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Grammar

Coming Across Modal Auxiliary Verbs Unit 9
9.1 What Is a Modal Auxiliary Verb?

Modal Auxiliaries generally express a speaker's attitude or mood. For example,
modals can express that a speaker feels something is necessary, advisable, possible
or probable.

The Modal Auxiliaries in English are: can, could, may, might, ought to, shall,
should, will and would. Modals do not take a nal -s, even when the subject is he,
she or it.

Examples:
Incorrect: He cans do it.
Correct: He can do it.
Incorrect: Mary musts do homework.
Correct: Mary must do homework.

Modals are followed immediately by the Simple Form of the Verb and never
followed by the preposition to.

Examples:
Incorrect: He can does it.
Correct: He can do it.
Incorrect: I shall to do my homework.
Correct: I shall do my homework.

The only exceptions are ought and have, which are followed by an innitive (to +
the simple form of a verb); ought to, have to.

Examples:
Incorrect: He ought behave better.
Correct: He ought to behave better.
Incorrect: Mary has do homework.
Correct: Mary has to do homework.

There are some similar expressions to these Modal Auxiliaries, and must be
preceded by an innitive (to + the simple form of a verb) that is used in these
similar expression.

Examples:
Be able to = can
Be going to = will

Other expressions:
Have to do =must
Used to do =could

151

2 Shall You can use this modal to express: Polite question to make a suggestion: Shall I open the window? Future with “I. (Will is more commonly used).3 Should You can use this modal to express: Advisability: I should study tonight. Unit 9 Coming Across Modal Auxiliary Verbs 9.1.1. Past: I should have studied last night. 90% certain: She should do well on the test. 9. 9.1 May – Might You can use this modal to express: Polite request: May I borrow your pen? Formal permission: You may leave the room.1. not present) Past: She should have done well on the test. Possibility: Where is John? He may be at the library Less than 50% certain: He might be at the library. 152 . (Future only.we” as subject: I shall arrive at nine. Past: He might have been at the library.

4 Must You can use this modal to express: Strong necessity: I must go to class today. Past: I could run fast when I was a child.Coming Across Modal Auxiliary Verbs Unit 9 9. 9. Informal Polite Request: Can I borrow your pen? Impossibility (Negative only): That can not be true! Past: That could not have been true! 153 . Past: You must not have opened that door.5 "Can" You can use this modal to express: Ability: I can run fast. 95% certain: Mary isn't in class. Past: Mary must have been sick yesterday. Informal Permission: You can use my car tomorrow. Prohibition (negative): You must not open that door.1. She must be sick. but now I can not.1. I had to go to class yesterday.

but now I can not. 9. Unit 9 Coming Across Modal Auxiliary Verbs 9.6 Could You can use this modal to express: Past Ability: I could run fast when I was a child. Past: You could have used my car to take her home. Polite Request: Will you please pass the salt? 154 .7 "Will" You can use this modal to express: 100% certain: He will be here at six o'clock. (Future only) Willingness: The phone is ringing. Suggestion: You could use my car tomorrow to take her home.1. Polite Request: Could I borrow your pen? Could you help me? Impossibility: That could not be true! Past: That could not have been true! Less than 50% certain: Where is John? He could be at home. I will get it.1. Past: He could have been at home.

(Future only. Lack of Necessity (negative): I don't have to go to class today.1.10 Have to You can use this modal to express: Necessity: I have to go to class today. Past: I ought to have studied last night. not present) Past: She ought to have done well on the test.Coming Across Modal Auxiliary Verbs Unit 9 9. Repeated action in the past: When I was a child. 155 .8 Would You can use this modal to express: Polite Request: Would you please pass the salt? Would you mind if I leave early? Preference: I would rather go to the park than stay at home. 9.9 Ought To You can use this modal to express: Advisability: I ought to study tonight. Past: I would rather have gone to the park than stayed with you. Past: I had to go to class. 90% certain: She ought to do well on the test. 9. I would visit my grandparents every weekend.1.1.

1. You __________call home your parents are worried. Mary __________stay home. 10. I have to be home at 8:00 o clock and it is already 7:30. 6. 156 .11 Going to You can use this modal to express: 100% certain: He is going to be here at six o'clock.I am sorry but I __________not go to the party last Saturday was sick. Children __________not play with matches. 5. Matches __________cause a re. 9 . Obligation: She has to hand in the report today.12 Used to You can use this modal to express: Repeated action in the past: I used to visit my grandparents every weekend.1. or she will be fired. She has a headache. 2. 11. 9. (Future only) Definite Plan: I am going to paint my bedroom. __________I ask a question? 4. 7. I __________leave now.1. She studied all night last night. Where is Frank? He __________be at home or at the library. 8. Unit 9 Coming Across Modal Auxiliary Verbs Past: I didn't have to go to class yesterday. 9. 3. Where is Frank? He __________be at the library told him to go there. I __________not drive a car when I was 5 years old. Past: I was going to paint my room but didn't have time. Exercise 1 Use either should or could to complete the sentences. I think she __________do well on the test.

I __________buy a new house next year. Let's go see! 2. could or couldn't to complete the sentences. It __________rain tonight. I __________speak Chinese. Exercise 4 Use either may be or maybe to complete the sentences. so I __________skate. but maybe I will learn someday. 4. She __________buy that diamond ring and necklace because she just won the lottery. Mary __________like to go to the park. 8. __________ my boss will get angry. 1. 10. 9. Mary __________at the store right now. 5. 7. 9. Wait. 6. It looks cloudy. 5. 6. __________you mind if I opened the door? 2. They __________go in my car if they want. 4. The TV said that __________it will snow. 8. When I was a baby I __________sleep all day if I wanted 7. I __________buy a new car. A cat __________climb trees. Jack __________ a reman but I am not sure. __________you rather go to the park or to the soccer match? 6. Children. Pigs __________climb trees. *Extra Activity 8 157 . 2. Tomorrow I __________late. but I can't because I don't have money! Exercise 3 Use can. __________they have seen that movie. __________the game I ordered arrived here already. __________we go home please? 7. can't. __________I ask a question? 4.Coming Across Modal Auxiliary Verbs Unit 9 Exercise 2 Use either would or may to complete the sentences. 1. 3. maybe Pablo is a reman. __________you like to go out with me? 8. When I was a child I __________not go not until late. I never learned how to skate. 3. I __________at school tomorrow. 3. you _____ go out until 5:00. 1. 5.

I was relieved to find out that I had passed the exam. 9. Many of these adjectives describe a person's feelings or attitudes. Exercise 1 Complete the sentences with Infinitive Verbs that make sense with the sentence. these adjectives describe a person or people. 158 . Dick didn't feel like going anywhere. The students are motivated __________English. 4. 2. 6. 5. She is glad to discover new things in science. The soldiers were prepared __________ 3. He is eager to find out about this new schedule. Sue is lucky __________ alive after the accident. 12. The children are anxious __________to the circus. Sally is afraid __________home alone. He was content __________at home and read a book. 10. We were sorry __________the bad news. Glad to Happy to Pleased to Delighted to Content to Relieved to Fortunate to Sorry to Sad to Upset to Disappointed to Proud to Ashamed to Ready to Prepared to Anxious to Eager to Willing to Motivated to Careful to Hesitant to Reluctant to Afraid to Determined to Lucky to Surprised to Amazed to Astonished to Shocked to Stunned to Example: I am happy to see you in class. Back to “Checking Out Adjectives Unit 10 Comparing and Connecting” 10. In general. 11. Yamamoto at the meeting. 1. Examples: I was glad to get a letter from you. I was surprised __________Mr. Tom was hesitant __________home alone in the dark street. The teacher is always willing __________us.1 Adjectives Followed by Infinitives Certain adjectives can be immediately followed by innitives. They are surprised to hear the bad news. Be careful not __________on the icy sidewalks. not a thing. Ann is proud __________the top student in her class. 7. 8. I am willing to learn English.

She is a __________girl but he is __________than her. Back to “Checking Out Adjectives Comparing and Connecting” Unit 10 10. Mary has three children John is __________than Mike and Karen is the _________ 2. My job is __________than the movie but my family is the __________thing in the world for me. You are __________but He is __________. 159 . The detective is __________but the thief is __________. change the y easy Easier than The easiest to i and add er funny Funnier than The funniest (Comparative) and est tasty Tastier than The tastiest (Superlative) With adjectives of two or famous More famous than The most famous more syllables. 7. 6. That dress __________than the blue one. 4. Your grandfather is __________but that old man is __________. double the big Bigger than The biggest consonant and add er hot Hotter than The hottest (comparative) or est (superlative) With two syllable adjectives that end in y. add more childish More childish than The most childish (Comparative) and most serious More serious than The most serious (Superlative) Exercise 2 Fill in the blanks using the correct form of the adjective (Comparative or Superlative). 8. I will be __________this week but next week I'll be __________. 1. 11. 5.2 Comparatives and Superlatives Case Positive Comparative Superlative With adjectives of one or old Older than The oldest two syllables. but the green one is __________. This book is __________than the other one. Shakira is a __________singer but Madonna is __________ 3. You can use your lists of adjectives as reference. add er to the fast Faster than The fastest adjective followed by than clever Cleverer than The cleverest With one syllable adjective ending in a vowel followed thin Thinner than The thinnest by a consonant. The cake tastes good but the pie tastes _________John likes the cheese rolls __________ 9. 10.

Further (but not farther) can also mean "additional". 24. 10. 160 . The most __________movie I have ever been to is. This ice cream is __________than yours. 16. Out of all of the Vegetables on earth I like broccoli the __________. The most __________jewelry in that store costs $ 25. The __________of all my students is Paul. 25. Your brother is very ________but your sister is the __________ person I know. 14. Positive Comparative Superlative Good Better than The best Bad Worse than The worst Little Less than The least Far (distance) Farther than The farthest Far (distance/additional) Further than The furthest Both farther and further are used to compare physical distances. I don't. Sarah is __________but Tom is __________than her. 15. I need further information. As the name indicates these are irregular and change completely. 22. I walked farther / further than my friend did. Some Oranges are __________but lemons are __________. 26. 27. Paul is a __________man but Tony is the __________man I have met. Sharkey is a __________person but her sister is __________than her. Todd is very __________but his mother is __________. My mother is the __________person that I have ever seen. 23. Mr. like spicy food. 29.. 19.2. 20. "Be __________when you use re but be __________around children. 18. 13. 000 dollars. Korean food is __________but Hindu food is ________. The __________member in my family is 95 years old. The most __________book I have read is "Dracula" 21. 28. Back to “Checking Out Adjectives Unit 10 Comparing and Connecting” 12. The tree is very high but the ladder is __________.1 Irregular Comparatives and Superlatives An Irregular Comparative and Superlative does not need er or more for the comparative form or est or the most for the superlative form. 17. Batman is __________but superman is the __________of all action heroes.. Mrs.

