................................................................ 72
dierk@jacobs-university.de
Departement Mathematik
ETH Zürich Olaf Teschke The views expressed in this Newsletter are those of the
8092 Zürich, Switzerland
e-mail: javier.fresan@math.ethz.ch
(Zentralblatt Column) authors and do not necessarily represent those of the
FIZ Karlsruhe EMS or the Editorial Team.
Franklinstraße 11
10587 Berlin, Germany ISSN 1027-488X
e-mail: teschke@zentralblatt-math.org
© 2015 European Mathematical Society
Jaap Top
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EMS Newsletter December 2015 1

Turkey Institute of Mathematics Cover photograph: Eötvös Loránd University P. Sweden e-mail: s. LS2 9JT http://www. Laptev.ras. Contact: matarne@math. Exner. Berlin. Budapest. Petersburg. President.DE Department of Mathematical Sciences Prof.ac.cnr. Martin Raussen D-10623 Berlin (2013–2016) Germany e-mail: mehrmann@math. O.it/ FIN-00014 University of Helsinki Dr. Box 68 Bernoulli Society-EMS Joint Lecture: Sara van de Geer (ETH (Gustaf Hällströmin katu 2b) Zurich) Treasurer FIN-00014 University of Helsinki Finland 30 March – 3 April Tel: (+358)-9-191 51503 EUROMATH. Mats Gyllenberg Fax: (+358)-9-191 51400 (2015–2018) e-mail: ems-office@helsinki.elte. Bourguignon.EMS Agenda EMS Executive Committee EMS Agenda President Prof.fi University of Leeds 7th European Congress of Mathematics. Gert-Martin Greuel 2016 (2013–2016) Prof.smp2016.uni-kl. Humboldt University.ru Diderot Mathematical Forum 2016 “Biomedical Applications of Mathematics” Prof.gyllenberg@helsinki. Volker Mehrmann via Ferrata 3 15 – 16 April (2011–2014) I-27100 Pavia ERCOM meeting.aau. Alice Fialowski Second Caucasian Mathematics Conference (CMC-II) (2013–2016) Lake Van.dk Czech Technical University D-67663 Kaiserslautern Brˇehová 7 Germany 18 – 20 March CZ-11519 Prague 1 e-mail: greuel@mathematik.Elwes@leeds. Italy Department of Mathematics Utrecht University Ms Elvira Hyvönen and Budapestlaan 6 Ms Erica Runolinna 16 – 20 March NL-3584 CD Utrecht Department of Mathematics 27th Nordic Congress of Mathematicians The Netherlands and Statistics Stockholm. Germany Leeds. Rio de Janeiro.cas. Berlin. ICTP Trieste.TU-Berlin.eu EMS-IAMP Summer School in Mathematical Physics on and Statistics “Universality. at the celebration ICM 2018 e-mail: fialowsk@cs. A. Franco Brezzi F-93430 Villetaneuse Annual Meeting of the Committee for Developing Countries (2013–2016) France of the EMS. Richard H. Italy P. 2 EMS Newsletter December 2015 . Hungary Vice-Presidents UMR 7539 CNRS Université Paris 13 9 April Prof. Université Paris (2015–2018) Descartes. Warsaw. France. Politecnico di Milano.uk 25 – 26 August Prof.it Strasse des 17. Czech Republic Prof. Sjoerd Verduyn Lunel EMS Secretariat Universidad Complutense de Madrid.cond-math. Prof.N. Germany Prof. Thessaloniki.R.verduynlunel@uu. Spain. Pavel Exner Department of Mathematics 3 – 6 March (2015–2018) University of Kaiserslautern Ethics Committee Meeting. Brazil the EMS.-P.eu/EMS-CDC/ e Tecnologie Informatiche del C. O. 8 2016 e-mail: raussen@math. and 2018 Pázmány Péter sétány 1/C J.cz (2013–2016) Laboratoire Analyse. Juni 136 EMS Council. M.hu for the 25th anniversary of Rio Centro Convention Center.aau. former 1 – 9 August Hungary presidents. Greece Prof. Sweden e-mail: ems@ujf. Elwes Finland School of Mathematics 18 – 22 July e-mail: mats.euro-math-soc.de/ Ordinary Members UK e-mail: R.univ-paris13. Russia Institut für Mathematik Italy TU Berlin MA 4–5 16 – 17 July e-mail: brezzi@imati. Institut Mittag-Leffler.de Executive Committee Meeting.dk 119991 Moscow Russia 15 March Secretary e-mail: sergeev@mi.7ecm. Scaling Limits and Effective Theories” University of Helsinki EMS Publicity Officer Roma. Poland Doppler Institute Erwin-Schroedinger Str. Armen Sergeev Aalborg University Fredrik Bajers Vej 7G (2013–2016) Steklov Mathematical Institute EMS Scientific Events DK-9220 Aalborg Øst Russian Academy of Sciences Denmark Gubkina str. St. Italy Istituto di Matematica Applicata e-mail: halpern@math.nl P.H. Sanz- H-1117 Budapest Solé.m. Laurence Halpern Djursholm. Géométrie 2 – 3 April & Applications Presidents Meeting.fi 11 – 15 July Department of Mathematics Web site: http://www. Box 68 http://www.fr http://euro-math-soc.

Several of puzzles. lie in Southern Africa. whose as technically demanding as it is socially important. Editorial The EMS Jubilee: Challenges for the Next 25 Years Richard Elwes (EMS Publicity Officer. distinction at all. Today. a technology Here were beautiful problems and deep theorems. Why do mathematicians do mathematics? In truth. there is plenty of enjoyment to be had expertise. thinkers in Mesopotamia and Egypt made early break- throughs in notation and technique. Pavel Exner. with data science in particular being an area of for professional mathematicians too. Indian and Chinese mathematicians produced insights which remain with us today. He be- discussed the difficulty of incorporating observational gan with the theorem of Koebe that every planar graph data into theoretical models. we are on the state of European mathematics. The day opened with an the answer is not usually because of its societal benefits address from the Society’s President. that staple of recreational mathematics. or deep-thinkers who provide answers to some the themes from that conversation were well represented of the most profound questions our species can ask. founded in 1778. while the Persian and Arabic traditions developed the subject over hundreds of years. not born until 1990 in the Polish did to Analysis in the time of Fourier: we already have town of Mądralin. to the tune of 9% of all jobs and 16% numbers. in our desire to give credit where it is due. (The in the day as a whole. as in so many areas of life. we do it be- comprised 4 plenary talks followed by a panel discussion cause we enjoy it. One de- cated mathematics. in several senses. This year therefore. He offered the opinion that mathematicians to- schap. the Fibonacci matics is enormous. as we look to the either playful people who enjoy amusing ourselves with challenges of the next 25 years and beyond. day stand in a similar position relative to Data. The European Mathematical So. and regional mathematical societies. Our own conti- nent of Europe has been home to a multitude of math- ematical advancements since the time of Pythagoras. Depending on your perspective. lightful discussion involved the profinite extension of France. as they ciety is thus a latecomer. the USA is a modern powerhouse. of Zˆ. meaning the structure nologies whose design and operation relies on sophisti. the economic impact of Mathe. but a revolution is reached 25 years of age. tion of profinite number theory. and to honour the contributions of cultures which are too often over- looked. on 22nd October. UK)) The roots of mathematics. like those of humanity it- self. But. we were treated to a talk from ship between mathematical models and data. and Netherlands. no them out. 15–19. in fact. University of Leeds. Every aspect ture by Hendrik Lenstra was an entertaining investiga- of today’s society is influenced by life-transforming tech. our society has the basic language and techniques. giving appropriate weight has a circle representation: a set of non-overlapping discs EMS Newsletter December 2015 3 . In the afternoon session. According to recent reports in UK. and or economic impact. he origins lie in puzzles accessible to school-children. The market thus presents an have been amused by this recursive sequence. Indeed. and perhaps it is worth drawing paradox of our subject is that this distinction is. and as unprecedented and growing demand for mathematical Lenstra showed. (See his essay in the explosive growth. At an individual level. many European nations have their own illus- trious mathematical histories. Taking the László Lovász on geometric representations of graphs. caré in Paris.) A major focus was the need for mathematics to be an The day saw two talks in this vein. The opening lec- outward-facing discipline. In the 19th and early 20th The guests for the EMS Jubilee at Institut Henri Poincaré. celebrated in magnificent style at the Institut Henri Poin. a youthful milestone which was surely imminent. Andrew Stuart spoke eloquently September 2006. of which the oldest surviving is the Dutch Koninklijk Wiskundig Genoot­ to both. the profinite completion of the integers. centuries. Just occasionally. Generations of school-students and lay-people of Gross National Product. Newsletter of the European Mathematical Society 61. At the dawn of civilisation. this led to the founding of plethora of national Photo courtesy of Elvira Hyvönen.) about one pressing challenge in this arena: the relation. we should not get carried away. example of numerical weather forecasting. In his plenary talk. it is worth reflecting and celebrating this glorious tradition.

2. and others all have increasing needs of our expertise. 16-17 July 2016. these members may elect 1. find more coverage of the event in a special 100th edition non. (b) Associate Members secutive service in the same capacity does not exceed Delegates representing associate members shall be elect- eight years. Through the lan.EMS News in the plane. parently intractable question: how to predict or analyse the (seemingly inherently unpredictable) behaviour of a and Ari Laptev. of course. The membership class is decided by the coun. Peter Bühlmann. and who have agreed to (a) Full Members serve. on 17 July. tion touching on mathematical education. Mme Florence Berthou. Extending this is the Cage Theorem first proved by Andre’ev: that every 3-connected planar graph is isomorphic to the 1-skeleton of a convex 3-polytope. medics. Afterwards. but in the modern era bi- ologists. publishing. ethics. boldt University at Unter den Linden 6. in the number of delegates for the 2016 Council is determined Senate Meeting Room in the Main Building of the Hum. a fascinating and wide-ranging conversa- gigantic system of interacting particles. Florence Berthou (Maire du 5ème Arrondissement. Mathematics has a long-standing rela- tionship with physics. a remarkable success story which other subjects would surely love to emulate. lob- guage of entropy and chaos theory. from a list of candidates who have been nominated and seconded by associate members. The council Each society is responsible for the election of its del- meeting starts at 14:00 on 16 July and ends at lunchtime egates. Paris). next year. However. In October 2015. 3 or 4 delegates according to their member. There is an online nomination form for delegates of full members. Delegates to the council are elected for a period of four years. according to our statutes. The next which was introduced by the 2008 Council. The nomination deadline for delegates of Delegates full members is 24 April 2016. by the current membership class of the society. wherein the from the Mayor. the picked apart and robust results obtained. these terms have been bying. of the Newsletter. Laure Saint-Raymond delivered her plenary lecture on the subject of kinetic theory. and application. mathematics has wonderfully illuminated an ap. Pavel Exner (EMS President). and societies are invited to apply for the new class 4. elect). to another 25 years! The formal part of the day was brought to an end with (Readers not able to attend the jubilee in Paris will the panel discussion comprising Jean-Pierre Bourguig. Roberto Natalini. there were two associate mem- Full members are national mathematical societies. chemists. Delegates will be elected by the following ed by a ballot organised by the Executive Committee categories of members. with two vertices joined by an edge if and only if their corresponding discs touch. Another sense in which mathematics needs to out- ward facing is in the need to engage with our colleagues in other sciences. which bers and. and to drink Boltzmann equation is rigorously derived as the limit of the health of the European Mathematical Society: Here’s a system of hard spheres. outreach. assembled company retired to the splendid surroundings she spoke of recent breakthrough work of her own with of the Mairie du 5ème Arrondissement for a welcome Isabelle Gallagher and Benjamin Texier. July 16 and 17. the meeting will be held in Berlin. Maria Esteban (ICIAM President Here. ship class. lenberg. 4 EMS Newsletter December 2015 . be represented by (up to) one delegate. A delegate may be re-elected provided that con. Maria Esteban. The delegate whose term includes 2016 is Mats Gyl- cil. In particular. where every edge of the polytope touches a given sphere.) Announcement of the Next Meeting of the EMS Council Berlin. 2016 The EMS Council meets every second year.

Presidents.eu/nomination-forms- Vincent Heuveline council-delegates Arne Jensen Paul C. Volker Mehrmann (2011–2018) Here is a list of the current delegates of individual Armen Sergeev (2013–2016) members whose terms include 2016: Members of the Executive Committee are elected for a Arne Ball period of four years. Treasurer: Mats Gyllenberg (2015–2018) In October 2015. The nomination deadline for del. and who have soon as possible. Members: Alice Fialowski (2013–2016) resented by (up to) 27 delegates. These del. this number Gert-Martin Greuel (2013–2016) may have increased by the time we call the election (if Laurence Halpern (2013–2016) any) for individual members. is as follows. Executive Committee. individual members is 17 March 2016. EMS News There is an online nomination form for delegates of as.eu/governance Mireille Chaleyat-Maurel Krzysztof Ciesielski The nomination forms for delegates can be found here Mirna Džamonja Pavel Exner http://www. The nomination deadline for delegates vidual members. However. these members may be represented by (up to) four delegates. Jiří Rákosník After hearing the report by the Chair of the Nominations Oriol Serra Committee (if one has been set up). there were 2650 individual members and. The nomination deadline for delegates of of associate members is 17 March 2016. (c) Institutional Members Agenda Delegates representing institutional members shall be The Executive Committee is responsible for preparing the elected by a ballot organised by the Executive Commit. Treasurer and other Members of the elected is Sverre Olaf Smalo. Committee members may be re-elected. EMS Secretariat in Helsinki. Secretary. Kettler Ari Laptev Secretary: S  joerd Verduyn Lunel José Francisco Rodrigues (s.m. at its meeting. there were 42 insti. Executive Committee The delegates whose terms include 2016 are Joaquium The council is responsible for electing the President. Secretary: Sjoerd Verduyn Lunel (2015–2018) egates must themselves be individual members of the European Mathematical Society.euro-math-soc. to the agreed to serve. which can be viewed on the webpage of the council: Peter Benner Thierry Bouche http://www. the council will pro- ceed to the election of Executive Committee posts. add to the nominations Christian Kassel received and set up a Nominations Committee. and no later than 24 April 2016. The present membership of the Ex- There is an online nomination form for delegates of ecutive Committee. and who have agreed to serve.fi Stepan Agop Tersian Robin Wilson EMS Newsletter December 2015 5 . disjoint Luis Narvaáez Macarro from the Executive Committee. provided Maria Esteban that consecutive service does not exceed eight years. Vice- Bruna and Alberto Pinto. egates of institutional members is 17 March 2016. according to our statutes. President: Pavel Exner (2015–2018) (d) Individual Members Delegates representing individual members shall be Vice-Presidents: Franco Brezzi (2013–2016) elected by a ballot organised by the Executive Commit. Martin Raussen (2013–2016) tee from a list of candidates who have been nominated and seconded. matters to be discussed at council meetings. according to our statutes. tutional members and.verduynlunel@uu. Vincenzo Ferone The council may. The president can only serve one Vasile Berinde term. The delegate who can be re. together with their individual terms of institutional members.nl) Marie-Françoise Roy Secretariat: ems-office@helsinki. In October 2015. There is an online nomination form for delegates of indi- sociate members. these members may be rep. to consider all candidates. office. Here is a list of the delegates of individual members who All these arrangements are as required in the Statutes could be re-elected to the 2016 Council: and By-Laws. Items for the tee from a list of candidates who have been nominated agenda of this meeting of the council should be sent as and seconded by institutional members.euro-math-soc.

Rounding off the meeting on Sunday 20th was Keith on Groups in Interaction. and a self-contained presentation of the representation-theoretical tools needed in order to apprehend spinors. Parker. ics during his PhD at Cambridge. After a self-contained presentation of the basic algebraic.ems-ph. She was followed rial Clock-tower (or ‘Old Joe’. Head of Mathemat- of mathematics’ current leading lights. objects.EMS News LMS-EMS Joint Mathematical Week-end in Birmingham. mathematicians were drew Treglown. the world’s tallest free. discussing several instances of Ball (Warwick). geometrical. plenary session of Saturday 19th. (Tel Aviv and Princeton). The day’s final Exner. and with congratulations to EIisa Covato spotted enjoying Balti curry (a famous Birmingham cre. France). Andrei Moroianu (Université de Versailles-St Quentin.5 x 23. a spinorial characterization of special geometries. for a conference in celebration of two Stefanie Petermichl (Toulouse) delivered the first birthdays: the 150th of the venerable London Mathemat. analytical and topological ingredients. France). University of Leeds. a systematic study of the spectral properties of the Dirac operator on compact spin manifolds is carried out. 6 EMS Newsletter December 2015 . by Béla Bollobás (Cambridge and Memphis) speaking standing clock-tower). Bucures¸ti. and reunited for plenary talks from some recently passed away: Ian Cassels. and the role they play in subjects cious food was consumed. on Percolation and random cellular automata. His focus was Cayley Sum Graphs of ing in Birmingham University Staff House. This book will help advanced graduate students and researchers to get more familiar with this beautiful domain of mathematics with great relevance to both theoretical physics and geometry. The classical estimates on eigenvalues and their limiting cases are discussed next. on the subject of Graphs. Aner Shalev in cheerful celebration of the two societies’ birthdays. and the 25th of the relatively youth. next door to the from around the world congregate at the University of School of Mathematics. The special features of the book include a unified treatment of Spinc and conformal spin geometry (with special emphasis on the conformal covariance of the Dirac operator). Maria Carmen Reguera and An- Away from the lecture theatres. France). Anton Evseev. Oussama Hijazi (Université de Lorraine. algebraic problem motivated by a question in cryptog- ing got underway with a plenary talk from Noga Alon raphy. in. 462 pages. UK Richard Elwes (EMS Publicity Officer. Hardcover. Switzerland orders@ems-ph. Birmingham. 78. France). CH-8092 Zürich. and several applications of these ideas are presented. Jean-Louis Milhorat (Université de Nantes. the meet. (Bristol) and Robert Hancock (Birmingham) winners of ation. Combinatorics.00 Euro The book gives an elementary and comprehensive introduction to Spin Geometry. Chris ber theory. European Mathematical Society Publishing House Seminar for Applied Mathematics ETH-Zentrum SEW A27. 2015. an College of Engineering and Physical Sciences. UK. 16. and many glasses were raised from Graph Theory to Information Theory. Bures-sur-Yvette. He paused allel sessions on the themes of Algebra. along with the postage stamp and the pneumatic the graduate student poster competition. groups. and Bollobás’s own After warm greetings from Terry Lyons and Pavel graduate student Charles Read (Leeds). algebraic geometry. where deli- finite Abelian groups. and from plenary session was from Timothy Gowers on the subject Andrew Schofield. with an entertaining plenary talk ex- interplay between group theory and other subjects. discussing progress on controlling the norms of Under the watch of the Joseph Chamberlain Memo. Sergiu Moroianu (Institu- tul de Matematica˘ al Academiei Române. an excellent tyre) and enjoying the outstanding collection of paint.5 cm. an overview with proofs of the theory of elliptic differential operators on compact manifolds based on pseudodifferential calculus. participants divided between par.org Jean-Pierre Bourguignon (IHÉS. celebratory weekend drew to a close. UK) The week-end 18–20 September saw mathematicians ings at the Barber Institute of Fine Arts. Romania) A Spinorial Approach to Riemannian and Conformal Geometry (EMS Monographs in Mathematics) ISBN 978-3-03719-136-1. and num.org / www. with particular emphasis on the Dirac operator which plays a fundamental role in differential geometry and mathematical physics. Then with hearty thanks to the organisers. second order Riesz transforms on multiply-connected Lie ful European Mathematical Society. Head of Birmingham University’s of Interleaved products in highly non-Abelian groups. the two societies’ respective Presidents. ploring The probabilistic character of high-dimensional cluding probability theory. (Jerusalem) later delivered the day’s second plenary talk. on Optimal control of ical Society (LMS). vec­ The conference dinner took place on Saturday even- tors and integers. Nancy. during his talk to pay tribute to two friends who had and Analysis. certain classical operators on groups.

presenting your evidence of plagiarism. If you.mathunion. Denmark) One of the tasks given to the Ethics Committee is to consider possible violations of the Code of Practice. If no replies or negative replies are received. and with priority given Applications should be sent to info-for-cwm@math to networks and individuals in developing or emerg. If so. report of the activity with details of how the budget was sidered. It is anticipated that further calls will be ing networks for women in mathematics. preferably at made in subsequent years. January 2016. 2. CWM’s help could include. This step may resolve the case. UK) The IMU’s Committee for Women in Mathematics on how CWM money would be spent and other funding (http://www. as well as indications October 2015 EMS Newsletter December 2015 7 . Coventry. spent.eu/committee/ethics IMU Committee for Women in Mathematics (CWM) Funding Call for 2016 Marie-Françoise Roy (Université de Rennes 1. Arne Jensen Chair (until end of 2015) Ethics Committee The Code of Practice can be found at http://www. successful purposes. Then make a formal submission. There will be one call for appli- funding of up to € 3000 for activities or initiatives tak. The Committee will acknowledge receipt and will decide whether there is a prima facie case. you may consider bringing the case to the Ethics Committee. cations regarding activities in 2016 with deadline of 15th ing place in 2016.euro-math-soc. Depending on demand. Contact the author(s) and the editor(s) of the journal involved. Proposers should write a short account (no more than two pages) explaining the nature of their activity IMU-CWM Committee and how it fulfills the above aims. and aimed at establishing or support. in par- ticular concerning plagiarism. union. Give this material to a colleague whose opinions you respect and ask this person to evaluate your case. you should undertake the following steps: 1. You should start by contacting the Chair informally to ensure that your submission satisfies the requirements of the Code of Practice. as an author. the commit- tee will consult experts as specified in the Code of Practice. applications may not be funded in full. 2016. Successful applications will be informed no later than funding meetings. or advice and support in creating websites. believe that you are the victim of plagiarism and wish to bring a case to the Ethics Committee.org/cwm/) invites proposals for which may be available. travel for individuals for consultation February 29. 4. Successful appli- Other ideas for researching and/or addressing problems cants will be asked to send before the end of 2016 a short encountered by women in mathematics may also be con. the continental or regional level.org ing countries. for example. Assuming that this colleague agrees with you: 3. EMS News A Message from the Ethics Committee Arne Jensen (Aalborg University. France) and Caroline Series (University of Warwick. Gather detailed information on the suspected plagiarism.

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had jointly put together a very The 5ECM conference also incorporated the an- interesting programme. (now called MCI Amsterdam). there were nearby and easy train connections to Schiphol Airport. we thought we would get it to Am. The Netherlands) In 2001. at then. It became clear that support was a matter all. to write mathematicians from more than 60 European countries a bid-book and negotiate with the selection committee of gathered at the RAI convention centre in Amsterdam the EMS. scientific or. who was played by the first speaker of what this would entail. one on climate change by Tim Palmer tee. All in ing sponsors. together with the winner of the Felix Klein prize. everything seemed to go as planned. with several hotels lix Klein prize winner Josselin Garnier. Initially. The bid. On cal world would take over to actually organise it. In their midst was the 5ECM would be held in Amsterdam. as well as a nice location. Alexei The matter of a suitable venue was actually solved Borodin. To get an idea of painter himself. Alexan- during the site visit in 2003. Obviously. how wrong we were. three science lectures: one on quantum information theory In the meantime. in 2004. Also. The Netherlands) and Herman te Riele (CWI. by Ignacio Cirac. We had several options but der Kuznetsov. Laure Saint-Raymond. painting “The Nightwatch’’ was created on the stage by a ganisations. Thus. for the opening ceremony. ences). had some small items on our list to do but. Foundation Compositio Mathematica: Arthur Avila. An excellent opening address by Dijkgraaf was And then the hard work began. A book was a piece of cake and we obtained promises of tableau vivante of Rembrandt van Rijn’s most famous support from ministries. We said yes (reluctantly) and were joined by Jan Wiegerinck from the Korteweg-de Vries Institute of Mathematics of the University of Amster- dam. which is an annual congress of the Dutch Royal Math- ematical Society (KWG). Ben Green. Finding funding came the ceremony announcing the prize winners: 10 was a constant worry for us but Jan took it upon himself young mathematicians were on stage for the EMS prizes.V. nual conference of the Royal Dutch Mathematical So- EMS Newsletter December 2015 9 . 25th Anniversary of the EMS 5ECM in Amsterdam André Ran (Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam. By tor of the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton. we still In our innocence. Chairman of the KNAW (Royal Dutch Academy of Sci- dam in particular. it became a joint effort of the three mathematics institutes in Amsterdam. group of re-enactors. the municipality. No big deal. then presi- had pledged support notified us that that was meant as dent of the European Mathematical Society. currently Direc- 4ECM in Stockholm and we got a lot of good ideas. the scientific organising commit. All kinds of course the 10 plenary lectures (including those of Richard other organisational matters were solved for us by the Taylor and László Lovász) and 33 invited lectures. making a triumvirate. the “triumvirate” participated in the opening session Robbert Dijkgraaf. headed by Lex Schrijver. about 800 thought it would be a job spread over a few years. Olga Holtz. Agata the RAI convention centre in the southern part of town Smoktunowicz and Cédric Villani. of asking the right persons and we finally managed to get There were several highlights from the conference: of a balanced budget. and one on mathematical biology by Jonathan Sherratt. Assaf Naor. The site visit in 2003 was a very pleas. headed by Rob Tijdeman. and for Amster. etc. Apparently. we did a nice job because. the lec- people from the organising agency ICS International tures by the 10 EMS prize winners sponsored by the Dutch Conference Services B. The opening ceremony was a spectacular affair. later in the year. Bo’az Klartag. This was accompanied by drum rolls ant experience and. many who followed by a warm welcome by Ari Laptev. end before the congress. Boy. the conference was off to a good start. to organise this and managed to come up with interest. and the prize committee. So. we received phone calls from our respective bosses telling us that we were the chosen vic- tims to try to get the fifth European Congress of Mathe- matics to Amsterdam. By the time the congress was about to start. these were finally put to rest. After that support in spirit and not in actual euros. it was up to us to actually organise it. the decision was taken that from the drummers in the painting. Amsterdam. we Monday 14 July 2008 at 8:45 in the morning. the two of us worked together for the first time on the organisation of the Dutch Mathematical Conference. on the week- sterdam and then the big shots in the Dutch mathemati. it was already abundantly clear to us that now we the time a professor at the University of Amsterdam and had secured 5ECM for the Netherlands. and a lecture by the Fe- turned out to be an excellent choice.

like the rest of the congress. was the most re. played by mathematician was always something to be done but our team got us Jozef Steenbrink. close to the conference On Monday evening. Poland) 6ECM. I do not care sterdam. nobody got in without a badge. evening at the head office of ING. where he has been since 1985. He carried out research on numeri­ prize lectures were presented and the Philips prize was cal mathematics and computational num­ awarded to Erik Jan van Leeuwen of CWI Amsterdam. movies were shown about Kurt Gödel and Wolfgang Döblin. of the Review Committee for mathematical research at six heavals. An Dutch Universities (2009–2010). who you are. there was the ceremony around venue. often with help of large-scale All in all. A long time ago – Mądralin 1990 ropean Congress of Mathematics” was published in Sep. quite relieved when the closing ceremony was over on noon. sir. Dirk van Dalen gave an historical lecture about Friday 18 July. Besides that he has been and tures. For us. Also during 5ECM. The recipient was Phillip Griffiths leading: the party was actually held in an old church and (Princeton). This is a prize that is awarded by On Wednesday. thus many readers may still remember it. a memorable event. if not to what happened behind the scenes. That turned out to be more than a bit mis- one of those years.’’ in mathematics at Vrije Universiteit Am­ to which the student answered: “Well. who gave his lecture on Monday evening in was. The proceedings of 5ECM were published (Amsterdam. at 10 EMS Newsletter December 2015 . extremely well known mathematician was stopped when entering the main lecture hall by a student: “Sir where André Ran is the Desmond Tutu professor is your badge?’’ “I don’t have one. There was preceded by organ music. In the after. the organization of the BeNeLux Mathematical serie5/pdf/naw5-2008-09-2-091. we were Brouwer Medal and a welcome reception.pdf) was included in the Congress in Amsterdam (22–23 March. the problem was solved and the person in ques. but my name is…. A special issue of Nieuw Archief voor Wiskunde board of the Royal Dutch Mathematical Society (since called Amsterdam Archive (http://www. Brouwer. 2008). and one on mathematics in develop. the most notable was the following. computers. in 1970. search Centers on Mathematics (2006–2009) and secretary No conference goes without its problems and up. secretary of ERCOM (European re­ in 2010 by the EMS. again. E. as participants then as readers of the EMS Newsletter. Two round table meetings took place during the conference: one on mathemat. around six in the afternoon. and 2008 happened to be Hotel Arena. During lunch breaks. Herman te Riele joined CWI Amsterdam ics and industry. the conference programme had many prize lec. the Brouwer prize. joyable and hospitable city. we are under strict orders not to let anyone He also holds an extra-ordinary profes­ in without a badge. until his retirement by the end of ing countries. not even one of the Africa. His research interests are linear most prominent mathematicians of the last half century. held in Kraków. The Beeger prize is given give so many of our colleagues from around the world a by CWI Amsterdam at every other meeting of the KWG nice conference in what we hope they found a very en- and. On Thursday afternoon. KWG) and tion very much enjoyed the president’s dinner later that two highlights were prizes awarded at those meetings. algebra. operator theory and systems and Notably. It presents a Dutch view of the world of zation of the fifth European Congress of Mathematics mathematics. 2–7 July 2012.nieuwarchief. the Beeger prize the experience and we are happy that we were able to was awarded to Dan Bernstein.25th Anniversary of the EMS ciety (Koninklijk Wiskundig Genootschap. Nevertheless. 2008 happened to be a year for this. J. I think the first time I heard about the idea of the Euro- tember 2012.’’ We do apologise but we had to be sorship at North West University in South strict. We survived L. and followed by the presentation of the through the week in one piece. where a detailed report “A Dozen Facts about the 6th Eu. special lectures and other features. 6ECM in Kraków – Organizer’s Reminiscences Stefan Jackowski (University of Warsaw. to my personal reminiscences related to the congress and cent ECM. ber theory. The ceremony For us as organisers. the organi­ conference bag.nl/ 2003). the auditorium of the Vrije Universiteit. like the selling still is active in organizational matters con­ of Brouwer stamps and of Gaussian prime tablecloths by cerning mathematics (like member of the KWG. the week went by in a blur. 2016). the Philips PhD 2011. control theory. the congress dinner party was held in the KWG every three years. This article will therefore be mainly devoted pean Congresses of Mathematics was in October 1990.

