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Author(s): Carl Friedrich Goeschel and T. R. Vickroy
Source: The Journal o f Speculative Philosophy, Vol. 11, No. 1 (January, 1877), pp. 65-72
Published by: Penn State University Press
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B y C a r l F r ie d r ic h G o e sc h e l .
Translated irom the German by T. R. V ic k r o y . (1st Ed., 1835, Berlin).
For many centuries the human understanding has diligently
sought to establish scientifically the doctrine of the Existence of
God. Hitherto, however, it has found only three proofs, which
cannot produce a true conviction unless the mind is already con­
vinced, or some additional proofs are adduced. It is proper how­
ever to qualify this statement, since to these three proofs, called
philosophical proofs, a fourth , namely, the historical proof, is to
be added.
So it is with the proofs for the immortality of the human soul,
which, like th£ proofs for the existence of God, have been called
in question through the Kantian Critique, and hence require re­
examination. It has not yet become quite clear however, just
in what precise manner the so-called proofs for the persistence of
the human soul stand in all respects in analogical relation to the
proofs for the existence of God. The two classes of proofs are still
in opposition foe one to the other, being mutually exclusive : in
order that they may appear in their connection, the one must be
interpreted in the light of the other. It is worth our while to
understand them more thoroughly, and hence it is especially nec­
essary that we become conscious of the trichotomy in the proofs
for the immortality of the human soul, which formerly as well as
now is demanded externally and historically in the proofs for the
existence of God.
In the next place we have however to remark that here too the
historical proof is to be added 5 for under the consensus gentium
is to be understood the majority (ol ixoXXol)) not all men individu­
ally, but the greater part of mankind. For example, the mate­
rialists count as little in regard to immortality as the atheists do
in regard to the divine existence. The Atomists, Democritus and
Epicurus, the one having lived before and the other after Anaxa­
goras, are outvoted, for Anaxagoras has penetrated to the
5c * X I“ 5

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06 The Immortality of the Human Soul.
idea of Spirit . And Titus Lucretius Carus, in his enthusiasm
for death, in his resignation to the soothing negation of restless
life, in his zeal against all being and life and their tedious iramor-
mortalities, valiantly sings his immortal “Hymn to Nature , ’ 7 which
as the culmination of materialism, has been aptly called the pro­
logue to Christianity; nevertheless, as Goethe says, he is like a cer­
tain field marshal, who, full of rage, at a critical moment in the
battle, cried out to his retreating soldiers ; “ Ye dogs, do you
want to live forever”! But the latter did not on this account throw
their lives away. If now such Roman hero voices must them­
selves die away amid the preponderating multitude, how much
more the voice of a weak, angry, trembling stammerer ? The Ro­
man stands yet at least undaunted at the fire, like Mucius Scae-
vola, and lets his best part, his right haud, complacently burn.
He calmly trusts to the quiet of the dead ; he despises the pain
and tumult of life, of which the selfish Ego is the sting,
and he knows no other hope. Hence he is exalted by his con­
viction, and who can misunderstand the truth which here­
in lies hidden ! If he cannot outvote us, how much less can
Pliny the Elder, who, in spite of all his meritorious learning,
through the openness of his gross sensual materialism, with his
almost passionate scorn against the immortality of the soul above
and the body under the light earth, himself becomes an object of
sport; neither can we be outvoted by La Mettrie, who himself
trembles before that death, which as materialist he must teach!
I 11 order to learn the materialism in which mankind is unsus­
pectingly involved, although they allow it also again to be
overcome by a stronger faith in spirit — in order to learn it in
its noble naturalness and ingenuousness, it is worth while en pas­
sant to read the apostrophe of Pliny against the puerilia de-
liniineuta, which in the original, favor immortality. The argu­
ment itself is just as puerile as the representation that he
makes of the object which he confutes. He asks, “For what then
is the soul without eyes and ears to be used, if she can neither
taste nor smell ! and where finally shall room be found for so
many shades f” Not less worthy of remark is La Mettrie’s rela­
tion to his own doctrine: he hiriiself confesses that his doctrine
is unable to elevate him above the fear of death. He says : “ I
confess to myself that all my philosophy cannot keep me from
regarding death as the direst necessity of nature ; hence I would
forever destroy the afflicting idea/’ Truly it is even nature,