I hope I get a good 161 . Our neighbors from the left side ____________________the ones from the right side. This Final exam ____________________last semester's nal. Mine is a little wavy. My husband is taller and more handsome. 1. It is easier. 7. 3. She is always there when I need her! 10. I think that Arnold Swartznegger is a __________actor __________John Claude Van Damme. You are putting too much baking powder in that cake recipe. Exercise 4 Use the adjectives in the box to compare equally in positive and negative form. 3. 6. Our next door neighbors are ____________________we are. Use ________ than that. Sarah's husband isn't ____________________mine. My hair isn't _________ yours. 4. We get along very well.difficult .Back to “Checking Out Adjectives Comparing and Connecting” Unit 10 Exercise 3 Use the words from your chart to complete the sentences. This nal exam ____________________last semester's nal. My __________friend is Cary. Patty! My husband ____________________yours! Of course silly! They are identical twins! 5. Nice .big .2. My house is __________than your house but Mario's house is the __________of all three. 9. My hair is ___________ yours.good looking . 5. They both have 12 oors. 10.interesting . Hey. The building across the street ____________________my apartment building. 4. They are always complaining about something! 8.2 Comparative Degree of Equality To compare two things equally.straight . use the adverb "as" before and after the adjective. Thank God that the building that they are building across the street ____________________ my apartment building because otherwise it would cover all of the sunlight.comfortable 1.high . Example: The blue dress is as attractive as the brown one. 2. 2. The doctor said that the __________case would be a very bad infection if we didn't treat the wound well.

The silver ring is less beautiful than the gold ring. 10. This book ____________________the one I read last Month! I love it! 14. Example: 1. Or: Your mother isn't as distracted as hers. use less and than to show a comparative degree of inferiority. Back to “Checking Out Adjectives Unit 10 Comparing and Connecting” 11. Give two options. __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________. 15. Her mother is less dedicated than yours. Could mean: Her mother isn't as dedicated as yours. 3. 13. __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________. __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________. the other one was better. 2. Canada is less populated than China. Means: Your mother is more dedicated than hers. This pediatrician is less careful than the one I had before.2. 5. This book ____________________the one I read last month. My new shoes ____________________ my old shoes…I prefer the old ones! 16. My baby ____________________yours because he is younger.3 Comparative Degree of Inferiority With adjectives of three or more syllables. Exercise 5 Rephrase the following sentences. My baby ____________________yours and mine is younger! 12. 4. __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________.3 Adjective Clauses First we are going to identify some specic terms we need to understand: 162 . It is a good thing that I could nd shoes that ____________________my old shoes! 10. Example: Money is less important than good health. My kid is less independent than most kids his age. Personally I think that your idea of going camping is less appealing than going to the hotel to spend the holidays.

We want to join these two sentences. We will use the terms Independent Clause and Adjective Clause. These are both independent clauses because they are complete sentences that stand alone. we have two clauses joined by a pronoun as an object or subject. which and that) These are the connectors that you can use in this case. She is not used when connecting. She helped me. Independent Clause Connector Adjective Clause Now that we have joined them the rst sentence is the Independent Clause and the second sentence becomes the Adjective Clause because who helped me is not a complete sentence. The connector takes its place. Independent Clause: An independent clause is a complete sentence that contains the main subject and verb. The independent clause is also called the main clause.3.this Clause is also called a Relative Clause. Lets nd out! 10. Which woman? 163 . When we have an adjective clause. which: Used for things. identies or gives further information about a noun. Dependent Clause: A Dependent Clause is an incomplete sentence that must be connected to an independent clause. Adjective Clause: An Adjective Clause is a dependent clause that modies a noun. who: Used for people.Back to “Checking Out Adjectives Comparing and Connecting” Unit 10 Clause: A clause is a group of words that contains a subject and a verb. that: Used for both people and things.1 Using Subject Pronouns (who. Example: I thanked the woman. We used who as the connector because we are talking about a woman. 1st option I thanked the woman who helped me. It describes. You will understand with these examples.

Back to “Checking Out Adjectives Unit 10 Comparing and Connecting” The woman who helped me. The adjective clause modies the noun woman. the subject of the sentence. who (that) helped me (adjective clause). Notice that the subject of the second sentence has been replaced by who. _________________________________________________________________________ 164 . The who helped me adjective clause is referring to the woman. He sits next to me. I thanked the woman (independent clause). (Independent) It is on the table. This is another way to join. Exercise 6 Now it is your turn. (Independent) It is not used when connecting. The only thing that has changed is the connector that. The connector takes its place. _________________________________________________________________________ 3. They sit in the front row. _________________________________________________________________________ 2. Combine the two sentences. Use the second sentence as an adjective clause. The girl is happy. Connector Adjective clause The adjective clause “which is on the table” refers to the subject the book. Example: The book is mine. You can also use that instead of which to join these two clauses. The students are from Norway. The book which is on the table. Independent Clause Connector Adjective Clause This is the same explanation. She won the race. The student is form China. is mine. 1. 2nd option I thanked the woman that helped me.

Example: The man was Mr. These are the connectors that you can use in this case. Adjective Clause Omit: The man I saw. Jones. I saw him.3.) Which: Used for things That: Used for both people and things Omit: In any situation when replacing the object you can omit the connector. Jones. The connector takes its place. The taxi driver was friendly. Who: Used for people Whom: Used for people (means the same as who only that it is more formal. Jones. Adjective Clause That: The man that I saw. we were replacing the subject of the sentences.Back to “Checking Out Adjectives Comparing and Connecting” Unit 10 4. especially in speaking who is generally used only in formal English. was Mr. _________________________________________________________________________ 10. Adjective Clause Who is usually used instead of whom. was Mr. (In this case a subject pronoun may not be omitted). _________________________________________________________________________ 5. Who: The man who I saw. Adjective Clause Whom: The man whom I saw. We are studying sentences. I is not used when connecting. 165 . in this case we will be replacing the object. He took me to the airport. An Object Pronoun is omitted from and Adjective Clause. They are about structures. was Mr. was Mr. Jones. Jones. Which and That) When we saw point 10. Give all the possible patterns.1. Exercise 7 Check for yourself.3.2 Using Object Pronouns (Who(m). Combine the sentences using the second sentence as an Adjective Clause.

3 Pronouns Used as the Object of Prepositions In formal English. Example: She is the woman. You wrote it. These are the connectors that you can use in this case. We visited them yesterday. Whom + Preposition: Used for people Preposition + whom: Used for people Which + Preposition: Used for things Preposition + which: Used for things Who + Preposition: Used for people That + Preposition: Used for both people and things Omit + Preposition: In any situation when replacing the object you can omit the connector but not the preposition. _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ 2. usually. _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ 10. the prepositions are after the subject and verb of the adjective clause.3. The book was good. Back to “Checking Out Adjectives Unit 10 Comparing and Connecting” 1. If the prepositions are at the beginning of the adjective clause. I really enjoyed the composition. Adjective Clause 166 . I told you about her. I met her at the party last night. The people were very nice. in everyday usage. _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ 3. A preposition is never immediately followed by that or who. Whom + Preposition: She is the woman whom I told you about. _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ 4. the prepositions are at the beginning of the adjective clause. I like the woman. I read it. However. only whom or which may be used.

I must thank the people. The meeting was interesting. Adjective Clause Exercise 8 Combine the sentences using the second sentence as an Adjective Clause. I got a present from them. I went to it. Give all the possible patterns. _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ 167 . Who + Preposition: She is the woman who I told you about. 1.Back to “Checking Out Adjectives Comparing and Connecting” Unit 10 Preposition + whom: She is the woman about whom I told you. The man was very kind. Adjective Clause That + Preposition: She is the woman that I told you about. _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ 3. I talked to him yesterday. Adjective Clause Which + Preposition: not in this case. Preposition + which: not in this case. Adjective Clause Omit + Preposition: She is the woman I told you about. _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ 2.

which he lives in. I was telling you about him. Adjective Clause 168 . country. Back to “Checking Out Adjectives Unit 10 Comparing and Connecting” 4.4 Using "where" Where is used in an adjective clause to modify a place (city. is very old. a preposition must be included. Adjective Clause Preposition + which: The building in which he lives. room. _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ 10. a preposition is not included in the adjective clause. Adjective Clause Which + Preposition: The building.3. house. is very old. The man is standing over there. _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ 5. He lives there (in that building). The picture was beautiful. She was looking at it. If where is not used. is very old. Adjective clause That + Preposition: The building that he lives in. etc. If where is used. Where: The building where he lives is very old. Adjective Clause Omit + Preposition: The building he lives in. Where: Which + Preposition Preposition + which That + Preposition Omit + Preposition Example: The building is very old. These are the connectors that you can use in this case.). is very old.

3. 1. _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ 3. A preposition is used preceding which. The town is small. The use of a preposition in an Adjective Clause that modies a noun of time is somewhat different from that in other Adjective Clauses. The city was beautiful. time.5 Using "when" When is used in an adjective clause to modify a noun of time (year. century. _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ 2. the preposition is omitted (not used). etc. Otherwise.). I grew up there (in that town). month. I keep my jewelry there (in that drawer).Back to “Checking Out Adjectives Comparing and Connecting” Unit 10 Exercise 9 Combine the sentences using the second sentence as an adjective clause. day. That is the drawer. That is the restaurant. We will meet you there (at the restaurant). We spent our vacation there (in that city). _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ 4. These are the connectors that you can use: When: Preposition + which That Omit 169 . _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ 10.

My plane arrives then (at that time). 1. 7:05 is the time. _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ 170 . _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ 4. We will come then (on that day). Exercise 10 Combine the sentences using the second sentence as an adjective clause. In everyday English this combination is the most commonly used. I met you then. _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ 2. Omit: I'll never forget the day I met you. July is the month. Back to “Checking Out Adjectives Unit 10 Comparing and Connecting” Examples: I'll never forget the day. That: I'll never forget the day that I met you. (on that day) When: I'll never forget the day when I met you. 1960 is the year. The weather is the hottest then (in that month). The revolution took place then (in that year). _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ 3. Preposition + which: I'll never forget the day on which I met you. Write all the possible patterns. Monday is the day.

Back to “Checking Out Adjectives Comparing and Connecting” Unit 10 Exercise 11 Underline the adjective clauses in the following sentences. so Timmy. Timmy: I ate the hamburger which my mother bought for my brother. George: The boy who is drinking orange juice in front of the lady that has long hair comes to this restaurant every Saturday to eat a donut and drink orange juice while he reads the book that his mother chooses for him. says that we should plan a big party to celebrate Ann's arrival. who is John's cousin. arrives after 12:00 on weekdays when the next morning is a school day? Tim: Your mother who is always complaining about her should do something about this situation. 2. Mary: Our big family will have a serious meeting where Tina's brother will explain about yesterday's incident with the neighbors who complained about the party. 6. 5. who should arrive early. Danny: I only see her talk to the tall boy who likes to wear the black leather jacket to school on Fridays. 7. 1. Tommy: Why does your sister. 3. If he doesn't stay. 171 . His boss might fire him. who is my oldest cousin. Lindsey: Do you talk to the girl who is wearing the red skirt? I personally think that she is a nice person but she should be more sociable. 4. Tim: The old man that lives next door says that we should hire a night watch man because he hears the neighbor's dog bark every night. ate it. Example: Patty: Timmy who is John's tallest brother will work until late tonight because his boss who is a very strict person wants him to finish the quarterly report for the month of May. Paul: The tall lady that has three children and is standing next to the door. can give you the hairdresser's phone number and address. because I was hungry and I didn't know that it was his so later when my brother arrived and asked about his dinner I told him that Sarah. 8. who will travel this weekend will be back in a week. Sarah: John's parents.

George: Sundays are the days. which was fun because we were a very united family. when I prefer to rest quietly in my house. 11. *Extra Activity 9 172 . 13. Tony: The 4th of July is the day when the declaration of independence was written. Harry: That is the hotel where we spent our honey moon in last year when we got married. 10. Back to “Checking Out Adjectives Unit 10 Comparing and Connecting” 9. last time we went there. where we spend Saturday afternoons. Tina: That is the house where we grew up and we have many nice memories of our childhood. 12. Raul: My Grandmother's house. is haunted. I saw something strange going out of the main closet. because every one goes out and leaves me by myself. which is made of very old wood.