did not appeal to me. Firenze and Ljubljana. a that bilateral meetings. the Executive similar meetings with Germany and Israel. though. can be much more President of the EMS (1997–2000). Al- tiful and practical. Also. The second host in Mądralin was them. president was ending on 31 Dec 2010 but. whereas a society. served the Polish community better Chair of the Organising Committee. when the European Math. I must confess that. I believed Committee decided that for the next congress (2016). this is owned by the University. after its success. cht. his alma mater. with little influence on the scientific programme. President of the EMS Marta Sanz-Solé and I evaluation. bid and accepted responsibility for the congress. Jagiellonian University Roman Srzednicki (a former Three cities wanted to organise 6ECM and submitted student of Andrzej) assumed his duties. In the Summer their bids: Kraków. stopped by Andrzej’s sudden death on 18 May 2010. After the visit they presented their fia. Some people couldn’t imagine ECM without Andrzej. similar to kow is the football competition [Euro 2012. under these new tive Committee of the EMS in 2007. at the obvious to us. I was hoping to hear some certainly inhibit outreach activity. I can’t remember why I attended the meeting of The EMS Executive Council met in Utrecht just before prominent representatives of the European mathematical the 5ECM in Amsterdam and chose Kraków for 6ECM. My second term as PTM then prepared a bid which was submitted to the Execu. Representatives of 2010. Another possible factor in Kra­ time. In Ljubljana. by other Universities. the idea of having another big congress. Public universities in Poland are subject to detailed Professor Andrzej Pelczar. grammes but couldn’t offer as convenient facilities. as a private entity. and to Jagiellonian University. At the time. It was all It was Andrzej Pelczar’s idea to invite the European Con. ments agreed to by the Organising Committee. I decided to stay for a third term. Later. Sir Michael was also the the Auditorium Maximum of Jagiellonian University. President of the PTM. We were not aware of various role would just be formal representation of the society. His negotiating partner back in the 1980s and 1990 was Professor Bogdan Bojarski from the Polish Academy Back home of Sciences. community.” new ideas of European collaboration. in 2006. his beloved hometown. The key person in the process of founding the EMS and the other two cities presented very attractive outreach pro- most distinguished participant of the Mądralin meeting. isers are primarily responsible for financial support and After Andrzej’s death. Mathematical Society (PTM). 2011–13. In January 2011. in which prizes similar to Fields Medals were jointly by Poland and Ukraine – SJ]. where both partners collaborate document would be signed by the EMS President and the on the programme. where the local organ. academies had When Polish representatives returned home from Utre- a monopoly on representing the scientific community in. I signed the bid as circumstances. who later became Vice. EMS Newsletter December 2015 11 . 25th Anniversary of the EMS a meeting in a residence of the Polish Academy of Sci. it seemed ematical Society – a limited monopoly lasted long after natural to specify the contributions expected of each of the fall of the system. Then I got clear when I was invited to report on preparations of the involved in the organisation of a joint meeting with the congress at the Executive Committee meetings in Laus- AMS in Warsaw in 2007 and. At that time. I was less than 40 and I did not I think the decisive role was played by the strong deter- have any formal position. Having I even heard comments that it would be better to give up this in mind. I planned anne. Andrzej Pelczar was very active lo- cally and at the national and international level trying to Utrecht 2008 get support and attract interest in the congress. then President of the Polish and restrictive regulations concerning spending money. Since both institutions signed the couldn’t be formally represented by the Polish Math. The misunderstandings became when I became President of the PTM in 2005. flexible. Organisation of the ECM was not on my list of priorities e. For my PTM collaborators ish Mathematical Society membership of the EMS and and me. Everything needed for the confer­ though several representatives of the university and city ence is available in one lovely building. traditional and oral commitments that had been made. we both gave presentations on the preparations of the EMS Executive Committee visited all three cities of the 6ECM at the Executive Council Meeting in So- in late October 2007. writing about Kraków as follows: made a presentation to the IMU General Assembly in Hyderabad. In some Soviet bloc countries.g. listing the commit- then a big international meeting. this was unthinkable. the upgrade of the Pol. centre. difficult negotiations between the PTM and Jagiellon- ternationally. Marta visited Kraków to “The conference venue in Krakow was extremely beau­ discuss progress in the organisation of the congress. I think I was invited because mination of Andrzej Pelczar (a figure well known to the my wife and I had had the honour of receiving Michael EMS) to organise the congress. he promoted. the Dean of Mathematics at logistics. which will almost awarded. organised the ICM. gress of Mathematics to Kraków. concerning funding. Prague and Vienna. Andrzej Pelczar (the former Rector) has was at a crossroads. so the price she probably realised that organisation of the congress will be low. The team behind him was not so ematical Society was founded. assuming that all the work would The unexpected absence of Professor Pelczar created be done in Kraków under Andrzej’s supervision and my many misunderstandings. great local influence and the bid is strongly supported ence in Mądralin near Warsaw. thus the Polish mathematical community ian University began. close to the city authorities received her and assured her of their support. as well as the visiting Atiyah at home when he came to Warsaw to discuss the team’s very positive impression of the congress venue: organisation of the ICM 1983. organisation of the congress.

we just put tables at the side. the President of the tor was Krystyna Jaworska. there were 950 participants. Photo by Ada Pałka. In particular. Some mini-symposia organisers needed more In the Spring of 2011. ment. while on vacation. to support the smooth and more efficient organi- sation of the congress. the future 6ECM venue. She was involved in almost every aspect of preparation of the 6ECM. Representatives of UJ were changing. a year before the congress. finally. instead of regis. There Tworzewski (Vice-Rector of the UJ) and Robert Wolak were 15 STSs held during the 6ECM with over 150 talks.” She went on to say: “The when. Some people Mathematics Institute UJ.25th Anniversary of the EMS ending in settling bills. assuring the audience of the Gov- number of sofas and comfortable chairs. Proposals were ac- resentatives of Jagiellonian University (UJ). we rented a a well-received speech. starting from grant applications and tures during the congress.” She mentioned an in- became my full-time job. Shortly after. Based on the experience of past ECMs. Pre-registra- tion was opened on the 6ECM website. I worked on some 6ECM grant Government is aware of the special role of mathemati- application – from that day. the 8th European Confer- Participants of the past ECMs. we suggested merging Roman got sick and had to withdraw from organisational proposals into one session. They submitted proposals dent of the PTM. As a response to these signals. who wanted to organise STSs. My closest collabora. the change was accepted. applications for support were still pending. we were concerned that participation may turn out to be low [see diagram below].. The President of the EMS. Adam Mickiewicz University. (UJ). The EOC was also greatly helped by a large group of young Kraków math- ematicians and students. times from Warsaw to Kraków. However. ers. together with the chairs of the prize committees. At the end of June 2011. preparations of the 6ECM cal abilities in the labour market. from ipants were eligible to speak at an STS. out of which over 600 presented their re- sults. She was in charge of fi. ence on Mathematical and Theoretical Biology was held at Auditorium Maximum. Only registered 6ECM partic- work. Poznań) of subjects and speakers. We heard comments that it was difficult to get sup- port for coming to the 6ECM without the opportunity to The lobby of the 6ECM. Wacław Marzantowicz (Vice-Presi. Making a complete list of speak- as well as the author (Chair of the EOC) and three rep. Warszawa). The EMS Executive Committee was seriously wor- ried but. cepted by the EOC. Military University of Tech. for mathematics. in some cases. In the booklet devoted to 2012 12 EMS Newsletter December 2015 . Last lap Invitations to plenary and invited speakers were sent out in May 2011. The Minister of Science and Higher Education for informal discussions and registration booths took up (Professor of Law Barbara Kudrycka) attended and gave too much space. we The opening of the 6ECM was well-attended by state noticed that there were not enough seats in the lobbies officials. ernment’s high regard for mathematics: “Poland is very tration booths. Thus. At the conference on mathematical biology mentioned above. we received many applications from participants nology. We offered to cover all the usual expenses. They gave lec- nances of the 6ECM. a new Executive Organising time. There are two gratifying moments in a conference organ- Observations were carefully analysed and this helped us iser’s life: a smooth opening and a successful closing. and complaints about an unbalanced scientific pro- gramme. holding Satellite Thematic Sessions (STSs) during the resentatives of the PTM: Krystyna Jaworska (Secretary congress. was left to the STS organisers. who travelled with me many EMS. which continued until the last crease of funds for fundamental research. Piotr told me that they came to Kraków mainly for STSs. The First Announcement was distrib- uted in July 2011. at that time. which of I distinctly remember the day at the beginning of July course includes mathematics. consisting of three rep. After announcing it in the Second Announce- and Treasurer of the PTM. just before the 6ECM. in particular day of the congress a year later. and representa- tives of the PTM and UJ as co-organisers of the congress. presented the EMS prizes to the recipients. aware of the importance of science education. speak. signed the invitations. After the speeches. Registration of participants opened on the 6ECM website in early November 2011. the EOC proposed Committee (EOC) was founded. they were Zbigniew Błocki (Director of the to increase participation in the congress. Mem- bers of the EOC went there to monitor how a conference The congress of a size comparable to the ECM would fit in the building. I believe it helped January 2012. Vice-Chair of the EOC). etc. to arrange the space more comfortably.

ing a report on the congress at the closing ceremony. I am happy that my idea – called nearby church of great historical and artistic value. It did serve this purpose! for young mathematicians was included. As Marta said at the opening Ada Pałka. the congress is a “feast of mathematics” and it helps to maintain unity of mathematics – which is excep- Prize Winners. Before the banquet. He has been: or electronic subscriptions. I invited all 6ECM organisers that were pre- sent up to the podium.” committee selected 186 posters. 25th Anniversary of the EMS Finally. from the experience of the organisers of the past ECMs swers took up 30 pages of the volume distributed to all and ICMs. Member of most faithful participants who had stayed to its very end. there was a guided tour to a were quite interesting. speech. which was held at the cloister the organization of the 6th ecm. Max Karoubi (or­ be a great success. During preparations for the congress. lobby of the 6ECM. prizes for the 10 best research 90’s – has finally taken a good shape thanks to Euro­ posters were presented. kind letters after the congress. But these were informal conversations and participants. I asked my collaborators to prepare statistics concerning EMS lay auditor for 2015–16. I 1999–2005). and Chair of the Executive the structure of participation of the congress and present. After the congress – was it worth it? After the 6ECM experience. On of the functioning Franciscan Monastery in Kraków Old the top. and many the founder of the first ECM in Paris in 1992: other names were mentioned. Since 2012. I profited a lot cerned challenges in the field of the research. Articles were devoted to Stefan about good practices. You could see it in the the appealing title “Some mathematical aspects of wa. The an. Witold Wolibner. Photo by organise them is sensible. Stanisław Łojasiewicz. The next best attended event after the opening was cer. the poster ganiser of the 1ECM in Paris). invited 6ECM participants to the next 7ECM in Berlin. “foolish” by influential French mathematicians in the At the closing ceremony. ing. it is particularly of the special volume of the PTM journal “Wiadomości important to promote close contact between European matematyczne”. The volume also contained over 20 survey passing on of various materials. President of the Polish Math­ wondered what kind of report might be interesting to the ematical Society (2006–2013). a list of the past-winners of the EMS prize tional in contemporary science. Let me quote one – from Tadeusz Ważewski and Antoni Zygmund. The President of the EMS ex- pressed thanks to the speakers and the participants. the President of Deutsche Mathema- tiker-Vereinigung. “I take this opportunity to congratulate you again for tainly the congress banquet. their role in maintaining personal relations between Adrian Constantin gave the first plenary lecture with mathematicians may be growing. Organising Committee of 6ECM (2011–12). There is no reason to re-invent the Banach. (…). Samuel Eilenberg. of Warsaw (UW). A great reward for the organisers was receiving many Wacław Sierpiński. (…). formatics and Mechanics UW (1990–96. the second con. In today’s world. EMS Newsletter December 2015 13 . Józef Maria wheel every time. it is enough to improve it. the EMS Executive Council (2008–14). Andrzej Lasota. etc. which were displayed in a suitably arranged basement (garage) in the auditorium. with information While the function of congresses and conferences as a on which of them had later received the Fields Medal (9 means of transmitting scientific information is diminish- out of 50). It was perfect. consisting of ad hoc invited congress participants. would preserve know-how. I like congresses more than I did before and I’m more convinced that the effort to Students wearing 6ECM T-shirts at the receptionist desk. ed them to the audience – most are included in my article he has been a member of the Committee for Evaluation report “A Dozen Facts about the 6th European Congress of Research Units at the Polish Ministry of Science and of Mathematics”. The first concerned the motivation of mathematicians. I think it would be articles by foreign mathematicians on ideas and re. Hoene-Wroński. experience and knowledge ence on mathematics. as well as the organisers. The plenary speakers not only gave lectures people from different fields. Publishers who exhibited their publi. The poster session turned out to pean mathematicians like you. Hugo Steinhaus. interest in the subject of the lecture. It is a great opportunity to meet ter waves”. His research interests cations during the congress funded prizes – mostly books are in algebraic topology. and declared 6ECM closed. the statistics you wrote at the closing ceremony Town. Stefan Jackowski lectures at the University awarded the prizes. whom you don’t see at the but also answered two questions asked by the editors specialised meetings. Higher Education. Dean of the Faculty of Mathematics. In­ Marta told me that there is a tradition of present. A jury. Karol Borsuk. useful to create an ECM advisory committee which sults of selected Polish mathematicians and their influ. [photo in Newsletter Sept 2012] Christian Baer. From over 300 submissions.

... A brick weighs one pound plus half a brick. After that. a goat and a cabbage across a solve problems like this better than can school-age children.... On what date is the area of the other hand.. and its petals lie on the water like those chatka” at the back of the classroom “demanded more abil.. turned 2..... as Figaro said on July 1... but did ject (a polyhedron) gives the shapes shown. lag....... (Hidden edges of the polyhedron are before. the first and the second... A spoonful of wine from a barrel of wine is put into a glass 2 cm thick.... They were heading towards 14.... How long is the bookworm’s track? [This topological in each vessel (wine in the glass and tea in the barrel)... (And Nobel prize or Fields Medal winners are alone with the goat..... shot a bear.... Every day the area of the flower doubles.. Find the area of the triangle.. Is the problem with an incredible answer – 4 mm – is totally impos- volume of foreign liquid greater in the glass or in the barrel? sible for academicians. Every year.. (I particularly rec..... it finally covers the entire lake.. and 13. (Its stem ing students..... more daughters than sons do Victor’s parents have? ommend Problems 1. There is a round lake in South America... ..10.... one traveling from A ease....... How much does the cork color was the bear and where did all this happen? cost? 12. Two elderly women left at dawn. x ..... What costs 10 cents more than the cork......) 10.. But then some Rus- culture of thought in their young children.. The first woman arrived at B at 4 PM. At what time was dawn on that day? . rises from the bottom.. 1 .. and the altitude dropped .... Why not? through early and independent reflection on simple... find them to take only one of the three on board with him..... can standardized test) is 10 inches...... on the its seeds sink to the bottom. able to solve it as their American peers had (by giving 30 I am deeply convinced that this culture is developed best square inches as the answer). A-level students. June 1... river in his boat.) cabbage. I have even noticed that five year olds can 9.. drops its petals..... walked straight eastward 10 more km... The post is 10 m book. are side-by-side on a bookshelf.... However the boat is so small that he is able who have been ruined by coaching...... They met at noon....... but not 7... in turn.... This tradition in sian students arrived from Moscow.. and the goat cannot be left alone with the the worst at all in solving such problems.. The hypotenuse of a right-angled triangle (on an Ameri- . They combined their high... Two volumes of Pushkin.. What time will it 3.... cannot figure out “what to multiply by what” in flower half that of the lake? these problems. south. while the bottle alone north and after another 10 km found himself by his tent.. How much did the book cost? 11........ During the daytime a snail climbs 3 cm up a post... but who..... Victor has 2 more sisters than he has brothers..... 3.. 8. To Problem 14 To Problem 16 To 14 EMS Newsletter December 2015 ... How many occur (at the same place) tomorrow? pounds does the brick weigh? 13. and the second to be shown as dotted lines. 6.. and each of them kept walking at the same speed as as viewed from the side.) arrived at A at 9 PM. Draw its shape not stop. a Victoria Regia flower appears at its center. A bottle with a cork costs $1.. and none of them was Russia far surpasses similar traditions in the West. of a water lily).......... a certain ob- one another (along the same road)....... such as are given below... then turned east..... and Misha was one kopeck short.. Masha was seven kopecks short of the price of an alphabet the night it falls asleep and slips down 2 cm... Now there is a certain volume of “foreign” liquid ume 2.... but even then they did not In how many days will the snail get the sweet? have enough. and ities than are requisite to govern Empires”..Feature Problems for Problems for Children Children 5 to 15 Years Old Old Vladimir Arnold Vladimir Arnold I wrote these problems in Paris in the spring of 2004..... on ging in school.. Viewed from above and from the front...] to B and the other from B to A.. and a delicious sweet is waiting for the snail on its top. A hunter walked from his tent 10 km. but some preschoolers handle it with 5..... and of himself in the Beaumarchais play.. During 1. and the front and back covers are each 2 mm of tea (which is not full).. A peasant must take a wolf. because the survival in their intellectual “Kam.. A to it is 6 inches.. questions... How can he easier than college students who are busy cramming at their transport all three across the river? (The wolf cannot be left universities......) My long experience has shown that C-level students..... Top view Front view ... Some American high school students had been successfully Russian residents of Paris had asked me to help cultivate a solving this problem for over a decade. money to buy one book to share.... High tide occurred today at 12 noon... How many easy.... The pages of each volume are 4. can solve these problems better than outstand. A bookworm has gnawed through (perpendicular to the (non-homogeneous) mixture from the glass is put back into pages) from the first page of volume 1 to the last page of vol- the barrel. an equal spoonful of the thick.....

......... ................. .. .. .............. ................... ....... ... squash the fly....... ...... ......................CB is (a) maximal... .. ........... ........................... ....... ............... .......... ....... all the squares except for its two opposite corners (on the same .. .................. . ....... . Measure ......... .. . . ......... given the To Problem 24 To Problem 25 product of their ages... .. ....... .. ..... .. . . .. .. ................ .... ... . ................... . ∗ ... ....... ................... . .................. journey along the walls of the room........... ......................... ... ............ ... of the floor of a cubical room to the ....... . ..... ... . .. . .... .. ..... .............. .. .... .. .. .............. . ........... .. ....... ............. .... .. leaving the liquid in one of the vessels.... . ... ..... .. ....... ... ................. .. .. ........ . . ... ........ ............ ....... ......... ... . .... ............... ∗ .... ....... a ...... ........ .right ....opposite ..... est by a length equal to x bar-lengths........... ........... ..... .. .... ..... .. .......... ............ one another. The distance between towns A and B is 40km... A ...... .... . ........................... . Vanya solved a problem about two pre-school age chil- ...... ................. ............. you solve it... ......... ... ... ...... .... ....... . ................ .... . ... How many ways are there to break the number 64 up into . ... A• C .. .... Draw a straight line through the center of a cube so that 64 squares.. ............ ... Two spheres inscribed in the cone are tangent to the ... ......................... . ....................... ............ .......... .......... ... ........... .... ... . .............. .. .............. .............. .... ..................• .. .......... . . ......... ... ................ ... ∗ .. . ..................... .......... ...... . .. .. ............... . ..................... .. . ... ..... ...... ............... ..... .......... ...... A ........ ............. ........ .. ...................................... 5 .......... ............ ....... ∗ ....... .... ... ....... .......... not counted as different..... ..... 5 .............. . ... dominoes).......... Is the number 140 359 156 002 848 divisible by .. . . .......... .... . ............. . ...... .................... . .... ... ... ......... .......................... ........... .. ............... ............. ........ ........... ................... ............................... ........... ........... ..... ........... ............. 21............. ....... .... .................... .... ...... ......... curve. ........ .. Petya....... .............. ...... ........ ............ ..... ..... 25..... ......... ................................... ......... touches his forehead......... . ...... ............... .... ... on .................... ..... ........ .. .... . .. ........... ... ..... ...................... ... ... .... ..... ...... ..... ........ ...... . .. ........ ..... ............. .......................... ........ ........ ... .. .... ........ .... .. .. .... .... .... ................ hexagon? problem the condition that the name of the older child was ..... ........ ... .......... ................ ... How many kilometers has the fly flown alto- gether? ........ .... ......... . ..... .. ........... then flies AB.............. ... plane.......... B ................ ..... ... ........... 21 .......................... .... dren.... ..... .... .... • ...... .. ..................... • ...... ..... .. .............. 1 A B ........... A ..... ........... ........ ...... ... ......... ...... ........ . ..... ...... .......... ........ ............. .. . . . .shortest ∗ . ... ......... .......................... ..... .......... ............ ............. . ........... . . ... ................... We .... ... ........... and flies towards the second at a speed of 100 km/h................ ......... ... ................ ...................... .... ............ ..........circular cone is cut by a plane along a closed . .. ....... .. You have two vessels of volumes 5 liters and 3 liters. ..... .. .. .. .... ∗ . .. ......... ........ ..... .. .. .... .. ....... .. . The cut off by a plane? Can we get a pentagon? A heptagon? A teacher praised him for a correct answer............ ................. .......... .... •...... . . ...... .. ...................................... ... .............. ..... .. . .... .... . .. ........... ... . ........................................ ........ ........................... ..................... . .. .. ... .......... ......... ...... .... . .. . ..... ....................... ................ clists leave from A and B simultaneously traveling towards• . .. ......... . ..... . ....... ........... ..... ....... .................... • ...To Problem 20 To Problem 21 To Problem 22 sible value of x? 22...... ........... .... .. ............. ....... . .... 20..... .......... ........ ∗ ..... other at point B....... ........from ..... front ......... C ....................... . How speed of 15 km/h................ ........................... .. Prove that their centers back to the first. ............ ... . corner ................ .. ...... .. . .. 12? Sums which differ only in the order of the addends are .......... ... ...... . ... ..................... BC.... .. .......... ........ . ... ............ ........... . ..... What polygons may be obtained as sections of a cube Vanya said that this problem could not be solved. ........ ..... ... ........ ... ........ ........ .... ........... ................... To Problem 24 To Problem 25 To Problem 27 diagonal) with 31 dominoes.................. ..... He had to find their ages (which are integers)......... .............. .... .... .. ..... 15. .... ........... ... . ... .. ...... ...... ........ ....... .................... ... .. .. ............ ... touches his forehead....................... . .... . .................. ......... .... .. ........ (b) minimal (as compared .. ..................... ..... ............ ..... .... ........ ... ....... ...... Find the .. ................ .... .... .. ... . .(the right .......... ........ .. ... ........ . ............. .... Now .. ...... . ..... ............ . .... 27. . ...... ... 3 .................. ........................................... ... .. .... .... ...... . ................ . with other such lines).....................•... .... ........ .. Top view Front view ................. .... ........... ........ .. ......... ....... . . .............. .... ................ ................ .. .......... .......... . ................... ....... .... . ... .... . ........ ...................... ... . ............... ....... .... .... ............... ...... ......... ... the sum of ten natural numbers. ..the ........................ 5 ................ The 24........... ................ 4 206 377 084? . B .... .. ........ . ........left corner .... . ... . ... ............ .... ............. ......... .......... .. ...... ............... What is the largest pos. want to stack them so that the highest hangs out over the low- .... . ... .............. ....... ............. .......... ..... ........ ................ .. .. To Problem 14 To Problem 16 To Problem 17 .............. ....... ....... ....... ................. ........... ...... out one liter.. .. Equilateral triangles are constructed externally on sides fly reaches the second cyclist. ...... .............. . ...... (marked by asterisks on the diagram) form an equilateral tri- and so on until the cyclists collide with their foreheads and angle.. ..... x . but added to the regular ... .... B . .......... ........... . .......................................................... ....... A ........ ...... ..... ... ....... .............. ............ .... . ................ .. ....... ....... ... ....... ∗ .... .... .................. ... ... ...... . ................. . ............ .... .. ........... ......... .. ............................... ...... . ..... . . . To Problem . .. ..................... .... 3 ..... .. . .... .......... ..... . ... . ... .... .... ....... ................. ...... Problem 21 To Problem 22 There are five heads and fourteen legs in a family... ....... . one at a speed of 10km/h To Problem and the20other at a To23.... ....... ..... B ......... ... ...................... Feature ......... ........... ..... ....... ............ ............. .......... .. ..... ................ ............................ . .......... ..... ......... ....... ......... ....... A fly leaves A together with the first cy.. ........... .......... .. ..... ................. ........... ........ ......... Then Vanya could solve the problem right away.. . ........................ many people and how many dogs are in the family? clist...... .... .............. To Problem 24 To Problem 25 To Problem 27 EMS Newsletter December 2015 15 ... .. ....... .. ....... ..... . .... ... ....... ......... .. ..... the cross-section such that the sum of the distances CA + . .. .. ......... .............. ... .......... . ......... ........ ...... ........... ... ...... ......... •......... (A chessboard consists of 8×8 = 26. .. ....... ... ............. ........... ........ ................. ................... x A B ........ ∗ B . . .... Two cy- ........ ...... ........................................ Cover ..... .. ....................................... .... . .. ............ ........... . . ........ ......... ........ ....................... ......... ........... 16............................ ........... .. .............. .. .. ........ .. .....To Problem 22 ......... ....... .... ... .................. .................. .... . ........................ . .. ........................... ..................... ... .................. ... ....... returns to the second............ .... ............................ .... ............... ... .. .... .... ...... We have a number of identical bars (say.. ........ A.......... ...... ....... .... . .. . .. ....... .. (b) minimal.......... .......... ...... ... ..... .... .... .... .. ............ ........... . .... ........... ..... .. ... .......... .. ... .. ....... .............. ............... 18. ............. ... ...... ...... ....... . .... ........... ........ .. ..... Find a point C ...... ......... ...... . ..... ......... 1 ........ ................ ... ... ................... ........... ..•...... route for such ......... .......... . .......... ... ............. ....... .... ........... ............ ... . One domino covers two squares of a chessboard. ........ ........ . ........ . .. ............ To Problem 16 To Problem 17 ... .......... ..... 19........... .. one at point A and the ........ .... ........ . .............. ... .. .. ..........• ............... . ................................... ....... .. ............. rear corner of the ceiling).. .... .............. ... .... and CA of a triangle ABC................. 3 17.......... .... none of which is greater than .............. .. . ..... ....... . . ... ............. .... • ...... ..... ... ..... ... .................. C ....... A caterpillar wants to slither ............ . ......... To Problem 20 ... ..... ... ...................... .............. ..... . ............. ... ......... ........ . . .... ................... ............................. ..... ............................... ................ . ....... ........ ..............) the sum of the squares of the distances to it from the eight vertices of the cube is (a) maximal.. ..... ......... .. .... ........................... .... ............. .................... ........

.......... ... . ......... edges (its vertices are the centers of the faces of an icosahe- ... .. .. ... . ................... lel to the plane of the equator and passing through.. ... .................................................... .. ... .......... .. ... ..... .. ...... .... eng hs ....... .. ... .] 30...... ... .. ....... . .... ...... .. B ... .. .... . .......... ..... ............... The number π ≈ 355 22 their vertices are also vertices of the cube. How ................... ............ ..... . ples are the Platonic solids: the (regular) tetrahedron (4 faces).............. ... ∗ . and their edges .. ..... ..... .............. (tetra==4)4) (tetra (octa==8)8) (octa (icosa==20) (icosa 20) France .......... ... . ............. .... ........ ..... . . ..... .................. .............. ...... ......... ...... .... polygon along which the plane intersects the faces of the ... ..... ........... and it has 30 edges. ....... ................ ... ........... . ...... is also 10 cm.. is thrown randomly onto ruled ... .......... ... ......... .... .... ..... invented by Kepler to describe his model of the planets...... .. . ... ............ ... ..... . ............ .. ...... ........ ................... ........ ...................... .. . ............. ... ... . ... . ..... .................. ..... .. .... ... .. ... .. ............. . .. .... .. ................. many times (approximately. B ............. .... .. ............... . ......... ........ .. .. .... .. .. ......................... .... ...... .................. . ....... . ..................... ... ....... . ... ................. .... .... ...... .. ..... ........ ... by the lines tangent to the meridians at the points where ..... .... ............ ................. . ....π ... .... ........ . . .......... ................ France itself? . . . ................. ... ... . 26 = 7c + 1.... .. . .. ............ . ............ . .... ........... ............... ........ .... ...... ....... ........ . the earth that connects its north and south poles. ... .... .. .... .. .. ............................. ............. . so that 2a ...... .. . ............................. ..... ... . ... ..... . ..... axis ... .................. . . ..... ..............the . ........................................ ........... ........ ... .......... .......... ..... .................. .......... they ..... ....... .. a million throws......... ........ .......a ... .. .. .... .... ..... .... . .. ........ ..... ..... ......... .......... ......... . ..........of ......... .. . ............. .... .......... .. ...... ....... .. . ... ........ ......... ............. • . .. ............ ..... ......... .. .......... the octahedron (8 faces).... ........ ... ....... ......... ......... ....... ... ........ s a ...............cube.............. .... .......... • faces of the icosahedron are all identical...... ............... ...... ways are ..... . ... .. . ........ ..... .......... .. ... . .... .. To Problem 28 To Problem 30 .. . ... .. ..... ... ........................... ... ........... . ....... ...... ........ ......... ... ......... . ......... ......... a million) times............ . ........ ..... ........ ..... . .. ................ ................... ... . ... ................. . ......... . ............... .anes ( n each of he five cases ......... ..... . . ............ ....... .. .. ... ... .. .. .... ............... . ... ..... ..... . . ........ ....... ... ... ..... ................ ...... ....... .... .... . ........... ............... ...... .. . .......... . ............. ... ............... .. ...... ... ...... ... ........ ... ........................ ..... p ..... . ......... An oc ahedron? .. .. . twelve (regular) pentagonal faces....... ...... ....... .. ...... ............ ... are diagonals of the cube’s faces........... ............... ....... .] ............. ∗ .......... . ... . ......... ........ .. ........ . .... .... . ..... ... ..... . .. ............... ...................... .. . ............. . ....... . ..... ..... ..... .... . .... .. .. ...... ........ .... . .. ....... ......... . ............... [This construction was 5b + 1......... ................................ . . .... . . ................................ .. .... ...... ....... . .. ....... . ....................... ....... ........ ...... . .. ..... .. .. . ........ .... . ......... ......... ... ... ..... ... ... . .............. ...... . ....................................... ........ ..... .......... . .... . . .. ....... ......... ........ ..... ... ........ ........... .... .... ....of hese symme r es are ro a ons and how ....... 113 ≈ 7 . ....... .. ........... . .. .N........ .. ...... .... ........... ........................ . ..... . ... ... .... ... ...... ....... 33bis .... .. .. .. ........ ...... .... . .................... ....... the needle fall so that it intersects a line on the paper? ....... .. .. .. ........... ...... .... .. ..... .... ... . ... ...................... ............. . . .. ..... ....... .. .. .................. ... ... ... ... ....... . ....... .......... ....... .... .............. ........................ .. Image .. . .... ............. . ...................... Feature 28....... ...... . .......... many .... .. ..... ..... .... .... ... ........ ... .... . [The answer to this problem is surprising: π2 N......... ... ... .. ..... . ...... ..... ...... .. ... ..... . ... .. ... . . . ........... ...... .. . .. .. .......... .. . .... many . ............... ........... ..... intersect the equator........ ... ............................. ............. ...... . ........ ... ................. .......................... .. ...... .... ...... ...... . .... .... . ...................... even for a curved needle of length a · 10 cm the number of To Problem 32 To Problem 33bis intersections observed over N throws will be approximately 33..... 10 cm long........... ........ . ................ .... ......... ..... ........ . .... Prove that the remainder upon division of the number nals of faces of the dodecahedron.............. ........... ....... ...... . To Problem 30 ...... .......................... ......... ..... ......... ........ . . ....... .. ... .... ... .. ........ ... ... . ... .... .... ................ .... ....... .............................. .... ..... ........ ... ........ .... ...... ...... .......... ...... .. .... ............................... ...... ........ .... .. ........... .. ransforma on of h s figure preserv ng ...... ... .... ........... .... .......... ...... . . . ........ ......... . .... ............ ... . . ...... ............. .... .......... passing through three given points on its edges......... .... (A cube has 12 edges.... .............. .. ............... ... .. ................. .... ....many are ........ .................. ........ ... .... .... .. . ........ ...... . .. .. ...... ..... ....... .... .. .............. ... .......... ... ................ .. ......... ... ............................... tetrahedron tetrahedron octahedron octahedron icosahedron icosahedron ....... ... One can perform this experiment with N = 100 instead of .... .... ......... .... . tetrahedron octahedron wo of he co icosahedron ored cubes ob a ned are he same ( ha s no (tetra = 4) (octa = 8) wo can be (icosa ransformed = 20) n o each o her by a ro a on)? 16 EMS Newsletter December 2015 ... .. .. ...... ...... .. ... ...... ....... ..... . .......... ........ .. .. ..) .... ...... .. .... ............. . ........................ . . .................. .... .... ............................. .. ... . .. ...... .... ...... . ........ C .............. ................... ...... . . .......................... . ..... .... ....... . ....... .. (I did this when I was 10 years old.. .... .. . ......... .. .. ... ......... ........ . ............... ............... . ... cosahedron? A dodecahedron? A sym- ...... ........... What fraction of the cube’s volume is the volume of this .......... ........ . .. .... ............. . . ........ . ..... .... . ..... .... ..... ....... ............. ......... ... ........ . ..... . ........................ ...... .. The Earth’s surface is projected onto a cylinder formed ... ......... ...•. ... ............. . ... ... ... .. ............... ...... . ...... ............. ................. . . .... . .. ............. ............ ................... . ... ... ....] ... .. ... .. . ... . ......... .. ...... .. ........ Two regular tetrahedra can be inscribed in a cube................ . ... ... ...... .......... .. .. ..... ....... ........ ............................ .... it has 12 vertices..... ... .... .... ........... ....... ........ . .. .. ........ ................... ........ ................. ....... . . ..... .. ... . ................ .. ...... . Construct the section cut of a cube cut off by the plane ............ .........(1 6) [one co or per face] so ha no ....... ...... .... . . .......... ....... .... .............. .. ........ ........ .......... . .. . .... ........ .... ..... paper................... me ry of ......... . ..... ............ ......... .. ... . ......... ....... [Draw the .. .. .. ........ ..... ............. ................. . ... .. .... ............ ......... . and the icosahedron (20 faces)... ... ........ .... ....... ........ of the projection of France be greater or less than ..... dron)..... ..... ..... .... ....... ... ....... .. .. .......... ..... ......... ... .. ....... ... ..... . ....... .. .. .. .... and whose edges are diago- 29.. .... ........ ....... . paral- . . .... . ....... . . .......... Image .... . ................ ........... The projection is made along rays ............ Is it true that for any such solid (a bounded convex poly......... ..... .................... ..... ...... ... This is repeated N (say.. . ........ . ..... ... . ..... ........... The distance between neighboring lines on the paper .................. ...... .... .... ..................... ..... ...... .......... .......... ..... ............................... ................ .. .. ...... .... ....... .... . ... .... ... . .... . ............ ............ ....... . .................. .... ... ......An ............... ..... .... ... ...... ... ... .. .......... .... ........ ............. . .... ...... .. ... . ..... ... .................. .... .... . .... . ........... .... cubes w h s x co . . ... ..... ...... .... ............ ...... . .... .. ........... ... ................. ....... .............. ...................ors .. .... . altogether): a dodecahedron... . ........... ... ...ons . ........................... .. ....... .. ...... twenty vertices and thirty ... . . .............. ........... . ............ ... .... . ..... .... ................ .. .............. ... . ...... ...... ............ ...... ....... ..... . ..... .............. .... .figure ... .. ..... ...... .. .. ................. ...... ... these tetrahedra. . .... ......... ....................... ...... There is one more Platonic solid (there are 5 of them . ....... .. ...... ............. ...... Some exam- . .... up to a few per cent error) will ....... .. ... Some polyhedra have only triangular faces. ...... . ............. ... .. ......... ...... . ......... ........ ..... ......... ............. . ... .............. ........................ .. . ............ ..here o pa n he s x faces of s m ar ....... ............. .... ... 24 = for each face of the dodecahedron)... ............... .... ....... . Describe the intersection of ........ To Problem 28 also vertices of the dodecahedron.. ........ . . .............. ... s ed)? . ........ hedron with triangular faces) the number of faces is equal to To Prob em 24 To Prob em 25 To Prob em 27 twice the number of vertices minus four? 34 How many symme r es does a e rahedron have? A cube? ..... ....... ......... .................. .......... . . . .. .......... ...... ....... ... . .. ... . .... .......... ..... n.. ......... ....... ........... ...... .. ............. ............ .... Moreover....... .. ............. . ....... ....... .... ........... .. .... ................ ........ .. ..... ....... ........ ....... ....................... . . .... ... ..... ................... ... ... .......... .. ....... ....... .. 35 How ........ .. ........ ................. ....... .. .................... . .. .. .............. intersection? . ..... . .. . ... ...................... .... ............. .... ......... ...... ................ . .. . . . ... ............... ....... .............. ... ............ ..... .................. A needle.... . .... .. . ... ..... .................. ............ ... .. . ..... .......... . ... .. . ......... A• ......... .. ............. .... .............. .......... .... reflec ..... 32.... ............ ......... .............. ∗ .Will the area .................... ..... .. ....... ..... Inscribe five cubes in a dodecahedron.... .. ............ ..... .......... .... ...... ........ .. .......... ........... .. .. .. •................ .. .............. . .. ... . ........ ............ ... . ...... . ... .. ........... ..... . ......... ...... ........... ... .... ........ ........ . .. ................ ....... ............ .. .... ........ ... ...... . . ... The ... How . ..... ........ . whose vertices are ........ ... ..... .. ........... ................ ....... .... ...........the area of .... .. ...... . ..... ..... .... . ... . .... . .......... .. ..... ..... It is a convex polyhedron with ... ....... . . ..... .. ...... .......................... . .. .......... ............................... • 31... .. ........... ............. .......... ...... . .. .......... ..... .... ... ....... ..... .... ...... ...... ...... .. ............ ............. . ... ............ . ..... .......... . ........... ... .. .... .. ............. .......... . .... . ................................. ................ ...... . ...... A . .........France............ .. .. ........ ............................... . .... . .............. . ...... . ..... ..... ...... ....... ...... .. .. .. .... ...... . .. .... ............. ....... ... ....... . . .............. ... ....... ........ ........ ... ... ...... ...... . .... ... . ..... ...... . . ..... 210 − 1 = 1023 = 11 · 93)............ ..... one 2 p−1 by an odd prime p is 1 (for example: 22 = 3a + 1........... . ....... . ..... ... . .. ......... .... . .... ... . .. ....... .......... . ... ......... .......... . . ...... ........................ .... . ... ... .. ..... .