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the perpetuity of spirit. the soul.* the pyramids and mummies of Egypt are con­ tributions to the historical argument for the immortality of the human soul. as in her own house. presentiment. In a symbolic manner they preserve the body as the tenantless house of the soul. through the traditional lore which he had mastered. she feels immortality stirring within her. According to Hegel. as a remaining heavenly spark of life in each man. 12 Jun 2014 12:17:35 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . iu its individualization.236. a pupil of Pherecydes. in its separation from the idea. Diogenes Laertius imputes it to Thales. just as soon as the soul awakes from her unconscious natural life. and through matter have gained intimations of spirit! This majority desire never to lay aside mortality (avida nunquam desi* nere mortalitas): the mortality never sated of life. Be this as it may. faith. with all its childish conceptions.—[Ed.—what else is this than the outer witness that death is incompatible with the nature of man? and the essence of man is his inner nature. 07 which. has always pre- ceeded this doctrine of the understanding. History attributes the teaching of the doctrine of immortal- mortality to various persons. was the first who taught and published the doctrine of the immortality of the soul. a pupil of Thales. and others say that Pythagoras. They are memorials of a belief in personal persist­ ence—symbols which make perceptible to the senses outwardly the inner truth. just as the soul in herself. is kept and preserved. there is no doubt that a direct conviction. And what else is that shudder in the presence of the dead. with which also the consciousness of the soul of unconscious nature shall expire. while Cicero says that Pherecydes. It is the spirit of man himself.111 on Thu. which seeks to snatch away the body *Hegel died shortly previous to this. in the end anticipates the truth and wrests the victory from it. in 1831. For the soul feels herself immortal. emotion or faith. The Immortality of the Human Soul. Eusebius says that Moses. whether she can prove it or not. and he too is one who is 110 longer here.27. was the first to pro­ pound this grand doctrine. Herodotus attributed it to the Egyp­ tians 5 Pausanius to the Chaldeans and Magi of India. does not satisfy the spirit! It is not at all strange that the majority have recoiled from materialism and at all times have turned away from it. hope and thought awake with consciousness. which. This content downloaded from 132. Upon this also rests the universal voice which protests against the death of the soul.

adopt it in all times. who himself cannot think any personality. a Miss Wright. Even in our time the historical proof remains unimpaired. namely a woman.” So mighty is this truth in its immediateness that it keeps itself undecayed under manifold decompositions.—E d . 12 Jun 2014 12:17:35 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . from the power of nature even after death.111 on Thu. according to Aristo­ telian principles had methodically proved their indemonstrabil- ity. since thereby the body. as its organ. is honored “as the precious casket of the spirit. an English woman.68 The Immortality of the Human Soul. must nev­ ertheless believe it. any self-consciousness in the Godhead Himself.236.27. nevertheless. And Plotinus. according to Platonic principles. how­ ever much it is daily torn asunder. in overwhelming majority. and here­ with in natnre itself proves the dominion of spirit over nature.” (TTetpdadu rb tv rjfilv dhov dvayeiv rrpbc t o ev tg5 ixdvTt delov) : his meaning was not to descend but to rise into the All. But admitting that it is true that of the 200. since there are so many lunatic asylums f And of these 20. and. and immortality! For if it truly follows that in giving up one truth. while philosophers and anti-philosophers. It rests upon the universal conviction which obtrudes itself immediately upon *Such is the impression made in 1834 by an account of the doings of Frances Wright (D’Arusmont) in this country in (1825). is compelled to prove the persistence of self-consciousness in man.000 deathless souls.000 souls in New York.000 confess a belief in such a horrible nihilism. This content downloaded from 132. how shocking it is that man can endure this conse­ quence in untruth! and it is even more deplorable to think that this sect has for its author. morality. How shocking it is to learn of a certain sect in New York. with all his numerous predecessors and followers. the Godhead. uTry to fol­ low up the divine in us to the divine in all. likewise testify to a be­ lief in immortality. even in its exanima­ ted condition. all truths are abandoned. 20. the tenderest and most susceptible part of humanity. will there then no one be converted from the death of the soul to the life of the spirit T* So much for the historical proof of immortality. in which in the highest degree he vindicates in man what he could not dis­ cern in the Godhead Himself. All funeral ceremonies. His last words were. Even Peter Pomponatius. who have at once renounced theo­ retically and practically. who would therefore gainsay reason. although he had threaded every labyrinth of doubt. all care of the dead.