Either my parents or my sister are here....) Neither my parents nor my sister are here. (There isn't a plural noun).. (There is a plural noun at the beginning.. (There is a plural noun at the end).) Somebody is in the house.) Somebody is in the house. If there is a plural noun in any part of the sentence use a plural verb.. Either my sister or my parents are here. (There is a plural noun at the end). (There is a plural noun). but also When two subjects are connected with both. otherwise use a singular verb. or neither. Not only my sister but also my parents are here.1 Paired Conjunctions The Paired Conjunctions are the following: Both. or Not only. either. Neither my sister nor my parents are here.. nor Either.. Examples: Not only my mother but also my sister is here... (There isn't a plural noun. Not only my parents but also my sister are here. and Neither. Notice the parallel structure in the examples. Somebody is in the house.. Example: Both my mother and sister are at the store. and.. Example: Both + noun + and + noun The research project will take both time and money.. (There isn't a plural noun... (There is a plural noun at the end). (There is a plural noun at the beginning... Either my mother or my sister is here. This Time Paired Unit 11 11. 173 . nor.. or.Reviewing Conjunctions. The same grammatical form should follow each word of the pair. always use a plural verb. When two subjects are connected by not only.) Neither my mother nor my sister is here. but also.

You have to choose either __________________________________. 7. Exercise 1 Supply the correct Present Tense form of the verb in parenthesis. 3.. (Like) Both John and Ted ________to go skiing. Either + noun + or + noun I will take either Chemistry or Physics this quarter. Exercise 2 Complete the sentences 1. 4. 9.. 8. 6. 3. (Play) Not only the girls but also the boy ________tennis. 1. 8. (Think) Not only Tony's wife but also his children ________they should all travel to Hawaii for next vacation. 7. 174 . Neither + Adjective + nor + Adjective That book is neither interesting nor accurate. I want to buy both_________________________________________________. 5. Sometimes life is not only__________________________________________. Both Maria_________________________________. (Agree) Neither the student nor the teacher ________in their opinions. (Be) Both intelligence and skill ________essential to teach well. 6. Unit 11 Reviewing Conjunctions. Either Jack ______________________________________________. 2. Students who do well not only study hard _________________________________. 2. (Want) Neither Carol nor Alan ________to go skiing this weekend. (Have) Either Jack or Alice ________the information you need. (Watch) Both the carpenter and the man ________the game. This Time Paired Not only + verb + but also + verb Yesterday it not only rained but also snowed. (Agree) Neither my parents nor my brother ________with my decision. 4. 10. Not only do we like to go ___________________________________________. That movie was neither____________________________________. 5. (Hear) Either the students or the teacher ________the answer.

At some point in the past it happened. Example: We have had four tests so far this semester. Exercise 1 Complete the sentences using the correct structure and the verb in Past Participle.1 Perfect Tenses The Perfect Tenses all give the idea that one thing happens before another time or event. at an unspecied time in the past. 1. The exact time it happened is not important. Have you visited Mexico? I have seen snow. Example: I have eaten. I have met many people since I came here in June. The exact time of each repetition is not important. She ________________________ (travel) to Paris many times.Looking Into Verbs and Verb Tenses 2 Unit 12 The verb tenses that we are going to see here are: Present Perfect Past Perfect Future Perfect Present Perfect Progressive Past Perfect Progressive Future Perfect Progressive 12. 175 . The Present Perfect Tense also expresses the repetition of an activity before now. You ________________________ (ask) me that question already. Have you? 3. I have written my wife a letter every other day for the past last two weeks. Present Perfect Tense Subject + Have + Past Participle + Complement The Present Perfect Tense expresses the idea that something happened (or never happened) before now. 2. I have flown on an airplane many times. We ________________________ (eat) German food.

5. I haven't seen your dad..... Equivalent: I haven't seen your mother since 1998. 1. I have known him for many years... Then write the equivalent using the other word... a long time Since: ___________________________________________________________________ For: ___________________________________________________________________ 176 .. to express a situation that began in the past and continues in the present.. He ________________________ (work) for many months. I have liked cowboy movies ever since I was a child.. I have had the same pair of shoes for three years.. It's been a long time. He has driven to Canada . Examples: I haven't seen your mother for eleven years. Since = a particular time. Exercise 2 Complete the sentences using since or for.. May Since: ___________________________________________________________________ For: ___________________________________________________________________ 2. The Present Perfect Tense is used with for and since. The boys ________________________ (go) to that school for 10 years. Since: ___________________________________________________________________ For: ___________________________________________________________________ 4. They've known about the incident . several years Since: ___________________________________________________________________ For: ___________________________________________________________________ 3.. Unit 12 Looking Into Verbs and Verb Tenses 2 4. Since: ___________________________________________________________________ For: ___________________________________________________________________ 5. I've had such a good time at a party. We have been here for two weeks. Example: I have been here since seven o'clock.. She has worked there. I was 10 years old. For = a duration of time..

. 3. Exercise 3 Fill in the blanks using the correct structure and verb in Past Participle.... = I had eaten when they arrived.. Example: I had already eaten when they arrived. He hasn't been stable . I got home. He hasn't been so happy. They __________not __________ (drink) anything in three days...Looking Into Verbs and Verb Tenses 2 Unit 12 6. Since: ___________________________________________________________________ For: ___________________________________________________________________ 8. My parents had called five times by the time I got home.. Since: ___________________________________________________________________ For: ___________________________________________________________________ 9. 2.. The doctor wasn't in his ofce when I arrived. = I got home when they had eaten. They have been the owners of that hotel... his divorce.. Until yesterday. the Past Perfect Tense is often not necessary because the time relationships have cleared.. (The same idea) 177 . I knew who stole the book. 4. Example: I ate before the arrived.. he was at school.. She hasn't seen her. I had not heard about it.. If either before or after is used in the sentence.. many years Since: ___________________________________________________________________ For: ___________________________________________________________________ 7. He __________ (go) out to lunch. (The same idea) After they ate. They were thirsty. I wasn't thirsty. I __________never __________ (see) him taking it. I __________just __________ (drink) a glass of cold lemonade. 2006 Since: ___________________________________________________________________ For: ___________________________________________________________________ Past Perfect Tense: Subject + had + Past Participle + Complement The Past Perfect Tense expresses an activity that was completed before another activity or time in the past. 1.

Present Perfect Progressive Tense: Subject + Have + Been + (verb + ing) +Compliment. The tenses are used to express the duration of the rst event. _________________________________________________________________________ Future Perfect Tense: Subject + will + Have + Past Participle + Complement. The Future Perfect Tense expresses a future nished action and another time in the future. 4. _________________________________________________________________________ 4. The students _______________ (learn) English by September. 178 . until another time or event. He _______________ (write) his autobiography by the time he is 90 years old. 5. 3. My grandmother will have cooked (cook) when we arrive for dinner. We arrived to the party before he got drunk. up to. the total preparation time for the cake is 1 hour (until 11:00). Example: I will have finished baking the cake when they arrive. 2. Unit 12 Looking Into Verbs and Verb Tenses 2 Exercise 4 Change the following sentences using Past Perfect Tenses. The baby ate before his nanny bathed him. Exercise 5 Fill in the blanks using Future Perfect Tense. _________________________________________________________________________ 3. _________________________________________________________________________ 2. The teachers _______________ (prepare) their lesson plans by next month. The dog _______________ (be) with us for 10 years in two days. when they arrive I will have nished baking the cake. 1. He nished before they went to have lunch. they will arrive at 12:30. 1.2 Perfect Progressive Tenses The Perfect Progressive Tense gives the idea that one event is in progress immediately before. 12. We played soccer before they called. I will start to bake the cake tomorrow at 10:00.

How long. 3. She is sick because she _______________ (take) her medicine. He had been waiting for two hours. I will keep on studying more. 10. It _______________ (rain) a lot this week. Mary _______________ travel) to many places lately. you tell your friends: "Tomas was angry when I arrived. For example. When? Before another event in the present. Past Perfect Progressive Tense: Subject + had + been + (verb + ing) + Complement The event was in progress (studying). Example: I had been studying for two hours. 179 . Tomas says to you: "I am angry. 2. How long _______________ you _______________ (learn) English? 4. The Perfect Progressive Tense gives the idea that one event is in progress immediately before. Example: I have been studying for two hours. My in laws _______________ (live) in Colombia since June. until another time or event. (I nished studying). We _______________ (play) poker since 9 o'clock. imagine that you meet Tomas at 11 am. He _______________ (dance) all night long.Looking Into Verbs and Verb Tenses 2 Unit 12 The event is in progress (studying)." Exercise 7 1. I have been waiting for two hours. Difference in Past Perfect Progressive and Present Perfect Progressive. Exercise 6 Fill in the blanks using Present Perfect Progressive Tense. 8.I am not lying mother! 5. up to. The tenses are used to express the duration of the rst event. I started to study in the past. I _______________ (study) for 2 hours. for two hours. 6. John was very tired. When? Before now." Later. for two hours. The kids _______________ (yell) all day. 9. _______________ your parents _______________ (get along) good? 7. 1. I have been smoking (smoke). I am still studying now.

7. The neighbors _______________ (live) in this condo for 25 years next year. Exercise 9 Practice all verb tenses. _______________ 2. _______________. 6. 6. Identify each sentence. I could smell perfume. 1. The old lady _______________ (try) to cross the street since 2:00 but nobody would stop to help her. The event will be in progress (studying). _______________. The boy _______________ (wait) for his girlfriend for 2 hours in two minutes. Future Perfect Progressive Tense: Subject +will+ have + been + (verb + ing) +Complement. in March next year she _______________ (live) here 4 months. 4. 3. 4. I _______________ (work) for ten years in the same company by September. 7. Unit 12 Looking Into Verbs and Verb Tenses 2 2. The detective _______________ (look) for the suspect for three years. I will have been working when you call from 10 to 12. _______________ the driver _______________ (drink) before the crash? 5. Example: I will have been studying when they arrive. We have been playing golf all afternoon. 3. Somebody _______________ (use) my perfumes. Exercise 8 Fill in the following sentences using Future Perfect Progressive Tense. 9. 1. Our soccer match was interrupted. 5. 180 . 6. We _______________ (play) for about twenty minutes when it started to snow. _______________. 2. 4. The children _______________ (wait) for Santa Claus since July. 3. You have been writing that book for over an hour. She came to Bogotá in November. _______________. My cousin _______________ (study) English 8 months by the time she graduates. They had been hiding all the time until we found them. She had been studying yesterday. When? Before another event in the future. He _______________ (try) to get into that school for 2 years and nally he got in. My grandparents _______________ (live) together for 50 years next months my family will organize a big party for them. She has been studying for 50 minutes. It _______________ (rain) 10 days if it is still raining tomorrow. _______________. 10. My boss _______________ (study) all morning until his wife called. She _______________ (feel) bad lately that was a sign of infection. 8. 5.