... . ........... . ........ ........ .. .......... 3. . 2.3.... 2 ....... .. d)...... c(n)).. ..... ....... c)......... c). ..... a)......... .... any n = 1. ibility by 5.. .. ...... ..... (((a. 2. ...... ...... c))..... . .......... the losing team is knocked out of the tournament.... and for the seventh powers and divisibility by 7.. . d)... It turns out that there are no other For 4 teams we have 15 possible schedules: lattice points either on the sides of the parallelogram or inside it.. . .......A .. . (((a........... b).. ..... (((b....... .......... .. ...... . ....... . (((a...... . ............ .... ....... ............ (((c............. . ....... .. the Catalan numbers... .............. ......... .. schedule. • .. ....... . ........ . 2...... .... ...... . .... ................... . ... ........ b). ..... .. ... ..... .... How many different trees can we get? (Even the .. ... .......... . ........ 1... ..... .... ... ........ .......43 There are n teamsToparticipating Problem 46in a tournament........ . .... .....4: . ............. of one of the squares of the graph paper... ........ .... ............ . .... and there is only one ... n = 2: ...... . .. ............. ((a... ...• ... 3.. .. ....... .... .... .......n ...... ..... .... . points inside the parallelogram..... . 1)................. .... The Fibonacci (“rabbit”) numbers are the sequence (a1 = 36........... ........... ........ the only possible schedules are ((a........... tices of a parallelogram............ .......... .. ...... ..... ... ........... ............................. the number ..... ... ... 1 2 3 4 2 1 1 1 .... ...... .... ........ 1 2 3 4 ...... .......... (((c. .... ........ ... ......................... . ........ ........ • .. ...• ..... into a finite number of polygonal parts which may then be A schedule for the tournament may be written symboli- rearranged to obtain both the first and second polygons..... ......... ......... . .... then they can be cut nament. ... c).... .... . (1... . ............ 13.. .. .. 1 1 1 1 a = 2.......... .. .... 48..... 1....... ........... ....... ................ or ((b. ....... ...... Find its area...... ..... Find the number of ways to cut a convex n-gon into tri- 37..... d). ..........permutation (x1 ........ ..... ................... .... . . . 1.... ..... ... .... ... .. . 39.... .. . ................ x2 .... ........... n = . .. jects are obtained by rotations of a cube? c(6) = 14................. .•.............................. true for parallelepipeds in 3-space? 45...... .... .... (((b.... ............... ...... the number = 3......•. ............. .. .. (These are vertices).. 2....... .. •... ... ......... ...... ..... ((a... . ... ........................... ....... 3 .......... .... .............................. . for which an+2 = an+1 + an for For n = 3 there are six ways: (1............. How many possible schedules are there if there are 10 teams in the tournament? . ..... .... . .. n = 5 is ......... .. sides. b).....interesting!) ..... .. . .......... ..... ..... .. 3). ....... . ..................... ..... ................ ..... .... n = 4? n = 5? n = 6? n = 10? 46......... ..... a).2. ........ For 2 teams..... (2................ ............ (((b... .......• ... .. . ...tree... .... ... . ....... . •........ ... ........ there turn out to be a lattice 6 . b).... .. ......... . .. .. .... .. If two polygons have equal areas......... ....... d)....a........ ......... b).... .... .... ..... c)).. 4 4 3 . a). . .3... .....4...... ...... .. ...... .. ........ ... .... .. .... ... c).... then the tetrahedron of equal volumes cannot be cut this way!] winner plays a.................. ..... 6 .. .. .. 1........ ........ .............. ..... ..... • • .... ... We connect ..... 2... b).. ...... ... c). ... ...... . ...... ....... ... ........... . ......... n points 1.......... .... .. ........... .. ..... . . ...... .. .......... .... ...... each game.. A cube has 4 major diagonals (that connect its opposite angles by cutting along non-intersecting diagonals. .... ...... .= . ................... (((b.............. ... (3.................... d)............ n with n − 1 segments to ... ................... in Problem 42.... ...... •....... ................ ..................1. ...... ... . ..... c)....... ........... . .... ....... .3: .... the number = 16... .... ... ........................... . ............ ................ ................... b)..... ...... After (with an error of not more than 1% of the correct answer)... ................... .... 2). . b)..... . Calculate the sum .. . .......... ........ . .......•... ........... ........ ...... .. (((a..(c. . ......... (b...... ((a......... .... .. ... ...... ....... ..... .... .............................. a)....... Prove that the area of such a parallelogram is equal to that (((a...... 8.. .... Find the greatest common divisor of the (2..... ... ....... .. . .. .. .• .......... . . .................. This notation means that this... ... . .... c)....... . c).. .. 1)....... .......... ................. . ........ . 3. .......... ..... How many different ways are there to permute n objects? 1)......... .. ........ . .... Prove cally as (for example) ((a. ............. ... ... ..... ..... .. ... a)........... 2 .. ... .. ........... .... .. .. . .... .... .. and b lattice points on its ... ................................ To Problems 42.. d)....... ...... .. . .... . .......... .......... ... . ....... ... . 1 2 .... ... ..... . ... . 1............ ............... . ...... 43..... .. ...... b).... ...... . 2...... ....... How many different permutations of these four ob. .... . .. c)....... ..... ......... ..................... . .... d).. then the winner of this second game plays d.. .. ........ ..... . Four lattice points on a piece of graph paper are the ver.... ... ........ . b)..... ... .... . .. .... .. 4 .... ... ... ....... ...... ... . .... .. d). .. b)... .. ........ ........... ....... d)....• .. ((a...... 1... c).. and after n − 1 games the team left is the winner of the tour- 41...... [For spatial solids this is not the case: the cube and the there are four teams participating... 3....... ... ....... .. c). 2 . (((a... .. .... . 43 To Problem 46 EMS Newsletter December 2015 17 ........ b = 2 + + + ··· + 1·2 2·3 3·4 99 · 100 To Problems 42............. ........... .. . ... • ... (3........ ....• ..... case .... ........ ....... Answer the same question for the fifth powers and divis-....... form..... ... How can one find c(10)? . ... from the cube of the sum of these numbers..... .. ..... 2...... d). ...... ............. ... • •...... .... ........... . .... d))....... ............. ......... d)........... . ........ .... c)... ........ • ..... ........ we have only (a......... ...... ............. .... .... . 2.... ..... d).. ...... ....... First b plays c....... . c(5) = 5............. ..... Feature ... ........ ..... ................... d)).... 40....... 5.. What if the number of objects is numbers a100 and a99 ............ 3...... (b. . .. .... a)... ... c)................. .. 1........ ..... .. = 1........ 2).. a = 2........ ................. (b... For 3 teams....... ... 3........... .....47............. . or 42.......... ................ ................. ... ... .......... ........... .. .............. • ... . ... 3 ...... ........ ....... . c(4) = 2. .. . a). 38....... 21.. .... .... .. ...... .. For example... .. ............ . 34............. ... b)... c)............. ......... ... .. ............. ...... and are 3 possible schedules..... . ...... ......... ....•...... ............... 2. Is this difference .... .. ............. ... ..... .... .. .......................... ... .. ....... 3.. .... . ... . 49. 4.... 3)..... ..... 44........ .......... ...... .. always divisible by 3? . .. ...... Is the statement analogous to the result of problem 43 5 .... The sum of the cubes of several integers is subtracted ..................... . . •.......... . .... ...... ... . .......... Suppose.............. .. . . b = 2 n} is called a snake (of length n) if x1 < x2 > x3 < x4 > · · · ........... ... . .......... ............. d). . .. d).... •. 2.. xn ) of the numbers {1....

... That is. .... and the summation over all natural numbers n..• ........ ..Feature Examples.. This probability is defined as follows: in the disk p2 + q ≤ R2 . N/M = 192/316 1 ... passing through its center).... 1 < 4 > 2 < 3 an 2 3 5 8 13 21   2 < 3 > 1 < 4 ..... On the (x. that is.. 1+ a2 + 1! 3! 5! (2k − 1)! 1 1 k=1 2+ a3 + 1 .. area of the sphere)..... s5 = 16. • • • • • • • • •... ..• • • •. a2 + 1 n s ... 61. .. S = π/2.. find the limit as n approaches infinity of 2! 4! 6! k=0 (2k)! 1 52.... .... • • • • • • . .•... • • • • • • • • • • . Find the sum of the series .. M (10) = 316 x x dx.. 1 a1 + ∞  1 ∞ 1 1 = .. 5+1 2 ≈ 1. Answer: S = α + β + γ − π... that is. {x = t3 − 3t.... .......... Find the sum of the series  1 ∞ 1 1 58.. p=2 1− n+1 . ....  10 . Find the probability that the fraction qp is in lowest terms.... For s > 1.... n = 2. .. ...... • • • . .. • • • • • • ........ • • ..6076 ... 1 1 2+ a1 + x1 x3 x5  x2k−1 ∞ 1 1 tan x = 1 + 2 + 16 + · · · = s2k−1 . • • .......... Calculate (with an error of not more than 10 % of the .. N (10) = 192 . three right angles. 1+ .. . side of the postcard. 2<3>1 infinity: n = 4. only 1 < 2 ....... ... ... one-eighth of the total .... • • • • • • • • • • •... s6 = 61..... s4 = 5. ......... . Let sn denote the number of snakes of length n.•.... 55.. 1 ps + an (The product is over all prime numbers p.... ......•.. • • ..... ..) 57... • ...... .... • • • • • • • • • • •..... 51. ....... (For example... y = sin 3t}........ • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • ...... we count the number N(R) of points with integer 2 coordinates p and q not having a common divisor greater than 60... {x = cos 2t. ...... 1<3>2 .. Find the limit of the ratio an+1 /an as n approaches � n = 3... • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • . Find the area of a spherical triangle with angles (α. s2 = 1.... • • • • ...... for a triangle with . circles... • • • • • •.. draw the curves defined parametri- 6.. .. 62... .... • • • . x2 x4 x6  x2k ∞ where a2k = 1.. 1+1 + 5 + 61 + · · · = s2k .. The sequence of Fibonacci numbers was defined in Prob- lem 45... • • • • • • • • •. s3 = 2... ... Find the polynomials y = cos 3(arccos x).. so that a five-pointed star? 56. • • • • • • • • • • .....•.. . This is the ratio of the sides of a postcard which stays sim-  3<4>1<2 ilar to itself if we snip off a square whose side is the smaller Find the number of snakes of length 10.• • . 1 1 Prove that the Taylor series for the tangent function is 1+ = a0 + ..618.. the number = 2... y = cos n(arccos x).. y = cos 4 (arccos x)... Then we take the limit of the ratio N(R)/M(R)..... cally: 54. y = t4 − 2t2 }... Calculate (with an error of not more than 10 % of the 1............. (The sides of such a triangle are great .. . where M(R) answer)  2π is the total number of integer points in the disk (M ∼ πR2 ). • • • • • • . 4 9 n=1 n2 (Prove that it is equal to π2 or approximately 32 . Calculate the sum of the kth powers of the n complex nth 1+ + + ··· = ........ where |x| ≤ 1. √ 2 < 4 > 1 < 3   Answer: “The golden ratio”.. • • • • • • • • • • • • .. .. 1 < 3 > 2 < 4  an+1 3 5 8 13 21 34 = 2...... on a sphere of radius 1. ... • • • • • • • • • • .. the number = 1. cross-sections of the sphere formed by planes ... a2k+1 = 2.. • • • • • • • • • • ... .................. 53. ... answer) ... .... the number = 5. • • . .. ........ ≈ 0.. Calculate the value of the infinite continued fraction s1 = 1. 0 . .....) 59.. • • • • • • . sin100 x dx..... prove the identity a0 + .. How is the golden ratio related to a regular pentagon and 50...... γ) . 18 EMS Newsletter December 2015 .. y)−plane. β.... ..... • • . roots of unity. ...

.. ... L ............... ................... for a = 128/125... . ... .... 74........ 2... . Hint: The problem is related to Newton’s law of gravitation and Coulomb’s law in electricity. 7..... ... 0 ≤ m ≤ n.. .. . 256. .. ... . . ..... . .... .. ... 67..... .......... ........... ...... ...... 128...... ..... ............ and calculate log10 2 ..... ...... . K ....... ........ .... ... ..... .. .... Using the fact that ln(1 + x) ≈ x (where ln means loge )......... ......... . . ....... .. ...... ..• 1. ......... . .. ................ .... 1 Euler’s  nconstant e = 2... ........ ....... .... ... log10 27.. .... log10 6. ... ... z)) on the sphere of radius R centred at circle (this trajectory is called a hypocycloid) for r = 1/3.. .... 2.. with a ... .......... ...... ............ .. . B................... . ...... ............... .. ... ... certain average frequency: p1 ≈ 30 %...... .... ...71828 · · · is defined as the limit of the sequence 66.. .... .... A circle of radius r rolls (without slipping) inside a circle r2 = x2 + y2 + z2 is the distance to the origin from the point of radius 1.. .. ...... with as the first digit of the numbers 2m . ......... .. for r = p/q.............. M It can also be defined by the given formula for ln(1 + x) : lim x→0 ln(1+x) = x on CA). ........ Hint: .. . ... log10 128. ...... for log10 7. 512.... ....... ........ ln a log10 a = and what this n0 actually is (when the probability p ≈ 1/2) is ln 10 what the problem is asking.. .. .. find log10 e and ln 10 from the relation1 Answer: (Very) high if the number of the pupils is (well) above some number n0 . . ... 64... ln r............. . ... .. ........γ . Snell’s law states that the angle α made by a ray of light Solutions to Problems 67–71 will give us...... ... and log10 64 with the same precision. ........... ...... ........ (This is how Newton compiled a table of 40- imum at a certain height.... .. ....... ........................ ..... 3..... . y .. .... . . ..... ....... . .. . .... ..... . in the limit.... log10 50.... ..... .. ....3........ .. In a class of n students..... ....... .. 8. .. . .... ...• . . . ............... ... (The quantity n is inversely pro. . .. . .. 4 %.. 2....... .... ... .... ........ .............. ......... and the sphere by a circle.. . ... ... .............. .. 1024. . . .. .......... .. ........... ................ .. ...... .. ............ . ........ ... . ... .. . 68... ....... ......... Verify the behavior of the first digits of powers of three: (A solution to this problem explains the phenomenon of mi- 1... ......... Draw the whole trajectory of a point on the rolling with coordinates (x.63 Calculate the average value of the function 1/r (where To Problem To Problem 62 63.. ..... . ..... ..... find log10 9.. ..) digit logarithms!).. ......... log10 5....... .... .. ........... . ...... Prove that in the limit as n → ∞ each digit will be met ........ L on BC.. .... .... ....... In an acute angled triangle ABC inscribe a triangle KLM 1 + 1n as n → ∞..... four have decimal numerals starting with 1.. .. . .... ... ...... ... In the two-dimensional ver- sion of the problem. . .. .. a table of four-digit logarithms of any num- equation n(y) sin α = const. . p2 ≈ 18 %.... Find log10 4........... (very) low if it is (well) below n0 .. ........... .... .. ....... .. .... .... The fact that 210 = 1024 ≈ 103 implies that log10 2 ≈ ........ to three decimal places. ... ...... y.. ..... . ..... .. . .. and from the values of log10 a computed earlier (for example. ...... where the index n(y) has a max. a = 1024/1000 and so on). Estimate by how much they differ.............. α .. . . ...... .... ...... ... .... . here we also get rages to those who understand how trajectories of rays ema- nating from objects are related to their images)... ...... .. Is this a high probability? Or a low one? 72......... 64.. ............. ... ... ............... ... ............ ... .. p9 ≈ ..... .. ... .. . ......... ............ . ....... ...... .. ... .. ... . ................. ... ............ . .. ...•... . 0.. .. .................. ... n(y) . .... . ... . r. ...... .. ......... for corrections.... the point (X... EMS Newsletter December 2015 19 .. .... .. .... bers using products of numbers whose logarithms have been tion of the layer at height y. ......... .. .. ...... of minimal perimeter (with its vertex K on AB........ ..... .. Prove that... .. and for r = 1/2. .... .... ....... Consider the sequence of powers of two: 1................... students have the same birthday... . ....... ........... ........ ....... . and log10 12. . It is equal to the sum of the series 1+ 1!1 + 2!1 + 3!1 +· · · ...... ... .... ..... .... . already found as points of support and the formula portional to the speed of light in the medium if we take its speed in a vacuum to be 1..... α none have decimal numerals starting with 7... the given function should be replaced by ..... ................ .... .. . ..... .. where n(y) is the index of refrac.. ....... ........ ....... ............... . ....... ...... ..... ........... ......... 8... β .. ..• ...... .. . . ... numbers.... ..... ......... . . . Using the fact that 72 ≈ 50... r...as .... find an approximate value ..... ... 65. ........... Y.. . .... ...... ..... .. . 1. .. . . . (See the diagram on the right.. ... Knowing the values of log10 64 and log10 7. .......... .. ....... . ..... .... .. log10 32.... ...... ........ ... . . ..... 70....... . .... A C ..... α .... ....... ...... ........ . y 32. ... .. ....... log10 125... Feature ......... .. ........ Among the first twelve . ... .. .The answer for non-acute angled triangles is not nearly ........... . ........ . . 73. .. ....... .......... . ............... .. r = 1/4 for r = 1/n.... ...... and ....... ...... ......... ..... . ...... . .......... 69.......... Z)...... . .. . β .. . ... ...... ... ...... . .. .. ...... ............ .......beautiful as the answer for acute angled triangles... ................. ..... .... ..... .... .. ......... To Problem 62 To Problem 63 71.. ... .. ..... .. ...... ......... . ... 2048. . . 16... . 9.... .. In water n = 4/3)...• .γ .... . . estimate the probability that two log10 3....... .. ............. 1.... .... . . ...... .... ........... .. .... after a half hour with the normal to layers of a stratified medium satisfies the of computation.... .. ....... .... ...... .... ............... ... . .. ........... 4. ........ ....... . ... ........ . M ...... x2 x 3 x4 ln(1 + x) ≈ x − + − + ··· Draw the rays forming the light’s trajectories in the 2 3 4 medium “air above a desert”.......... . ........... ........ .. .... ...... ... log10 8... .......

. 2. The Hermitian eigenvalue prob. The eigenvalue terms of certain triples of Schubert classes in the singular problem is equivalent to the saturated tensor product prob- cohomology of Grassmannians and the standard cup prod. What are the possible eigenvalues of the tem of linear inequalities obtained from certain triples of sum A + B of two Hermitian matrices A and B. In the notation of Problem 77 prove that. for authorizing the reprint. 2.ams.ams. β) = (α + 1. unlike the preschool students on the experience with whom I 76. maticians and physicists in my invited paper in the journal Prove that in any neighborhood U of any point of M and Advances in Physical Sciences for the 2000 Centennial issue. Note to Problem 13. Additive Eigenvalue Additive EigenvalueProblem Problem Shrawan Kumar(University Shrawan Kumar (Universityofof North North Carolina. visit www. lem. Let M be the surface of a torus (with coordinates based my plans. β (mod 2π)). domain A contains kn (A) points out of the n points with tional part of the number log10 x. item=mcl-17 The Newsletter thanks the AMS and the MSRI without this property form a set of measure zero). such that gT (x) = x for This excerpt was taken from the book V.Hill. 2015. Find an exact formula for p1 . . for any N there exists a point x such that gT x is also in U for My success far surpassed the goal I had in mind: the editors. n→∞ n mes M Prove that these fractional parts are uniformly distributed (for example. These inequalities are given explicitly in survey of this additive eigenvalue problem. In a joint piece of work with P. 2. it to fit my answer of 4mm. p9 . T = 1. then sider the sequence of fractional parts of the numbers ma. the problem was finally settled. . algebraic group G. α + β) (mod 2π). β + 2). the sequence of points {gT (x)}. By virtue and the standard cup product. . . . Klyachko (1998) and Knutson. their solution is far of contributions from a long list of mathematicians. I have tried to main M onto itself which is one-to-one and preserves areas illustrate the difference in approaches to research by mathe- (volumes in the multi-dimensional case) of domains. . . Chapel Chapel Hill. To learn more about this book points x of the torus. uct. This article is a brief ues of A and B. The solution cohomology of G/P and used this new product to generate asserts that the eigenvalues of A + B are given in terms a system of inequalities which solves the problem for any of a certain system of linear inequalities in the eigenval. However. the powers of two. here: the proof is the editors’ version published by the journal. prove that the sequence {gT (x)}. . 77. Therefore one has to con. a certain integer T > N (the “Recurrence Theorem”). T = and to order a copy. Arnold. for a Jordan measurable domain A of measure over the interval from 0 to 1: of the n fractional parts of the mes A). 2. Horn (1962). Let g : M → M be a smooth map of a bounded do.org/bookstore-getitem/ www. USA) USA) 1 Introduction lem has been extended by Berenstein-Sjamaar (2000) and Kapovich-Leeb-Millson (2009) for any semisimple complex The classical Hermitian eigenvalue problem addresses the fol. is distributed over the torus uniformly: if a Hint: The first digit of a number x is determined by the frac. A systematic study of flag varieties G/P (P being a maximal parabolic subgroup) this problem was initiated by H. Carolina. T = 1. kale. and Problems: A Gift to Young Mathematicians (AMS. and let g(α. for almost all ISBN-13: 978-1-4704-2259-2). . . is everywhere dense on the torus. G optimally (as shown by Ressayre). . of Sydney and their hospitality is gratefully acknowledged. I. could not solve the problem. .Feature certain frequencies and that the frequencies are same as for 79. . the points x item=mcl-17. 78. numbers ma. Belkale (2001) gave an optimal set of inequalities for This note was written during my visit to the University the problem in this case. . n. . In posing this problem. let This true story is so implausible that I am including it g(α. 20 EMS Newsletter December 2015 . we defined a deformation of the cup product in the Tao (1999). provided Schubert classes in the singular cohomology of the partial we fix the eigenvalues of A and B. So they changed √ α (mod 2π). lim(kn (A)/n) = the length of the subinterval A. Bel- Weyl (1912). . is everywhere dense on the torus (that is. Weyl (1912). 75. Their solution is again in terms of a sys- lowing question. 0 ≤ m < n. T = 1. notably from being optimal. kn (A) mes A lim = where a = log10 2. β) = (2α + β.org/ bookstore-getitem/ 1. Lectures some integer T (x) > 0). in the following way: instead of Prove that for every point x of M the sequence of points “from the first page of the first volume to the last page of the {gT (x)}. In Problems 76 and 78. they wrote “from the last page of the first volume to the first page of the second”. Prove that there is an everywhere dense subset of the torus consisting of periodic points x (that is. second”. In the notation of problem 76. a subinterval A will contain the quantity kn (A) such that as n → ∞.

by definition. Let µ(XwP ) denote the fundamental class of XwP . . Knutson-Tao-Woodward (2004) XwP := BwP/P ⊂ G/P. f ∈F g∈G h∈H ∼ Then. a maximal torus H ⊂ B and a maxi- [XwP ] ∈ H 2(dim G/P−ℓ(w)) (G/P. K) ∈ S nr . bra p and let l be its unique Levi component containing the k∈K i∈I j∈J Cartan subalgebra h. Subsequently. Schubert variety: kale (2001) proved that a certain subset of the set of inequal- ities suffices. (2)  0. Let ∆(P) ⊂ ∆ be the set of simple roots Horn’s conjecture above was settled in the affirmative contained in the set of roots of l. We Write the standard cup product in H ∗ (G/P. . we denote by [λ] the    corresponding irreducible representation (of highest weight i+ j = r(r + 1)/2 + k (1) λ). . starting and s = 3 gives the Hermitian eigenvalue problem if we re- with the work of Weyl (1912).e. For any w ∈ W P . the elements {µ(XwP )}w∈W P form a Z-basis of bra sl(n)) to an arbitrary complex semisimple group. G. for all 0 < p < r and (F. Z) in the {[XwP ]} choose K such that −1 k ⊃ h. . define the element x j ∈ h by i=1 i=1 i=1 and. (defined by certain inequalities with rational coefficients). Let WP be the Weyl group of (see Corollary 11) by combining the work of Klyachko [Kly] P (which is. we discuss a generalisation of the above Hermitian sidered as an element of the singular homology with integral eigenvalue problem (which can be rephrased in terms of the coefficients H2ℓ(w) (G/P. K) of subsets of [n] := {1. let λA = (λ1 ≥ · · · ≥ λn ) = 0 and δ(k j ) = h j ∀ j}. under the identification ϕ : h − → h∗ (via the Killing Conjecture 1. There is a natural homeomorphism w∈W P EMS Newsletter December 2015 21 . the following tensor semigroup: inequality holds: Γ s (G) ={(λ1 . H) ∈ S rp . Lidskii (1950) and Wielandt (1955). (4)    Let P ⊃ B be a standard parabolic subgroup with Lie alge- νk ≤ λi + µ j. . Z). ν occurs as eigenvalues of Her- form). h s) ∈ h+s | ∃(k1 . . the set of roots of b) and let ∆ = {α1 . (See also Λ+ := {λ ∈ Λ : λ(α∨i ) ≥ 0 ∀ simple coroots α∨i } denote the Thompson-Freede (1971). Z) of G/P. . Bel. The determine all possible ν = (ν1 ≥ · · · ≥ νn ) such that there aim of the general additive eigenvalue problem is to find the exist Hermitian matrices A. . and h+ := {h ∈ h : αi (h) ≥ 0 ∀ i} is the positive Weyl chamber in h. . This problem has a long history. . j=1 For any n × n Hermitian matrix A. For λ ∈ Λ+ . k respectively. The inverse map δ−1 takes any h ∈ h+ to the K-conjugacy √ 2 Main Results class of −1h. J. define the The above system of inequalities is overdetermined. we have αi (x j ) = δi. λC = ν inequalities describing Γ¯ s (g) explicitly. We denote their Lie algebras by the corresponding Gothic √ characters: g.v [XwP ]. one defines the saturated and. µ. the Weyl Group of the Levi com- (1998) with the work of Knutson-Tao [KT] (1999) on the ‘sat. C respectively such that C = A + B ϕ(Γ s (g)) ∩ Λ+s = Γ s (G) (3) if and only if n n n (see Theorem 5). νi = λi + µi For any 1 ≤ j ≤ ℓ. Re- call the following classical problem. proved that the subsystem of inequalities given by Belkale It is an irreducible (projective) subvariety of G/P of dimen- forms an irredundant system of inequalities. Then. ponent L) and let W P be the set of the minimal length repre- uration’ problem. mal compact subgroup K. . define the eigencone We now explain the classical Hermitian eigenvalue problem  s and its generalisation to an arbitrary connected semisimple Γ¯ s (g) :={(h1 .) set of all the dominant characters. . λ s ) ∈ Λ+s : ([Nλ1 ] ⊗ · · · ⊗ [Nλ s ])G    if + jg ≤ p(p + 1)/2 + kh . the set of isomor- For any positive integer r < n. B. B. (5) be the set of simple roots. Let G H∗ (G/P. J. n} tions of G is parametrised by Λ+ via the highest weights of of cardinality r such that irreducible representations. ∀ 1 ≤ i ≤ ℓ. Then. . λB = µ. for all 1 ≤ r < n and all triples (I. mitian n × n matrices A. We fix singular cohomology H ∗ (G/P. for some N ≥ 1}. A triple λ. followed by works of Fan place C by −C. b. Feature Partial support from NSF grant number DMS-1501094 is also δ : k/K → h+ . j . k s ) ∈ k s : kj group more precisely. . con- Now. . Let R+ be the set of positive basis as follows:  roots (i. . . Let {[XwP ]}w∈W P be the Poincaré dual basis of the be a connected. (The case g = sl(n) and C = A + B. Z). decomposition. sion ℓ(w). known as the Hermitian By virtue of the general convexity result in symplectic geome- eigenvalue problem. sentatives in the cosets of W/WP . from the Bruhat special unitary group SU(n) and its complexified Lie alge. where K acts on k by the adjoint representation gratefully acknowledged. the subset Γ¯ s (g) ⊂ h+s is a convex rational polyhedral cone numbers: λ = (λ1 ≥ · · · ≥ λn ) and µ = (µ1 ≥ · · · ≥ µn ). Z). i∈I j∈J k∈K Similar to the eigencone Γ¯ s (g). a Borel subgroup B. Thus. For any positive integer s. be its set of eigenvalues written in descending order. semisimple complex algebraic group. inductively define the set phism classes of irreducible (finite dimensional) representa- S nr as the set of triples (I. C with λA = λ. Given two n-tuples of nonincreasing real try. . . αℓ } ⊂ R+ [XuP ] · [XvP ] = cwu.) (1949). h. . and culminating Let Λ = Λ(H) denote the character group of H and let in the following conjecture given by Horn (1962).