This is the moment to which we here direct our attention. it is reason which helps forward this common sense. As a true history of philosophy. “As we know by reason that the gods are by nature what we suppose they are. whose footprints may be closely followed through all times and among all nations. The Immortality of the Human Soul. it rests upon its immediacy.236. While this immediate revelation continually unfolds itself.111 on Thu. which in this case is the first. But there are yet many things wanting before we can attain to it. it might be necessary to find out the chief current in this stream of intermingling proofs. which. so by the consent of all nations we perceive that souls persist: where they remain and what they are is to be learned by reason/’ According to this the conviction is extended to time as well as to place. purifying and making them fruitful. These chief proofs of a preceding philosophy should be capable of becoming valid as the outlines of a future history of the doctrine of immortality: This content downloaded from 132. is thus far the history of the philosophy of the immortality of the soul.77 The immediateness of the con­ viction gives it this weight. such a his­ tory must at the same time be a philosophy of this history. i>roduces the democratic and aristocratic moments. He sa y s: “For antiquity which was nearer to the beginning and the divine race. because it had descended from antiquity. in their difference as well as in their connection. perhaps discerned this better than they perceived those things which were right. which we must first examine. it comes to pass that it pro­ duces the true faith. to the one next the stream which it forms. in order to be able to follow it thoroughly in its course through all its meanderings In the next place. and will be furnished throughout all time. 69 the human spirit. on the other hand. as a living principle. Even the most deserving works of this kind contain only scanty preparations and insufficient materials. It were necessary to go back everywhere to the fountain itself. But we abide by the philosophical doctrine of immortality. 12 Jun 2014 12:17:35 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . The third moment might be called the monarchical. And here it is first of all the history. To this proof even Cicero appealed. and to the democratic element of this proof adds the aristocratic ele­ ment. which attaches itself immediately to the historical proof. and to hunt up the chief proof in which all other ideas are concentrated. again. for it is what is laid down in divine revelation.27. Yet weightier than the history of the historical proofs.

Wherefore is a more painstaking mediation needed. The second step might be. the immediate conviction of the happy who have found the jewel without seeking. and backward.” (Ps. descends to us through all time ? In human life and thought there are not seldom moments in which wonder seizes us that man will take such great pains to prove himself and his Author. until after that we take a view of ourselves. and in thought further to unfold and challenge them. we should look back upon the preceding steps of human investigation. but they should also be vouchsafed a definite basis (Haltpunkt). The third step should be that.27. in order to be able in this to view in a new light the underlying forms of proof.70 The Immortality of the Human Soul. if the his­ tory.” This content downloaded from 132. in which also the present stand point of speculative philosophy in relation to immortality may be unfolded. And with Job we soon find him nowhere: “Behold I go forward. With David we soon find God everywhere : 44Whither shall I go from thy spirit or whither shall I flee from thy presence. and to hunt up in the history of philosophy her traditional proofs for . 12 Jun 2014 12:17:35 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Who does not know the heights of conscious emo­ tion in which moments nothing is so certain to man as the exist­ ence or presence of the Eternal God. but he is not there. that we do not yet truly know aright how we are with God and ourselves. if the truth is given to us in advance without mediation ? Why do we need to seek after a truth in the possession of which we al­ ready find ourselves ? What does the historical inquiry about the refinements of other seekers profit us in the end. Hence our first step might be to seek to understand these proofs in their connected organism. in whom he knows himself secured and sheltered ! And yet we must then again confess. enriched by this intellectual vision and endowed with a newly acquired insight. that we add to this first step the results of speculative philosophy in our time. to unfold them one after an­ other in their characteristics. cxxxix :7). so that in con­ clusion we may give an account of the factors and of their re­ sult.the persistence of the hu­ man soul.236. but at all events we should endeavor to derive principles out of speculative phil­ osophy and a method in accordance with this lofty science. as if the seeking and the sought must not both already be present in order to become the seeking and the sought.111 on Thu. But there is yet at the very threshold another consideration which confronts us for which the statement itself contains the cause. but I cannot perceive him.