When your sister _______________ (enter) the room I _______________ (recognize) her . _______________. Exercise 10 Use the simple Past. _______________. 11. The girls will have read that book when we call. _______________. 2 years _______________ (pass) and she _______________ (change–not) a bit. We have worked all day. My grandparents _______________ (know) her many years. 18. _______________. By the time she _______________ (arrive) to the Party. I have eaten three apples _______________. 25. Present Perfect and Past Perfect. Last week I _______________ (meet) a very handsome man. _______________. I will have eaten when they come home. 8. _______________. Exercise 11 Fill in the blanks using the correct tense. 26. We had been looking at those ducks for two hours last .Looking Into Verbs and Verb Tenses 2 Unit 12 7. today. she _______________ (take) care of me. When John _______________ (arrive) home last night. _____________ Friday. She had never eaten Chinese food before. _______________ 20. _______________. 19. home. Yesterday I _______________ (go) to see the movie that you recommended. she _______________ (take) care of my children. 21. 181 . 24. 17. _______________. And now. 9. They will have forgotten before tomorrow. _______________. He found (nd) out that his children _______________ (prepare) a great cake to celebrate Father's Day. Mary _______________ (be) babysitter of the kids in my family for over 20 years. _______________. Sarah will have raced her child alone by the time he cares. it _______________ (begin) 4. They have showed us their house. _______________. _______________. 1. 3. 16. He has been talking about that all day long. When I ______________ (be) little. 12. They have been going to that club every night. They had not heard about it until you bought it. 14.It is incredible. They had already eaten when you arrived. 10. She will have been buying that book when you get. _______________. We had not worked until now. Sarah will have nished at 5:00. It _______________ (be) a fantastic lm . I have gone Christmas shopping with my mother since I was 5 ______________.I _______________ (see) anything like that until yesterday. 23. I will have been studying when you call. 15. _______________. You have written a letter. 2. It (be) _____________ great to have somebody you trust taking care of your children. You will have own to New York by the time I go _______________ visit you 22. 5. _______________ 13.

Unit 12 Looking Into Verbs and Verb Tenses 2

Exercise 12

Use the Simple Past Tense or the Present Perfect Tense to ll in the blanks. Either
the Simple Past Tense or the Present Perfect Tense can be used in some
sentences.

1. I (go, not) _______________ to any parties since I came here.
2. Albert (go) _______________ to a party at Sally's apartment last Sunday night.
3. Bill (arrive) _______________ here three days ago.
4. Bill (be) _______________ here since May 22nd.
5. Try not to be absent from class again for the rest of the term. You ____________
already _______________ (miss) too many classes. You (miss) _______________
two classes just last week.

Exercise 13

Use the Present Perfect Progressive in the following sentences.

1. The boys _______________ soccer right now. They (play) _______________ for
almost 2 hours.
2. Alex is talking on the phone. He (talk) _______________ on the phone for over
half an hour. He should hang up soon. Long distance is expensive.
3. I'm trying to study. I (try) _______________ to study for the last hour, but
something always seems to interrupt me.

Exercise 14

Use the Present Perfect or Simple Past in the following sentences.

1. He (be) ____________ a newspaper reporter before he (become)____________
a businessman.
2. I (feel) _______________ a little better after I (take) ____________ the
medicine.
3. I was late. The teacher _______________ (give) given a quiz when I (get)
_______________ to class.
4. The anthropologist (leave) _______________ the village when she (collect)
_______________ enough data.
5. It was raining hard, but by the time the class (be) _______________ over, the rain
_______________ (stop).

12.3 Other Uses for Verb Tenses (Will Vs. Going to)

Some of the verb tenses have other uses that express different intentions or
meanings.

182

Looking Into Verbs and Verb Tenses 2 Unit 12
To Express a Prediction:
To express a prediction/statement about something that someone thinks will be
true or will occur in the future (guess or a prophecy) use either will or going to.

Examples:
According to the weather report, it will be cloudy tomorrow.
According to the weather report, it is going to be cloudy tomorrow.
Be careful! You will hurt yourself.
Watch out! You're going to hurt yourself

To Express a Prior Plan:
To express a prior/something the speaker intends (wants) to do in the Future
because he/she made a plan/ decision in the past to do it, use only going to.

Examples:
Q= Are you busy this evening?
A= Yes, I am going to meet Jack at the library at seven o'clock. We are
going to study together.
Q= Are you busy tonight?
A= Well, I really haven't made any plans. I am going to eat dinner, and
probably I'm going to watch TV.
Q= Why did you buy this paint?
A= I am going to paint my bedroom tomorrow.

Robert is tired of taking the bus to work. He is going to buy a car.

To Express Willingness:
To express willingness/intention (Volunteering to do something) use only Will.

Examples:
The telephone is ringing, I will answer it.
I do not understand this problem. Ask your teacher about it. She will help
you with it.

Exercise 15

Fill in the blank with Will or Going to to express predictions.

1. Sue _______________ to Graduate) in June. After that she _______________
(begin) work at an electronics rm.
2. Fred (be) _______________ at the meeting tomorrow. I think Jane (come)
_______________ too.
3. The damage we do to our environment (affect) _______________ the quality of
life of future generations.

183

Unit 12 Looking Into Verbs and Verb Tenses 2

13.1 What Is Passive Voice?

The structure that you must use when using the Passive Voice is:

Structure Be + Past Participle

In the Passive Form, the Object of an Active Verb becomes the Subject of the
Passive Verb.

Example:
Active Form: Mary helped the boy.

Subj Act. Verb Obj

Passive Form: The boy was helped by Mary.

Subj To be Pas. Verb Obj

The boy (object) in the Active Form becomes the Subject of the Passive Form as
shown in the second sentence.

Only Transitive Verbs (Verbs that are followed by an object) are used in the
Passive Form. Intransitive Verbs don't have an object.

Examples:

Transitive:
We must leave this parachute on in case of emergency.

In this example, the verb “leave” takes a direct object “parachute”.

Intransitive:
We would like to stay, but we have to leave.

In this example, the verb “leave” does not take a direct object.

Transitive:
Peter danced to salsa all night.

In this example, the verb “danced” takes a direct object “salsa”.

Intransitive
Peter danced all night.

In this example, the verb “danced” does not take a direct object.

184

Simple Past: Active: Mary helped John. Passive: John is helped by Mary. Look at these examples to understand. couldn't come. Active Form: The baby fell asleep.1. Passive Form: NOT POSSIBLE. Examples: Simple Present: Active: Mary helps John.1 Using Passive Voice in Different Tenses We must be aware of the changes that may occur when using the passive voice in different tenses. Passive Form: NOT POSSIBLE. Examples: Active Form: An accident happened. Present Progressive: Active: Mary is helping John. Passive: John is being helped by Mary. Passive: John has been helped by Mary. Past Progressive: Active: Mary was helping John. 185 .Looking Into Verbs and Verb Tenses 2 Unit 12 It is not possible to use verbs as happen. come. Passive: John was helped by Mary. Passive Form: NOT POSSIBLE. Past Perfect: Active: Mary had helped John. asleep. and seem (Intransitive Verbs) and other verbs in the Passive Form. Active Form: Sorry. Passive: John had been helped by Mary. Passive: John was being helped by Mary. 13. Present Perfect: Active: Mary has helped John.

Passive: John will have been helped by Mary. _________________________________________________________________________ 2. _________________________________________________________________________ 7. it's your turn! Change these sentences from the Active Form to the Passive Form by supplying the correct form of To Be. Example: Tom opens the door. Unit 12 Looking Into Verbs and Verb Tenses 2 Simple Future: Active: Mary will help John. Tom had opened the door. Tom will have opened the door. 186 . _________________________________________________________________________ 4. Exercise 1 Now. Passive: John is going to be helped by Mary. The Progressive forms of the Present Perfect. Past Perfect. Tom is opening the door. Tom opened the door. Future Perfect: Active: Mary will have helped John when you arrive. Tom will open the door. Going to: Active: Mary is going to help John. Tom has opened the door. _________________________________________________________________________ Exercise 2: Change from the Active Form to the Passive Form. 1. _________________________________________________________________________ 6. _________________________________________________________________________ 5. _________________________________________________________________________ 8. Passive: John will be helped by Mary. Future Tense and Future Perfect are not commonly used in the Passive Form. Tom is going to open the door. _________________________________________________________________________ 3. The door is opened by Tom. Tom was opening the door.

_________________________________________________________________________ 3. if possible. Timmy dropped the our. Waitresses and waiters serve costumers. _________________________________________________________________________ 2. Freud's theory. The play was written by Shakespeare. _________________________________________________________________________ 5. Bill will invite Ann to the party. Dr. Kathy had returned the book to the library. 1. I agree with Dr. Active: Jackie scored the winning goal. Passive: (It does not change). My cat died. _________________________________________________________________________ 4. _________________________________________________________________________ 2. Freud developed that theory. _________________________________________________________________________ 8. 1. _________________________________________________________________________ 187 . The teachers are going to explain the lesson.Looking Into Verbs and Verb Tenses 2 Unit 12 Example: Shakespeare wrote that play. _________________________________________________________________________ 4. Some are Intransitive Verbs (happen. Shirley had suggested a new idea. sleep. _________________________________________________________________________ 5. The cup fell to the oor. _________________________________________________________________________ 3. _________________________________________________________________________ Exercise 3 Change from the Active Form to the Passive Form. Passive: The winning goal was scored by Jackie. His tricks won't fool me. Examples: Active: A strange thing happened yesterday. The assistant manager interviewed me. _________________________________________________________________________ 7. _________________________________________________________________________ 6. _________________________________________________________________________ 6. come and seem) and can not be changed. The horses were pulling the farmer's wagon. Alex is preparing that report.

” 188 . If it is important to know who performs the action. Our house was built by people who built houses in 1890. the focus or attention is on “two rugs. _________________________________________________________________________ 8. It rained hard yesterday.2 Using the Passive Voice The Passive Form is frequently used when it is not known or not important to know exactly who performs the action. Example: “Life on the Mississippi” was written by Mark Twain. Example: This rug was made by my aunt. who exactly performs the action is not known or is not important. Example: Rice is grown in India by people (by farmers. by is included in the sentence. In these sentences. In these sentences. but that rug was made by my mother. _________________________________________________________________________ 9. The olive oil was imported from Spain. A hurricane destroyed the small shing village. _________________________________________________________________________ 13. Unit 12 Looking Into Verbs and Verb Tenses 2 7. Example: My aunt made this rug. The Active Form is used when the speaker or writer knows who performs the action. Example: Rice is grown in India. by someone). The Passive Form may be used with by instead of the Active Form when the speaker or writer wants to focus attention on the subject of the sentence. Our house was built in 1890. Olive oil was imported by other people in general. Dinosaurs existed millions of years ago.

The Washington Monument is visited by hundreds of people every day. _________________________________________________________________________ 2. the main writing material today. Example: James should be told the news as soon as possible. (Should + tell) 189 . John ought to have been invited to the party. _________________________________________________________________________ 13. Exercise 5 Complete the sentences with the given words. (Should + tell) 1. _________________________________________________________________________ 4.Looking Into Verbs and Verb Tenses 2 Unit 12 Exercise 4 What would be the Active equivalents of the Passive sentences? 1. active or passive. These modals in past: Passive Form: Modal + have been + past participle Example: This letter should have been sent last week. That house must have been built over 200 years ago. The World Cup soccer games are being televised all over the world. _________________________________________________________________________ 3. The window can't be opened. Paper. Someone _____________ James the news immediately. Beethoven's Seventh Symphony was performed at the concert last night. was invented by the Chinese.3 The Passive Voice of Modals and Different Expressions When we use the modals for a passive form. the generic structure is: Structure Modal + be + past participle Example: Tom will be invited to the picnic. May I be excused from class? This letter ought to be sent by June Mary has to be told about the new plans. Children should be taught respect elders.