δ) as follows. for all x ∈ P/BL . that   ϕ Γ s (g) ∩ Λ+s = Γ s (G). Let (h1 ... . we give an indication of the proof of the equivalence Theorem 2.w s ) : ωP w−1 j h j ≤ 0. For a maximal parabolic P. ues to satisfy the Poincaré duality (see [BK1 . variety. . it contin. . The cohomology algebra of G/P obtained by set- movability with cup product 1. equivalent: Definition 4. . . the following are of (a) and (b) in Theorem 2. . Levi-movability in Definition 14. Below. If we specialise the above theorem to G = SL(n) then. hence. this is the same as Theorem 3. the cone Γ¯ s (g) (see Theorem 23 for a more precise statement). Lemma 16(d)]). whereas (d) gives only 93 inequalities. Then... . Any algebraic and every choice of s-tuples (w1 . Tao-Wodward. Let xo ∈ X be the point  L δ x (0). Since xo is Gm -invariant via δ.. . the product ⊙ is associative (and clearly commu- covering pairs. of G by P(δ) := {g ∈ G : limt→0 δ(t)gδ(t)−1 exists in G}. This (c) For every standard maximal parabolic subgroup P in G integer is defined as µL (x. Corollary 16 and the identity (13). . Let S be any (not necessarily reductive) alge- (a) (h1 . Leeb-Millson (2009) showed the equivalence of (a) and (c). P I(w 1 . For a cominuscule maximal We refer the reader to the survey article of Fulton [F] on parabolic P. [XwP1 ] ⊙0 · · · ⊙0 [XwPs ] = [XeP ]. let αiP be the unique simple root not 3 Determination of the Eigencone in the Levi of P and let ωP := ωiP be the corresponding fun. and every choice of s-tuples (w1 . w s ) ∈ (W P ) s such ∼ that Under the identification ϕ : h − → h∗ (via the Killing form). is given by a character of Gm . As shown by Kumar-Leeb-Millson (2003). Then. the above theorem al- w∈W P αi ∈∆\∆(P) lows us to determine the saturated tensor semigroup Γ s (G) (6) (see Theorem 18 for a precise statement). where L is the Levi subgroup The equivalence of (a) and (b) in the above theorem for of P containing H. P/BL via the left multiplication. the sur- product (see Lemma 17).. ting each τi = 0 in (H ∗ (G/P. BL being the semidirect product of its com- the work of Klyachko (1998) with the work of Knutson-Tao mutator [BL . whenever cwu. Moreover. . For δ ∈ O(G) define the Kempf’s parabolic subgroup in view of Theorem 10. [XwP1 ] · · · [XwPs ] = [XeP ]. BL ] and H. h s ) ∈ h+s . In this case. ⊙) is denoted by (H ∗ (G/P. and every choice of s-tuples (w1 .w s ) holds. Let O(S ) be the set of all OPSs in S . any λ ∈ Λ extends uniquely to a char- (1999). as a Z-module. Z) and... ing from Mumford [N. the fiber of L over xo is a Gm - j=1 module and. essentially follow- P the above inequality I(w 1 . . for any λ ∈ Λ.Feature Introduce the indeterminates τi for each αi ∈ ∆ \ ∆(P) and cominuscule. As mentioned above. we have the following result. ρ−u−1 ρ−v−1 ρ−ρ)(xi ) w [XuP ] ⊙ [XvP ] = τ(w i cu. and BL := B ∩ L is a Borel subgroup general G is due to Berenstein-Sjamaar (2000). Thus.e. ing but Horn’s conjecture (Corollary 11) solved by combining Observe that. where ρ is the (usual) half sum of positive roots of g. Theorem 7. Z) ⊗ Z[τi ]. Z). under the product orem form an irredundant system of inequalities determining ⊙0 . the deformed product ⊙0 in H ∗ (G/P) co- define a deformed cup product ⊙ as follows: incides with the standard cup product and (c) and (d) are the    −1  same in this case. . Take any [XwP1 ] · · · [XwPs ] = d[XeP ] for some d  0. w s ) ∈ (W P ) s such group morphism Gm → S is called a one parameter subgroup that (OPS) in S . define  s  a number µ (x.. it is associative (and commutative). P Let P be any standard parabolic subgroup of G acting on the above inequality I(w 1 . Specifically. braic group acting on a (not necessarily projective) variety X (b) For every standard maximal parabolic subgroup P in G and let L be an S -equivariant line bundle on X. By The following result was proved by Ressayre [R] (2010). vey articles by Brion [Br] and by Kumar [K3 ]. . Kapovich. h s ) ∈ Γ¯ s (g). . following Mumford. . Ressayre’s proof relies on the notion of well- Moreover.v is nonzero. Γ s (G) corresponds to the set of integral points of Γ s (g). Now we are ready to state the main result on solution of the eigenvalue problem for any connected semisimple G. Théorème 1.. If P = G then P/BL = G/B The equivalence of (a) and (d) is due to Belkale-Kumar and any δ ∈ O(G) is G-admissible since G/B is a projective (2006).w s ) holds. (A Weaker Result) damental weight. We call δ ∈ O(P) P-admissible if. .. we have a P-equivariant line Belkale (2001) and every maximal parabolic subgroup P is bundle LP (λ) on P/BL associated to the principal BL -bundle 22 EMS Newsletter December 2015 . x ∈ X and δ ∈ O(S ) such that the limit limt→0 δ(t)x exists in X (i. . which is equivalent to the notion of Levi- tative). the equivalence of (a) and (b) is noth. the product ⊙0 coincides with the standard cup the Hermitian eigenvalue problem and. w s ) ∈ (W P ) s such Theorem 5. ⊙0).v [XwP ]. (c) of the The definition of the deformed product ⊙0 (now known as above theorem gives rise to 126 inequalities for g of type B3 the Belkale-Kumar product) came from the crucial concept of or C3 . . δ). Because of the identification (3). The inequalities given by (d) of the above the- the singular cohomology H ∗ (G/P. Appendix] (see also [Sj. Thus.. . for g = sl(n) it was proved by Knutson- the exponent of τi in the above is a nonnegative integer. the morphism δ x : Gm → X given by t �→ δ(t)x extends to the following inequality holds: a morphism  δ x : A1 → X). in particular. .3]).6] (d) For every standard maximal parabolic subgroup P in G and [Br. of L. the equivalence of (a) and (c) is due to acter of BL . limt→0 δ(t) · x exists in P/BL . for general G.

Let λ1 . . recall the definition of the set S nr of triples extended to general G by Berenstein-Sjamaar [BS]. Then. Other proofs of their where (e1 ≥ · · · ≥ en )∗ := (−en ≥ · · · ≥ −e1 ). the following are tion 2. Now. maximal parabolics Pr are precisely the Grassmannians of r- planes in n-space G/Pr = Gr(r. the theorem. J. . r �→ ir BL wPL (δ). we have the following formula: I = {i1 < . 3 We first need to recall the Knutson-Tao saturation theorem [KT]. λ s ) ∈ Γ s (G) be for g = sl(n)) and Knutson-Tao (Theorem 9). · · · .. Remark 8. one has the following i∈I 2 fundamental theorem due to Klyachko [Kly] for G = SL(n). C obtained in Theorem 18. a3 ) ∈ a3+ : (7). Lemma 14]. such that λ1 + · · · + λ s belongs to the root lattice. < ir } ⊂ {1. [XwPs ] = d[XeP ]. K) ∈ S nr . ˙ µLP (λ) (x. Then. We ab. . Feature P → P/BL via the one dimensional BL -module λ−1 . . . The corresponding Weyl group element wI ∈ W Pr is nothing where U is the unipotent radical of P. for some d  0. . . λ s ) ∈ Γ s (G).w s ) : λ j (w j xP ) ≤ 0. . the Schubert class [XI := XwPIr ] is Poincaré dual to to not necessarily ample L(λ)) if its image in X(λ) under the the Schubert class [XI ′ ] ∈ H ∗ (Gr(r. . established by the works of Klyachko (equivalence of (a) and (b) in Theorem 2 Theorem 9. . the Weyl chamber is: combining Theorems 7 and 5. for some d  0 the following inequality is satisfied: ⇔ (I.  with λA = a1 . Let a be the stan- j=1 dard Cartan subalgebra of sl(n) consisting of traceless diago- where αiP is the unique simple root not in the Levi of P nal matrices and let b ⊂ sl(n) be the standard Borel subalgebra and xP := xiP . Let G = SL(n) and let (λ1 . result are given by Derksen-Weyman [DK]. Then. n} of cardinality r from Sec- Theorem 7. let λA = (λ1 ≥ · · · ≥ λn ) P I(w 1 . Moreover. as seen below. n). The Schu- Lemma 6. a2 . Knutson-Tao). . moreover. n). canonical map π : (G/B) s → X(λ) is semistable with respect    r(r + 1) ¯ dim XI = codim XI ′ = i − . . . consisting of traceless upper triangular matrices (where sl(n) is the Lie algebra of SL(n) consisting of traceless n × n matri- The equivalence of (a) and (b) in Theorem 2 follows easily by ces). . wI (n) are the elements in {1. n) are parametrised by the subsets of cardi- admissible and. (8) to the ample line bundle L(λ). .  Theorem 7 remains true if we replace d by 1 in the identity ¯ Γ(n) = (a1 . . . A much sharper (and optimal) result for an arbitrary G is there exist n × n Hermitian matrices A. . n} of cardinality that r. As proved by Belkale [B1 ] for G = SL(n) and ex. i ∈ I} parabolic subgroups P1 . for any λ ∈ Λ and x = ulBL ∈ P/BL nality r: (for u ∈ U. a2 . K) of subsets of {1.. Belkale [B3 ] and Combining Theorems 7 and 5 for sl(n) with Theorem 10. Kapovich-Millson [KM2 ]. . In this case. δ) = −λ(wδ). λ s ∈ Λ+ . the following are equiva-   [λ1 ] ⊗ · · · ⊗ [λ s ] G  0. Corollary 11. . there exist unique standard I ′ = {n + 1 − i. . J. B.. For (a1 . . . P s such that the line bundle L(λ) descends as an ample line bundle L(λ) ¯ on X(λ) := G/P1 ×· · ·× arranged in ascending order.  s For an Hermitian n × n matrix A. a3 ) ∈ Γ(n) ⇔ (a1 . PL (δ) := P(δ) ∩ L and but the permutation w ∈ WP /WPL (δ) is any coset representative such that l−1 ∈ 1 �→ i1 . . ranged in ascending order. [XwP1 ] . the partial flag varieties corresponding to the sponding result in [BS. . Specialising Theorem 7 to G = SL(n). Let δ ∈ O(H) be such that δ˙ ∈ h+ . It is a generalisation of the corre. . . we get the following Horn conjecture [Ho]. . . K) of {1. for 0 < r < n. . a∗ ) ∈ Γ¯ 3 sl(n) . (7) [XI ′ ] · [X J ′ ] · [XK ] = d[XePr ]. . (I. a2 . s G/P s . be its set of eigenvalues (which are all real). J. . lent: EMS Newsletter December 2015 23 . . . We have taken the following lemma obtain the classical Horn inequalities. from [BK1 . and wI (r + 1). . . G-semistable (with respect Then. . linearised line bundle L(λ1 ) ⊠ · · · ⊠ L(λ s ) on (G/B) s (under Let I ′ be the ‘dual’ set the diagonal action of G).. a2 . λB = a2 . Then. Define the Hermitian eigencone: tended for an arbitrary G by Kapovich-Leeb-Millson [KLM]. For subsets (I. we breviate LG (λ) by L(λ). For 0 < r < n. . λC = a3 and A + B = C . . . w s ∈ W P ≃ W/WP such Theorem 10. . l ∈ L). Specifically. We call a point x ∈ (G/B) . a3 ) ∈ a3+ . . n}\I ar- Let λ = (λ1 . . . . Belkale [B3 ] gave another geometric proof of (b) For every standard maximal parabolic subgroup P and ev. δ is P- bert cells in Gr(r. λ s ) ∈ Λ+s and let L(λ) denote the G.2]. Z). Section 4. n}.    a+ = diag (e1 ≥ · · · ≥ en ) : ei = 0 . . It is easy to see that Γ(n)¯ essentially coincides with the eigen- 4 Specialisation of Results to G = SL(n): Horn Inequalities cone Γ¯ 3 (sl(n)). ¯   (a1 . . Then. . 2 �→ i2 . ery Weyl group elements w1 . conjectured by Zelevinsky [Z]. The following theorem follows from Theorem 7 for equivalent: G = SL(n) (proved by Klyachko) and Theorem 9 (proved by (a) (λ1 .

. . . by Lemma 17. λ s ) ∈ Λ+s . Thus. Then. (14) The above corollary. . Then. as proved by Ressayre (see Theorem 23). the set s of inequalities given by (b) of the following theorem is an codim ΦwP j ≤ dim G/P. w s ) ∈ (W P ) s satisfies µn ≥ 0) and ν = (ν1 ≥ · · · ≥ νn ≥ 0) be three partitions such equation (11). the (a) (w1 . ‘far more’ inequalities for simple groups other than j=1 SL(n). define T wP to be bolic subgroup of G (i. . if (w1 . from [K1 . . . j=1 (b) For every standard maximal parabolic subgroup P in G We then call the s-tuple (w1 . n j=1 where. J. for a subset I = (i1 < · · · < ir ) ⊂ {1. . Proposition 13. . the following theorem by the standard cup product (i. By Proposition 13. obtained by combining Theorems 7. a3 ) ∈ Γ(n). J. [XwPs ]  0 ∈ H ∗ (G/P). . we have (b) For all 0 < r < n and all (I. . Let G be a connected semisimple group and let  s (λ1 . hence. . . . the following three conditions are equivalent: and. the by T and T w respectively when the reference to P is clear. BL T w ⊂ T w . Take any (w1 . µ = (µ1 ≥ · · · ≥ Proposition 15. (b) For all 0 < r < n and all (I. ⊙0 . n} β∈(R+ \R+l )∩w−1 R+ and a = (e1 ≥ · · · ≥ en ) ∈ a+ . . (9) 6 Efficient determination of the eigencone The following result follows from the Kleiman transversality theorem by observing that gΦwP passes through e ⇔ gΦwP = This section is again based on the work [BK1 ] of Belkale- pΦwP for some p ∈ P. K) ∈ S nr . . For w ∈ W P . . theorem gives only 93 inequalities (see [KuLM]). for each αi ∈ ∆ \ ∆(P). and every choice of s-tuples (w1 . . Let P be a cominuscule maximal standard para- carries a canonical action of P. l s ) ∈ L s . . the following are equivalent: codim ΦwP j = dim G/P. [XwP1 ] ⊙0 · · · ⊙0 [XwPs ] = [XeP ] ∈ H ∗ (G/P. For example. where |λ| := λ1 + · · · + λn . for general (l1 . . the intersection reduces to Theorem 7 with d = 1 in the identity (7). following are equivalent: (b) [XwP1 ] . . For any u. 1. Corollary 16. . j=1 For G = SL(n). . Z). . Then. . . . Assume that (w1 . Theo-  s rem 7 with d = 1 in the identity (7) – see Remark 8). . . the following theorem in this case (b) For general (p1 . We shall abbreviate T P and T wP appears with coefficient 1 in the highest root of R+ ). . Corollary 12. .v  0 (see Equation (5)). the unique simple root αP ∈ ∆ \ ∆(P) the tangent space of ΦwP at e. . v. Definition 14. is easy to see that BL stabilises ΦwP keeping e fixed. general. [XwPs ] = d[XeP ] in H ∗ (G/P) for some nonzero d. Thus. χw j − χ1 (xi ) = 0. Then. 9 + L where ρ is half the sum of roots in R and ρ is half the sum and 10. . p s ) ∈ P s . w s ∈ W P be such that Theorem 18. of roots in R+l . Let w1 . each maximal parabolic P is cominuscule Then. . Kumar. for G of type B3 (or C3 ). λ(I) denotes (λi1 ≥ · · · ≥ λir ) and |λ(I)| := λi1 + · · · + λir .e. we have 5 Deformed Product (χw − χu − χv )(xi ) ≥ 0. . . K) ∈ S nr . . [XwPs ] = d[XeP ] in H ∗ (G/P) for some nonzero d (a) [ν] appears as an SL(n)-submodule of [λ] ⊗ [µ]. Let λ = (λ1 ≥ · · · ≥ λn ≥ 0). w s ) ∈ (W P ) s such that Specifically. . . This deformed product is used in determining the facets ΦwP := w−1 BwP ⊂ G/P. . a(I) := (ei1 ≥ · · · ≥ where R+l is the set of positive roots of l. w s ) ∈ (W P ) s such movable) if.  χw = β. product in H ∗ (G/P). Theorem 22] deter- mines the saturated tensor semigroup Γ s (G) efficiently. For w ∈ W P . . (12) where. p1 ΦwP 1 ∩ · · · ∩ p s ΦwP s is transverse at e. w s ) Levi-movable (or L. together with the identity (13). for a subset I = (i1 < · · · < ir ) ⊂ {1. (10) irredundant set of inequalities determining Γ s (G). the following are equivalent: that |λ| + |µ| − |ν| ∈ nZ. p s ) ∈ P s . We have the following representation theory analogue of χw = ρ − 2ρL + w−1 ρ. . (codimension 1 faces) of Γ¯ s (g).Feature (a) ¯ (a1 . justi- This section is based on the work [BK1 ] of Belkale-Kumar.3]. . .22. define the character χw ∈ Λ by |a3 (K)| ≤ |a1 (I)| + |a2 (J)|. . Then. . Let T P = T (G/P)e be the tangent space of G/P at e ∈ G/P. . The following theorem [BK1 . . . . It may be mentioned that replacing the product ⊙0 in (b) of (c) For general (p1 . we get. . for each αi ∈ ∆ \ ∆(P). . in dim(p1 T w1 ∩ · · · ∩ p s T ws ) = dim G/P − codim ΦwP j . ⊙0 coincides with the standard cup (a) [XwP1 ] . w s ) is L-movable. Theorem 7 with The set of s-tuples in (b) as well as (c) is an open subset of d = 1 gives rise to 126 inequalities. then [XwP1 ] . w ∈ W P such that cwu.   s  r  |ν(K)| ≤ |λ(I)| + |µ(J)| − (|λ| + |µ| − |ν|). . fies the definition of the deformed product ⊙0 given in Section Consider the shifted Bruhat cell: 2. It Lemma 17. It product ⊙ coincides with the cup product in H ∗ (G/P). 24 EMS Newsletter December 2015 . and. whereas the following Ps . . a2 . . n}. (13) the above corollary. . (11) (a) λ = (λ1 . λ s ) ∈ Γ s (G).e. . . . . the intersection that   l1 ΦwP 1 ∩ · · · ∩ l s ΦwP s is transverse at e.3. w s ) is L-movable. eir ) and |a(I)| := ei1 + · · · + eir . . .

b) if δb = γa . Let δˆ = [δ. (i) The intersection sj=1 g j Bw j P ⊂ G/P is  s the singleton { f P}. Remark 22. δ) to any element δˆ = [δ. Feature  the following inequality holds: Theorem 21. bk := bσ is a Borel subalgebra not depend upon the choice of δˆ ∈ Λ(x). Γ¯ s (k) = Γ¯ s (g) ∩ (hk+ ) s . Belkale-Kumar [BK2 ] and proved by Belkale-Kumar [BK2 ]. Lemma 12. . where γ˙ ∈ h+ .. facets inside h3+ (intersecting the interior of h3+ ) for g of type ple line bundle on X. (The indexing convention is as in [Bo. .. An OPS δ of S can be thought I–IX]. G2 . a]. C3 . In the case norm q : M(S ) → R+ . This is the set consisting of the ordered pairs tion 30 (15+15) means that there are 15 (irredundant) inequal- (δ. . EMS Newsletter December 2015 25 . ities coming from G/P1 and there are 15 inequalities coming lence relation (δ. For any unstable point x ∈ X and δˆ = [δ. We can extend Theorem 23. for any sim- of the above theorem that are of independent interest. δˆ ) ≤ −1. (for any integer s ≥ 1) and determined it by describing its To prove the implication (b) ⇒ (a) in Theorem 18.. dλ = (dλ1 . unstable point and P(x) the Kempf’s parabolic associated to It is indeed a semigroup by [K2 . Let s ≥ 3. A3 . Then. The group S acts on M(S ) via conjugation: g · [δ. The cone Γ¯ 3 (g) ⊂ h3+ is quite explicitly deter- We briefly recall some of the main ingredients of the proof mined: for any simple g of rank 2 in [KLM. a special case of The. 1 . Suppose that x = (g¯ 1 . following result (see [Br. dλ s ) ∈ Γˆ s (G).9]. . 30 (15+15). where π : (G/B) s → X(λ) is the map defined above The- problem aims to compare these two semigroups. q(δˆ) = q∗ (x)}. the hyperplanes given by the equality in I(w 1 . B2.13]). xi P . . . Choose an S -invariant The following result is due to Ressayre [R]. The parabolic P(δ) ˆ and hk := hσ is a Cartan subalgebra of k. for any λ = (λ1 . .e.e. where Λ+ (R) := {λ ∈ h∗ : λ(α∨i ) ∈ R+ ∀αi }. Then. The saturation π(x). Λ(x). Planche of (δ.δ) . a]) does they are stable under σ. (b) of Theorem 18 is an irredundant system of inequalities de- x ∈ X by setting µL (x. 93 (18+48+ Definition 19. Woodward [KTW]. Let h+ and hk+ be the ˆ for δ ∈ Λ(x) will be denoted by P(x) and called the Kempf’s dominant chambers in h and hk respectively. . the Kempf’s parabolic P(γ) is a standard parabolic. s. In Section 2. δ) ˆ ≤ −1 cisely those facets of the cone Γ s (G)R which intersect the in- ˆ δ∈M(S ) terior of Λ+ (R) s . . a) is denoted by [δ. of course. xo is unstable and δˆ ∈ Λ(xo ). modulo the equiva. Γ s (G).w s ) j=1 The equivalence of (a) and (d) in Theorem 2 follows easily where αiP is the (unique) simple root in ∆\∆(P) and xP := by combining Theorems 18 and 5. Theorem 2. Λ(x) is Borel subalgebra and h be a Cartan subalgebra of g such that nonempty and the parabolic P(δ)ˆ := P(δ) (for δˆ = [δ. 1] ∈ M(S ). B3. 27)... The set of inequalities provided by the definition of µL (x. . . g¯ s) ∈ (G/B) s is an Γˆ s (G) = (λ1 . F4 and E6 respectively.9]. . Proposition 1. hk+ = h+ ∩ k. a].  P I(w : λ j (w j xP ) ≤ 0. define P   i. a] ∈ M(S ) and L ˆ = µ (x. sj=1 λ j (w j xiP ) > 0. parabolic associated to the unstable point x. 294 (36+186+36+36). Express δ(t) = f γ(t) f −1 . D4 . and 26661 (348+1662+4857+14589+4857+348) connected reductive group S and let L be an S -linearised am. we defined the saturated tensor semigroup Γ s (G) orem 7. and for g = so(8) in [KKM]. Then.. 1290 (126+519+ groups. where δ ∈ O(S ) and a ∈ Z>0 . . 18 (9+9). nathan [RR. Braley [Bra] and Lee [Le] (case by case). . a) ≃ (γ. Then. Let g be a simple simply-laced Lie algebra and let σ : g → g be a diagram automorphism with fixed subalgebra k Any δˆ ∈ Λ(x) is called a Kempf’s OPS associated to x. Let P be a maximal ing only upon s and G) such that. It has: 12 (6+6). Moreover. We have the following result originally conjectured by We recall the following theorem due to Ramanan–Rama. where norm means that q|M(H) is the G = SL(n).w s ) are pre- q∗ (x) = inf q(δ) ˆ | µL (x. λ s ) ∈ Λ+s : ([λ1 ] ⊗ · · · ⊗ [λ s ])G  0 . a] = [gδg−1. Define the tensor semigroup for G:   Millson [KLM]. . Let b be a By a theorem of Kempf (see [Ki.) Let X be a projective variety with the action of a 519+126). let xo = limt→0 δ(t) · x ∈ X. . 7 Saturation Problem Indication of the Proof of Theorem 18: The implication (a) ⇒ (b) of Theorem 18 is. (ii) For the simple root αiP ∈ ∆ \ ∆(P). a] ∈ Theorem 24. the same result is true for the cone Γ¯ s (g). a] be a Kempf’s OPS associated to π(x). ple g of rank 3 in [KuLM].1]). There exists a uniform integer d > 0 (depend- by f P(γ) ∈ g j Bw j P(γ) for j = 1. Theorem 20. (Maximally destabilising one parameter sub. nonsemistable) point x ∈ X. need to recall the following result due to Kapovich-Leeb. δ) a scribing the cone Γ s (G)R generated by Γ s (G) inside Λ+ (R) s . 41 (10+21+10). . Lemma 3. (which is necessarily a simple Lie algebra again).. Λ(x) = {δˆ ∈ M(S ) | µL (x. the result was earlier proved by Knutson-Tao- square root of a positive definite quadratic form on the Q. λ s ) ∈ parabolic containing P(γ). The equivalence class from G/P2 . Λ(x) is a single conjugacy class under P(x). The nota- OPSs in S . a). we facets (see Theorems 18 and 23). . Define w j ∈ W/WP(γ) Lemma 25. §7]. . 93 (18+48+27). We recall the orem 7.. and the optimal class By Theorem 5. For any unstable (i. For any s ≥ 1. Introduce the set M(S ) of fractional A2 . . vector space M(H) for a maximal torus H of S .) of as the element [δ.

Kapovich and J. Fulton. Sjamaar. 60. where Q is the root lattice of jectures. tion theory. For any connected simple G. tions d’orbites coadjointes (d’après Belkale. Kumar and J. [Bra] E. and saturation for Spin(8). Math. 419– niques. multiples. 1992. Spin(2ℓ + 1) and facets of the Littlewood-Richardson cone. it has been tensor products I: Proof of the saturation conjecture. J. saturation and Horn problems for symplectic and odd orthogonal groups. J. whereas both (N. 12. asserts that the saturation property holds for G = SL(n). Invariant algebras. we have the following improvement of Theo. Shen. Derksen and J. 6. Soc. Selecta Mathematica 4 (1998). highest weights. has saturation factor 2. Moreover. [KKM] M. Amer. dµ.. 4–6. Pure and Applied Math. For the groups SO(n) (n ≥ 7). 133–173. Séminaire Bourbaki. Tao. Paris. d = kg2 is a sat. 1984. 185–228. 13 (2000). [KM1 ] M. Kumar. Math. Weyman. 26 EMS Newsletter December 2015 . saturation prob- d > 1 is a saturation factor for G2 ). 69. Advances in Soviet Math. mo- ment polytopes. Princeton University Press. and Sp(2ℓ)) via the quiver approach following the proof by [KT] A. . G. 1981. 6 for g of type E6 . Soc. Kapovich and J. dν) ∈ Γˆ 3 (G). 10 (2006). Quar- esting conjecture: terly 5 (2009). . for G if. µ. Math. Tao and C. and Invariant Theory” (ed. Kumar et uration factor. Restriction de represéntations et projec- Theorem 27. Inventiones Math. Theorem 5. The honeycomb model of GLn (C) Derksen-Weyman [DW] for G = SL(n). the only other simply-connected. On a theorem of Weyl concerning eigenvalues of from their description. 2 is a saturation factor. Belkale. linear transformations. kale). Mas- using the geometry of geodesics in Euclidean buildings and son. [BS] A. Apart from G = SL(n). Theorems 25 and 26] for Algebraic Geometry. Braley. Kumar. Math. Asian J. their 12. 57–64. 129 (2001). Elashvili. 17 (2004). 19 (2010). A path model for geodesics Millson [KKM. 467–479. The saturation property does not hold for either (1949). Acad. The following general result (though not optimal) on sat- Amer. 12 (1999). simply-laced group G for which the above conjecture product semigroup. Millson. Belkale. § 7. Soc. 35 Theorem 28. Of course. of The saturation theorem of Knutson-Tao (see Theorem 9) Algebraic Geom. Sam [S] proved it for SO(2ℓ) (and also for SO(2ℓ + 1) 445. coefficients of the highest root θ of the Lie algebra g of G 2011–2012. written in terms of the simple roots {α1 . we say that the 166 (2006). αℓ }. Millson. Brion. Soc. 2 and 3 are saturation factors for G2 (and hence any integer [HS] J. representation theory and the groups SO(2ℓ + 1) and Sp(2ℓ) by using geometric tech- Hermitian operators. Cℓ (ℓ ≥ 3). no. 19–48. Coadjoint orbits. 3709–3721. invariant factors. Kapovich. 405–480. IMRN 2004. the following theorem follows. Preprint (2014). B. Soc.) 37 (2000). Proc. lems. Eigenvalue problem and a new product in cohomology of flag varieties. [B3 ] P. [Kly] A. Hong and L. Journ. Eigenvalues of sums of Hermitian matrices. Eigencone. 67–86. Conjecture]).Feature We now begin with the following definition. [DW] H. Amer. J. [E] A. E. . It was [Ki] F. 209–249. Belkale and S. [KTW] A. Further. Kirwan. USA. 64ème année no 1043.S. Alg. Pa- It was known earlier that the saturation property fails for cific J. [KLM] M. Dℓ (ℓ ≥ 4). 15 (2006). 297–354. In particular. A weaker form of the following the. Discrete Subgroups. The honeycomb model of GLn (C) tensor products II: Puzzles determine Theorem 30. 433–466. . G2 respectively. is known so far is G = Spin(8). Woodward. 2 for g of type Bℓ (ℓ ≥ 2). Math. Groups. ν) ∈ Γ3 (G) such that λ + µ + ν ∈ Q. Kapovich. S. and Dynkin automorphisms. Soc. proved by Kapovich-Kumar. If G is simply-laced then the saturation prop. G of type Bℓ (see [E]). Bull. E8 . Fan. Chap. Millson (see also [KT. Amer. side lengths of polygons and the sta- erty holds for G. of Math. and 6. Leeb and J. J. Invariant theory of GL(n) and intersection the- Definition 26. uration factors is obtained by Kapovich-Millson [KM2 ] by [Bo] N. J. Geometry and Dynamics 2 (2008). Littelmann’s path model. Groupes et algèbres de Lie. 12 (1962). [Ho] A. 2 is a saturation factor (and no [F] W.3. Sci. [Br] M. Belkale and S. G = Sp(4) or G2 . J. and saturation for Littlewood-Richardson coefficients. B. Providence. Vin- Kapovich-Millson determined Γˆ 3 (G) explicitly for G = berg). Stable bundles. odd integer d is a saturation factor) for Sp(4). Natl. Finally. 8. If d = 1 is a saturation factor for G. E7 .3] by explicit calculation using in Euclidean buildings and its applications to representa- Theorem 18. University of North Carolina. Klyachko. Com- positio Math. Tensor invariants. An integer d ≥ 1 is called a saturation factor ory of Grassmannians. rem 27 for the classical groups SO(n) and Sp(2ℓ). Bourbaki. We take s = 3 Bibliography as this is the most relevant case to the tensor product decom- position. Sp(4) and G2 (see [KM1 . Math. if d is a saturation factor then so is any of its [BK1 ] P. Millson. Local systems on P1 −S for S a finite set. Knutson and T. [Fa] K. J. shown by Hong-Shen [HS] that the spin group Spin(2ℓ + 1) Amer. 2012.1]). Structure of the tensor simple. Horn. Sp(2ℓ) (ℓ ≥ 2). and the Hilbert-Mumford criterion. 1055–1090. Knutson. PhD Thesis (under the supervision of P. Eigencone Problems for Odd and Even Orthog- orem was conjectured by Kumar in a private communication onal Groups. 493–540. [BK2 ] P. Theorems 5. Cohomology of Quotients in Symplectic and proved by Belkale-Kumar [BK2 . 13 (2000). Amer. Bel- to J. J. 755–780. Belkale. G. Journal of Differential Geometry 81 (2009). Convex functions Conjecture 29. The eigencone Kapovich-Millson [KM1 ] made the following very inter. Eigenvalues. and Schubert calculus. Geom. 225–241. 652–655. bility inequalities for weighted configurations at infinity. Geometric proofs of Horn and saturation con- we have (dλ. Math. Millson. [B1 ] P. T. [B2 ] P. where kg is the least common multiple of the Ressayre). 199–242. on symmetric spaces. Berenstein and R. F4 . for any (λ. Semi-invariants of quivers Observe that the value of kg is 1 for g of type Aℓ (ℓ ≥ 1). In: “Lie Groups. [KM2 ] M. J. saturation property holds for G.