there is one. and as a spirit. mounts into the blue depths above. like a raw recruit. for the ground and base of all reality. and unseen disappears. but before we can seize it. who represents the naivest immediateness. as a god. as it does not go forward in the right way. and. 12 Jun 2014 12:17:35 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . So much the if absorbs my thought That death’s fell power is brought to nought. or at the same time goes down with the body* At least Mephistopheles must confess that the thing has its diffi­ culties : “From day to day when ? where ? and how ? Enstamps dull care upon my brow. called “Pegasus in the Yoke. in which it finds its native element. loosed from the yoke at command of a heavenly youth. as soon as we let our glance de­ scend to the farmer who. how or where she really comes out and whither she goes. we are all very closely related to this honest husbandman. If we are not always certain of God. will it not melt in illimitable space and finally be completely volatilized ? However much we may laugh.236. will it not be dashed to pieces. so that. 71 (Job xxxii :8). under the clogs of the body. the world to come. breathes afresh. and no longer doubting looks gaping after the wonderful animal.27. the wings of the soul again grow weary and sink. had invest­ ed his cash in the animal. aud. The Immortality of the Human Soul. If it falls. being freed from all weight. aud futurity. before the sight can follow it. nothing exercises us more than death. the representation to a conception. all presentiment seems to depart from the sphere to which the winged horse has departed. Oftentimes the feeling seems to rise to an inner exper­ ience. sweeps away and disappears. although we may be affected by the sight. It is not to be misapprehended that to man. or whether she departs at all. First of all we are also almost in the same condition as this farmer was. or if it Hies ever higher and higher. Among the sketches of Moritz Retzsch. the body.' ’ This content downloaded from 132. how can we at all times be certain of ourselves f In relation to ourselves. yet we can scarcely refrain from laughing. in spite of its useless wings. holds this clod or matter generally for the main point. We might station sentinels to watch when. when we stand at a deathbed and must witness how the soul frees herself from the yoke. tears itself away from the earth. and for the first time again in freedom.” in which the hippogriff. as if they could not sustain themselves at so great a height. unmindful of his immortal soul. for the condition of all being and life.111 on Thu.

It is related that Hegel always met Goeschel “with a warm pressure of the hand. in this doctrine. Each man goes to meet it. although he may stand in the midst of life and thought.27. It is supposed that Goeschel is the one exception that Hegel made to his general statement that none of his disciples understood him. proofs and appre­ hensions is. must ever undertake the problem anew.*’ DOES THE MIND EVER SLEEP f B y E. what he has and what he feels. show itself in mediated thought. the more assured the immediate cer­ tainty which precedes the mediated cognitions. 12 Jun 2014 12:17:35 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .111 on Thu. Then many a day one teacheth you What at a single stroke ye do: How each to eat and drink is free And needful still is one! twol three! Finally. M. Immediate faith itself. so it seems that man. as the life of the spirit. What is mind ? Mind may possibly be regarded as having been gradually evolved by and through the countless forces and instrumentalities This content downloaded from 132. the more vivid will they be.72 Does the Mind Ever Sleep f In this manner the end leads to the beginning. seeks the proof to what already is. in accordance with his middle place. and. which is thought. that it should be happy in him. and finds also the name for the thing which is given to man.236. C h e s l e y . in which feeling comes to its own content. begins anew to learn God and himself thoroughly where possible. that he grows in knowledge and in thinking he progresses and mediates himself more and more. by the E ditor The foregoing is the introduction to the treatise . the more lively the cer­ tainty is. So it is also explained why man. Like David the Christian must groan first to become a child in Christ and then a man. Remark. consists essen­ tially in this.— on human immortality by Goeschel. For the true life of immediate conviction consists even in this onward movement to mediation. (1781—1860) perhaps the most enlightened* of Hegel’s disciples. and looks back to another. the more will the indwelling life. 1. to die with Christ first in order afterward to live with Him. the more present.