It was painted shut. 2. Meat _____________ in a refrigerator or it will be spoiled. Your daughter has a good voice. Her interest in singing (encourage) _____________ 7. He is wearing a gold band on his fourth nger. (Should + tell) 3. According to our teacher. all of our compositions (write) _____________ by tomorrow. 1. (Could + open) 7. The engineering rm where she had an interview yesterday ________ _____ her job soon. Use the modal that sounds best to you. In my opinion. I tried. 3. ) 5. If you want her to do anything. 190 . Unit 12 Looking Into Verbs and Verb Tenses 2 2. (Must + keep) 4. 8. Five committee members (be) _____________ unable to attend the next meeting. not) _____________ everything he or she wants. (Could + open) 6. but the window __________________. A child (give. some of your words (misunderstand) _____________. (May + offer) 8. If you don't. Chris has good news. James _____________ the news long time ago. Try to speak slowly when you give your speech. The entire valley (see) _____________ from their mountain home. 4. 10. It _____________ ( leave. He (marry) _____________ married. All of the sentences are passive. Some UFO sightings (explain. I had an interview yesterday. (May + offer) Exercise 6 Use the verb in parenthesis with any appropriate modal or similar expression. the meeting (postpone) _____________. 6. but I could not open the window. You _____________ meat in a refrigerator or it will be spoiled. not) _____________ easily. (Must + keep) 5. I found this book on my desk when I came to class. she (push) _____________. We tried. Good news! I _____________ a job soon. She is very lazy. 9.

If it's cold tomorrow. The words that introduce clauses of condition. I'm going to stay home. Here we will explain each conditional. Like this: Example: If it rains.Getting Across Conditionals Unit 14 14. let's go skating. is used in an if clause. Result: The streets get wet. even though the verb in the if clause may refer to a future event or situation. 191 . 14. not a future tense. A present tense. I will take my umbrella. If it's cold tomorrow.1 "If" Clauses If clauses present possible conditions.1. "If clauses" are the following: If In case (that) Only if Whether or not In the event (that) Providing (that) Provided (that) Even if Unless Exercise 1 From the given possibilities you should make two sentences using if. Possible condition: It rains. The main clause expresses the result of that condition.1 What Is a Conditional? Conditionals are used mainly to express a condition or decision taken over a certain situation. the streets get wet. (answers will vary) Example: It may be cold tomorrow. as in: Example: If it rains tomorrow.

(Or whether is cold or not) In this sentence.1.3 Even If Sentences with even if. 14. she will pass the exam. _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ 14. Expected result: She passes the exam. Example: Even if the weather is cold. Even if clauses are followed by unexpected results. 192 . I am going swimming anyway. The result will not change. 14. it is clear the condition that it doesn't matter if it is cold or not. are close in meaning to those with whether or not. I'm going swimming tomorrow. Example: I'm going to go swimming tomorrow whether or not is cold. the result will be the same. Robert will probably study for the test.4 Compare If clauses are followed by an expected result.1. The teacher may be absent tomorrow. _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ 2. Maybe it will be hot tomorrow. _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ 3. Example: If Ann studies hard.2 Whether or Not Whether or not expresses the idea that neither this condition nor that condition matters.1. Unit 14 Getting Across Conditionals 1. Condition: Ann Studies. Even if gives the idea that a particular condition does not matter.

Exercise 2 Use the given information to complete the sentences. Unexpected result: She does not pass the exam. The time is up. In the event that you (should) need to reach me. Example: You probably won't need to get in touch with me. 1. Example: I'll be at my house in case you (should) need to reach me. but it does not matter. Notes: In the event that is more formal than in case. 193 . We don't want to go camping in the snow. We're going camping in the mountains even _________________. Sam's uncle tells a lot of jokes. It doesn't matter. The use of should in the clause emphasizes the speaker's uncertainty that something will happen. she won't pass the exam. Sometimes they are funny. If so. and sometimes they are not. 2. It might snow or it might not.1. 14. Sam laughs at the jokes whether _________________ or not. but maybe you will. Condition: Mary studies. and maybe not. I'll be at my house. It doesn't matter. I'll give you my phone number. but it might. In case/ in the event that = if by chance this should happen. Sam laughs at the jokes even if the _________________. You have to hand in your test even if _________________ 3. You have to hand in your test whether _________________or not.5 In Case That – In the Event That "In the case that" and "in the event that" express the idea that something probably won't happen. We're going camping in the mountains whether or not _________________. Maybe you are nished with the exam. Exercise 3 Use In case/in the event (that) in these sentences.Getting Across Conditionals Unit 14 Example: Even if Mary studies hard.

_________________________________________________________________________ 2. Jack probably will not call. I don't think you need more information. If so. If you don't get some lm.7 Only if / Providing/Provided that Only if expresses the idea that there is only one condition that will cause a particular result. Smith. These two clauses have the same meaning. ask Dr. _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ 14.6 Unless This conditional has the same meaning that implies "If not". You can't travel abroad if you don't have a passport. 1. _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ 3. If so. If so. _________________________________________________________________________ 14. Exercise 4 Use unless in these sentences. 194 . but maybe you do. but maybe you will. Example: I will go to the zoo if it isn't cold.1. but maybe he will. please tell him that I'm at the library. Unit 14 Getting Across Conditionals I'll give you my phone number in case/in the event that you (should) need to get in touch with me. 1. Probably you won't need to see me. I'll be in my ofce tomorrow morning around ten. I will go to the zoo unless it is cold. You'll get hungry during class if you don't eat breakfast. _________________________________________________________________________ 4. _________________________________________________________________________ 3. I won't be able to take pictures when Ann and Rob get here.1. _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ 2. You can't get a driver's license if you are not at least 16.

2. Only if you have a ticket ________________________________ 4. (I didn't have time. and then you can get into the soccer stadium. the subject and verb of the main clause are inverted. we'll have the picnic.) 195 . Jimmy chews gum only if he is sure his mother won't nd out. If I had time. If it is windy. Unreal Conditional Present Real Conditional Present Unreal Conditional If I have time. but sometimes he chews it anyway. Example: Only if it rains will the picnic be canceled. we'll go. If you don't want to go. You have to have a ticket. I would have visited (Sometimes I had time. If it is cold. we'll have the picnic. Providing / provided that are equal to if or only if. When only if begins a sentence. Only if my homework is nished ________________________________ 14.Getting Across Conditionals Unit 14 Example: The picnic will be canceled only if it rains. we'll have the picnic. Example: Providing / provided (that) no one has any further questions.) Past Real Conditional Past Unreal Conditional If I had time. I visited my friends. Exercise 5 Use the given information to complete these sentences. If it is damp and foggy. 1.) (I don't have time. My parents make me nish my homework before I can watch TV in the evening. we'll have the picnic. we won't go.) my friends. If it is hot. If I had had time. I would visit my friends. I visit my friends.2 Real Conditional Vs. Jimmy's mother does not want him to chew gum. 3. (Sometimes I have time. We ________________________________only if you want to go. the meeting will be adjourned. If you want to go to the movies.

) Exercise 6 Apply the rules. he ____________ (help) me out. If I have time. When I ______________ (need) money. Yesterday. If I had time. (I don't know if I will have time or not. I visit my friends. nice. Can you advise me on something? Gina: Yes. he ______________ (do) whatever he can to help me. and ____________________ (tell) him to make a space for lost pets. If I _______________ (have) homework from the university. He _____________ (be) a great person and every time I ______________ (have) a problem. Oh…You are such a wonderful friend! Thanks! Exercise 7 Use either Present Real or Present Unreal Conditional to complete the following story. Sarah: Gina.) friends. of course that I told him that I ____________(do) because I ___________ (do). not) married. he (ask) ________ me if I loved him. He ___________ (be) honest. Use the Present Unreal Conditional. I am going to visit my (I won't have time. if he ____________________ (have). The problem is that my parents _____________ never _____________ (let) me live with somebody if I ____________________ (be. Did you hear about the woman that lost her puppy last month? If I _____________ (lose) my puppy. Unit 14 Getting Across Conditionals Future Real Conditional Future Unreal Conditional If I have time. you _____________ (know). I ____________________ (make) posters with its picture and I ______________ (stop) until I _____________ (nd) it. he _________ (lend) me what he can. He _____________ (want) me to move in with him. And. I would visit my friends. What's up? Sarah: Well. Patrick my boyfriend. I ____________________ (ask) all of my friends to help me look for it. he _______________ (want) me to ____________________ (live) with him. _________________ you ____________________ (help) me if that ____________________ (happen) to me? Sure. a gentleman everything a woman __________ (want). I have a problem. I ____________________ (be) there for you! In ____________________ even ____________________ (call) my uncle who is a reporter in channel 11. 196 .

we see each other. I ____________________ (ask) my mother for her opinion. Well. If my children ____________________ (throw) ts. Then. Gina: Well my decision __________________ (not. and did he behave when growing up? Mary: Oh yes. Exercise 8 Use either Past Real or Past Unreal Conditional to complete the following story. Pam: Great. If Raulito ____________________ (throw) a t when he was 5. It ______________(be) too soon in my opinion because I really don't ____________ (know) what you want. Mary: Hello. I ____________________ (say) yes to Patrick. depend) on others even if they __________________ (be) my family because at the end it is my life not theirs. three! Pam: Yes. But as I tell you. Pam: Good for you. What ____________________ Patrick ____________________ (do ) If you say no? Sarah: If I ____________________ (say) no he ____________________ (feel) very bad. I ____________________ (ask) for my parents opinion. Sarah: Another problem is that I always ____________________ (tell) my mother about my problems and she is always against me. If I _______________ (tell) you now to move in with him. for example. So that is why I _______________ (be) scared. and I ________________ (make) it clear that I _____________ (be) old enough to make my own decisions. First. I ____________________ (analyze) what I really ____________________ (want). I ____________________ (not punish) them . I ____________________ (think) things with a cold head before making a decision. Mary: Very bad.Getting Across Conditionals Unit 14 Gina: If I ____________________ (be) you. But I ____________ (explain) the situation and he ______________ (understand). You have to ____________________ (see) what is of your convenience now. it has been so long since. thank God he never did! 197 . a lot really. I _____________ (want) to live with him but I don't want to have problems with my parents! If I didn't have to depend upon them. and you? Mary: I didn't have three but I ____________________ (have) one.they ______________ (dominate) me in the past. Thanks I have to go. he ____________________ (behave) very well. I ______________ totally ______________ (punish) him. Talk to you later! Gina: No problem bye! Good luck. mine didn't behave much until ve years ago when they were 5 and we got into a program where we got help from professionals! Mary: That bad? Pam: Oh yeah. If I (tell) ________________ her something she _______________ (react) opposite to my point of view. I ____________________ (have) three kids! Mary: Wow. tell me. what have you been up to? Pam: Well.