Symmetric quivers. how long it has taken to properly understand Boole’s algebra ciety. Math. which in 1841. (2012). Proc. Freede. Cambridge. to provide financial support for his parents and siblings. Ramanathan. 46–91. of the In. rules of inference for started publishing mathematical papers. Shrawan Kumar [shrawan@email. equational reasoning and a powerful Rule of 0 and 1. gram Automorphisms. Mumford). Lee. quotes: see the excellent biography [23] by Desmond MacHale – including such remarkable details as the fact that Boole’s That the symbolic processes of algebra. ing school at the age of 16 to start his career as a schoolteacher This article is only concerned with the logic portion of LT. Sam. He was alized eigenvalue problem. USA. Tensor product decomposition. Kac-Moody Groups. Lidskii. C.unc. having had to give up attend. Zelevinsky. 2002. This is all the more two-thirds of LT are on Boole’s algebra of logic for classes remarkable because Boole was largely self-educated in math. 441–479. Kumar). Canada)Canada) George Boole (1815–1864) was responsible. Math. “New Perspectives in Algebraic Combinatorics”. North Carolina. [Wi] H. History [K1 ] S. Kumar.V. Progress in Mathematics. 180 (2010). Math. Press.edu] 106 (1984). Adv. Ireland. should be competent to express every act of called The Gadfly which essentially became the ‘bible of the Russian revolution’. deed. Dokl. Convexity properties of the moment mapping Representation Theory. for initiating the revolution in the subject of logic and Probabilities. Waterloo. 171–195. Adv. Sjamaar. an invited speaker at ICM 2010. B. Nauk SSSR 74 (1950). Some remarks on the instability flag. Amer. 204. re-examined. On the eigenvalues of [K3 ] S. Soc. he won has only recently been deciphered. The proper values of the sum and product of Publ. tion theorems for the classical groups. Ontario. J. Subsequently. at the age of 34. 1226–1261. Indeed. (2010). [N] L. EMS Newsletter December 2015 27 . 4 (with Appendix by M. Three years later. in particular as well as the texts [8]. We will refer to this book as LT. Amer. He Boole’s algebra had equational laws. article [7] on Boole in the online Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Ontario. [TF] R. 332 (2003). at the age of 29. Tôhoku Math. Hyderabad (In. Transformation Groups (1971). He is a 389–441. mainly on analysis. Birkhäuser. angle inequalities for rank 3 symmetric spaces of noncom. For fascinating details on Boole’s life. last third on applications of this algebra to probability theory. A stratification of the null cone via the moment map (with an appendix by D. Kumar. A Comparison of Eigencones Under Certain Dia. A Survey of the Additive Eigenvalue Problem sums of Hermitian matrices. Millson. 1051–1148. Ramanan and A. In 1849. The generalized tri. Das asymptotische Verteilungsgesetz der Eigen- [KuLM] S. Parker Dis- [RR] S. University of North Carolina. An extremum property of sums of eigenval- [Le] B. 6 (1955). today he is best known for his work in logic. 1 For a modern introduction to Boole’s algebra of logic. is the John R. invariant theory. invented as tools of nu- youngest daughter Ethel Lilian (1864–1960) wrote a novel merical calculation. Weyl. MSRI [Li] B. in 1844.1 De Morgan (1806–1871). see the author’s Although Boole was primarily an algebraist and analyst. 345. Math. Inventiones Math. Fellow of the American Mathematical So- ciety. for a professorship at Queen’s Col. Geometric invariant theory and the gener. Kumar. Leeb and J. [9] of two recent talks by the author on Boole’s for his 1854 book An Investigation of the Laws of Thought algebra of logic. vol. The first by creating an algebra of logic for classes. [S] S. Cambridge Univ. Math. Contemp. In: of S. De Morgan’s noisy feud (over a rather trivial matter in logic) with the respected 1 Using Ordinary Algebra philosopher Sir William Hamilton (1788–1856) of Edinburgh inspired Boole to write a booklet [2] in 1847 applying algebra One of the distinguishing features of Boole’s algebra of logic to logic. Ness. it is remarkable the first gold medal awarded in mathematics by the Royal So. in the years on which are founded the Mathematical Theories of Logic 1847–1854. 2012. and Louise S. (which will henceforth be called “Boole’s algebra") and the ematics (and several languages). Kumar. 1104–1135. Boole left school-teaching is the extent to which it looks like ordinary algebra. 106–110. – the breakthrough came in 1976 with the publication of [15] Boole struck up a friendly correspondence with Augustus by Theodore Hailperin (1916–2014). 38 (1999). their Flag Varieties and [Sj] R. Thompson and L. pact type. tinguished Professor at the University of [R] N. 1281–1329. Waterloo. Acad. Annalen 71 (1912). Wielandt. In- in Lincolnshire. Math. 138 (1998). Proc. England. Ressayre. [W] H. werte linearer partieller Differentialgleichungen. 369–376. dia). 337– symmetric matrices. 229 ternational Congress of Mathematicians. this fact is beautifully summarised in the following two lege in Cork. J. Kapovich). J. 36 (1984). and satura- [K2 ] S. 269–291. PhD Thesis (under the supervision [Z] A. Littlewood-Richardson semigroups. ues. Linear Algebra Appl. Chapel Hill. 769–772. George Boole and George Boole andBoolean BooleanAlgebra Algebra Stanley Stanley Burris Burris(University (Universityofof Waterloo. 19 (2014).

. iff Now. of interpretation will alone divide them. known. ·. Boole’s models P(U) := P(U). Then. . He (implicitly) added the quasi. The laws. . etc. . then. Peirce. The relevant models of BR are the algebras equational premises and conclusion. which essentially said that one can carry a conveniently chosen axiom set CR1 . as equational rules of inference . . . 2. and of these integers Z. This was an unusual law in that it only applied to variables. that is. equational reasoning.  then it holds in the integers Z. iff Since addition and subtraction were only partially defined. with ical Reasoning”. thanks to Hailperin’s work. values alone. Boole’s partial algebras can be seen to arise naturally as follows. . an Algebra will be identical in their whole extent with the laws. admit indifferently of the values 0 and 1. We write this in modern no- A  B if B ⊆ A tation as follows. system. −. He said it was just like using the uninterpretable −1 multiplication is intersection. 0 is the empty set and 1 is the to derive trigonometric identities. 1 were given by the definitions This foundation has been essentially ignored until the last A · B := A ∩ B. What Boole meant is that an equational argument  ε1 (x). Difference not to compound terms like x + y. rules of inference and partial alge- gebra than Boolean rings. Let us conceive. . B2 = B. merical algebra is that his models were partial algebras. the axioms.2 These ax. Some might prefer to say that “the addi. one needs to treat the laws (∀x)(nx = 0 → x = 0) to use Hailperin’s terminology. we know they hold in Boole’s way to build an algebra of logic on CR1 is to add the idem. nx = 0 tive group is torsion-free". it must satisfy (A + Z2 |= ε1 (x) ∧ · · · ∧ εk (x) → ε(x). p. merical algebra as applied to a collection of quantities each it must be A ∪ B. iff   cation as intersection was a consequence of using composi. Boole’s Principles allowed him to claim that an equa- potent law (∀x)(x2 = x). the axioms. εk (x) ∴ ε(x) using purely 2 The N in NCR1 is supposed to suggest “no additively nilpotent elements”. indeed. . and to furnish the grammar and dictionary of an all. in A Budget of Paradoxes. 165 of of LT before the corresponding result for Boolean rings was LT. would not have been believed until it tells us that (1) addition must be a partial operation.g. z. for n = 1. the numerical equations x · 0 = 0 and BR  ε1 (x) ∧ · · · ∧ εk (x) → ε(x) x · 1 = x led to his definitions of 0 and 1 as stated above. εk (x) ∴ ε(x). Boole’s approach was closer to ordinary numerical al.) the law x2 = x cannot apply to terms in general (in particular. bra models. . . 0. decade. a modern approach and it did not appear until the 20th century. where P(U) is the power set of the uni. addition and subtraction are symmetric difference. where Idemp(x) says the variables in the A − B := undefined otherwise. B)2 = A+B. p.3 These Principles are in general false ten thought of as the algebra of polynomials.History thought. . namely: tent law A2 = A. universe. x=0 28 EMS Newsletter December 2015 . From NCR1 and the fact that A2 = A. and Boole showed how this hypothesis could be The price Boole paid for being so close to ordinary nu- applied to the solution of many logical problems. +. terms. The algebra which Boole himself used was simply ordinary nu. . NCR1  Idemp(x) → ε1 (x) ∧ · · · ∧ εk (x) → ε(x) 1 := U. +. one 3 To justify equational arguments ε1 (x). of such Boole also added one non-numerical law. ·. is a good place to out equational reasoning in his system as though the mod- start when defining ordinary numerical algebra. (C. εk (x) ∴ ε(x) is correct in his system if and only A ∪ B if A ∩ B = ∅ A + B := if when the variables are restricted to the values 0 and 1 undefined otherwise. could be justified by an P(U). which we will call his Rule of 0 and 1 (LT. x(1 − x) = 0. His definition of multipli. and the processes. . most notably in the 1936 paper 2 Boole’s Rule of 0 and 1 [31] of Marshall Stone (1903–1989). . 37): giving the set of axioms that will be called NCR1 .. The modern but. e. xm are idempotent:   0 := ∅. This is of. After introducing his laws. A and B must be disjoint. S.) In Chapter V of LT he stated his “Principles of Symbol- The equational theory of commutative rings with unity. ioms are indeed true of the ordinary number systems. not to x + y). 0. list x := x1 . . of an Algebra in which the symbols x. equational derivation that involved (partially) uninterpretable√ verse U. giving the set BR of axioms for tional argument ε1 (x). if A − B is defined then one has of which was assumed to be subject to the quadratic equation B ⊆ A and A − B = A  B. IV of Peirce’s collected papers. 264 in Vol. might have discouraged most from continuing but not Boole. ton’s Section 2. (The use of composition of selection operators is variables x.) The definition of multiplication gave Boole his idempo. namely x2 = x. . and (2) was proved. the y. his   Z |= Idemp(x) → ε1 (x) ∧ · · · ∧ εk (x) → ε(x) models were partial algebras. Boole stated a remarkable foundational principle identities (∀x)(nx = 0 → x = 0). then. easily derives A · B = 0. to CR1 . An easy argument shows that if A + B is defined. 1. . This containing system of logic. But this is. σ tion of selection operators to determine multiplication – here a selection operator such as Red chooses the red elements where σ is a string of 0s and 1s of the same length as the list of in a class. and the processes of an Algebra of Logic. Upon this principle the method of the following work is established. (Augustus De Morgan. Likewise. . Z |= ε1 (σ) ∧ · · · ∧ εk (σ) → ε(σ) . It would be nearly a century after the publication clearly stated in his discussion of multiplication on p. els were total algebras. suppose A + B is defined. −. with totally defined Boolean rings. This from the Nachlass Notes on the list of postulates of Dr Hunting.

q(x) · y = p(x) iff mathematics. Wiener [36] added a paper on “Boolean algebra" in 1917. and sometimes the theorem has a considerably simpler statement. as Boolians. However. A simple example Boole’s translations of propositions into equations also will suffice: C101 (x1 . [30] using the phrase “Boolean stated in 1967 by Fred Galvin [13]. and were replaced in the 1890s by equa- Boole’s four main theorems (expressed in modern termi. the latter having The name of the modern version fluctuated for decades. Hailperin [15] showed that characteristic func. But first we need Boole’s notion of a Schröder’s Operationskreis was the first publication to absorb constituent Cσ (x). In 1913. gave a series of invited lectures at Harvard titled “Reason- ing and the Logic of Things". was used mainly in papers published in American journals. Stanley Jevons (1835–1882). Bertrand Russell (1872–1970) was so impressed the exception of John Venn (1834–1923). the two-element Boolean sion. benefited from this included Henry M. These lectures so inspired the where ϕ|Idemp means the variables of ϕ are relativised to Harvard philosophy Professor Josiah Royce (1855–1916) that idempotent elements (see [10]). equational logic to develop an algebra of logic for classes. Peirce NCR+1  ϕ|Idemp iff Z |= ϕ|Idemp . aside from historical studies. for Σ any set of axioms. Boole’s theorems. Peirce (1839–1914). nally. Peirce was the only one who occasionally In the following. Huntington [18] returned to this topic. PhD 1910) and Norbert Wiener (1894–1964. tences ϕ: such as Jevons and Schröder. used the modern  3. four main theorems. Royce’s PhD students who BR+  ϕ iff Z2 |= ϕ. in 1933. algebra" for the modern version of the subject. let Σ+ be named the subject after Boole. offering three for Ji suitably determined (see [7]) by the equalities and more sets of axioms. mid-career. History where Z2 is the two-element Boolean ring. 22 years after the Another Harvard mathematician Marshall Stone (1803–1989) publication of LT. The same result Within a decade of the publication of LT. Boole’s modern version became ever more standard. anyone seriously read Boole’s LT as a fundamental source of  2. information on the algebra of logic for classes. and Z2 to 2BA . it was written by Venn. with operation. they found Boole’s with Sheffer’s stroke that it was used in the second edition of use of the algebra of numbers with partial algebra models at Principia Mathematica. the 1877 Operationskreis des Logikkalkuls of Ernst This brief overview of Boole’s work will conclude with his Schröder (1841–1902) and the 1880 paper [25] of Peirce. 0) (SO- LUTION). For Boolean algebras. Huntington (1874–1952) was one of the most   famous papers devoted to describing axioms for the modern     (∃v) y = Cσ (y) + v · Cσ (y) . tions and negated equations in Schröder’s monumental three- nology) are: volume Algebra der Logik. both Royce and BA+  ϕ iff 2BA |= ϕ. y) (ELIMINATION). y) = 0 iff 0 = σ p(σ. Up till 1940. version of the algebra of logic for classes. it was the worldwide standard for the modern tions were the key to justifying Boole’s algebra. the name “Boolean algebra" and would not be improved upon for the next 100 years. the move was holds if we change BR to BA. I. review [33] of LT did not occur until 1876. C. The corresponding result for he decided. Starting with the 1864 book Pure Logic by William algebra. PhD 1913). V. Lewis (1883–1964. in 1976. came under fire. This was possibly the last time  1. symbols and axioms for the modern version. 5 Harvard and the name “Boolean Algebra" All of these results can be readily translated into theorems of Boolean rings as well as of Boolean algebras. but by 1950. as with many new subjects introduced into 4. in this subject. it took decades before mathematicians could p(x) · (p(x) − q(x)) = 0 agree on standard nomenclature. calculus of logic. there followed the 1867 paper [24] of Charles S. p1 (x) = · · · = pk (x) = 0 iff 0 = i pi (x)2 (REDUC. where σ is a string of 0s and 1s of the all of Boole’s main theorems into the modern setting. Sheffer (1882–1964. version. are easily Boolian calculus. as stated above. Sheffer published papers [26]. same length as the string x of variables. x2 . q(σ). σ∈J1 σ∈J2 In 1933. Hunt- work was so mysterious that the first attempt at a substantial ington [18] would credit Sheffer with introducing this name. EMS Newsletter December 2015 29 . inequalities holding within the triples (p(σ). one has the parallel result PhD 1908). At times he referred to those who used proved by strengthening Boole’s Rule of 0 and 1 to Horn sen. Fi. The 1904 paper [17] of the Harvard mathe- and matician E. usu- been carried out in 1877 by Schröder in [27]. to embark on a crash course to learn Boolean rings is mathematics and modern logic. the 1872 book Die 3 Boole’s Four Main Theorems Formenlehre oder Mathematik by Robert Grassmann (1815– 1901). p(x) = σ p(σ)Cσ (x) (EXPANSION). (∃x)p(x. a set of equational axioms for underway to replace Boole’s algebra with the modern ver- Boolean algebras. Sheffer’s paper 4 The Reaction to Boole’s Algebra of Logic became the more famous and it used “Boolean algebra” in the title – this was the paper with the Sheffer stroke as the sole Boole’s early successors appreciated his main results but. x3 ) := x1 (1 − x2 )x3 . where the fourth ally being called the algebra of logic. calling it Boolian algebra or Σ ∪ {0  1}. at worst completely unacceptable. It provided little would also use the name “Boolean algebra" in his famous pa- insight into why Boole’s algebra actually gives correct results pers of the 1930s. algebra of logic for classes – it provided three sets of axioms. In 1898. future research TION). The name “Boolean algebra" for the best unattractive.

– [2] was written in a few weeks in 1847. were those who found the language of propositional logic a Boole first needed a translation of categorical propositions good choice. the deciphering of Boole’s Rule of 0 and 1 (see [7]. In 1947. The Cambridge and Dublin Math- approach came from the Harvard Computation Laboratory ematical Journal. its first and agreement on notation and axioms. Harvard University Press. [2] George Boole. under the direction of Howard Aiken (1900–1973). an obvious advantage of being able to use the algebra of num. quickly noting equations (see [11]). thereby rapidly gaining a sense of the of logic for classes was essentially sound. Bibliography A ∩ B → χA · χB and A → 1 − χA . Boole eventually agreed (see LT. he would have been able to pro. 1951. His method was to map a class A to its characteristic function χA . This article is the direct the ones borrowed from Boole. Hailperin. (E) xy = 0 x = v(1 − y) xy = 0 there were people who knew that Boole’s algebra was based (I) v = xy vx = vy v = vxy on the algebra of numbers and was not to be confused with (O) v = x(1 − y) vx = v(1 − y) v = vx(1 − y) modern Boolean algebra. namely bers was that its notation was standardised. we can say that Boole’s algebra which ones succeeded. it is likely that Boole was able to to allow one to translate particular categorical propositions as try out a large number of ideas and examples. even in the mid 1950s. of the subring of ZU generated by the idempotent elements. it is likely that the major- Boole viewed the syllogisms as simple applications of the ity of modern mathematicians and computer scientists believe elimination theorem. isn’t Boolean algebra but it is doubtful that it has had signifi- gisms. (I) Some x is y. result of being invited to give a talk in August 2015 “A Primer It is interesting to note that. but Aiken decided to use Boole’s arithmeti- (O) Some x is not y. Thanks are pressions in the algebra of numbers. p. He said that there In order to apply his algebra of classes to Aristotelian logic. 240) that syllo. Recall that there are four kinds of categorical algebra made by Claude Shannon (1916–2001) in his famous propositions: (A) All x is y. University College Cork (UCC) has been a modern algebra of classes spent decades trying to come to celebrating the bicentennial of the birth of Boole. However. The ring ZU satisfied NCR1 and the uninter- Most of Boole’s successors found his use of ordinary numer. followed by a recommended revision: able working with a familiar algebra. So it seems that. some issues remained unresolved until recently. in 1933. The first examples in 1847 1854 (see [11]) the book are the switching function for a triode tube being t(x) = 1 − x and the switching function for a pentode tube be- (A) x = xy x = vy x = xy ing p(x. the record straight with his 1981 publication Boole’s algebra eral eliminations could be achieved by a sequence of syllo. By us. Reprinted in Oxford by Basil Blackwell. Mass. However. Hailperin tried to set school argued that Boole offered nothing new since his gen. ‘big picture’. noting that this made the also due to Michel Schellekens of UCC for many discussions verification of Boolean algebraic properties quite straightfor. Barclay & Macmillan. Cambridge. [10]) and ematicians were expected to be quite fluent in its use. 1951. Aiken. ward. The Mathematical Analysis of Logic. The following gives Boole’s translations cal algebra on the grounds that it would be more comfort- of 1847 and 1854. cant impact. Those opting for Throughout 2015. Synthesis of Electronic Computing and did not notice that the fragment of the ring ZU consisting of Control Circuits. A point of direct contact in the 20th century with Boole’s [3] —. An Investigation of The Laws of Thought on Which are he set out to create a mathematics for electronic switching Founded the Mathematical Theories of Logic and Proba- 30 EMS Newsletter December 2015 . The Calculus of Logic. in his algebra of logic remained a complete mystery until Hailperin’s 1976/1986 book Boole’s Algebra and Probabil- 7 Was Boole misguided to have used the ity noted that Boole’s partial algebra P(U) was isomorphic algebra of numbers? to the partial algebra consisting of the idempotent elements of the ring ZU . Originally vide a justification of Boole’s main theorems 40 years before published in Cambridge by Macmillan. the characteristic functions was isomorphic to Boole’s par- tial algebra P(U).History 6 Boole’s Translations circuits. as well as those who liked the use of Boolean into equations. Then he added that (with the Solution Theorem) his system went be. and 1938 paper [29]. Traditional logicians of the Aristotelian that Boole’s algebra is Boolean algebra. Hassler Whitney on Boole’s Algebra of Logic” at the Irish Mathematical So- (1907–1989) published a paper [35] showing how to convert ciety meeting in Cork. Mathematical Society is gratefully acknowledged. to be used in the building of the Mark IV computer – the results were published in 1951 in [1]. for then one had A ∪ B → χA + χB − χA · χB . pretables of Boole’s system became interpretable as elements ical algebra a totally unnecessary piece of baggage. y) = 1 − xy. their best theorems were most famous mathematics professor. practising math. Still. Unfortunately. otherwise. 183–198. The financial support of the European expressions in the modern Boolean algebra of classes into ex. Being an Essay Towards a Calculus of Deductive Reasoning. Finally. 3 (1847). gisms were indeed sufficient to achieve his elimination results but pointed out that the traditionalists lacked a description of 8 Justifying Boole’s Algebra of Classes how the sequence of syllogisms was to be created. The reasons that Boole’s algebra of numbers worked so well yond what the Aristotelians had achieved. [4] —. a revision of Boole’s translations (see the table in Section 6) ing the algebra of numbers. on Boole’s contributions. 1847. Perhaps it was because he was using a famil- iar algebra that he was able to go so far in such short time Acknowledgements. he saw little connection between his work and that of Boole – he [1] Howard H. (E) No x is y.

pp. Bull. [32] —. Vol. Algebra der Logik. 1918. On an improvement in Boole’s calculus of logic. Sciences Conference in Cork. Justifying Boole’s algebra of logic. 1 (Jan 1933). 1879. No. ed. problems. A. pp. 14. Annals of Mathematics 34 (1933). George Boole. [29] Claude E. A primer on Boole’s algebra of logic. George Boole. The Century Co. 41. the MAA President at Logic. Reprinted 1971 in Pure Logic and Other Mi. He has studied apart from Quantity: with Remarks on Boole’s System and the history of logic (especially of the 19th century) for over on the Relation of Logic and Mathematics. 172–184. 713–723. oir “Decidability and Boolean Constructions” with Ralph gebra of logic. Boole’s Principles of Symbolical Reasoning. 2nd edition. by R. spearheaded the MAA Women of Mathematics poster project. 1864. An extension of the algebra of logic. [31] M. 1894. Vol. Transactions of the American Mathe. Psychology and Scientific Methods. 37–111. [34] —. 4 (Sep 1981). Vol. Vol. 1997. pp.ca/~snburris/. xl. available from arXiv:1412. The Century Philosophy Series. Transactions of the American Mathematical Society. clarifying several aspects of Boole’s algebra of London. pp. pp. Horn sentences. [28] —. pp. Shannon. No. New Sets of Independent Postulates for the Algebra of in computer science. reprint by Chelsea. X. 54. [27] Ernst Schröder. Sets of independent postulates for the al. History bilities. 1 (Jan 1917). ment at the University of Waterloo in 1968 tin. P. Vol.uwaterloo. 65–72. leading to the 1981 mem- [17] E. 375–481. 1872. Adamson and H. On the algebra of logic. 1890–1910. research in universal algebra for over two [16] —. No. 1985. Originally published by Macmillan. (Oct 1913). Being an avid fan of Pub. No. Jevons. Operationskreis des Logikkalkuls. xi + 506. No. Revised and enlarged. 1877. 2009.ca/~snburris/. vited talk to the Irish Mathematical Society meeting. constructions and decidability. 35. Transactions of the American Mathematical Society. Oxford: Elsevier North-Holland. 288–309. [24] C. 59–64. Soc. or the Logic of Quality Theoretic Density and Logical Limit Laws”. and decision Stanley Burris [snburris@math. I. He was a research associate of Studies in Logic and the Foundations of Mathematics. Vol. Lewis. 3 (May 1937). pp. Applications of the theory of Boolean rings to general gust 2015. [35] Hassler Whitney. The theory of representation for Boolean al- dia of Philosophy at http://plato. pp. 405–414. Co. Huntington. 18. he of California Press. Boole Press Dublin. Notre actions of the American Mathematical Society. with application to logical constants. and has published over 70 research papers [15] Theodore Hailperin. In the 1990s.. 479–491. A set of five independent postulates for Ivor Grattan-Guinness. No. 4 (Oct talk on 28 August 2015 at the George Boole Mathematical 1876). ca] joined the Pure Mathematics Depart- [14] Robert Grassmann. 27 Au. ed.uwaterloo. Selected Manuscripts on Logic and its Philosophy. in Cork. Symbolic strongly supported by Joseph Gallian. Transactions of the American Mathematical Society. pp. in 1996 he published “Logic for Mathe- Logic.math.stanford. 73. 7 (May 1865 – May 1868). Vol. [13] Fred Galvin. With Special Reference to Whitehead and Russell’s Principia Mathematica. gebras. Preprint 2014. Principles of the Algebra of Logic. P. 23. Vols. Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Math. Characteristic functions and the algebra of tial algebras. 1986. 3 (303–330). Vol.edu/entries/boole/. Preprint 2014. American Journal of Mathematics. 1 (Mar 1880). able at arXiv:1404. available at http://www. he started work matical Society. Formal Logic 50 No. The Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 19 (2013). [21] Clarence Irving Lewis and Cooper Harold Langford. [25] —. [20] C. No. A symbolic analysis of relay and switch- Reprint by Dover. H. New York and London: the time (2007–2008). Lennox Hill Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. pp. Vol. [12] —. Sankappanavar. Berkeley. [9] —. & Dist. 1854. Reduced products. on asymptotics and logic. Trans- [6] Frank Mark Brown. London: Macmillan. I–III. Amsterdam. [36] Norbert Wiener. The second edition appeared in 2014 from the Cork University Press. Ireland. 481–488. 40. A Modern Version. Series: since then. Symbolic Logic. 6 November 1913. uwaterloo. avail. available at http://www. Edward Stanford. Transactions of the American Mathematical McKenzie and the popular textbook “A Course in Universal Society. two decades.. George Boole’s Deductive System. Second math. Ed- inburgh: Douglas. Stet. matics and Computer Science”. Leipzig: Teubner. V. logic and writing the article “George Boole” in the online nor Works. Gérard Bornet. with a primary interest in Boolean azine. Boole’s Logic and Probability. 105. S. 249–261. The text of an in. 57 (1938). 15–57 [26] Josiah Royce. 1958. London. EMS Newsletter December 2015 31 . [7] Stanley Burris. Ireland. He has carried out 1976. gebras. 274–304.0784. [22] Alexander Macfarlane. [23] Desmond MacHale. Amer. AIEE Transactions. No. Boole’s method I. Sankappanavar. Peirce. eds. topology. Boole’s algebra isn’t Boolean algebra. Venn. [10] —and H. Mathematics Mag. ing circuits. Algebra” with H. 1966. Vol. pp. 446. pp. Pure Logic. 1932. leading to the 2001 book “Number [19] William Stanley Jevons. A Survey of Symbolic Logic. 1 (Jul 1936). 5 (1904). Boole’s logical system. New York. 97– logic. 3. [8] —. 85. [5] —. Alfred Tarski in 1971. Birkhäuser. Vol. With increasing interest [18] —. 6 + 409. The Horn Theory of Boole’s par. decades. Mind. No. [30] Henry Maurice Sheffer.2953. Boolean algebra. The Jour- nal of Philosophy. Stone. 1. Certain formal invariances in Boolean al- [11] —. The online Stanford Encyclope. Die Formenlehre oder Mathematik. 4 Dame J. University Photoshop and of recognition of women in mathematics. The text of an invited [33] J. pp. NY.

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Do you often think about the Navier–Stokes equations? Many of these problems come from physics so solutions Once in a while. so the set could not have dimension one. EMS Newsletter December 2015 33 . ther has dimension zero or it has dimension one. for instance. But. it in. You may wonder what the hell that is? It ei. Yes. They are for young people. these equations. written down for which one knows there are no solutions. and connected with the metric is its curvature. for instance. In neers use it or not. Partial differential equations (and geometry/ physics) Firstly. Could you tell us what the Weyl problem is about? The problem was originally stated by Hermann Weyl. at my age. This friend happened to like about the dimension of singularities if they do occur. I even wrote two papers with a friend Well. Interview Interview with Abel Laureate Louis Nirenberg Martin Raussen (Aalborg University. mathematical puzzles and half the lessons then consisted They cannot have a high dimension. A big part of the problem Navier–Stokes equations or not. I am no longer fascinated by than one. the problem was proving the existence of solutions of The paper is very technical. they of these puzzles. My contribution was to fill in those missing estimates. Your first important achievement in mathematics was solving the so-called Weyl problem in your PhD thesis. You have a two-dimensional sphere with a metric (that is. You will receive the Abel Prize from His Majesty the King of Norway in a ceremony tomorrow. I resisted. But I don’t really have any fresh ideas. I would be expected to exist? think it is up to younger people. stupidly. I found them quite fascinating but. The equations were number. left: John F. no! When you express the problem mathematically. we want to congratulate you on being awarded (with Professor Nash) the Abel Prize for 2015. for equations in fluid dynamics (the so-called Navier-Stokes equations that were introduced Start of a career in mathematics 150 years ago). a way of measuring distance). Denmark) and Christian Skau (Norwegian University of Science and Technology. They must fill a set of dimension less must say now. There are concepts of dimension of any non-negative volves partial differential equations. mathematicians have not been able to prove that smooth solutions exist for all time. puzzles. Norway) This interview took place in Oslo on 18 May 2015. joint work with Caffarelli and Kohn from 1982? and now I know no Hebrew at all. We proved that the one-dimensional measure so-called non-linear partial differential equations and had to be zero. it Louis Nirenberg is awarded the Abel Prize by King Harald V of Nor- way. If this curvature is positive. Much of my career has really been de- voted to studying partial differential equations in general But it is very important in connection with the Navier– but also applying them to problems from geometry and Stokes equations? complex analysis. But it is a big mathemat- is proving that solutions exist because equations can be ical challenge to show that there are smooth solutions. He hired a friend to That result is not about the existence of solutions but give me lessons in Hebrew. Is that true? Is it true that the best result in that direction is your My father tried to teach me Hebrew. Aeroplanes fly whether we solve the my mind. were told that a certain teacher of Hebrew played an instrumental role. Trondheim. So that is May we ask how your mathematical life started? We still an open problem. it is a useful result mathematically whether engi- in economics involving partial differential equations. it is a wonderful field. I cannot fill a curve. the question is whether you can find a convex body in three dimensional space with a mapping to the sphere so that when you measure the distance in Euclidean space. Nash (photo: NTB/Scanpix) agrees with the metric? Weyl went quite far toward solv- ing this problem but there were some estimates missing. But.