jsp JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars. available at For more information about JSTOR. researchers. 2 (April. 11.jstor. penn state urineisity piess DOGMATIC PROOFS OF THE IMMORTALITY OF THE HUMAN SOUL Author(s): Karl Friedrich Goeschel and T R V ickroy Source: The J o u r n a l o f S p e cu la tiv e P h ilo so p h y . 12 Jun 2014 12:27:52 PM All use subject to JSTOR Term s and Conditions .org This content downloaded from 132. use. W e use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms of scholarship. 1877). pp. No.jstor. Vol. Penn State University Press is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize.jstor. please contact support@ on Thu. and students discover.27. preserve and extend access to The Journal o f Speculative Accessed: 12/06/2014 12:27 Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of the Terms & Conditions of Use. and build upon a wide range of content in a trusted digital archive.236. 177-197 Published by: Penn State University Press Stable URL: http://www. http://www.

out of this outer.236. a deduction is made of the creative thoughts as a ground under­ lying this existence. I t may be presumed as known that the three intellectual proofs for the existence of God. or from whose unfoldings they proceed. In these lectures I cannot exhaust my subject. I shall accordingly be obliged next to present the inter-connec­ tion of all sciences among themselves and the objectivity which this internal organic unity has received from the external organ­ ization of universities.27. In a measure this outline might take the place of a general en­ cyclopaedia of science. 12 Jun 2014 12:27:52 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . from which these proofs are unfolded.111 on Thu. This can be done only in actual construc­ tion and demonstration. DOGMATIC PROOFS OF THE IMMORTALITY OF THE HUMAN SOUL. with which philosophy has so long bus­ ied itself. since. The Immortality of the Soul . but as I never consider these purely in themselves. Better known is the relation between being and thought . 1 shall leav 3 unsaid much which per­ haps deserves to be said. b y T R V i c k r o y . have but recently been proved in their necessary un­ foldings and scientific statement. substantial existence of the world. which creative thought shows itself as the power and wisdom manifest in being. a sys­ tem of knowledge derived in the strictest manner from the high­ est principles cannot be expected. and hence as the absolute 1 2 ♦ X I—12 This content downloaded from 132. 177 It is not possible to go into particular departments of the uni­ versity course of study and erect as it were the whole edifice from the foundation stone. but on the other hand I shall avoid say­ ing anything which were better unsaid. without at the same time following the branches of science itself and constructing from them the or­ ganic whole. objective. but always in special relation to my lecture. Translated l’ro m the German of Karl Friedrich Goeschel. in the first place. either on its own account or because of the time and the present condition of science.