Mary: I _______________ (not be) like that if I ________________ (be) in your shoes. she got 2nd place. If I ______________ (not obey) my parents they _________________ (ground) me for weeks! I remember that I ________________ (cry) so much those days! Pam: I ____________________ (let) everything pass. I _______________ (visit) you! 5. 7. She was very angry. If Margaret ___________ (study) more. Why do you ask me? If he _______________ (tell) me something. I ______________ (be) more strict like I _______________ (be) with Raulito when he was younger. but before. Unit 14 Getting Across Conditionals Pam: Well. 198 . easygoing mother and my children ____________________ (grow) up to be very bad people! Exercise 9 Use either Present Real or Past Unreal Conditional to complete the following sentences. Now. If I ____________ (not go) to that psychologist for families I ______________ (never forgive) myself for being such a bad. don't think that I did it on purpose! 4. I ____________ (open) the door if I __________ (hear) it. Pam: Yes. 8. mine ___________ (do) whatever they ______________ (want) before. I didn't hear the doorbell when you came. If I ____________ (know) that she didn't want to go. If Margaret ____________________ (study) last semester. but If I didn't I wouldn't. she ____________ (forgive). she _______________ (be) the best student but since she didn't. I ____________________ (spoil) them too much. If you __________ (call) her to apologize. 3. not now. but you _______________ (have) more experience in different situations than I have! Pam: That is true. I _____________ (not gain) the control over him that I have now. When I was in the university. I __________ (do) it. my children _________________ (own) me. Mary: If I _______________ (be) there I _______________ (give) you advice. I _______________ (teach) you some things that I ______________ (learn) from my mother! When I was younger. congratulations looks like you are a great mother. If we _____________ (go) to the supermarket and they ________________ (ask) for something I ____________________ (buy) it for them. Please. 1. if _____________ (have) time to party. she __________ (be) the best student in the class. That is why most of the time I ______________ (not have) money. This morning. I _____________ (tell) you a long time ago. I can say that I ______________ (learn) how to be with my children. Now it is too late! 6. If I ____________ (know) that you were in town last week. I ___________ (not invite) her to my house last week. 2. Mary: Thank you. If he _____________ (try) to dominate me then.

4. if my father sells the house. If I ____________________ (decide) to study there. Anthony. Future Real Conditional: ___________________________________________. Present Unreal Conditional: ___________________________________________. 5. he said that it is ok as long as I am not far from home. Next year. I ____________________ (have) enough money not only to pay for my apartment but also to take trips to come back and visit my friends! Exercise 11 Write a sentence using the correct structures. Past Unreal Conditional: ___________________________________________. 6. He says that he ____________________ (put) a restaurant of typical Colombian food. Use reference chart for help. he ____________________ (ask) Anthony to be his business partner. I will ____________________ (get) a job and If I ____________________ (earn) enough money. Present Real Conditional: ___________________________________________. I ____________________ (live) alone in my apartment. 2. If this ____________________ (happen). 3. Of course if the conditions ____________________ (allow) it. Future Unreal Conditional: ___________________________________________.Getting Across Conditionals Unit 14 Exercise 10 Use Future Real Conditional to complete the following story. *Extra Activity 10 199 . If his friend. helps (help) him by renting him a place in his shopping center. Past Real Conditional: ___________________________________________. I ____________________ (work) there part time and have another job. we ____________________ (travel) to Paris and try to start a new life there. 1.

1 What Is Quoted Speech? Quoted Speech refers to reproducing words exactly as they were originally spoken. no comma is used before she asked. She asked. She said. "When will you be there?" she asked. 15. Put the nal quotation marks outside the period at the end of the sentence. In this sentence." she said. use a comma. at the end of the quoted sentence when it proceeds –she said–.1." she said." she said. 200 . She said. not a period.1. "is a student." In this sentence. use a comma after the rst part of the quote. 15. "Watch out!" The exclamation point is inside the quotation marks. If a question mark is used.1 Quoting a Sentence These are the rules that you must follow for quoting one sentence. Capitalize the rst word of the quoted sentence." If the quoted sentence is divided by –she said–. "My brother is a student.2 Quoting a Question or an Exclamation These are the rules that you must follow when quoting an exclamation or question. Exercise 1 Let's see if you got it! Add the necessary punctuation and capitalization to the following sentences. Do not capitalize the rst word of the second half of the quoted sentence. "When will you be there?" The question mark is place inside the quotation marks. Notice that there are no quotation marks after student. Unit 15 Bumping into Quoted and Reported Speech 15. "My brother is a student. "My brother. "My brother is a student. This is also called direct speech. use a comma after –she said–. Quoting marks are placed at the beginning and at the end of a complete quote. He is attending the University.

Notice the changes in the verb forms from quoted speech to reported speech in the following examples." She said she could watch TV. ______________________________________________________________________." She said she had to watch TV." She said she had watched TV She said. "I must watch TV." She said she might watch TV. "I have watched TV. There is a phone call it's for you sister said Henry. There is a phone call for you he said." She said she might watch TV. "I am watching TV. ______________________________________________________________________. "I have to watch TV. ______________________________________________________________________. She said. Henry said there is a phone call for you. She said. She said "I might watch TV.Bumping into Quoted and Reported Speech Unit 15 1. She said. 4." She said she should watch TV. "I may watch TV. No quotation marks are used." She said (that) she watched TV every day." She said she was watching TV.2 What Is Reported Speech Reported Speech refers to repeating what someone has said. 15. "I watch TV every day. I asked him where is the phone. 3. ______________________________________________________________________. "I am going to watch TV. She said. 2. "I can watch TV. 5. Where is the phone she asked. ______________________________________________________________________. She said." She said she must watch TV. 201 . She said. "I will watch TV. She said. "I should watch TV. "I watched TV." She said she had watched TV She said. Examples: Quoted Speech Reported Speech She said." She said she was going to watch TV." She said she would watch TV. She said.

he said he wanted us to read Chapter six. 15. Later Reporting: A: I didn't go to class yesterday. 1." She said she ought to watch TV." ______________________________________________________________________. "Do you watch TV?" She asked (me) if I watched TV. This formal sequence of tenses in reporting is used in both speaking and writing. is round and always will be round. "Watch TV!" She told me to watch TV. She said. no change is made in the verb. However. especially if the speaker is reporting something immediately of very soon after it was said. She asked. A: What did the teacher just say? B: He said he wants us to read Chapter six. Use formal sequence of tenses where appropriate. Bob said.1 General Guidelines of Tense Usage If the reporting verb (the main verb of the sentence) is in past. "I ought to watch TV. Also. Example: A: The world is round. 202 . Immediate Reporting: Teacher: I want you to read Chapter six. Jones make any assignments? B: Yes. sometimes in spoken English. B: She said that the world is round. the verb in the reporting will usually also be in a past form. sometimes the present tense is retained even in formal English when the reported sentences deal with a general truth. This because the world was round. "I will help you. Did Mr. Exercise 2 Complete the sentences by reporting the speaker's words.2. Unit 15 Bumping into Quoted and Reported Speech She said.

you must invert the subject and the auxiliary verb and use the chart of tenses above as well as in this example Example: Wh + Aux + Subj. you must put the verb directly in the tense that corresponds to change when reporting Wh + Aux + Subj + Verb + Comp. 203 . In this sentence. Sid asked.2. When will we arrive? Reported: He asked me when we would arrive. 4. "Are you hungry?" ______________________________________________________________________." Jenny said. we have inverted the subject and put the verb in past directly. we have inverted the subject and auxiliary verb.+Verb + Comp. we have inverted the subject and put the verb in past directly. In this sentence. ______________________________________________________________________. Wh + Aux + Subj +Verb+ Comp. changing will to would as corresponds. 5. Why does he sleep? Reported: He asked me why he slept. In this sentence.2 Reporting "Wh" Questions When you want to report some question that starts with Wh. 3. "I want a sandwich. When the question has the auxiliaries do. Wh + Aux + Subj . "Do you need a pen?" Annie asked. In this sentence. 15. does or did. we have inverted the subject and auxiliary verb. Jennifer asked "What do you want?" ______________________________________________________________________. ______________________________________________________________________.Bumping into Quoted and Reported Speech Unit 15 2. Where is she staying tonight? Reported: He asked me where she was staying tonight. +Verb+ Comp. and changed the auxiliary verb is to was. When do they sleep? Reported: He asked me when they slept.

I have been having trouble with these exercises. 5. Can you help me? Teacher: What are they about? George: They are about reporting sentences. George: I know but It is difcult for me. Unit 15 Bumping into Quoted and Reported Speech Exercise 3 Report the following Wh questions. 4. 2. Why do you work? ______________________________________________________________________. Where can she put her things? ______________________________________________________________________.. When does he work? ______________________________________________________________________. Show me an example.” 1. Teacher: You have to follow the rules to get them right. Last night I spent three hours trying to gure them out! Teacher: Ok..” or “he wanted to know. When will you learn to behave? ______________________________________________________________________. George: What do you do? Teacher: The answer to that is teach! George: Oh you are so funny! __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ *Extra Activity 11 204 . Teacher: Good morning George... Why have you done that? ______________________________________________________________________. Where did they go? ______________________________________________________________________. 6. How are you? George: Not so well. You can use “he asked me. Exercise 4 Report the following conversation. 3.

It ends in a comma. you write P. If you use pre-addressed stationery. This includes what you want to write. 4.Showing of How to Write an Opinion Letter Unit 16 16. line by line. Dear Mr. The signature goes above your name and under the closing. 16. The body: It is also called the main text. The closing: The closing is an expression. Format for a friendly or personal letter The following picture shows what a one–page friendly or personal letter should look like. with the last line being the date. or informal. Skip one line after the signature line to begin the postscript. The Greeting: The greeting always ends with a comma. just add the date. 5. 2. 1 2 3 4 5 205 . have mainly ve parts. The signature should be written in blue or black ink. The signature line: The signature line is where you write your name.1. and at the end of this message end it with your initials. The Heading: This includes the address. 3. or a business letter which is formal and is written to a company or a person you do not have a personal friendship with. The purpose of your letter. 6.1 How to Write a Letter? There are two types of letters you can write: a friendly letter is informal and is written to someone you know for example. Postscript: If your letter contains a postscript. The greeting may be formal. Ramirez Informal: Hi Erick. Greetings. Formal: Dear Aunt Anne.S. 1. If the letter is very informal you can just sign without writing your name. It is a few words on a single line.1 Friendly and Personal Letters Personal letters or friendly letters. your friends or family. This example doesn't have a postscript.

if appropriate. Business Letter Styles The following pictures show what a one–page business letter should look like. It should have a margin of at least one–inch on all four edges. This part of a personal letter is the main text. Unit 16 Showing of How to Write an Opinion Letter Exercise 1 Your turn! Write the name of the parts of the letter depending on the description. ______________________. The Greeting: The greeting in a business letter is formal. 5. 2. 3. It begins at the same column the heading does. Business letters should not contain postscripts. The Signature Line: Skip two lines and type your name to be signed. Use these words: Greeting. 4. It is always written on 8½"x11" unlined stationery. Closing. 6. If you are not signing the letter and you want to authorize someone. The greeting in a business letter always ends in a colon.2 Business Letters A business letter is a formal letter that you write to a company or someone that you don't have a personal relationship with. This part is where you write name of the person who you are writing the letter for. Always include the date. It is not necessary to type the return address if you are using stationery with the return address already imprinted.1. ________________________. 5. 4. 2. It begins with the word "Dear" and includes the person's last name. 16. Heading. You must skip a line between paragraphs. The Heading: This contains the return address (your address) with the date on the last line. Body. after the body. The Body: The body is written as text. This is your name written in ink that comes directly after the closing and before your typed name. Use blue or black ink. This type of letter has six parts. Signature. 1. ______________________. 1. The Closing: The closing ends with a comma. The signature line may include a second line for a title. Here you put your ideas and what your purpose is. The Inside Address: This is the address of the company you are sending your letter to._____________________. the term "By direction" in the second line means that a superior is authorizing the signer. This is where you greet your letter receiver. 206 . A business letter is never hand written. This is a short phrase that goes at the end of the letter. 3.

you use this abbreviation to let them know) ENC: enclosure (when you include other papers with your letter) PP: per procurationem (A Latin phrase meaning that you are signing the letter on somebody else's behalf. if they are not there to sign it themselves.3 Abbreviations The following abbreviations are used in letters: ASAP: as soon as possible CC: carbon copy (when you send a copy of a letter to more than one person.1.Showing of How to Write an Opinion Letter Unit 16 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 16. etc) (By direction) PS: postscript (when you want to add something after you've nished and signed it) PTO: (informal) please turn over (to make sure that the other person knows the letter continues on the other side of the page) RSVP: please reply 207 .