I really was most influenced by him.Interview That started my interest in mathematics. You graduated from McGill University in Montreal. A son of Courant1 had married a young woman from Montreal. If good people got PhDs. you then leave. It is just mathematics. Mathematically speaking. They had ditional year. Some of them became well known math- to a very good high school. that was the only thing I studied. I am sorry I didn’t. America. there were a number of very tal- 2 1856–1927.” So we have a very nice lounge New York University. helped even more. I think gradu- mathematics department. Courant was wonderful with young four. 3 1901–1982. I then decided I would like to good people. very good job. He worked mainly with partial differential equations but How did you end up at the Courant Institute in New he also did other things. partly it is just the warm atmosphere. They both worked You mentioned that there was a special atmosphere at there and one day she said they were going to New York the Courant Institute. Friedrichs and the CUNY It is remarkable that you are the fourth Abel Prize Lau- reate associated with the Courant Institute (after Peter Courant was head of a very famous institute in Göttin. Spring of 1945. One of them became a professional musician and is now So I was at McGill for three years rather than the usual married to Peter Lax. 1 1888–1972. He often invited the students socially to his ing mathematics and physics at university? home. they asked him terview and was offered an assistantship in mathematics. What has made this institute so suc- to power but he was offered a position at New York Uni. The course. I never left library and a coffee room. much bigger now than it was when I was a student number of students only increased after the war. it may have clearer in college that I had some talent in mathematics. Friedrichs was the person I regard as my Sensei (as interesting subjects. I didn’t take any courses in other Yes. He was kicked out when the Nazis came Gromov in 2009). when you get a PhD at some university in that the quality of the students was also very good. that. I went down for an in. Did it help being offered a job if you played an instru- tional talent for mathematics? ment? The teachers considered me good but I think it became I didn’t play an instrument. the Japanese say). yes. whom I knew. in part because no distinction was to visit Courant. I could encouraged people to do the same. cessful? versity a year later to set up a graduate programme in the Well. Courant was different. Of course. what a mathematics department needs and he said: “A I got a Master’s degree and I just stayed on. Oh. I asked her to ask him to suggest some made between pure and applied mathematics… place I could apply to do graduate work in physics. I also went ented students. your mentor was Kurt Frie- However. then go on to do physics. that we use all the time. The high school offered an ad. Were there already clear signs that you had an excep. I had a Sum. It was a pleasure to study mathematics and physics. ematicians. It is. which I didn’t get. Lax in 2005. Did you meet with him often? Perhaps you could tell us about your experience study. on shock wave By pure luck! When I finished at McGill. He did both and he come and take a Master’s degree in mathematics. just at the end of the war in Europe. She was the daughter McGill. This was during the depres. together with Courant. His wife was completely devoted to music and I finished high school and applied for a scholarship at played a number of instruments. just after the war. them jobs. When I there. he said. When New York University hired him. Because I drichs? 3 missed the first year. I had excellent teachers and I must say Usually. of the mathematician Carl Runge. equivalent to a first year at college. This was during World War II and I graduated in the people – very encouraging and really exceptional. I did two daughters who were both very ardent musicians. I actually received a hired people who played instruments (unless they played gold medal for my work in mathematics and physics. came. That’s right. He kept the geometry and physics.2 by the way. applied again to McGill and then got a scholarship. But the warm atmosphere has prevailed. I par. which he played himself). which was widely used and translated into many mer job at the National Research Council where they did languages. He wrote a book on quantum York? theory and a book. he simply offered study physics. He came to New York to do that interaction between the students and the faculty. of but there were very few students in those first years. theory. atomic research. the piano. But if I had. Courant insisted there was no difference be- She came back and said that Courant suggested that I tween pure and applied mathematics. I was part of a very good body of students sion and to be a high school teacher was considered a and it was an exciting time. 34 EMS Newsletter December 2015 . You go to another university ticularly enjoyed the mathematics courses and especially for your first job. Germany. Courant. Srinivasa Varadhan in 2007 and Mikhail gen. the rumour was that he When I graduated from university. They only had undergraduate ate students are very happy there and there is a lot of training at that time.

Interview

Who were your most important colleagues over your ca- Let’s move on to your joint research with Shmuel Ag-
reer? mon and Avron Douglis.6 There were two very impor-
There is Friedrichs but also two other students of Cou- tant papers. Can you explain what they contained?
rant: Fritz John,4 a wonderfully talented mathematician What we did was to extend some classic work, by the Pol-
who later became a faculty member (I had the fortune ish mathematician Schauder, to higher order equations.7
of writing one paper with him) and Hans Lewy 5 (I wrote There is a fundamental paper of Schauder for second-
several papers related to some of his work). Hans left order, so-called elliptic equations. We thought it would
Germany immediately after Hitler came to power. He be useful for people to be able to deal with higher order
came to the United States and had a career at Berkeley. equations and systems of equations so we proved the
analogues of those results. In the other paper, we proved
Partial differential equations and inequalities the results for systems and also for different norms, that
is, for different ways of measuring the size of the solu-
Your name, often with various co-authors, is attached tions. We published several different kinds of inequalities
to many fundamental concepts and theorems in PDEs. and they have been used by many people.
If you just look at the citation list, your work has had
a tremendous impact. Let’s start with Fritz John, with You wrote a paper with Joseph Kohn introducing the
whom you authored a very influential paper about important notion of pseudo-differential operators. You
BMO functions (BMO standing for “Bounded Mean are one of the fathers of that concept. Can you explain
Oscillation”). why this concept is so important and how you came
That was his idea. He introduced BMO functions. It came upon it?
from some work he had done in elasticity theory. He ap- Joe Kohn had published a fundamental paper in com-
proached me saying: “I have a class of functions and I plex analysis. It involved the regularity of solutions for
believe they should have such-and-such a property.” I a certain class of systems up to the boundary – a rather
worked on it and was able to prove that property. He difficult paper! He suggested we should try to generalise
then improved it so the final version is better than what I this to more general systems of equations. We started to
had done. It became a joint paper and I must say a lot of look at it and we had to consider so-called commutators
people have referred to it. of operators. You apply an operator and then you apply
a second one. Then you take the difference of that result
Absolutely! It became famous – if we may say so – be- with the operator obtained by applying the second one
cause of the many applications. For instance, Charles and then the first. We needed properties of the commu-
Fefferman got the Fields Medal in 1978 and one of his tator. We were using a certain space, called an Lp-space,
main contributions was to show that the BMO space is and a theory due to Calderón 8 and Zygmund 9 for certain
dual to the Hardy space H1. singular integral operators. We needed to extend their re-
Charles Fefferman did many things but in particular, he sult to commutators so we thought: “How do we extend
proved the duality result that you refer to. these singular integral operators to make an algebra out
of them?”
Your paper with Fritz John contains the John–Niren- That led to what we call pseudo-differential opera-
berg inequality. You love inequalities? tors. The concept came from a very specific problem in
I love inequalities. And what we proved in the paper was systems of partial differential equations but it turned out
really an inequality. to be a useful thing in itself. It grew out of Calderón and
Zygmund’s theory. By the way, Calderón was a wonder-
Would you explain why inequalities are so important in ful mathematician and he danced the tango, which I ad-
the theory of PDEs? mired enormously.
When you look at a partial differential equation, you may
ask whether a solution exists. Now, you can’t write down You had a very bright student, August Newlander, with
the solution so you need to know some bounds. It cannot whom you wrote a very important joint paper in 1957.
be too big, it cannot be too negative, its derivatives cannot Can you tell us about the results you proved there?
be too big and so on. You try to get estimates of the size of It was a problem I first heard of from André Weil.10 He
the function and of its derivatives. All these estimates are said: “Here’s a problem in complex analysis. Why don’t
inequalities. You are not saying that something is equal you people in partial differential equations work on this
to something but that something is less than some con- kind of problem?” I thought: “Why not? Let’s try.” I took
stant. Thus, inequalities play an essential role in proving a student who was very bright and I said: “Let’s look at
the existence of solutions. In addition, you want to prove the very simplest case, in the lowest dimension.” The stu-
properties of solutions and, again, inequalities play a cen- dent, Newlander, had the initial idea, which worked fine
tral role. Hence, inequalities are absolutely fundamental
to studying partial differential equations; for that matter, 6 1918–1995.
so are they for ordinary differential equations. 7 1899–1943.
8 1920–1998.
4 1910–1994. 9 1900–1992.
5 1904–1988. 10 1906–1998.

EMS Newsletter December 2015 35

Interview

in low dimensions but, to our surprise and dismay, didn’t You also went to the Soviet Union?
work in higher dimensions. We had to come up with a Yes. The first time I went was in 1963. It was a joint So-
completely different proof in higher dimensions. It led viet-American symposium on partial differential equa-
from a linear problem to a non-linear problem. It was tions, arranged by Courant on one side and the Soviet
kind of strange but the non-linear problem was in some mathematician Lavrentyev 15 on the other. There were
ways more accessible. about two dozen American mathematicians and about
120 Soviet mathematicians from all over the Soviet Un-
What was André Weil’s reaction when you solved the ion. It is one of the best meetings I have ever attended.
problem? It was in Novosibirsk, Siberia, which was the academic
He was very happy and so were other people in complex city that Lavrentyev had helped create. It was like be-
analysis. Many people have used the result. Some years ing aboard a ship for two weeks with people you make
later, Hörmander 11 found a linear proof of the same re- friendships with immediately. I made friends with Rus-
sult. It was very technical but it was purely linear. sians that are still friends today. Some have died, unfor-
tunately, but I have had very good friends in Russia since
Are there any outstanding problems in the enormous then. I have never collaborated with any of them but they
field of partial differential equations, apart from the Na- are still very warm friends; we would meet and talk about
vier–Stokes problem, that you would like to highlight? mathematics, politics and all kind of things.
Well, I think almost nothing has been done in so-called
over-determined systems, that is, where there are more How about China?
equations than unknowns. You may have two unknowns I have been to China a number of times. The first visit
and five equations so there have to be some compatibility was arranged by Chern,16 a Chinese mathematician who
relations. There’s almost no analytic theory of that. There had settled in America. This was in 1975 and the Cultural
is a theory developed by Cartan 12 and Kähler 13 but that Revolution was still going on, though I didn’t realise it at
assumes that everything is analytic. Outside analytic cat- the time. For instance, I was visiting the Chinese Acad-
egory, almost nothing is known about such systems. They emy of Science but I was taken to Beijing University. I
often come up in geometry so I feel that this is a big gap said I would like to meet the faculty but they said they
in the theory of partial differential equations. were busy teaching – which was simply a lie. There was
no teaching going on. They showed me the library and
Mathematics and mathematicians all over the then they wanted to take me to some other university
world but I said: “There’s no point. Either I meet the faculty or
I don’t go.”
May we ask you some questions about international They had me give many lectures but I said I also want-
mathematics? We know that you travelled to post-war ed to hear what some of the people there were doing. So
Europe very soon after your graduation. some young people spoke about some of their research.
Yes. I had a fellowship and came to Zurich during the I learned later that they had to get permission to attend
academic year 1951/52. I went mainly to be with Heinz my lectures. I didn’t make close friends at that time. It
Hopf,14 who was a geometer and a topologist. Heinz was an interesting experience and, of course, things have
Hopf was a wonderful person – a lovely and extremely changed enormously since then. I did make friends with
kind man. I also spent one month in Göttingen that year. some who subsequently came and spent a year or two at
That was arranged by Courant who felt I should go there. Courant.
During that year, I didn’t actually carry out any research.
What I did was to write up the things I had done before. We should also mention that you were awarded the first
I had been very slow at writing them up for publication Chern Medal of the International Mathematical Union.
because I somehow had a block against writing. So dur- Yes. That’s true. That was in 2010.
ing that year I wrote several papers.
You were also awarded the first Crafoord Prize in 1982,
Did Courant ever return to Göttingen? together with Arnol’d.17
Yes. After the war, he went back to Germany many times. Perhaps it was a tongue-in-cheek comment but
He had many contacts and he wanted to help build up Arnol’d once said something like: “Mathematics is the
German mathematics again. part of physics in which experiments are cheap.”
It wasn’t entirely tongue-in-cheek. He really felt that the
He must also have been very bitter? contact of mathematics with physics and the real world
Well, he was bitter but, at the same time, he had friends was important.
and he wanted to encourage and help to develop math- He didn’t get permission to go and get the Crafoord
ematics in Germany. Prize. I visited Moscow just before I went to Sweden and
had dinner with him in his home. He was waiting until
11 1931–2012.
12 1869–1951. 15 1900–1980.
13 1906–2000. 16 1911–2004.
14 1894–1971. 17 1937–2010.

36 EMS Newsletter December 2015

Interview

the last minute to see if he would get permission, but he My ideas may lead to a better proof or may lead to some-
didn’t. thing new. The student said he’d never seen a proof he
When I went back to America, I got a call from a didn’t like and I thought: “He is hopeless!”
woman claiming to be Arnol’d’s sister. I thought: “How
is that possible?” I had just seen Arnol’d a few weeks be- May we ask you a question that we have asked several
fore and he never mentioned he had a sister in New Jer- previous laureates? How does one find the proof of a
sey. She came to my office and, indeed, it was Arnol’d’s mathematical result?
sister. He never mentioned a word. It’s incredible! Some people work with perseverance until a proof
is complete but others tell us that insight appears in a
Talking about Arnol’d, on some occasions he expressed sudden flash – like lightning. Do you have experiences
frustration that results proved in the West had already of this sort?
been proved in Russia but, because of poor communica- Both may happen. But most of the time you are stuck.
tion during the Cold War, these results were not known. Maybe you make a breakthrough with some problem as
Did he express these feelings to you? you get some insight and see something you didn’t see
He tended to do that. I remember once he was visit- before. But the perseverance and all the work you car-
ing New York. Someone was giving a seminar talk and ried out before seems to be necessary to have this insight.
he was attending the lecture. During the talk, Arnol’d You need perseverance or, as the Germans say, you need
said: “Oh, that was already proved by such-and-such a “Sitzfleisch”.
Russian.” But the person giving the seminar talk then
checked and the Russian had never proved it. So Arnol’d Are you the kind of person that gets so involved in try-
was not always correct. He tended to give more credit to ing to solve a problem that you are, so to speak, lost to
Russians than was due. the world?
You may have heard the joke where the Russian says: Not all the time but it can happen for many hours. Some-
“What you proved, I proved first. And anyway, the result times, I wake in the middle of the night and start thinking
is trivial.” about a problem for hours and cannot sleep. When you
do that, it is very hard to fall asleep again! If I have an
Problems, collaboration and “Sitzfleisch” idea, I just follow it. I see if it leads to something. I still
try to do that but in the last few years it has not led any-
It is striking that 90% of your published papers describe where. I haven’t had any success.
joint work. Can you explain why this is so?
It is just a pleasure! It is just an enormous pleasure talk- Communicating mathematics
ing mathematics with others and working with them. Of
course, much of the work you do yourself. I mean, you You have had 45 PhD students. That is an impressive
discuss ideas and work with others but then you go home number! Can you tell us what your philosophy is? How
and think about what you have done. You get some ideas do you come up with problems for your students?
and you get together again and talk about the new ideas. It’s hard to say. Sometimes it is hard to think of a suitable
You get reactions to your ideas and you react to their problem. It is easier to think of problems that are too
ideas. It is a wonderful experience. hard, and just not practical, than to think of a problem
that is good and can be solved in reasonable time. I can’t
Do you usually start out with a goal in mind? really answer that question. I don’t know how I go about
Usually there is a goal. But somebody once used the ex- posing problems.
pression: “There are those mathematicians who, when
they come to a fork in the road, they take it.” I’m that Were there occasions when you had to help students
kind of mathematician. So, I may be working on a prob- along?
lem with a colleague when we come to something that Oh, yes. I meet the students regularly, usually once a
looks interesting, and we explore that and leave the origi- week. We discuss their progress and I might make sug-
nal problem for a while. gestions. I may say: “Look at this paper, this may lead to
something.”
Are you more of a problem solver?
Yes, definitely. There are two kinds of mathematicians. How would you describe your love for mathematics?
There are those who develop theories and those who are What is it about mathematics that is so appealing to
primarily problem solvers. I am of the latter. you? Is it possible to communicate this love to people
outside the mathematical community? Does one have to
Do you come up with interesting problems through be a mathematician to appreciate the appeal of math-
discussions with other mathematicians? What kinds of ematics?
problems are you attracted to? Is there any pattern? Some people are very good at communicating to the gen-
It’s hard to say. A graduate student once asked me how eral public. I am not so very good at that. But once you
I find good research problems. I said to him that I some- are in it, once you are hooked, it’s very exciting and fun. I
times see a result but don’t like the proof. If the problem have used the word “fun” before. But it is really fun to do
appeals to me, I start to think if there is a better proof. mathematics. It is an enormous pleasure to think about

EMS Newsletter December 2015 37

Switzerland orders@ems-ph. Dyson–Schwinger Equations.ems-ph. up.Interview mathematics even though you are stuck 90% of the time. I have loved movies. 466 pages.org Faà di Bruno Hopf Algebras. It is a lovely book. That is what people outside mathematics cannot com- prehend. a very nice book: ‘What is Mathematics?’. You won’t believe this but Raussen (photo: Eirik F. Connes and D. Danish and European Mathematical Societies. it is hard to comprehend. Courant and Robbins 18 wrote would like to thank you for a very interesting interview. European Mathematical Society Publishing House Seminar for Applied Mathematics ETH-Zentrum SEW A27. 48. Have you seen “A Beautiful Mind”? Yes. University of Science and Technology at Trondheim.-C. gian. is a professional jazz drummer. In a seminal 1998 paper. A. Baardsen. Researchers from different scientific communities who share similar techniques and objectives gathered at this meeting to discuss new ideas and results on Faà di Bruno algebras. 17 x 24 cm. I love movies. Russian movies. And I love Argentinian tango. who will be at the ceremony tomorrow. 21) Kurusch Ebrahimi-Fard (Universidad Autónoma de Madrid. I went perhaps even more. They have together taken interviews with all Abel laureates 18 1915–2001. think it does take some talent to be able to do mathemat- ics. 38 EMS Newsletter December 2015 . Incredible! Now it’s hard to believe. and Butcher series. I have been stuck on some problems for years. there were suddenly all these foreign mov. He makes a valiant attempt to get the general public interested in the branch of mathematics in which he works (which is also connected to physics). My grandson. What are you interested in when you are not doing mathematics? Louis Nirenberg (left) interviewed by Christian Skau and Martin I love music. a mathematician who came as an immigrant from Russia as a young man. But it also takes. This work triggered an abundance of new research on applications of Hopf algebraic techniques in QFT as well as other areas of theoretical physics. and I have read the book. So when I was 16. I went almost every night to the movies. Softcover.00 Euro Since the early works of G. ies: Italian movies. He tries but I think it is too hard for the general public. we ure to do mathematics. The present volume emanated from a conference hosted by IRMA at Strasbourg University in France. to the general audience? Yes. The purpose of this book is to present a coherent set of lectures reflecting the state of the art of research on combinatorial Hopf algebras relevant to high energy physics. But he makes a real attempt to do it and I must say I admire him for that. Kreimer presented a Hopf algebraic approach to renormalization in perturbative Quantum Field Theory (QFT). CH-8092 Zürich. as I said. French movies. Dyson–Schwinger equations. I do think that is important: (a) for the development Not only on behalf of us but also on behalf of the Norwe- of mathematics. (mathematics) at Aalborg University. I just recently read his book. since 2003. Denmark. DNVA). in the province of Québec. Chris­ I went crazy and started to go to movies. It is very hard to do. Spain) and Frédéric Fauvet (Université de Strasbourg. 2015. You have to be in it and I Of course. France). Since then. and you can’t give Mainly classical but I also listen to jazz. control theory. at the time when I lived in Montreal. “Sitzfleisch”. and Lie–Butcher Series (IRMA Lectures in Mathematics and Theoretical Physics Vol. You need to What kind of music do you like? be stubborn and have perseverance. crazy. Hopf algebras have been instrumental in algebraic combinatorics. Editors ISBN 978-3-03719-143-9. and numerical integration methods. It is called ‘Love and Math’.org / www. There is also a recent book by Edward Frenkel. This volume is aimed at researchers and graduate students interested in these topics. Music and movies We have one final question that we have asked several laureates before. I have a But you do think it’s important to try to communicate large collection of records of Argentinian tango. and (b) to show them that it is a pleas. dynamical systems. Rota and his school. When I moved tian Skau is professor of mathematics at the Norwegian to New York. you could not get into a movie before you were Martin Raussen is professor with special responsibilities 16.

Indians tend to have very large people had been talking about it and asking me about it and supportive families and I always received a lot of en- for so long. it is couragement from them. of course. which was a running joke among my teachers and friends. I always liked mathematics. I remember trying to work out ways to add and who made their way in and formed a ring around me and then multiply large numbers in my head using my fin- took me away. read through them all. which is where my ex- Well. To start from the beginning. which I found very exciting). I had mother. I can understand. and people were getting crushed. I did not skip grades or anything will all be about finding the right balance between the two. I loved shapes. I spent a lot of time learning from him. and that is a responsibility that ni. later. of course. I grew up in a very Indian home and I also spent triangular pyramid. father that back before 500 BC. like that. Two security goal of the puzzle was to quickly identify the shapes and guards came to try and disperse the crowd but they too insert them into the slots where they exactly fit. It was fun ber. since tended family is from. But I did like to discover things for myself. But I plan to respond to all of them – you will on my own but then I’d show up for exams and. A bit got crushed. literature than four years ago. eventually hear from me! also for after-class activities at my school. Sweden) Were you surprised to get the Fields Medal? a lot of time in India growing up. which is 1063. Then they radioed a whole team of security. I know it will give me new opportunities That really used to intrigue me – after coming to terms to disseminate mathematics to the public around the world with mahaashankh. I tried to reach you after your talk as well. vigintillion and dhvajaagranishama- that I didn’t have before. There has been a lot of attention this year. enough so that we English. giving autographs and taking photos. But then old (my earliest memories are from then) was a cube- the crowd was getting too big and compressing towards shaped puzzle with various shapes cut out of it. I really liked big that as a mathematician! I am extremely impressed that numbers and learned the names of bigger and bigger mathematics in Korea is held in such high regard. I never thought I would experience something like I was always interested in numbers. of course. gers. I hope not. The numbers in both Hindi and English (“mahaashankh” is ceremony was broadcast live on national television and 1018 in Hindi. It was impossible. and a pleasant one. I learned received around 18. Well. I’m so sorry that I was hard to I didn’t like to go to school so much. then I learned from my grand- would get stopped for pictures and autographs just walk. I know that it is mathematics research and rate! teaching that gave me this platform and I do not wish to compromise too much on my research and teaching and So you were a math prodigy? the ongoing work with my students and collaborators. more I think not just Sanskrit but also history. But. Big numbers are much more mindboggling and condu- Yes. I also learned a lot about these subjects from my Indeed. who was a Sanskrit scholar. I have never experienced anything like it. given the number of oranges on an EMS Newsletter December 2015 39 . It was impossible to reach you by and other languages like Hindi and English. I guess maybe it wasn’t the hugest surprise. word “dhvajaagranishamani” for 10421. what is your family back- ground? I read that you made algebraic calculations at the age I was born in Canada and moved to the United States of eight such as computing the number of oranges in a early on. Goteborg. My favourite toy as a 2.or 3-year- at first. My greatest inspiration was my grandfather. the feeling of vertigo is quite accu- the same time. of course. and the the centre. I felt like the paparazzi. then I learned the word “vigintillion” in so many from the public watched it. Interview Interview with Manjul Bhargava Ulf Persson (Chalmers University of Technology. philosophy. within a couple days of the announcement. or more precisely about a week of fame. until I leave cive to vertigo than mere infinity. email. not take lightly. when it actually happens. So it No. as far back as I can remem- Yes. At golplex] meant. I used to try to wrap my head around what that [Goo- I look forward to and will. Yes.000 emails! There was no way I could a lot of mathematics from her as well). Korea and return to the US! Do you know of the number “Googolplex”? Will this change your life significantly? Of course. the crowd around you was What is your earliest memory of mathematics? incredible. I liked learning reach. there was the Sanskrit ing on the streets of Seoul. a surprise. So you are experiencing the proverbial 15 minutes of fame. I would not say that. en- couraged by my mother. who is a mathematician (so.

it is also awe- 40 EMS Newsletter December 2015 . did not learn complex analysis until I was a sophomore in college and took a course. Sometimes. I guess so. principles but took on trust. complex analysis? be written down yet. But. or linguistics. family dinners at home. Indian epics such as Ramayana and Mahabharata con. did you consider any alternative careers? confusion. knowing that there is someone there in case you are ready to share an idea.Interview edge of the pyramid. Princeton did not of. Do you understand everything you are doing in math- ematician. I often did in graduate school. to the point where it I guess that’s a good way of putting it! The reason I stay is not possible for any one person to know every detail. to translate these thoughts into more usual mathematical But. even in collaboration. impossible to know for sure. one generally decides stitute a treasure trove which must be very fascinating which parts are more productive or fun when discussed to a child. that usually comes after something as much though. That usually comes later when I try I always enjoyed doing such things on my own for fun. collaborators can go home. or working with someone at the as you say. years of it! This is a modern phenomenon in doing math- ematics. collaborators can bring different areas of expertise to a problem. and mathematics I used to understand all the mathematics that I do. I realized Nothing beats direct human conversation. I did often toy with the idea of becoming a musician and tabla player as a profession. different was the way I learned much mathematics. you are actually lot too. I was always aware of that pleasant career op. or general Later on. Thinking and talking about lege at Harvard. Sometimes. of course. these epics. invaluable input. Are there problems you have solved keep up music as well but if I became a full-time musi. There were no black boxes. When did you ematics. solve by yourself? ematics! Almost certainly! This is. in collaboration that you would not have been able to cian. about alone. it is not in words or in terms of things that can encounter. These with a collaborator where no one speaks for over an hour contests were a lot of fun and added – for my cousins and – individual thinking is going on! But still it’s fun to do me – a further motivation to read! it together. Actually. what is important about a theorem tion. say. I quite rarely sit down with a pen and paper comfortable. But one must get used to it. or should that if I became a mathematician. It can also be more produc- tive. particularly when I reached col. or problem. I’d still find time to I say interaction. and I suspect this is So you were all set to be a mathematician from an early likely the case in most of my collaborations! age? I always loved math and because my mother was a math. using them as black boxes or jogging. I’m told I was quite hyper and naughty when I was a 3. But in some recent collaborations just in the last year. as I liked these subjects a If you just use the exact formulation. I’d probably have a tough time keeping up math. in collaboration. pages – of our predecessors’ work. I language. I love working with others. But at some point. ematics? I mean. But I always realized that mathematics was what treating the theorem as a black box. For example. together and which parts each should go home and think Yes. was bringing these subjects together. which can be very valuable and help bring You always were a good boy? some cross-pollination between areas. the very basics all the way up. or pacing. I must admit that at first it made me quite un- blackboard. Collaboration forces you to think things through Did you ever read a math book cover to cover? by explaining them. nomics. as to who knew the vidual thinking. In the latter case.or 4. In fact. sometimes you’ll be working most details about various aspects of these works. In some sense. where so many students were really ad. and the other person can then give Yes. there is usually a lot of indi- these conversations into contests. But I did have brief periods when I changed and is not its precise formulation but the idea of the proof thought maybe I’d like to do computer science. as I said. But I definitely think so. from was what I liked about them. I never skipped any grades. and working on mathematics together with others is one vanced. or physics. or eco. were frequently the topics of conversation over think separately and then bring their ideas the next time. feedback and new perspectives. ture. my uncle often made So. building on years and years – and pages and So you cannot think when you are standing still. as fer many courses for beginning graduate students so this you bounce ideas off one another.or 5-year-old but it seems I outgrew that! Does working with someone not interfere with your thinking process? When you are thinking hard about Did you have other interests? Reading? The classical something. away from paper is that often when I think about math. which can be used to prove many different theorems. It did not seem to bother my collaborators and do mathematics. who were already used to it after many has been worked out already. of the joys of mathematics. So I was never that much more What about collaboration? advanced than my peers. as well as various other works of litera. I How do you do mathematics? have used some theorems I did not understand from first I usually like thinking about mathematics while walking. you do not want to be interfered with. This is impressive.

results will be presented much less polished – I get interested in tend to be related to classical areas of not an entirely pleasant scenario. Many mathematicians are musical just wonderful to discuss mathematics with. I think with modern do not have any clear idea how to solve them. things are being buried under a heap of garbage. stood quite thoroughly from the bottom up and that was. One would think that the life of an aborigine would in some sense be more satisfying. I think that this is a bit sad. Gowers) elaborate on that? I do agree in a sense – as I said. Actually. in the future. such as mobile phones – black boxes in other words. I’ll have a Strong words! But is the peer review system not taking fresh perspective. able sooner to us than in times past. and I don’t think that is a coincidence. We have the option terest in adult life can be traced back to one formed in to look at less polished material that is available much your childhood or youth. sooner. But John Conway and Peter Sarnak were also inspirational one cannot deny some of the things in mathematics that figures to me during graduate school. ration and find some possible inroad. everything I did in mathematics till now I under. thing. care of that? ferent levels – some of them easy. What is interest- EMS Newsletter December 2015 41 . He was al. if I’m stuck on one. he had a wonderful sense of what is important in math- as you say. we are able to go further than any one person could alone. I felt like I was firmly touching ematics. But. ways willing to listen and inspire and you learn a lot just ment. we are in a position. how do to me! I didn’t end up working directly in his area and you explain it? tended to work more on my own problems but he was There definitely is. number theory somehow. through conversation with such a figure. everything should be Do they range over a wide field? available electronically. They are personally very connected to their environ- ment. be. But the core of most of the problems papers. which I feel is a good I formed when I was young. on the other hand. in the sense that I have at least some methods that can be used to make progress Not very effectively. Modern man. of other mathematicians’ works rather than just being producers. And then search engines and MathSciNet. I like to have problems around of dif. I do not think this to be so bad. and may. they definitely range over a slightly larger field eve. as I learn more mathematics and get interested dramatically. (Photo courtesy T. Interview inspiring: mathematics is bigger than any one person and. Do you think there is one and. The Australian aborigi- nes are supposed to be the best trackers in the world. That way. while we become more and more Manjul Bhargava receiving the Fields medal from the Korean consumers rather than producers. their technology may be primitive but they have an intimate command of it. on them. for which I often As to important things being buried. instead of writing traditionally structured in more problems. if so. when I get back to the one I was stuck on. More material is available at our fingertips than ever before and avail- The psychologist William James claimed that every in. as there are long-range problems I keep in the back of my never before. the things that we need in our work. By the way. What do you mean? In terms of too much paper being cally. we can still wait for the peer-reviewed This is very much so with my mathematical interests – and more polished versions as we always did. one problem at the time? wasted – too many trees being cut in the forests? No. hoping that one day I will have a moment of inspi. This leads me to another question. as a mathematical community. who was your advisor? The connection between mathematics and music is often Andrew Wiles – he was definitely a great inspiration pointed out. Maybe that will change the forms of publishing ry year. So we have much of what I do can be directly traced back to interests more options than we used to have. he is using gadgets all the time of which he has not the faintest understanding. I also talked to them have been achieved by mathematicians being consumers quite regularly and learned so much from them as well. I meant that there is too much and that the important I can always move to another for a little while. above all. to look and find what is important to us and mind. the ground at all times rather than floating in air. while others are much harder. do you do it systemati. Would you care to president Mrs Park Geun-hye. mine. is more alienated. a huge database which you can Well. So this means that. generally not – I usually like to think about many problems at the same time. of course. very satisfying. until the recent develop. Is too much math- ematics being published? When you think of mathematics.

definitely think it is possible for the general public to ap- preciate the beauty of mathematics. It is up to each per- Precisely. given those constraints of the genre. son to decide how best to apply and develop one’s artis- tic sensibilities and interests. being able to compose music. what remains is the artistic expression jarring. nected in a coherent and expressive way. with the aim of telling stories and conveying thoughts that ordinary No – there is. appreciate a technical piece of music in the same way that a professional musician would. say the Goldbach variations by Bach. chances are that he or she will opportunity to develop it. That is part thinking in the right and left hemispheres of the brain. just as a general person might not I’m getting less time every year. subjects are guided by beauty and elegance. Maybe a general person will not ap- Yes. It also means that musical talent is much more common than mathematical talent. just as al. logical aspects play an important role in both. But tabla is the in. a profound difference. having to do with creating and the mathematical beauty but playing the wrong notes discovering patterns and seeing how they can be con. which is the only one people in general are aware of. But is not the sensation of beauty listening to a lecture by Serre similar to listening to a beautiful piece of music? So what are your thoughts? Serre’s lectures are like musical improvisations – he is Well. logical aspect to mathematics. It is I did learn several instruments as a child: tabla. violin and a bit of piano later on. beyond that. tures are more like the improvisations of classical Indian cal fields can be very similar without being isomorphic music or jazz. of the excitement of it. I think that both mathematics and music are about sensitive to the reactions of the audience and changes his patterns and how they fit together. There is a formal. it would be boring. maybe not even with musicality the active sense of playing an instrument. it can easily be paraphrased.Interview ing is that it doesn’t quite work the other way round. that mean that they are different as mathematicians. I suspect that the emo- tional impact of music has very little to do with the But we are not talking about just an interest but about composing of music. maybe even defective? If you meet a musician and tell him that he must be No – perhaps they have the potential but never had the good at mathematics. They are rejected if it is not completely logical) but the artistic and essentially played in the same way over and over again. Not all excellent musicians are look at you blankly. ciation of mathematical beauty is not tied to a definite presentation. Do you play per se. notes played outside the framework of of music as well: there are formal constraints on compo. gui. Practitioners of both presentation as he goes along. It is about Well. The main themes I would say that part of the divergence of the two sub. Not all music is tied to a definite presentation. are similar to mathematical errors in sition/improvisation dictated by the genre of the music a lecture – and the latter may be equally (if not more!) but. if it is presented in Do you actually perform to paying audiences? an accessible way. I in touch with over the years. where the speaker/musician’s presentation – if the latter were the case. i. are decided in advance but the exact presentation can jects has to do with the difference between the types of vary. In order to appreciate mathematics. But I do agree that But why is there such a connection? Have you ever given music tends to appeal slightly more to one’s emotional it a thought? side and mathematics slightly more to one’s logical side. The appre- words cannot express. I would perhaps put it a bit differently. but almost. and can come out differently each time. just as two different mathemati. has a jarring effect. unfortunately. the musical piece. The same is true Wrong notes. very different listening to a math lecture and a piece of tar. I think. Mathematics does not have this aspect. I’d say the formal and logical aspects are slightly more critical in math. I mechanically or predictably. strument that I always enjoyed the most and stayed most Every subject can be appreciated at different levels. although of course I am aware of the subtle variations 42 EMS Newsletter December 2015 . But take a standard piece in the Western classical rep- ematics than in music (in that a piece of mathematics is ertoire. is affected by the atmosphere and mood of the day and gorithmically generated music is supposed to be boring. at But some mathematicians are not musical at all. you have to be a I guess so – an interest in music certainly tends to be mathematician but you can appreciate music without much more common than an interest in mathematics. it depends what kind of music you are talking themes that repeat themselves with subtle variations. sitar. the reactions and type of the audience. music. but there Misspellings or mispronunciations have no impact on is also a very artistic side. I do but definitely less so than in the past. It takes so preciate it at the same level and in the same way that a much time to prepare and practice for such concerts and mathematician would. I have given it a lot of thought. also excellent painters or sculptors. Music is not about perfect think elegant chalk-and-blackboard mathematics lec- symmetry. It does an instrument? not give the same kind of emotional sustainment. Does least not to the same extent.e. not about.