236. In the world being and thought are dirempted. this is the immanent ground or the omnipotence of being. Wisdom and Love. which from time immemorial has been conceived as Omnipotence. consequently it is contin­ gent.111 on Thu. and that these relations are pre­ sented by general categories in successive series. limited . it does not have its ground in itself. The world is object. 12 Jun 2014 12:27:52 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . so surely must there be a law dwelling in them. and the world in its externality has a two fold deficiency which it seeks to su p p ly : might and light.27. limiting . So likewise the three proofs of the divine existence refer to the trinity of God. First of all however the connection of these three proofs of the divine existence is to be seized.178 The Immortality of the Soul. and lastly as both being and thought in his love. But as surely as they all belong to being and thought. being. transitions from what is most immediate to what is most remote: they are means of elevation to God. or guides which from vari­ ous sides point toward the goal. e. Essence. They may therefore differ as widely as the points of departure vary. to the absolute conception of God. as thought in his wis­ dom and freedom. The truth of the contingent is the necessary. God is the absolute subject. or they rise from the sub­ jective conception of God. is immediate. God is Being. necessity and freedom. so this ground of the world must lie outside of the This content downloaded from 132. So far these ways and means of elevation to God are infinite in number. The first of these two paths divides again into two.. The world is many. i. 1. in the first place. The proofs for the existence of God are. The world. indepen­ dent. in God they are united. and then conversely deduces the existence of God in his absolute perfection from his subjective thought or idea of God. but first of all to a two-fold determination. As the ground of the world and of every creature is not to be found in the world itself. and Idea. and this union is Love . dependent. the Godhead. Wisdom. for even man himself does not have the condition of himself in his own power. They are reducible to a three fold deter­ mination. Almighty. to whom belongs also objective existence. God is all . because they progress and rise either from objective existence to absolute be­ ing. God shows himself first as being in his omnipotence and necessity. as it exists. which as subjective still lacks reality. since it sets out from the world. which herewith is thinking-being. It cannot fail (to be apparent) that all relations develop in their intention in this triplicity.

independent of me. Thus the world points back to God. but with­ out proving the presupposition. we may infer the persistence of her inner activ­ ity : and thirdly. This is the on­ tological proof. in other words : the world as it is. This. the finite spirit. secondly. thinking and thought. for thinking comprehends in itself being: I. is created for a purpose. as external to me. derived from the constitution of the world. from her own thinking itself. first. wherewith unconditioned being shows itself as immanent thought. which not only determines the world but is also self-determining. think the -infinite. because the former as absolute is here and now. The Immortality of the Soul. or the finite spirit. 12 Jun 2014 12:27:52 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . for otherwise it could not be the highest Essence. whether from her practical or subjective existence. is without beginning. from her inner nature. Hence it points to a creator creating for purposes. which conversely deduces from the absolute idea the existence of the same. This is the teleological or physico-theological proof. and the ground of God is God himself. and hence contains being in itself. 3. This leads to the third proof.27. tirst of all immediate or acciden­ tal. With these simple statements we may now pause and examine whether in lifce manner also the proofs for the immortality o f the human soul can be analyzed. and therefore he is as well within me. and this defect of proof is that to which the Critique of Pure Reason is directed. whether from the conception of the soul. that is to say. it can be and actually is shown that im­ mortality essentially belongs to the soul.111 on Thu. Or. since without the addition of existence this would not be the most per­ fect being. as conception it com­ prehends within itself existence. I think. only that the lirst self-moving member is wanting.236. More definitely it points to an Essence. But as the world externally. according to which the conception of the most perfect being itself implies the objective existence of the same. to a rational Author. The object of this proof is the soul . orderly ar­ ranged. 2. This content downloaded from 132. her indestructibility has been deduced. whether from her present existence and principally whether from her theoretic or objective existence. This is the cosmological proof ex contingentia mundi . The inquiry therefore is. 179 world. so internally it is mediated. therefore I am. and hence in God. or unfolded and united. absolute spirit. This proof presupposes still more definitely the harmony between the sub­ jective law of thought and the objective law of being. more particularly the future of the soul.