4 Sample of a Letter Exercise 2 Read the letter. You will probably remember me from the incident last Thursday. Frank Lane. January 15. I counted the money in my wallet and I had more than what I should. Virginia 22111 Dear Mr. Virginia 22110_________________________. February 12. Unit 16 Showing of How to Write an Opinion Letter 16.2007 Mr. __________________________.1. First I want to congratulate you for the well trained staff that provides a fantastic service and second I want to apologize for the way I reacted because not only did I react in a very rude way but when. I got upset with one of your waiters because he had not given me the correct change. I enclose the money and a tip for the waiter. which letter style. 1650 Park Avenue Fairfax. 208 . I was surprised by the reaction of your staff to handle this situation and felt very pleased after they apologized and gave me back the money plus a very delicious apple pie to make up for it. In. I arrived home I realized that the waiter had given us the correct change. Sincerely.________________________. John Hill Staff Manager Marilyn's Cakes and Pies. was this letter written? ___________________. 1._________________________. I would also like to mention that the waiter was doing a splendid job considering the "Rush Hour" of the Pastry Shop. I look forward to visiting you soon. Exercise 3 Answer the following questions. John:_________________________.56 Arlington. 789 Saint Peter Street Apt. I have been going to your elegant pastry shop for over a year now and that had never happened to me. Write the correct part of the letter in the blank spaces.

... that… I have just heard the wonderful Acabo de escuchar la maravillosa / triste / sad news from __________about.. What's up my friend. En respuesta a su carta de. Últimamente he observado que........ Fue muy amable de tu parte. (Letter/circular/ Referente a su..1.... Debo agradecerte por. (carta / circular / circular / newsletter/order/statement) of.... Cómo has estado? It has been a while since..1. Siento tener que decirte que. Many thanks for........ How have you been.. No puedo expresarte lo feliz que estoy de.5 Phrases to Start a Friendly Letter Thank you for.. 16.... We should like to remind you that... I regret to inform you that. I have noticed lately that. escribí. ti.......... We refer to your....? I wonder if you could.......... It is so long since I heard from Cuanto tiempo ha pasado desde que se de you.... We are pleased to inform you. noticia de __________ acerca de.. We are pleased to announce. pedido / cuenta) de.. How is your family. tu carta.6 Phrases to Start a Business Letter I am writing to enquire about..... Nos es grato comunicarle(s)..... Te estoy escribiendo para decirte... Muchísimas gracias por. 3. Ha pasado tanto tiempo desde que.. In accordance/compliance with Conforme a su petición.... What was the purpose of this letter? _________________________.. Gracias por.. I am sure you will be sorry to hear Seguro que sentirás mucho saber que. 16... He estado muy ocupado últimamente pero. I was about to write to you when Estaba apunto de escribirte cuando llegó your letter arrived.. It has been so long since I last Ha pasado tanto tiempo desde que te wrote.Showing of How to Write an Opinion Letter Unit 16 2.. I am sorry to have to say that. I must thank you for. Me pregunto si pudieras. Lamento comunicarle... Que hay de nuevo amigo. Nos complace anunciarle(s)..... We acknowledge receipt of your Acusamos recibo de su carta de. It was very good of you to. 209 ...... I am just writing to say.... Por la presente quisiera saber.... letter of.. In reply to your letter of........ Cómo está la familia? I have been very busy lately but. Le recordamos que..... your request.. I can't tell you how happy I feel to. What does the writer enclose? ________________________.

Some helpful phrases when writting an opinion letter. We have pleasure in Nos complace conrmarle que hemos acknowledging the receipt of recibido su talón... attention to..... I saw your advertisement in today's Hoy he visto su anuncio en el Times y... We should like to call your Tenemos él deber de comunicarle. Thank you for.. Ruego tome nota que..... We nd it necessary to inform you.. This program has helped me in...... / Lamentamos. Según lo convenido/acordado.... Quisiera solicitar el puesto de. Le quedo muy agradecido por......... Referente a su escrito.. It is very important to follow. Decidí estudiar NLC porque.. I enclose our order for....... is........ Hoy le hemos remitido..... I am very much obliged to you for. Cuando llegué a NLC..... Ruego acepte nuestro agradecimiento. Unit 16 Showing of How to Write an Opinion Letter We have carefully considered your..... Will you please note that. We thank you for your order for. We have today dispatched to you.... Contrary to our agreement... Es muy importante seguir..... I feel that the natural method Siento que el metodo natural comparado compared to the traditional method con el tradicional es... Gracias por.... The natural method used by NLC. Le metodologia natural usada or NLC... Musictherapy has helped me in. Recibimos su carta..... Adjunto nuestro pedido de...... importante. When doing this program it is very Para hacer este programa es muy important to. To whom it may concern.. Con sumo cuidado hemos considerado su. In accordance with our agreement. Please accept out thanks for.. La musicoterapia me ha ayudado en........... It is with considerable pleasure/It Con sumo gusto. Agradecemos su pedido de.. your check.... I should like to apply for the job of.. Quisiera agradecerle(s).... I must protest most emphatically Quisiera protestar rotundamente acerca about. We are pleased to conrm.. de...... Nos es grato conrmar.. When I arrived to NLC. Este programa me ha ayudado en... Ruego nos comuniquen precios de. Contrariamente a lo convenido/acordado. I reply to your advertisement for... Would you please quote for... Nos es necesario informarle(s) We greatly appreciate..... 210 . We have received your letter. With reference to your letter of... I decided to study English because. Times and.. Contesto su anuncio acerca de.... is with considerable regret that... A quien el corresponda..

Showing of How to Write an Opinion Letter Unit 16 Many thanks for.. Preocupación English is an important tool... Te estoy escribiendo para decirte.... This program consists most of Este programa consiste más que todo en.. purpose. We are pleased to conrm... Muchísimas gracias por. Exercise 4 Write an opinion letter to NLC Describing your experience in this institute.. I am very much obliged to you for.. __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ Now that it is corrected..... Nos es grato conrmar.... No puedo expresarte lo feliz que estoy de. I am just writing to say.. all in. Le quedo muy agradecido por.. type it and give it to your monitor... Paciencia Respect.. Use any of the formal business letter styles...... This opinion letter has as a main Esta carta de opinión tiene como n. Patience..... I can't tell you how happy I feel to...The method including the way sessions are given and expressing your opinion..... El inglés es una herramienta importante. 211 . Respeto Caring.

the reason why you decided to take the course. What is the final interview? The nal interview is an interview where you will be evaluated for your ability to communicate in English. Where is the interview? The interview takes place in NLC. They will ask you about your experience in NLC. Unit 17 Speaking Up Fantastic! Now that you have completed "FINDING OUT ABOUT GRAMMAR STEP BY STEP 2" and presented unit 28. the importance of English. You will use these tips during your last 4 units to improve your uency. the interview is to see if you have the level to get your nal certicate. What do I have to take to the interview? You must bring your opinion letter in stationary paper if you have access to it. it will be about everyday topics. Get ready to Speak Up! Date of interview________________ Time____________________________ Skills that I must improve in order to nish the course satisfactorily: _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ 212 . and yourself! What will they ask me in the interview? Since it is an interview to see how your skills are. you must present an interview with the coordinator! And show off your abilities! Congratulations once again! Here are some answers for some questions that you might have about your nal interview. before you came to NLC. What is the purpose of the interview? As mentioned before. There you will get tips to improve any skills that need to be improved in your speaking. structures or pronunciation. your personal life and many other things. When is the final interview? At the end of your grammar course your monitor will program an interview on the last day of the grammar course.

smartest 14. Maybe. 2. to be 2. better – the best 9. tall – tallest 19. Could 4.furthest. can 8. Maybe my boss will get angry. can 4. is prettier – the prettiest 4. may be 6. to see 12. smart –smarter 7. nicest 18. Would 8. maybe 4. can't. patient – more patient 17. higher 25. best 27. May 4. Maybe 2. worst 5. maybe 5. 9. to be 10. should 9. expensive 16. Would 2. best 213 . to be 11. to hear Exercise 2 (answers may vary) 1. to go 4. nice – nicer 5. could 3. I would Exercise 3 1. fast – faster 8. could 5. less than 3. Would 6. may be 3. should 8. may be. may 5. wise – wiser 10. polite – more polite 26. oldest 15. could Exercise 2 1. could 6. creamier 28. May 7. should 7. more interesting 6. 6. better actor than 2. 8. interesting 21. younger – youngest 2. kind –kindest 24. should 2. spicy – spicier 22. to learn 7. should 6. may 3. could 7. to walk 9. 4. can't 5. to slip. can't 3. more important – most important 12. could Exercise 4 1. should 11. Coming Across Modal Auxiliary Verbs Exercise 1 1. Back to Checking Out Adjectives Exercise 1 (answers may vary) 1. famous – more famous 3. 8. strong – strongest 23.Answer Sheet Appendix 2 9. 10. may 10. boring 20. to stay 5. busy – busier 11. great – greater Exercise 3 (answers may vary) 1. to help. careful – more careful 13. farther than . could 10. to ght 3. may be 7. sour – more sour 29. would 9.

The man whom I talked to yesterday. Appendix 2 Answer Sheet Exercise 4 1. isn't as interesting as 15. is as high as 6. was good. / The people we visited yesterday. / I like the woman whom I met at the party last night. was very kind. 5. is happy. was friendly. The people who we visited yesterday. / The student that sits next to me. We are studying sentences which are about structures. / The girl that won the race. isn't as big as 13. was very interesting. 4. was very kind. is happy. / The meeting to which I went. aren't as comfortable as 16. /I like the woman I met at the party last night. 2. / The people whom we visited yesterday. as nice as 9. was friendly. / The book I read. was as difcult as 11. / The people that we visited yesterday. are from Norway. The student who sits next to me. / The meeting I went to. isn't as straight as yours. The taxi driver who took me to the airport. 2. was very interesting. as good looking as 4. I like the woman who I met at the party last night. Exercise 8 1. was very interesting. The book which I read. 2. Exercise 7 1. / The man I talked to 214 . I really enjoyed the composition which you wrote. were very nice. is as interesting as 14. / I really enjoyed the composition you wrote. / The students that sit in the front row. aren't as nice as 8. is as straight as 2. / The meeting that I went to. / The man to whom I talked yesterday. is as good looking as 5. The meeting which I went to. / I really enjoyed the composition that you wrote. 3. is as big as 12. was good. wasn't as difcult as 10. / The taxi driver that took me to the airport. are as comfortable as Exercise 5 (answers will vary) Exercise 6 1. were very nice. is happy. / The book that I read. were very nice. / The man that I talked to yesterday. / We are studying sentences that are about structures. was very interesting. is happy. were very nice. was very kind. The girl who won the race. / The man who I talked to yesterday. isn't as high as 7. / I like the woman that I met at the party last night. The students who sit in the front row. 3. was very kind. was good. 3. 4. are from Norway.