nable to solutions. aginations or mere social constructs. The natural questions seem to be ame- Khan or Pandit Bhimsen Joshi). as in your talk. I agree. not all numbers seem directly related to cardi- nality. just like differences Are you interested in mathematical philosophy – the is- in the translations of the same novel. Looking back at one’s We started our conversation about large numbers and artistic thought or creation as a third person can be an how they exercise a fascination. I’ve certainly thought more about the latter and feel like it could be within reach. it is no it comes to mathematical abstraction. and legendary renditions (such as that of Ustad Vilayat not well-posed. of course. For example. went to hear exactly the same performance of Darbaari over and over again. absorb it and appreciate it. may be because mathematics is still in its infancy. personal world to one which can be shared by all think. numbers. I’d certainly love to see a solution to one or both of these tional jazz piece by different expert musicians is the very in my lifetime. I truly feel this happens to mathematicians all the sense that I have some ideas that I have not yet tried the time. the theorems we prove are not just figments of our im- depending on the mood and the audience that particu. and some basic cardinalities are very low. that’s why I was saying that a chalk-and-blackboard [Laughing] Sure – I do feel that good and natural math- math lecture is more similar to an improvisational form ematics is discovered and not invented. did I ever think of that? At the time. A further example to illustrate the difference between composing and listening is that Haydn reportedly burst You have ideas of how to prove it. lar day – that is part of the excitement of those forms of I do. EMS Newsletter December 2015 43 . You can take a sue of mathematical Platonism? recording and listen to it again and again but if you A bit. between Fermat’s conjecture and work in Elliptic curves ing the same lecture by Serre over and over again – no that your advisor exploited. How It would take us too much afar. But it’s not clear to me in either case how best way to understand it. But there are also several well known and seemingly well-posed problems that are But if you want to understand a piece of mathematics. I believe that longer a part of you. when moved from World Two to World Three. But there are different kinds of perience of creating it. say. That is rather amazing! But it is conceivable that struments) and that is part of the beauty and appeal of some famous conjectures that people work on might be this melodious raaga. as they say in the field of PDEs. but I can’t say I give it a lot of thought. such as classical Indian music or jazz. doubt I would always find new insights each time! That does seem true so far. So it means that you are a Platonist. Interview from one performance to another. it might have been obvious but. such as the rather remarkable link Incidentally. not just ways of vin- into tears when listening to his own creation (actually dicating it. unless it is one of the truly historical Maybe because they are. where the themes are predetermined but the exact rendition So you believe in an external mathematical truth. it was too beautiful. from your own there are very few. I am not so sure I would get bored view. that of the themes varies from performance to performance. the very same is true for improvisational forms the Riemann Hypothesis or the Birch–Swinnerton–Dyer of music such as classical Indian music and jazz: listening Conjecture? to several renditions of the same raaga or an improvisa. just existence. it has an independent objective there may only be three or four significant levels. When you write something down. the raaga Darbaari is one of the most beautiful raagas in Indian classical music but each time One of the wonders of mathematics is that some math- one goes to hear it live. of music. Mathematical ideas are not as tightly tied to their presentations as musical. Who hasn’t looked back on one’s prior works and so they have not failed yet! and asked: “How did anyone come up with that?” It hap- pens to me on occasion. do mathematics otherwise. I think many mathematicians would probably not music. That is certainly true. in Actually. But that Indeed. Popper would express it by saying it has been as we can only sense number. Well. especially on burgeon- extremely different experience than the moment or ex. of Again. you would get bored. played the same video of a Serre lecture over and over again. not later. One would likely get bored if one undecidable. straction that mathematicians tend to employ. claiming that he could not have com. I come across things that I have Which you are not going to expand upon? written in the past and am amusingly impressed. Do you have any personal opinions on the status. one is likely to hear a different ematical conjectures are actually being solved. so called subitising. ing mathematicians. way. it still open – it could be possible that some of these are is better to read different presentations rather than read undecidable… the same one over and over again. There are very few levels of ab- ing people. posed it. close we are. I think I have a few ideas of how to prove it. which was very nice by the `The Creation’). Thanks. When That is true. rendition (possibly even on a different instrument or in.

celebrated Skewe’s number resulted from a crude esti. 44 EMS Newsletter December 2015 . as yet. connections with other related problems or applications stractions. I think that goes continuum enter real mathematics? for all talks. it seems to Newsletter since 2006 and a professor of me that larger-than-exponential functions could poten. the are severely limited in length. It is nite Ramsey theorem with given parameters grows well always the completion at infinity that you can bring beyond exponentially in those parameters. of rational solutions is intriguing. The does. is no algorithm that provably determines whether an el- tial. which even on Z have cardinality beyond riod for you.D. ics. and for the excellent questions! There are no known effective bounds on the sizes of min- imal rational solutions to algebraic equations over the rational numbers but. you could primitive recursive and is beyond what can be defined get lost. It was a pleasure. perhaps because I knew a dense subset of it. In particular. your esti. be made smaller. Well. Number theory inevitably touches on it and where it they do not really have mathematical significance. receiving his Ph. Sweden. I believe. Does anything beyond the cardinality of the and a glimpse of some of the key ideas. that is true about Skewe’s number. Doing less with clarity and purpose part ways. forthcoming book. mathematics at Chalmers University of tially arise in this scenario as well.Interview It seems to me that when it comes to very large numbers. some published. Could be. He has in the past interviewed recent Fields medal­ the solubility of Diophantine equations. It’s a pretty natural example True. although how one goes about it in each case the continuum but it does happen. Thanks very much for your interest. in a conversa­ tional style. I also feel a talk should long chains of quantifiers but. It was very that the smallest number satisfying the strengthened fi. been drastically improved. would they not be Ulf Persson [ulfp@chalmers. there is only so much information you can process where such a huge function naturally arises and cannot during a talk. If you do not know enough. etc. though. if you get double exponential bounds. that of the continuum… I’m sure there are other exam- ples. the motivation. no? I don’t see why Technology in Gothenburg. others as of yet unpublished. you should not strive to convey too much information and you must try to build on what your audi- But there are many places where logic and mathematics ence already knows. You did go to my talk? Well. topology and model theory (which has also been exten- sively used in number theory in recent years) make use Thanks so much for your time during this very busy pe- of ultrafilters. there Much of real mathematics only concerns the exponen. I would not be surprised if more exam- ples are discovered in the future in number theory and So what makes a good math talk? beyond. given the Paris–Harrington theorem. as you say. which has. to the public as well as to one’s professional It’s true that we rarely work with cardinalities beyond colleagues. nice. it gets hopeless. which we know ists specifically for the EMS Newsletter. places where it gets hopeless! The fact that. in practice. as well as other cannot exist by work of Matiyasevich. What I am aiming at is some formulation along the There is a plan to make a selection and collect them into a lines of the unreasonable reasonableness of mathemat. In logic. At the moment. there are far easier mate.se] has been a exponential with respect to the coefficients? member of the editorial board of the EMS Well. I did. if they existed. just like the levels of ab. no? Many theorems in can be quite different. it is not even home with you.? mathematicians for alternate assignments. since not. But do you know about the the Paris–Harrington Theorem? It says Yes. at Harvard in bounds. if there were such general exponential 1989. would that not give an algorithm to determine 1975. using Peano arithmetic. liptic curve equation has a finite or an infinite number mates are bound to be crude. and this is why I brought this up. you can formally have arbitrarily is much better than doing more. those chains try to impart a sense of the wonder.

insisting that Diendéré had served for three decades as former Presi- I should conclude hastily. Mali. I feel I am legitimately and dutifully finishing the explanations I had started. the the premises we are using. and answer my questioning look: “There seems to have been a putsch. they tell me. Democratic Republic of delegation of Macky Sall (President of Senegal) and Thomas Congo (RDC). steps tive homes on the other side of the city. Discussion Recollection of a Singular School Sylvie Paycha (University of Potsdam. Back in our hotel into the room calling me to the door. I still have no idea why there is dent Blaise Compaoré’s Chief of Staff. we should all get back to the hotels imme- tries1 to Ouagadougou. Some 10 participants are staying at the guest terrestrial borders were closed for some days4 and a curfew house of the university. formerly Upper Volta. 6 The ceremony had been postponed to the third day of the tions. The air and the event). in the reception hall to hear that “the event” was indeed a Stanislas Ouaro and Hamidou Touré. Ouagadougou. they have come from 12 different African coun. Ivory Coast. the opening ceremony. Ethiopia. 2 The “Land of people of integrity” (“Le pays des hommes in. some 20 minute bus drive from the two hotels most spite having retired from the force in 2014. Niger. My colleagues. meeting. I insist that we should go to the Volkswagen Foundation. Congo. The students who had got actively involved in the discussion about the cor- respondence between symbols and operators via the Fou- rier transform seem somewhat disappointed when we stop soon after the interruption.200 strong Regiment of Presidential Security.5 but far from the two hotels in the city centre where most Little had I anticipated such a dramatic event during of the participants are housed. the capital of the landlocked diately. medium size. where three other col. started three days ago and. are waiting with anx. EMS Newsletter December 2015 45 . putsch by General Gilbert Diendéré. after which they leave for their respec- colleague Bernard Bonzi. funded by car that is driving us back. who still look very preoccupied. due to my late arrival. Germany)* Some 40 participants are seated in the large seminar still is not confirmed but considering the potential danger room. with a touch of irony. informing the participants of the situation is the best thing differential operators from rational functions. 5 The curfew restrictions were to be lessened a week later to tègres”). I had expressed my hopes that this school might help Back in front of the audience patiently waiting for me. with General Diendéré. I am about to explain to them situation. we realise that the participants operators and their many concrete applications inside and have already left for the hotels with the hotel van. we gather with I follow him along the corridor. to let me finish but finally nod approvingly. overcome the obstacles that set walls between our respec- I mumble a few words explaining. it Place de la Révolution. Marie-Francoise Ouedraogo. 1.6 which had taken place that very mittee has rented the conference hall as well as a nearby morning in the presence of the President of the Univer- room where we gather for lunch and coffee breaks from sity of Ouagadougou. a date that probably none conclude my presentation? My colleagues seem reluctant of the participants of the school will ever forget. Chad. the hotels to inform the participants and speakers of the for the last talk of the day. 14–25 September 2015. Morocco. A putsch was not among the that we should conclude rapidly before we are required to leave the room. 3 Summer school on Fourier integral operators and applica. which is near the conference hall from 7 pm to 6 am (lasting some 10 days) was declared.” By the time I have digested the news and further country of Burkina Faso2 to learn about Fourier integral questioned my colleagues. the private University of Saint Thomas d’Aquin. Diendéré was also seen as the figurehead commander de- gou. The local organising com. ious looks. Boni Yayi (President of Benin) land to start the negotiations Nigeria and Senegal. The school3. This coup was sup- this sudden tension and I am suspecting a problem with ported by the presidential guard known as the RSP. 11pm – 5am. Cameroon. * On leave from the Université Blaise Pascal in Clermont-Fer- rand 4 The airport was briefly reopened later to let the presidential 1 Benin. of which cream-coloured building on the outskirts of Ouagadou. take me away into a room. tive nations and continents. My colleagues hesitantly comply as I argue that how to use the inverse Fourier transform to build pseudo. co-organiser of the school. something serious has happened. The RSP ar- of us are staying in and not too far from the campus of the rested both President Michel Kafando of the transition University of Ouagadougou (co-organising institution of government and Prime Minister Isaac Zida. after the sudden interruption of the talks. which adds to the mystery of their sudden interruption. when my to do at that stage. other guests staying at the hotel around the television set leagues and co-organisers. a three-storey. In the outside the realm of mathematics. of the situation. This was how the school was suddenly interrupted on Is it that serious that I cannot have another 10 minutes to Wednesday 16 September 2015.

“Feast of the Sacrifice”. speakers and participants in our hotels on the other side of the city. Catherine Ducourtioux (Corte). Bergmann ation. a board we had to hold up straight when the city seemed to start getting back to normal life on the table with one hand while writing with the other. an observation shared by 7 Nickname for the “Square of the Nation” (place de la na. pening. medication against Malaria – and who were ready to take ing such a school in Ouagadougou would be safe. did the local organisers dare to venture back to the hotels. Gradually measuring the importance of what was hap. or sometimes a happy face. they had asked the Presi. Michael forced Blaise Compaoré to resign in October 2014. so a violent reac. the main square of Ouagadougou after the 2014 pro. I had not suspected how far a mathematics talks were given. Thus. Ruzhansky (London) and René Schulz (Hannover) 46 EMS Newsletter December 2015 . both participants and speakers. founded by two musicians in 2013. silence would follow what we thought might be the sound tests initiated by the “Balai Citoyen” (see footnote below). only some eight days later (a day after the Tabaski celebra. Cyril Lévy (Albi/Toulouse). which seemed unused. wave front sets. to the day according to their state of health and the latest news nearby hotel where most of the they had received but their faces and voices would invari- participants were lodged (a 10 ably look and sound happier and more enthusiastic as their The white board on which the minute walk) seemed feasible. a short tion). of guns or any other suspicious sound but no one dared 8 Eid al-Adha. And this is indeed what we did. Lagrangian submanifolds. the school over but then what would the participants and in search of a stationers who might sell markers. and the days to follow? One option was to declare gou. Apart from a very brief visit of a couple of local organisers to one of the hotels three days after the “event”. What was named “the event” Hardly no one on the otherwise lively streets of Ouagadougou (left) and for a while was to set up an imaginary yet tangible wall be- participants on their way to the improvised conference venue (right). seriously hampered by the lack of food in the city) to lean against the wall. who acteristic of this very singular school. where most shops had remained closed since the coup. With the “event”. having been on the streets. an a transforms. the hotel sent out an employee on a difficult mission (con- cumstances. Fourier the organisation of the school to the circumstances. Mas- 9 A civic organisation. priori risky solution considering the instability of the situ. on the request only count on those who were fit enough to give a talk – of the Volkswagen Foundation. the school. especially as. which tion could be expected from were the central theme of the school. Indeed. In that small room and on that board were held some 40 How frustrating and disappointing for them when they had lectures (four a day over 10 days). fundamental groups grown in determination and efficiency. lecture evolved. The hotel manager kindly lent us a small seminar room. thanks to the speak- put so much energy into organising the school! Little had ers10 who gave talks in such difficult conditions. lio Delgado (London). I began to worry about what to do in such cir. similiano Esposito (London). talk can pull the speaker and the audience away from the distressing reality around them. Viet Ngyuen Dang (Lyon). Phones would ring during the talks and participants cept Diendéré’s diktat. pseudo-differential operators. singularities. as 10 Michèle Audin (Strasbourg). We found a tiny. We could they anticipated “the event”. and the potential danger of violent confrontations Participants searched their pockets for a few marker pens between the population and the RSP. would they could go on covering the white board from top to bottom not start panicking? An alternative was to try to adapt with semi-groups. improvised conference room in the other hotel nearby. for many fell ill over several days due to the preventative dent of Ouagadougou University to confirm that organis. characteristics. which played a central role in the protest movement that Gilles Lebeau (Nice). and Maslov indices. Ju- an act of submission to God’s command. the Balai Citoyen (the Civic Broom9) had transforms. The lec- the hotel.Discussion obstacles I had envisaged but now. when we ran out of pens on the fourth day. During the talks. Fourier integral operators. The “Revolution square” (Place de la Révolution7) where protests started that very Wednesday evening – nearly a year after the October 2014 protests that had forced the former President Blaise Compaoré to resign following some 27 years in power – was to separate the local organisers and participants in their homes from us foreign organisers. singular supports. were surely not going to ac. looks and tones of voice varied from day to speakers were staying. tween us. narrow whiteboard tions8. had become a char- the Burkinabé people. after was therefore impossible due having heard that their flight back had been cancelled be- to potential riots and shooting cause of the coup. But going from informed of the new departure time of their plane. Matthias Krüger (Göttingen). where most of the turers’ moods. the risk of walking ten minutes from their hotel to the new. A Muslim celebration honouring the willingness of Abraham to sacrifice his son. as co-organiser of to give us and. What were we to do on the morning after the sidering the circumstances) to drive through Ouagadou- putsch. the school seemed to be doomed to end three days after it had started. we speakers now stuck in their hotels do all day. Going (and even the speakers) would leave the room for a mo- back to the conference hall in ment to reassure a relative worried by the news of the coup the outskirts of Ouagadougou and return to the seminar room with a gloomy look. distributions.

and “Fourier 13 On Tuesday 22 September. claimed many participants. with the help of external funding). worried was now held in were actually more propitious to informal by some voices I could hear outside my bedroom window interactions between the speakers and the participants which led to a large terrace roof. A glimpse through the than the more formal setup the school might have allowed window reassured me. seemed to come back to life. a couple of days later to calm down the situation. ré’s public apologies. On the Monday following the coup. from the French Embassy. renormalisation techniques and in­ mit meeting of ECOWAS (Economic Community of West dex theory. 21–29 May 2009 (Research Monday 21 September. No military confrontation could have Despite questions raised as to the sincerity of Diendé- taken place since the army had not yet reached the city. as is to be expected during the rainy season. Clermont-Ferrand.13 midst of this overwhelming an agreement was passed and a peace deal was presented tension. Discussion make a comment. The applications putsch. for had the “event” not happened. The preceding days had not been the streets. which were served for of the first week had been cancelled and the airport re- lunch every single day! mained closed until the middle of the second week. on leave from the Univer­ of Benin. circumstances. In the afternoon. ru. another delegation of presidents12 arrived schools in Ouagadougou: “Index theory 11 On and interactions with physics”. the negotiations between the participants were eager and happy to learn about the General Diendéré and the presidential delegation had fundaments of FIOs and indeed learned a lot of abstract concluded in favour of an amnesty for General Diendéré material during the talks and informal discussions with the and the eligibility of the former CDP (Congrès pour la speakers. it was best to go on with the talks. and various speak- overnight. Macky Sall. With this coup. was a mours had spread that the army would march into the city very efficient way to dispel the worries. President of Senegal. integrals and applications”. coup. Di. busy with mathematics. it was only the Radio France In. Blaise Compaoré’s party) mem. a week after the coup. eight days after the putsch and one People gathered at sunset cheering on the highway as they day after the Tabaski celebrations. so uncer. the hotel manager to climate change and seismology we had planned for the The market closed because of the had arranged for a relative second week were never discussed during the school. President sity of Potsdam. having had bers. who had been under house arrest about the situation. under the intention to disarm the RSP while avoiding any fighting. King of Burkina Faso’s leading Mos- participants making jokes si tribe. the regular One could perceive the anxiety of some of the participants army marched into Ouagadougou. In the their intervention had an effect. Michel Kafando. witness to the complex. This was clearly a threat to peace. Yet. publicly announcing its and most of the speakers but all agreed that. I am very grateful to all ternational two man team broadcasting the morning news the speakers and participants and admire their courage. Four days after the coup. who had Sylvie Paycha is a Professor at the Univer­ come over the weekend with Thomas Boni Yayi. expected. we (participants. David Dos Santos Ferreira (Nancy) funded by the Volkswagen Foundation and co-organised and Jérôme Le Rousseau (Orléans). the tension one had felt waited for the anticipated entry of Burkina Faso’s regu. painful and still ongoing emanci- But. one would hear the to the Mogho Nabaa. with the University of Ouagadougou). how could the to wait on the coach for the border to reopen. to negotiate with Diendéré. Her resolution to the crisis in spite of his political weight and research topics are pseudodifferential op­ diplomatic experience. Following an extraordinary sum. pation of the Burkinabé people from 27 years of dictato- we heard that Michel Kafando had asked for protection rial leadership and its ramifications. I packed my backpack with what I considered ers asked to give more talks to keep their minds occupied important belongings in case I had to suddenly flee from preparing them. gadougou. speak- the putsch but claiming full responsibility for it and prom. was now free and the rather repetitive lunch announcing his return to power. and were all population accept such a deal? Violent protests were to be the more determined to make the most out of the school. A veil of silence covered the city again. from the terrace. A couple of participants from Benin had spent démocratie et le progrès. This time tain was the situation. with sudden wind blasts and strong rain showers. erators. 14–25 September 2015 (School 14 Nicolas Burq (Orsay). by the evening. The particular circumstances the school the fighting during the night and woke up at dawn. Keeping The night before the announced military manoeuvre. ers and organisers of the school) had unexpectedly borne ising to restore civilian government. on the streets of Ouagadougou melted down and the sun lar army. living in the outskirts of the flights of the speakers14 who were due to arrive at the end city to provide him with chickens. such as for some days after his first detention. The city of endéré publicly gave rather contradictory and inadequate Ouagadougou was now glowing with the pride of victory apologies. which had remained silent and empty since the too hot. That morning. food shortage caused by the a form of resistance to Diendéré’s diktat. She was the co-organiser of two African States). the situation radically changed. as well as the Vice-President of Nigeria. menu: due to the acute The school went on running in the midst of the turmoil. several days on a coach to reach Ouagadougou.11 dared to venture back. 12 A school co-funded by the CIMPA and the University of Oua­ delegation comprising the Presidents of Ghana and Benin. EMS Newsletter December 2015 47 . The putsch. asking the people of Burkinabé to forget about over the usurpers. who vowed to disarm the RSP. had failed to find a sité Blaise Pascal.

such as the famous numbers named after him and their con- nection with the golden ratio. Bocconi” and Politecnico di Milano. Figure 2. thus experiencing The curators make an effort to answer this question from the distortion effect on the chosen map (see Figure 3). for instance. An installation on the story (a map of the world everyday life. the layman is more and more astonished by these vari- ous facets but still somewhat puzzled. the work of mathematicians is incredibly multi-faceted. such as history and art. Fibonacci. for exam- scientists describe the ple. the Università Commerciale the Earth causes a distortion effect on geographical maps. Figure 3. through numeric simulations). Some models from the past. the curvature of Studi di Milano-Bicocca. Through a touchscreen. in fact. “L. Italy) On one side. of applications to med- of L. visitors can interact with the painting. where the debate on the fundamental meaning of numbers and geometric figures was of a philosophical and aesthetic nature. and organised by Vincenzo Napolano (INFN in Rome). known to Romans) and icine (to prevent cardiovascular pathologies). it goes through another important stage: the story of Leonardo Fibonacci in 1200 (see Figure 1) and his contribution to modern mathematics in Europe. Moving in be concrete or abstract. through an ad hoc instal- on problems. On the other side. is mathematicians focus displayed on a big screen and. Think. as if it were painted from the visitor’s point of view. Indeed. which may lation. it is therefore important to raise public awareness and make mathematics more tangible in everyday life.Discussion A Tour of the Exhibition MadeInMath Gilberto Bini (Università degli Studi di Milano. a specific area opposite to the screen remodels the scene In order to solve them. The leitmotif of the exhibition is the recurring ques. an Italian point of view but soon address their curiosity to other realities. attributed to Francesco di Giorgio Martini. conserva- the Mappamondo di Fra’ Mauro (one of the last maps tion of the landscape (to reduce pollution and deterio- before the discovery of the American continent) are ration) and sport competitions (to design aerodynamic displayed as examples of models used to represent the cars. as mathematics is. In modern times. Interacting with geographical projections and their distortion. In general. Gauss (1777–1855). physics or astronomy. the Università degli As proved by C. comfortable helmets and competitive swimsuits world (see Figure 2). The exhibition is designed to take any visitor – even one who scorns mathematics – on a tour [1] and show them that this discipline has always inspired the growth of our society. mathematics (and not The history of models unfolds in various other con- only numbers) helps texts. the visitor can generate a small tion: “What is the profession of a mathematician today?” Tissot indicatrix and move it around. universal. F. a reproduction of the La Città phenomena. or perspective during the Re- quintessence of natural naissance Age. An installation allows the visitor to choose a projection. Maria Dedò and Simonetta Di Sieno (matematita Research Centre) and Renato Betti and Angelo Guerraggio (MATEpristem Research Centre). the mathematical writing of the world of various types. they formulate models Nowadays. The tour begins in Ancient Greece. 48 EMS Newsletter December 2015 . The first exhibition of MadeInMath was curated by Gilberto Bini. medicine and biology. etc. Models arise when mathematics meets. The reaches its apex with digital technologies and mathemat- Tabula Peutingeriana ical models that describe. in connection with other disciplines. As is well known to the members of the EMS. The title was MaTeinItaly and was mainly supported by the Università degli Studi di Milano. Af- terwards. Ideale. ranging from the decoding of emotional biochemistry to isogeometric analysis. forecast and even transform Figure 1.

unibo. as If you missed the opportunity to take a tour of the well as a journey in the 120-cell. Some of them ticle. A merry-go-round of exhibition during the first set-up last year.com/watch?v=gXqvGl18kS8 Gilberto Bini is an associate professor of geometry at the Università degli Studi di Milano. among them some on four-dimensional sible hints and suggestions for teachers or amateurs as a space. because MadeInMath will be hosted ourful polyhedra (see Figure 6 and video [2]). Figure 6. They often come up with new ones for their individual visitors.dm. Their work really facilitated the ap- research.it) Figure 5. All the regular polytopes in four-dimensional space. ly Master’s students in mathematics) that managed to follow school groups of various levels. fancy polytopes enters our three-dimensional world and you will have a second chance in Spring 2016. Their movements become figures and vector fields. He is also active in communication of mathematics as a member of the research centre “matematita” (www. by Muse – Museo delle Scienze in Trento. His research area is algebraic geometry.it/mappa/. so that visitors can enjoy interactive animations motivation for further study. Websites [1] https://www. the exhibition is quite dense. have kept working in their country.xlatangente. in particular Calabi–Yau varie­ ties and applications to theoretical phys­ ics. A merry-go-round of polyhedra. from primary to Mathematicians do not only work on models from the high school. or they can follow the flow of migration to an- other installation. EMS Newsletter December 2015 49 . Among other activities.youtube. he has been A dozen young mathematicians were interviewed about one of the curators of the exhibition described in this ar­ their future. Its suc- cess was partly due to numerous trained guides (main- Figure 4. as well as pay special attention to numerous real world. The visitor can find some of these institutions spread on a map and listen to some videos. which is based on a map that can be found at the link: http://umi.it). the exhibition path hosts vari.com/watch?v=62G8yVroWwo [2] https://www. on sections and nets of regular polytopes (Figure 5). which they dream to model.youtube. from mid-February. which alter and take into account the main properties of models describing the progression of a swimmer or traffic flow. as well as a crowd flow simulation or the coordinated movements of flocks of birds (see Figure 4). do not worry. and managing editor of the journal “XlaTangente online” (www.matematita. As you can tell. As an example. Interacting with real models. some of them have migrated to foreign countries. preciation of hidden connections and pointed out pos- ous installations. starting their sections appear on a big screen in a series of col. Discussion An installation along the exhibition path lets visitors play with some ‘mathematical models’.

On the other. and How long did you train for the contest? knows more or less what is at stake there. I think I repeated my talk at least a plain it to the average person in the street? You have to hundred times!” use simple words. I didn’t imagine I could win in test? Was it on your own initiative or was it under the Paris. I found the candidates very winner’s prize. and PhDs in particular. Practising again and again and again! It is hard to stay clear. for example. tition. I noticed it was the test. and “Ma thèse en 180 secondes (MT180)”. Belgium) Think about your research. As a matter of fact. everybody has already heard about AIDS or GMOs. jects are of primary importance as well. Honestly. it came as a total surprise! After the con- impressive and this motivated me. I would say. but it had to be done. the aim is to popularise cause it is often extremely abstract and theoretical. their everyday life. and communication skills. which allows me to switch from theory to practice and 50 EMS Newsletter September 2015 . ally challenging from both a personal and a professional point of view. I really enjoyed their presentations and their sub- but a talk. breath and nerves during a One of the recent initiatives of universities to pro. that was something quite few months later. So it helped me develop my communication skills mote research. I met Adrien Deliege. which is clearly What is the main difference to a talk given in the con. ing maths a popular subject. a PhD candidate in mathemat. sequently. Have you ever tried to ex. one of the major objectives at stake. These are notions slides took between 15 and 20 hours. to control my voice. I am lucky to work in the field of applied mathematics. The exercise develops effective presentation tenth time in an hour. It was also an excellent way to learn how in three minutes to non-specialist audiences. So when they called my name for the final. which is obviously much longer What do you think about the difficulties of “popularis- (and less rigid/stressful). The other candidates did a wonderful These two contexts have basically nothing in common job. preparing for the contest. What are your feelings about this contest and did you ics at the University of Liège (Belgium). I thought they were so good that I I heard about the contest last year and I found the con. 1 My thesis in 180 seconds. On one hand. text of a ‘classical’ mathematical conference? Besides the time limit. concise and convincing talk on their thesis in three focused when you repeat the exact same thing for the minutes. rhythm. so I decided to go and see the Belgian I couldn’t do better. I practised a lot the week lustrated. let’s do this’. which is something rath- as temperature or time series. talk. mass media interest that came after the contest? ber 2015. Therefore. even though I spent a lot of time How did the idea come to you to take part in this con. but nobody The writing of the speech and the preparation of the cares about multifractals or wavelets. Con- a complicated scientific subject with simple words intel. it is more difficult to touch people because ligible to everyone. is the creation of and I guess it could be useful for other talks or during an the following contests: “Three Minute Thesis (3MT®)” interview for a job. in this competition because it really helped the populari- sation of the scientific content behind it. Therefore. Nevertheless. as a PhD student. As far as I am concerned.Young Mathematicians‘ Column (YMCo) Explain Your Thesis in Three Minutes Marie Kreusch (Université de Liège. which is the reason why we struggle in mak- before the contest to be right on time during the compe. To be honest. which was in Liège. in a ‘classical’ mathematical ing” mathematics in comparison to other subjects?  conference. a media asking for interviews. when I saw the presentations initiative of your advisor? of the other finalists. I thought: ‘Ok. It is good that they were interested I am. I found it re- of the competition and his answers to my questions. He won the expect to win? Do you have something to say about the international final contest MT180 in Paris on 1 Octo. I was astonished by the number of people from the kind of contest in which I like to take part. This young mathematician is studying wavelet It is a very interesting contest because it combines a transforms and applies this method to climate data such show part and a scientific part. I would say that the main difference is the I think it is really hard to popularise mathematics be- purpose of the talk. and here unexpected as well. the goal is to present they cannot feel that mathematics could be helpful in the technical details of your work to a scientific audience. could relax and have fun during mine because I was sure cept interesting. As far that cannot be explained in a simple way nor clearly il- as the training was concerned.1 Each partici- pant (PhD candidate or young doctor) gives in English What was the biggest difficulty during this contest? or French (depending on which contest) a generalised. It is How useful was it for you to participate in the contest? not that easy! Many PhD candidates and young doctors It forced me to find a simple way to explain the subject each year rise to the challenge and explain their research of my thesis. catch their attention and try to tell a story with a good plot and hopefully a happy ending. Here are his impressions er unusual.