the development of which is infinite. in the first place. so also she in herself points to a self-determined inner nature. is not subject to division and destruction or change. This content downloaded from 132. for herein alone can lie the systematic statement of thefee proofs in their neces­ sity. The soul in her immediateness appears as consciousness. as this being in itself shows itself in its unity. And this unity. but we must examine this point more closely in order to keep the ap­ pearance of arbitrariness at a distance. in order to come to herself. she is contingent or immediate. and is hence imperishable. as we find them formulated in the history of philosophy. dwells in the soul. She is destined for •self-determination. it nevertheless belongs to philosophy to show their speculative content.111 on Thu. we may abstract from these proofs. In the next place. which means that she is infinite : she thinks her persistence and cannot think otherwise. Herewith the desired analogy between the theological and psy­ chological spheres seems to be unexpectedly confirmed. and so being midway she seeks mediation not alone externally. in order to see whether of themselves they are analogically unfolded out of the proofs for the existence of God. But. it might be considered whether human investigation takes the same course in the psychological sphere which we already see lying before us in the theological sphere. so likewise she feels herself deter­ mined by a conscious purpose. more definitely speaking this pur­ pose is self-determination. As the soul is determined.180 The Immortality of the Soul .236. Self­ determination in general belongs to the sphere of the infinite. its reality also dwells there.27. 12 Jun 2014 12:27:52 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . in order to come to God. As the soul in this points back to a determining being (creator). If the current proofs for the immortality of the human soul in their dogmatic form are not speculative. that is as being which reflects itself into itself. and. Hence in this existing capacity lor self-determination lies the se­ curity for the future'. but also internally. As the soul somehow exists. Herein the soul finds herself in a contradiction. conse­ quently reality must also belong to this persistence. a closed circle in itself. of infinite persistence. the future is wrapped up in the very nature of the soul. as an inner nature the soul feels her­ self at the same time destined for self-determination. The soul thinks. The third argument ru n s: since namely the conception of eter­ nity. that is she is placed midway without mediation.

111 on Thu. As it appears to us. that the world as contingent and immediate. it is the nature of the soul to be self: the aim and purpose of the soul. The thorough going conformity to a purpose or design of the world. This begin­ ning is thus the absolute inuer nature.27. As external world its function is to utter this internal purpose: we find this to be the. “ Is not the germ of nature in the heart of man! ” As internality the soul is op­ posed to the externality of the world. that is.236. The final goal of the world is the human soul. to its inner nature. The first proof for the existence of God was. and as simple is indestructible. Therefore the world points to a begin­ ning which lies outside of and above the world. The inner nature of the world is man . In its very nature the outer passes over into other. the inner nature of itself and the inner nature of the world. has its ground and beginning not in itself and not from itself. 12 Jun 2014 12:27:52 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . the soul is oneness. 181 1. as the adversary of change. which we find only in God. for its nature is to be itself. a deeper phase of the internal is at­ tained. as already existing. m aterial. as the true end which God has This content downloaded from 132. and immaterial. and at the same time is in itself. is self-end. as internal. for the nature of the outer is otherness: on the contrary. and is therefore necessary. on the contrary. divisible. which as inner is simple. not merely immediate. it is first of all the outer world : we have in this a phenomenal manifesta­ tion of the divine purpose. the inner nature of man is the soul. The Immortality o f the Soul . Through this the world sub­ sists in God. which we perceive as outward. as to its vivifying principle. now also comes to its created ground. as it is defined to be. unchangeable. in each cycle. the inner is not dissolved. case also actu­ ally throughout all spheres of nature and through all interven­ ing circles of these spheres. Hence it transpires that the world which heretofore came to its absolute ground. but this internal is first fully reached in man. everywhere there is a struggle to unfold the inner: Organism consists in this: as the world progresses from step to step. heretofore led with con­ straining necessity to an absolute and unconditioned principle. indivisible. changeable. 2. but it also at the same time points toward the pur­ pose for which it is determined. Herein is the soul. determining all things according tcf its purposes. which is not contingent. who is her creative inner natupe : but the world now seeks her created inner nature: her externality i)oints to her inner nature. but is mediated in itself. As external the world is multiplicity.