/ That is the drawer I keep my jewelry in. / 1960 is the year that the revolution took place. Exercise 10 1. / I must thank the people that I got a present from yesterday. / That is the drawer which I keep my jewelry in. / Monday is the day that we will come. which we spent our vacations in. is standing over there. / The town in which I grew up. was very kind. is standing over there. is small. / 7:05 is the time my plane arrives. / That is the drawer that I keep my jewelry in. 2.Answer Sheet Appendix 2 yesterday. was beautiful. The city where we spent our vacations. 5. 1960 is the year when the revolution took place. The town where I grew up. is small. is small. That is the restaurant where we will meet you. / The town I grew up in is small. Monday is the day when we will come. 3. is standing over there. 3. / The town that I grew up in. / That is the restaurant that we will meet you at. The man whom I was telling you about. / Monday is the day in which we will come. was beautiful / The picture at which she was looking. / The man about whom I was telling you. 7:05 is the time when my plane arrives. was beautiful. / 7:05 is the time that my plane arrives. / I must thank the people from whom I got a present yesterday / I must thank the people I got a present from yesterday. was beautiful. which she was looking at. / That is the restaurant which we will meet you at. / 7:05 is the time in which my plane arrives. 3. / The town which I grew up in. / I must thank the people who I got a present from yesterday. / That is the restaurant at which we will meet you. was beautiful. was beautiful. / The picture that she was looking at. 4. is standing over there. / The picture she was looking at. I must thank the people whom I got a present from yesterday. / The man who I was telling you about. / That is the drawer in which I keep my jewelry. The picture. was beautiful. / 1960 is the year in which the revolution took place. was beautiful. / The man that I was telling you about. is standing over there. / Monday is the day we will come. That is the drawer where I keep my jewelry. 4. Exercise 9 1. 2. / The man I was telling you about. / That is the restaurant we will meet you at. 215 . – The city. is small. / The city that we spent our vacations in. The city we spent our vacations in. was beautiful. / The city in which we spent our vacations.

where we spent our honey moon in 11. wants 6. / July is the month in which the weather is the hottest. Sometimes life is not only__________________________________________. when the declaration of independence was written 13. 8. Either Jack ______________________________________________. watch 5. Reviewing Conjunctions… This Time Paired Exercise 1 1. / July is the month that the weather is the hottest. Looking into Verbs and Verb Tenses 2 216 . Appendix 2 Answer Sheet 1960 is the year the revolution took place. I want to buy both_________________________________________________. 2. / July is the month the weather is the hottest. Students who do well not only study hard _________________________________. 4. You have to choose either __________________________________. 7. think Exercise 2 (answers will vary) 1. where we spend Saturday afternoons – which is made of very old wood 11. that has three children 5. who is wearing the red skirt – Who likes to wear the black leather jacket to school on Fridays. where Tina's brother will explain about yesterday's incident with the neighbors who complained about the party 6. 3. that lives next door 8. know 3. 9. 6. 4. like 7. 12. That movie was neither____________________________________. Not only do we like to go ___________________________________________. July is the month when the weather is the hottest. Both Maria_________________________________. 3. which my mother bought for my brother – who is my oldest cousin 10. agrees 2. where we grew up – which was fun 14. agree. who will travel this weekend – who is John's cousin. are 10. who is drinking orange juice – that has long hair 7. has 8. Exercise 11 1. plays 4. when I prefer to rest quietly in my house 12. who should arrive early –who is always complaining about her 4. who is John's tallest brother – who is a very strict person? 2. 9. 5.

Present Perfect Progressive. The baby had eaten when his nanny bathed him. have been playing 3. had been dancing 2. Have your parents been getting 7. have gone 5. 3. had been trying 8. We had arrived to the party when he got drunk. Since 10. Present Perfect Progressive. will have been living 6. has been traveling 8. will have prepared 5. will have been working 4. 3. will have been Exercise 6 1. has traveled 2. have been yelling Exercise 7 1. will have cooked 4. had been trying 9. will have been waiting 3. Since 6. Since 9. 2. had been playing 6.Answer Sheet Appendix 2 Exercise 1 1. Past perfect progressive. have not drunk. Future Perfect Progressive. will have been raining Exercise 9 1. will have learned 3. 3. have been smoking 5. Exercise 5 1. 4. Present perfect progressive. will have been living 5. will have been studying 7. have never seen 4. will have written 2. have just drunk 2. has been taking 9. For 7. For 4. Since 8. have you been learning 4. He had nished when they went to have lunch. have been living 10. Since Exercise 3 1. has worked Exercise 2 1. 4. For 2. have been studying 2. have asked 4. 3. Since 3. has gone Exercise 4 1. had been waiting 10. We had played soccer when they called. Had the driver been drinking 5. had been looking 7. had been using. has been raining 6. will have been living 2. 6. Since 5. Past 217 . 2. 5. had been studying Exercise 8 1. had been feeling 4. have eaten 3.

Present Perfect progressive 10. 7. The door has been opened by Tom. Future Perfect 12. has been talking 3. arrived 4. was – became 2. had already – got 4. Present Perfect 8. Future Perfect 13. left – had collected 5. 4. Present Perfect Progressive 17. The door had been opened by Tom. will be – will come 3. went 3. The door is going to be opened by Tom. Future Perfect 24. has been 5. 3. Ann will be invited to the party by Bill. 218 . Future Perfect 22. Past Perfect Progressive 9. 2. Present Perfect Progressive 18. was – had stopped Exercise 15 1. have not gone 2. Future Perfect 20. have been trying Exercise 14 1. The door will be opened by Tom. went –was – hadn't seen Exercise 11 has been – have known – was – took – takes – is Exercise 12 1. Present Perfect 11. Future Perfect Progressive 23. Present Perfect 21. The door was opened by Tom. 8. The door was being opened by Tom. arrived – had prepared 2. That report is being prepared by Alex. is going – will 2. Past Perfect 25. entered – recognized – have passed – has not changed 3 arrived –had begun 4. Past Perfect Progressive 19. felt – took 3. Future Perfect 16. Past Perfect 14. met 5. Present Perfect Exercise 10 1. Figuring out Passive Voice Exercise 1 1. have already missed– missed Exercise 13 1. The door is being opened by Tom. Appendix 2 Answer Sheet Perfect Progressive 7. Exercise 2 1. Past Perfect 26. 6. The door will have been opened by Tom. Future perfect progressive 15. 5. will affect 13. 2. are playing – have been playing 2.

A new idea had been suggested by Shirley. can not be explained. No change 8. he will pass the exam. might be misunderstood. The small shing village was destroyed by the hurricane 9. should not be given 8. I won't be fooled by his tricks. 2. Costumers are served by waitresses and waiters. must be kept 4. the jokes are funny – jokes are not funny 2. – if it is cold. / If it is hot tomorrow. 6. No change Exercise 4 1. could be seen 2. might be. Hundreds of people visit the Washington Monument every day. 8. could not open 7. Exercise 3 1. must be written 4. 3. 3. I will to go to the library. 9. 219 . The our was dropped by Timmy. may offer Exercise 6 1. no Exercise 5 1. it is cold. Freud 4. must keep 5. I was interviewed by the assistant manager 7. That theory was developed by Dr. No change 3. 14. The book had been returned to the library by Kathy. The farmer's wagon was being pulled by the horses. could not be opened 6.Answer Sheet Appendix 2 3. 3. should be encouraged. 2. 7. / If the teacher is absent tomorrow. The lesson is going to be explained by the teachers. may be offered 8. No change 2. 10. If he studies for his test. No change 6. If it is hot tomorrow. 7. will be – should be postponed. 5. Getting Across Conditionals Exercise 1 1. Exercise 2 1. should tell 2. must be pushed. If the teacher is absent tomorrow there will be no class. you are nished –you are not nished 3. I will go to the beach. Chinese invented paper. must have been left 5. no 4. I will not go out all day. the main writing material today. 4. 6. 5. / If he studies for his test he will do better than last time. should have been told 3.

will go to the movies 3. please tell him that I am at the library Exercise 4 1. chews gum 2. my parents let me watch TV. Appendix 2 Answer Sheet Exercise 3 1. you can't travel abroad. you can get into the soccer stadium. Unless you have a passport. 3. Unless you are at least 16. Exercise 5 1. / In case you need more information ask Dr.would not have been – I had been – would have been – was – had tried – would have not gained – have had – have learnt – had not gone – would have never forgiven – would have grown 220 . Smith. / I will be in my ofce in case you need to see me. In case that you (should) need more information ask Dr. Smith. Exercise 6 lost – would ask – would make – I wouldn't stop – found – would you help – happened – would – would even call – tell Exercise 7 know – wants – live – asked – did – do – wants – is – have – helps – have – does – need – has – lends – is – wants – would never let – am – were – would analyze – want – would ask – see – tell – is – know – would think – would ask – would make – am – tell – tell – reacts – am – want –would say – does not – are –would Patrick do – said – would feel – I would explain – would understand Exercise 8 had – had – behaved – threw – would not punish – dominated – had thrown – would have totally punished – did – wanted – went – asked – didn't have – spoiled – I had been – would have given – would have taught – learnt – did not obey – would ground – cried – let – owned –. you can't get a driver's license. 3. I will be in my ofce in case that you (should) need to see me. 4. In case that Jack (should) call. 4. /In case Jack calls. please tell him that I am at the library. Unless you eat breakfast you will get hungry during class. I won't be able to take some pictures when Ann and Bob get here unless you get some lm. 2. 2.

had known – would have visited 5. Future Unreal Conditional: _______________________________________________. "Where is the phone?" 5. 2. 3. 3. "There is a phone call for you. 6. "There is a phone call. He asked me when I would learn to behave. He asked me why I had done that. 4. had known – I would have not invited 3. Past Unreal Conditional: _________________________________________________. Past Real Conditional: ___________________________________________________. Present Real Conditional: ________________________________________________. it is too late!. would have opened – had heard 4. Now. 5. 5. I asked him. Jennifer asked me what I wanted. 15. "Where is the phone?" she asked.Answer Sheet Appendix 2 Exercise 9 1. 3. had told – would have told 2. 2." he said. 6. Exercise 3 1. 6. 2. Jenny said that she wanted a sandwich. Bumping into Quoted and Reported Speech Exercise 1 1. It's for you sister. Exercise 2 1. 4. Sid wanted to know if I was hungry. 221 . studied – would be 8." 2. He asked me where they went. He asked me when he worked. Bob said that he would help me. 4. had – would do 7." There is a phone call for you. Annie asked me if I had a pen. He asked me why I worked. 4. had called – would have forgiven (forgive). 5." said Henry. had studied – would have been Exercise 10 will travel – decide – get – earn – will live – allow –will put – will ask – will work – happens – will have Exercise 11 (answers will vary) 1. Present Unreal Conditional: ______________________________________________. Henry said. Future Real Conditional: _________________________________________________. He asked me where she could put her things. 3.

He also told her that he had spent three hours last night trying to gure them out. Showing off How to Write a Letter Exercise 1 1. Speak Up Interview 222 . Then she told him that he had to follow the rules to get them right. he told the teacher that he had been having trouble with those exercises and asked her if she could help him. Apologize 3. Money 17. Style block style 2. The teacher asked him what the exercises were about. Appendix 2 Answer Sheet Exercise 4 (Answers may vary) The teacher said good morning to George. George told her that she was funny because the question was only an example not a direct question! 16. The teacher then asked him to give her an example and he asked what she did and so she answered that she taught. And. he answered that they were about reporting sentences. Inside address 3. Closing Exercise 2 1. George answered that not so well. Greeting 4. She asked him how he was. Body 5. Heading 2. George said that he knew but that it was difcult for him.