5 increasing the visibility of research toward ALGEBRAIC the general public 6 and sharing knowledge with society. are no longer living in an ivory tower. It covers the material in the "Red Book" in more depth with several more topics CFE Research. I think that soft skills courses and initiatives contests. It is maybe better in the middle of their thesis. we have to keep trying to make mathematics come about to popularise mathematics: websites. Final report. Paris OECD. they will probably have more important things to with their careful reading and useful suggestions. young Of course I would advise PhD candidates to participate. with Tadao Oda. and particularly researchers in mathe. Article 38 Tel: +44 (0)1767 604972 Tel: +44 (0)20 7240 0856 Fax: +44 (0)1767 601640 Fax: +44 (0)20 7379 0609 in Horizon 2020. At the end of their The author thanks all those friends who contributed thesis. GEOMETRY II These actions have led to changes in doctoral training. is this more appropriate at the beginning or at the general public. disconnect. Besides the teaching and re­ it’s a game after all! search activities at ULg. Page 23 (2014). high school operations research and so on. Free delivery worldwide at www. The notes have been brought to the present form in collaboration 4 In Belgium. CUSTOMER SERVICES: FURTHER INFORMATION: 6 “Promoting the action – Visibility of EU funding”. However. do. universities have set up a suitable train. of algebraic geometry have learned the subject from David ing programme for PhD candidates. Many diversified initiatives have Anyway. 24 July 2015. is becoming more and more the norm. -From the preface 3 “The impact of doctoral careers”. the content matics. five years after PhD graduation. More information Texts and Readings in Mathematics Vol. L. notes in three volumes. She was also a member of and why are there so many participants? I would like to the council and office of doctoral educa­ provide some clues. global point of view on their work. researchers are gaining soft skills like communication. besides completing PhD theses. soft skills and other side activities These old notes were picked up of PhD candidates are more than ever in the spotlight. At the same time.com/hindbook tions and industry across Europe: embracing open innova. Beside purely scientific tasks that are essential in and sold by the Harvard math department with a red cover. she is involved in the projects ‘Math à Modeler’ and ‘MATh. 33% of doctor. PhD candidates take part in these interventions Would you suggest this contest to PhD candidates? If and get involved in the visibility of mathematics to the yes. forums.com Email: info@eurospangroup. ed from the real world.. gain experience in giving talks and get a more like 3MT or MT180 still have several great years ahead. appealing and understandable to the general public and books. Young Mathematicians‘ Column (YMCo) makes the popularisation of my subject a little bit easier. Career Magazine. movies. exhibitions. which has only been an available option recently. in Belgium. tion at ULg for two years and is still taking Nowadays.4 Making a career in another field. popularisation and so on. every time I taught the course. EMS Newsletter September 2015 51 . order to submit a thesis. documentaries. patterns/STI working paper 2010/4. added. ate holders are still working at a university. I had aimed to eventually publish more polished 2 “Want to be a Professor? Choose Math”.7 public pres- if this kind of contest can help. by Springer and are now sold as the Red book of Varieties and Researchers. changed and grew. Soft skills courses Mumford's fabled "Red Book" are (most of the time) part of this training programme. more than 50% of young doctors will NOT part in the PhD network at ULg. universities are improving transfers of skills with industry.com 7 Look at the September 2015 EMS Newsletter for a nice ex- ample.. 5 ”Improving knowledge transfer between research institu. containing notes of his lectures at Harvard University. education.eurospanbookstore. My last question is: ‘What would Marie Kreusch is a young doctor in math­ you advise to future participants?’ ematics at the University of Liège (ULg) Practise again and again and again! And enjoy yourself. European commission (2007). pursue their career in academia.2. Schemes. Why did universities create these contests in high school. Such skills are styles lenge. Email: eurospan@turpin-distribution. at least two questions en. When I started writing this article. Leicester: This book contains what Mumford had then intended to be Volume II. of the day in addition to being necessary in many profes- They should take a year or two to watch the previous sional fields. contests. it is a thrilling adventure and an exciting personal chal. Hindustan Book Agency is distributed by Eurospan|group tion”.00 and mobility”. end of their thesis? To conclude. David Mumford & Tadao Oda Concerned about the employability of their doctors Several generations of students after their theses. The general purpose of these courses is to develop skills Initially notes to the course that are useful both in academia and in other professional were mimeographed and bound fields. 73 can be found in ”Careers of doctorate holders: employment Oct 2015 516pp 9789380250809 Hardback €89. (2010). Auriol. it is great! entations.3. such as writing their thesis! Thank you Adrien.JEANS’ that disseminate mathematics came to mind.

The hands-on ac. About 40% of the operating competition. ment support for more than three decades. top research universities in the United States as well as MSRI launched the first ever National Math Festival in 20 international institutions. In September 1982. The SAC ful retreat from the distractions of academic duties. ematical Sciences and has received continuous Govern- ics professors: Shiing-Shen Chern. room. serve four-year terms. ematical sciences. M. The institute develops and delivers public outreach More than 100 universities form the Committee of events attended by thousands. In the Spring of 2015. concentrat. and offers a beauti.Research Centres Mathematical Sciences Research Institute (MSRI) Heike Friedman (MSRI. Its 10 members help recruit participants from under- dents and an undergraduate programme MSRI-UP that represented groups and develop new MSRI activities to supports students from under-represented groups. Peter Scholze (Bonn) Berkeley campus. the scientific agenda. Governance and funding MSRI is a non-profit organisation governed by a Board Scientific programmes and workshops of Trustees. the NSF funded two mathematical institutes: budget now comes from non-government sources. MSRI runs many Summer schools for graduate stu. Calvin Moore and I. MSRI has Singer. Berkeley campus. A laboration with colleagues in their particular field.. MSRI be- gan full scientific operation in a temporary building. by training its next generation of leaders. in partnership with the Institute for MSRI financially through their membership dues and Advanced Study (IAS) in Princeton. The rotating Scientific Advisory Committee (SAC) creates institute is situated in the tranquil hills above the Univer. as well as films and videos Academic Sponsors (CAS). USA) The Mathematical Sciences Research Institute (MSRI) mathematicians as well as representatives of the worlds is one of the world’s pre-eminent research centres for of finance and technology who understand the impor- mathematics. hard at work at one of MSRI’s atrium blackboards. and Richard Taylor (IAS. common rooms and Two of the greatest number theorists of our day. MSRI in Berkeley and the IMA in Minneapolis. Academic sponsors support Washington. can send up to three students each Summer to one of tivities and maths lectures drew well over 20. It is selects and plans the institute’s programmes and works an intellectually stimulating environment that promotes with the organisers of these programmes on the selection community and strengthens the mathematical sciences of key participants. MSRI is one of the largest single projects funded by History the National Science Foundation’s Division of Math- MSRI was envisioned by three UC Berkeley mathemat. The board includes distinguished ter (occasionally one programme will occupy the entire 52 EMS Newsletter December 2015 . This structure ensures that. come to MSRI for focused periods of research and col. MSRI’s programmes will capture the most significant de- eted postdoctoral fellowship programme allows selected velopments across all mathematical fields.000 visitors! MSRI’s two-week Summer graduate workshops. in response to a 1979 call for proposals from the also developed a strong support system of private foun- National Science Foundation (NSF). D. over time. MSRI promote the involvement of these groups in the math- also plays an active role in K–12 mathematics education. Berkeley. seminar MSRI is located in the hills above the University of California. As a result of that dations and individuals. Mathematicians from around the world tance of basic research. MSRI’s cov. currently with 32 elected members and seven MSRI runs two topic-centred programmes every semes- ex-officio members. sues. The Human Resources Advisory Committee (HRAC) ing on their research and learning from experts in their augments the SAC’s consideration of human resource is- field. ground was broken for the present building in the hills above UC Berke- ley’s main campus and MSRI moved into the facil- ity a year later.C. with a new auditorium. The building was greatly expanded. Its 10 regular members. Princeton). library in 2006. These include most of the seen by an even larger audience. The institute operates without permanent faculty. mathematical scientists. In 1984. renowned sity of California. participants to spend a semester in Berkeley.

Twelve of these workshops are related to the pro. learn from and collaborate with tures are filmed and made available at no cost through experts in their fields. for broadcast on Japanese television. It will highlight a breakthrough con. meet. About 250 members come to MSRI’s programmes each year for stays of one to four months.” noted Dr David Eisenbud. the quarter pinching conjecture by Brendle-Schoen. For exam. Programmes are often chosen to exploit an op. such as the Poincaré and geometrisation conjectures by Perelman. The experience is often career-defining. The fel- the annual Hot Topics workshop is planned at much lowships are in high demand. One of them was Andrei Okounkov. MSRI has supported approximately 900 necting ideas originating in theoretical physics (mirror fellows. He was an MSRI postdoctoral theory) with a phenomenon first discovered in a purely fellow in 1997: “The five months I spent as postdoc at algebraic context (cluster algebras) but now appearing as MSRI […] played. more than 3. learn from and collaborate with assembled hosts of gramme. “The programmes that MSRI runs often lead to great mathematical developments. my career as a mathematician. compete for the 28 available positions each year and the ple.” In the Spring of 2016. a subject with deep roots and much current activity. “One year. for example. Marques-Neves.100 lectures. A postdoc at the time. I was fortu- More than 1. for young mathematicians to meet. mostly to attend one of the 14–18 workshops of. including a Connections for Women workshop. and Wall-Crossing. who returned to MSRI in 2013 for his third term as the institute’s director. without exaggeration. who teaches symmetry) and algebraic geometry (geometric invariant at Columbia University. Terry Tao. noticed an amazing connection with knot theory. The lectures were filmed by the Japanese National TV company NHK troduced a wealth of new techniques into the field. we had a programme on operator algebras. Vaughan Jones. MSRI will host a programme on Differential Geometry. position. on leave from a longer programmes are typically planned three years in advance. Research Centres facility). The solutions of these problems have in. involves questions of analysing data of an unprecedented scale that has become available through new ways of monitoring brain activity. which has led to tremendous developments in mathematics and in physics. the Lawson Edward Frenkel (UC Berkeley) recently gave a series of four popular Conjecture by Brendle and the Willmore Conjecture by lectures on the Langlands programme in MSRI’s Simons Auditorium. is another former MSRI postdoc and Fields Medallist: “I believe the MSRI postdoctoral fellowships are a won- derful component of an early career. the James and Carol Collins Chair in Math- ematics at the University of California. Since 1982. The postdoctoral fellowship programme provides an riods. a crucial role in an overarching theme in many areas of mathematics. […]. the Hot Topic in March 2016 will be Cluster Algebras great majority of those chosen accept the position. The postdoctoral fellowship programme provides an opportunity The research at MSRI is shared widely: nearly all lec. unparalleled opportunity for young mathematicians to fered. The online collection features portunity for cross-pollination between areas of research. more than 280 applicants shorter notice to catch an emerging subject. Though MSRI’s postdocs come for a semester. EMS Newsletter December 2015 53 .500 researchers participate in MSRI’s programmes and workshops every year Other workshops explore emerging applications of mathematics in other sciences.” He won the Fields Medal in 2006 and in 2010 and he joined MSRI’s Board of Trus- tees and was elected Co-Chair in 2013.500 researchers who come for shorter pe. Many old problems in the field have recently been solved. the institute’s website. experts in their chosen areas. They are joined Postdoctoral fellowships by more than 1. Los Angeles. “Breaking the Neural Code”. The programme is comple- which features female speakers and provides networking mentary to the usual postdoctoral positions: most MSRI opportunities for female mathematicians.

Recent topics include: The role ber Theory that will take place in the Spring of 2017. strongly about giving back to the public and sharing the mer. MSRI ran a Sum. maintaining a website and Islanders and two Filipino Americans. of the mathematics department in the mathematical prepa­ The Summer schools are in high demand. Deputy Director Dr Hélène Barcelo remarked: “Attending one of these schools can be a very more PhDs from the programme since Dr Mayo and motivating and exciting experience for a student. in small. 41 Af. enrichment and ova started (and still runs) the Berkeley Math Circles. five fellowship semesters are permanently endowed by private sources and a sixth is funded through a multi-year gift. Mexico. After the Sum. MSRI-UP’s 134 under.mathcircles. her PhD at the University of Texas. the late Robin Williams. In the tion of Math Circles (NAMC). national scientific conferences. a 2007 MSRI-UP alumna. MSRI’s leadership feels and give a formal presentation at the end. led by a faculty of Every Summer.” Dr Tao is the lead organiser of the 2017 pro- gramme on Analytic Number Theory. Some of the groups even. which ties into the programme on Analytic Num­ nities make to this work. ington. MSRI ing.000 over just one day. NAMC’s primary activi- versities representing almost all the states and Puerto ties include supporting new Math Circles through seed Rico.Research Centres nate enough to participate in the MSRI programme on harmonic analysis. providing resources in the form of a book se- rican Americans. highly Summer graduate schools collaborative and supportive research groups. D. Last Summer. four Native Americans. three Pacific ries (the Math Circle Library). highly collaborative and supportive research groups.C. There have been four to be good at math”. led by a faculty of distinguished mathematicians. The hands-on activities and lectures drew MSRI-UP’s first participant to receive a PhD was more than 20.” MSRI hosts an annual conference on Critical Issues in The topics for the Summer schools are often chosen to Math Education (CIME) to engage mathematicians. Austin. many more are now in graduate school. graduate schools. 145 Math Circle programmes registered on the NAMC’s graduate participants have come from 81 different uni. Phil- The MSRI-UP programme focuses on long-term mentor. par. organising workshops to spawn new Circles and support The goal of the programme is to involve students the Math Circle community. Public Events & Initiatives The groups work hard at exposition as well as research As a publicly funded institution. which continues after the programme and through organised the first ever National Math Festival in Wash- the transition to graduate or professional schools. interacting with K-12 Maths education other students and mathematicians in their field. Tom Stoppard. Canada. The six-week Summer pro. The group includes 62 females. received val in 2017. lip Glass and Steve Martin. Circles across the country through its National Associa- gramme supports 18 selected students every year. MSRI uses film. Currently. funding. MSRI events have featured such well known figures as tually publish papers based on their research at MSRI. ticipants have often said that it was the first experience where they felt like real mathematicians. While the postdoctoral programme is mainly funded by the NSF. and became In the United States. 62 Latinos. website (www. MSRI-UP involves undergraduate students in small. Korea and Mathematics: For whom? Toward what end? Japan to hold Summer schools abroad. there are over first eight years of its existence. as well as the introductory workshop in harmonic analysis and PDEs earlier that year. the groups are encouraged to present their work at beauty and power of mathematics with a larger audience. Spain. MSRI organises a number of Summer distinguished mathematicians. trators in a conversation about mathematics education mer school on Gaps between Primes and Analytic Number and the contributions that different professional commu- Theory. This has been a MSRI has been nurturing informal mathematics edu- very successful model. MSRI has ration of teachers. some of which lasted for over a decade. encouraging MSRI Talea Mayo. it is still socially acceptable “not a postdoctoral fellow at Princeton. Alan Alda. In the Spring of 2015. video and children’s 54 EMS Newsletter December 2015 . mentoring programme for under-represented groups of MSRI was instrumental in spreading the idea of Math American undergraduates. cation through “Math Circles”. and Developmental institutions in Italy. I can credit this programme for starting my own research into PDEs and with starting many collaborations in both har- monic analysis and PDEs. prepare graduate students to return to MSRI for a related K-12 teachers and mathematics educators and adminis- workshop or programme.org). Assessment of Mathematical Proficien­ reached its capacity and has started collaborating with cies in the Age of the Common Core. a longstanding Eastern European tradition brought to Berkeley by an MSRI MSRI-UP postdoc from her native Bulgaria: Zvezdelina Stank- MSRI-UP is a comprehensive research. Dr Mayo was an to extend the programme to two days for the next festi- undergraduate at Grambling State University.

EMS Newsletter December 2015 55 . and Enumerative Geometry beyond Numbers For more information.) 11 January 2016 – 20 May 2016: Differential Geometry (Jumbo Programme) 15 August – 16 December 2016: Geometric Group Theory (Jumbo Programme) 17 January – 26 May 2017: Analytic Number Theory. and Geometric and Topologi­ cal Combinatorics 16 January – 26 May 2018: Group Representation Theory and Applications. How to participate MSRI invites the submission of proposals for full. Numberphile has become one of the vised to apply at least three months before the workshop. Research Centres books to try to change the perception of mathematics and mathematicians.938. 70 million or less. research mem- bers or postdoctoral fellows will open on 1 August 2016. Mathical: Books for Kids from Tots to Teens aims to help foster a love and curiosity for maths among readers from pre-kindergarten through to the twelfth grade. MSRI supports and advises the video project Num- berphile: former BBC journalist Brady Haran has pro. The institute employs a Family Services Coordinator who provides help in locating schools and other services for mathematicians who are considering coming to the insti- tute with their families. where possible.107 views (as of 19 October 2015 – the Future programmes numbers are going up every day.C. Participants who seek funding for their visit are ad- concepts and ideas. The next application period to participate in a 2017– 2018 programme as research professors.  MSRI strives to include a diverse community of mathematicians in its programmes. and Harmonic Analysis 14 August – 15 December 2017: Geometric Functional Analysis and Applications. MSRI launched a book prize honouring the most inspiring maths-related fiction and nonfiction books. making accomplishments in mathematics acces- sible to a larger audience. MSRI is committed to maintaining family-friendly policies and. The newest film. More than 20. facilitating appropriate arrangements for partners and children of programme members.org.400.or half-year programmes as well as Hot Topics workshops and Summer graduate schools to be considered by the Scientific Advisory Committee. D. please visit msri. “Counting from Infinity: Yitang Zhang and the Twin Prime Conjec- ture” by George Csicsery. most popular YouTube channels with 1. Planning of pro- grammes is generally done about three years ahead. In the Spring of 2015. Recognising that family issues can present barriers to participation. including a list of planned work- shops. Registrations for workshops open on an ongoing ba- duced more than 250 videos popularising mathematical sis. tells the unlikely story of an unknown mathematician proving a theorem that there Maths with a view: many members enjoy the beautiful sunset over the are infinitely many pairs of prime numbers that differ by San Francisco Bay from their offices.000 visitors of all ages discovered that maths is fun and relevant to everyone during the first National Math Festival in Washington. MSRI has produced about a dozen feature-length movies.377 subscrib- ers and 149. The deadlines to submit proposals are 15 October and 15 December.

of mathematical studies and activities in the country. school curricula and training of teachers but also population!) in its three universities. teaching and the popularisation of mathematics. which caused the disappearance of in 1937 the research journal Portugaliæ Mathematica much of the activities of the Movimento. The tense relations of the regime with the young gen- This informal group. together with the state body “Instituto para a Alta litical repression following the rigged 1945 general elec- Cultura”. the society was. Centre. a focal point ernment as a collective body within the juridical order of for a considerable number of Portuguese researchers. Portugal was tary and secondary school levels. and António Aniceto Monteiro (first Secre. actively involved in three main areas of intervention: re. ing the mathematical upgrade of teachers at all levels of 56 EMS Newsletter December 2015 . gime in Italy and also quite averse to raising the educa- ed in December 1940 thanks to the efforts of a small but tional level of the population above the bare minimum very active group of young Portuguese mathematicians skills provided by the officially compulsory four years of determined to stir the then stagnant waters of Portu.pt/2011_04_01_archive. This is reflected not still an extraordinarily backward country: with about 8 only in the many regular interventions in debates and million inhabitants. the Movimento founded prisonment or exile. Gazeta and Boletim da SPM (first published in 1951). the SPM has been completely reborn in its virtue of its 1940 statutes. Pedro José da Cunha Figure 2: The current periodicals of SPM: Portugaliæ Mathematica. the country until after the termination of the dictatorial students and teachers interested in the modernisation regime by the 1974 revolution. Lisbon. the SPM provides a number of activities target- wing dictatorship that was very close to the Fascist re. guese scientific life.blogspot. Figure 1: From left to right: Maurice Fréchet. Lisbon. The SPM was. tary-General of SPM and one of the main boosters of the Movimento Matemático). Through its Life Long Learning second half of the 1920s. it had a public statements about the educational system. By Since 1974. da Costa (Universidade Aberta. Portugaliæ. (first president of SPM). Foremost among the SPM interventions has been a strong public action for the raising of mathematics teach- To get an idea of the formidable task facing the society at ing and assessment standards in Portugal at the elemen- the time. of the official government body charged with production ulation under such difficult initial conditions was further of the end of cycle national exams at the elementary and hampered by the political regime at the time: since the secondary school levels. President of the SPM) The Portuguese Mathematical Society (SPM) was found. university staff and students. the activities of the society have also expanded and acquired an appreciable visibility in contemporary Portugal. This resulted in the expulsion of a large number of cal community in Portugal over the 1930s and 1940s. remember that. elementary schooling. A somewhat pe- (nowadays a title property of the SPM and edited by culiar consequence of these troubled times was the fact the EMS Publishing House) and in 1940 the Gazeta de that the SPM had a semi-clandestine existence for the Matemática (currently also owned and published by the next 30 years: it was never duly recognised by the Gov- SPM). from the start. even by the 1940s. Portugal. in the participation of the SPM as a consulting member The challenge of raising the cultural level of the pop. had a remarkable influence on the mathemati. 1942 (photo source: http://antonioanicetomon- teiro. from the beginning. Gazeta de Matemática. of the 1930s and 1940s came to a dénouement in the po- ment). followed either by their im- Among its many initiatives. Portugal was ruled by a right. half of whom were illiterate.html). national total of about 9000 university students (0. which went down in history as eration of scientific researchers and democratic activists the “Movimento Matemático” (Mathematical Move. and Boletim da SPM. tion.Societies The Portuguese Mathematical Society (SPM) at 75 Fernando P. three statutory fields of action. In addition to the reinvigoration of its periodicals search.1% of the total exams.

in the popularisation of mathematics.pt/ istoematematica/) was broadcast weekly over two years on a Portuguese TV cable channel and became a very popular show. includ- relevant scientific societies (the SPM and the Portuguese ing the SPM. such as the joint meeting with the EMS of mathematics in Portugal. from 1st year elementary school onwards. the SPM is a strong Sociedad Matemática Española. well as financial support for activities by scientific socie- ber of the “Comissão Nacional de Matemática”. Technology of Universidade Aberta. The SPM also collaborates with sodes by Vodafone Portugal and these are currently in other scientific and academic associations. His research interests Regarding publishing for the general public. a body ties) has resulted in a situation with potential nefarious that advises the Portuguese government about matters consequences for Portuguese science. This body includes the deeply worries all Portuguese scientific societies. and a few more sporadic voice in defence of research. Instituto Superior Técnico. Finally. University of seums.spm. visioned as important 75 years ago. Statistics Society). at a personal level and in the curtailment of funding for pants. a perspective that concerning mathematics research. mathematics depart- jointly organised with our Spanish counterpart. dire economic Vice-President of the Portuguese Mathematical Society. Fernando P. The society has been active in organis- Figure 3: “Isto é Matemática” (This is Mathematics) the popular SPM ing the Mathematics Olympiad in Portugal for more than TV series. are analysis and differential equations. as SPM. In spite of the difficult economic situation. the SPM teaches at the Department of Sciences and has been very active in a variety of ways. and the American Mathematical Society (the first such In recent years. the financial difficulties experienced event between the EMS and the AMS) that took place in in the country (with reflections felt in economic life. but not exclusively. constraints have forced a strong curtailment of this activ. agreements with some Portuguese particularly dynamical aspects. in 1993. Besides these. The first 13 episodes have been translated into English and disseminated by the RPA Committee of the EMS (http://www.eu/). in schools.mathematics-in-europe. place in several cities all over the country. dition to the Gazeta. as well as all the research centres in mathematics and statistics housed in Portuguese univer- sities. In the context of science policy. this was the largest meeting ever organised by the higher education research and training programmes. as well as training the Portuguese teams for in- ternational competitions. mu. Summing up. production and will start being broadcast in November. 2012/14. the SPM is a mem. in ad. an important SPM initiative in raising public awareness of mathematics was possible due to a project funded by the Portuguese Government and the European Union. Edinburgh. Nurturing young people’s interest in mathematics and involvement in science and technology is also one of the goals of the SPM. although in recent years. the SPM has been In the area of mathematical research. An agreement with the Universidad de El Salvador for trans- lation into Spanish of the first 13 episodes is currently under negotiation. da Costa [fcosta@uab. He received his PhD commercial publishers have allowed the production of a at Heriot-Watt University. Lis­ lic lectures for general audiences have regularly taken bon. Lisbon. the SPM has two regular meetings: the Na. in being responsible for its research journal Portugaliæ some cases. and is a researcher at the CAMGSD. a regular biannual meeting is bers (mainly. in all areas of activity its founders en- such as maths fairs and maths games championships. far beyond the most optimistic expectations. The “Isto é Matemática” (This is Math- ematics) series of 91 short movies (http://www.pt] Finally. the Real ments of Portuguese universities). A series of pub. ity. and has been its president since September 2014. in addition to able to imprint its mark on Portuguese society and. bookshops and shopping malls. the SPM is one of the officially credited entities for the evaluation of mathematics school manu- als and thus has an important role in the evaluation of the school manuals used in Portugal. He was number of books. mu. Currently tional Meeting in even years and the Summer School in with 954 individual members and 10 institutional mem- odd years. The popularity of the award winning first series led to the financing of a new series of 52 epi- EMS Newsletter December 2015 57 . over the last few years. both Porto in the Summer of 2015 with more than 900 partici. its presence and intervention has extended Mathematica. schools. seums and other institutions in organising youth events. 30 years. Portugal. teaching and popularisation initiatives exist. science centres. Societies pre-university teaching.

The theme for the 6th Espace Mathématique Blanchard (France). 58 EMS Newsletter December 2015 . showed the intercultural aspects of Arab From left to right: Judith Sadja Njomgang (Cameroon). alternating North-South in hosting the conference. Its new status is to be ria. researchers. he was able to make accessible a large ac. were really the heart of the system.Mathematics Education ICMI Column Jean-Luc Dorier (University of Geneva. the EMF has established itself as a privileged communi- cation between different stakeholders concerned with issues affecting the teaching of mathematics. Sub-Sa.400 teachers to a survey conducted by Maha Abboud- tober 2015. count of his vast knowledge of recent work in the history usthb. Moustapha Sokh- EMF2015 one of the most important international con. haran Africa and Europe. this contribution on the history of Mesopotamian mathemat- ics. dating back 3. with around 90 submissions divided into 10 Jean-Luc Dorier (Switzerland). na (Senegal) President. Like a storyteller of The proceedings of this meeting should be published the 1001 nights. (Canada). with Pro- mediene University. The lecture by Christine Proust. in a partnership that. was a fascinating opportunity to plunge the participants into the reality of a most an- cient civilisation. using the French language. In the context of the theme of the colloquium. gave an interesting panorama of the fessor Maha Abboud-Blanchard as President of the Sci- teaching of mathematics in Algerian universities with a entific Committee. Judith Sadja Njomgang working groups and three special projects. The conference website (http://emf2015. two plenary sessions were devoted to the presentation of the results of the answers of around The EMF2015 colloquium was held in Algiers. is based on an exemplary North-South collaboration. This makes (Cameroon). Ahmed Semri (Algeria). Laurent Theis turies. Laurent Theis (Canada) and Jo- ferences related to mathematics ever organised in Alge.000 years. Its members are: This colloquium brought together 150 participants from Teresa Assude (France). Besides the specific language. their cultural specificities. including mathematicians. through colloquiums organised every three years. France Caron (Canada). representing 9. mathematics educators. The next EMF will be held in 2018.Ahmed mathematics developed between the 8th and 15th cen- Semri (Algeriea). from the Houari Bou. trainers and teachers of different levels. 1. elle Vlassis (Luxemburg/Belgium). on the use of resources by secondary school teachers and es for their teaching and learning”. Jean-Luc Francophone (EMF) colloquium was “Cultural plurali. honorary professor of history of mathematics in Lille and former Minister of Education of Algeria. Faiza Chellougui (Tunisia). The 10 working groups that worked on five tracks.dz/) is still accessible and presents a more detailed of mathematics. China. Professor Benali Benzaghou. French historian of mathematics and Director of Research at CNRS. and their connections with India. Faiza Chellougui (Tunisia). in Paris. 18 nations. Three special pro- jects can launch more innovative themes. was en- titled “Mathematics in Mesopotamia: strange and famil- iar”.5 hours of debate. Greece and Egypt. Joelle Vlassis (Luxemburg/Belgium). as well as with former cultures of Mesopotamia. to allow long-term collaborations in the francophone mathematical space. Dorier (Switzerland) and Moustapha Sohkna (Senegal) ties and universality of mathematics: issues and challeng. from which all mathematicians of the world have inherited. Ahmed Djebbar. Moustapha Sokhna (Senegal). view of the event. Switzerland) Espace Mathématique Francophone in Algiers Finally. 10–14 Oc. in Spring 2016. Teresa Assude (France) and Jean-Luc Dorier (Switzerland). continuing what has become a rule of historical perspective. A new executive bureau of the EMF was nominated at the beginning of EMF2015 with a perfect parity be- tween North and South and genders. which aims. This sixth EMF showed the vitality of this community and its rich scientific production. approved by the Executive Committee of the ICMI.

involved in science teaching. Germany. the question of how to reach all teachers mean here is the educational initiative STEM (Science. for example..e. Furthermore. countries have delegated this task to a national institu. the University Professional Development (CPD). there is thinking and initial training but especially in their PD. teaching practice. Professional development centres – why? Linking mathematics and science – why? One primarily associates ‘teacher education’ with pro. especially in the form of quality professional de. Furthermore. This type of ‘continuous upgrading’ classrooms. Mathematics Education Professional Development Centres as Levers for Change in Mathematics Education Katja Maaß (University of Education. tion 5 at the University of Duisburg-Essen in Germany. the the world involved in the issue of in-service teachers’ PD professional development centres expressed their wish are becoming familiar with the relevant term Continuous to have further joint meetings. Duis- burg. is the Na­ (IBL) with a particular focus on connections to the world tional Centre for Excellence in the Teaching of Mathemat­ of work.de/dts-cms/en. of Education Freiburg organised the second meeting of European Professional Development Centres in maths 1 https://www.mascil-project. It is a goal of try and depend heavily on educational and systemic tra- the EMS Committee for Education to intensify efforts in ditions. Diana Wernisch. policymaking and velopment (PD) centre. Meanwhile.dzlm. 2 http://www. This FP 7 project is being coordinated by Kat- many responsible educational administrations in various ja Maaß from the University of Education in Freiburg. which was founded German centre DZLM hosted a conference entitled Ed­ through a grant of the Deutsche Telekom Foundation.2 (DZLM) in Germany. EMS Newsletter December 2015 59 .org. Freiburg. fers continuous professional development courses and material for out-of-field teachers. the NCETM’s concepts are spreading and have. with PD courses and how to best scale up teacher PD. spective teachers’ studies at institutions of higher learn.ncetm. the centre of. CPD concepts vary from country to coun- professional development centres in Europe. areas. that restricting their work (whether in an ongoing manner. A sign that indicates some progress One such project is Mascil 4 (mathematics and science is being made towards answering these questions is that for life). mathematics educators to seek coalitions with colleagues velopment (PD). the European project Mascil and the Education.ph-freiburg. An example of what we However. The DZLM’s focus lies in PD for teacher educators In the course of the conference. growing awareness that in-service teachers need to re. Together. Elena Schäfer (both University of Education.telekom-stiftung. Freiburg. and science education took place for the first time.uk/.eu/. CPD is a growing field of research promoting continuous development of mathematics and and first handbooks have been devoted to CPD-related science teachers. and involves over 50 actors from science and tion and have initiated some kind of a professional de.de/dzlm/international-visitors. acted as a Joining forces at the start of a promising story model for the German Centre for Mathematics Teacher In December 2014. research or PD courses) exclusively to the requires that teachers receive support throughout their mathematical domain is artificial. 5 http://educating-the-educators. We strongly encourage careers. mathematics education research. 4 http://www. Germany). establishing a network Another encouraging sign is that scientists all over Recognising the potential of such mutual learning. namely.3 ucating the Educators: International approaches to scaling This centre supports various educators in their efforts to up professional development in maths and science educa­ raise appreciation and enthusiasm for mathematics. Engineering and Mathematics). Germany) We report about a recent initiative to build up a network of However. colleges and universities). Interdisciplinary teaching and learning is on the rise. For example. Therefore. (NCETM) in England. a meeting of Europe- and on those who are supporting other teachers in their an professional development centres involved in maths pedagogical development. Günter Törner (University of Duisburg-Essen. they are working to achieve One of the first of these centres dedicated to teacher a widespread implementation of inquiry-based learning PD. This positive development requires a shift in teachers’ ing (i. Technology. Fortunately. Germany). mathematicians need to recognise a further fresh their existing competences and obtain new ones in insight. 3 http://www.de/. remains largel