in the conception of persistence we find the reality of p e rsisten t warranted. yet possessed of existence in accordance with the thought of the most perfect being. and from her simplicity and infinite nature. so also the conception of finite spirit as spirit is hereby first explained. even if we could and would abstract from the existence and constitution of the soul. it results in general that one leads to This content downloaded from 132. since this aim lies in the soul. The aim to be Self is infinite. We have now arrived at that point in the discussion wherein it is meet to present systematically the proofs for the immortality of the human soul or of finite consciousness. according to its immediateness finds media­ tion and according to its determinateuess. and afterwards to unfold them in especial relation to the proofs for the existence of God.27. And finally. for this thought of per­ sistence. In accordance with this it is the human soul or the finite spirit in which the world. but also through this the conception of its persistence indwelling in the finite spirit. as they are recorded and laid down in the pages of the history of philosophy. consequently the persist­ ence of the soul itself is actual. this mediation is indestructible and this determination is infinite. in order to know them more definitely in their primitive form and definite content. willed in the creation.236. which we saw could not be perfect if it lack­ ed existence. With the conception of persistence.182 The Immortality of the Soul. 12 Jun 2014 12:27:52 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . as a feeling. a perception and finally as a conception.111 on Thu. and so truly exists that its opposite cannot be thought. The capacity warrants the reality. The soul however is nothing else than self-consciousness: she persists if self-consciousness persists. Thus also. she is capable of being infinite. the image of God. And as the conception of ab­ solute spirit proclaims the existence of God. In the multiplicity of the proofs for the existence of God and for the immortality of man. for otherwise God could not attain his ends. is given and warranted in its reality. actually exists. its determination. infinite. Ac­ cording to its innermost essence. and reveals the es­ sence of God. 3. actual. if we could abstract from the external world still we should find God as independent of his own creation.

for the being of the soul is nothing else than thought. while sim­ plicity consists in intensity. is as a proof itself yet an external one. from all externality. and because he ascribes to his proof things which he has not really uttered.27. and each requires to be carried farther. 183 the others. and con­ vinced. which satisfies the prover. In the next place this observation is also confirmed through the content of each proof. This is the second point. in which subject and object are united: but they are moreover only externally united. But in this only one side of the demonstration. So much as an introduction to the proofs for immortality. that we may think it simultaneously or in suc­ cession. which we shall now proceed to treat in their historical completeness. The soul is simple. When however the same proof. or feel it in themselves. ju st as ex­ This content downloaded from 132. Everybody intends with his proof to com­ plete the demonstration. and the latter is vanquished by the former. is explained by the con­ sideration that this deficiency lies hidden not in the subject alone but also in the proof itself.236. not mutually inter penetrated: for the third proof. at all events. Simplicity is more definitely imma­ teriality. This internality or simplicity is the criterion of the supersensuous or the immaterial. Through its simplicity it is distinguished from its external body. 1. The third is however the proof itself. through which it becomes conviction. but it also lies in the object itself: the object has already its truth in itself: therefore the truth of the object itself is forced upon the subject. this arises from the fact that others do ndt see the complement of the proof either in it as germ. and yet which are necessary to the completion of the proof. as the germ of the following unde­ veloped proof. And this happens because the expres­ sion of the proof falls short of the intention of the prover. The Immortality o f the Soul. This is the first point. 12 Jun 2014 12:27:52 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . or. Another characteristic of this plural­ ity of proofs is. because it does not suffice by itself. and this is internality. The truth lies not only in the subject as its meaning. to which extension is attributed. will not recog­ nize what is meant until it is also expressed.111 on Thu. But it is also true that each particular proof is intended to be complete by itself. but are only in his mind. That the subject moreover ascribes to its demonstration also what it lacks. which is to overcome this dualism. proves nothing for another. only the prelim­ inary phases thereof are hinted at. and thought consists in the unity of the manifold.

tension is the criterion of the sensuous or the material. and is therefore the very opposite of the essence of the soul: death cannot touch the soul. it occupies no space. the psychology of Anaxagoras is more definite.27.236. 12 Jun 2014 12:27:52 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . since as a simple it cannot decompose: it must therefore remain what it is. The motto of death is : divide and con­ quer. If now the soul is simple—this is the first premise—it is not subject to any change. nor in time in successive degrees. . but its simplicity is unharmed under the temporary load of the body. Hence in the popular philosophy this simplicity has been char­ acterized negatively as indivisibility. since the latter is indissoluble. Sect. III. Death is separation. for he recognized the soul as well in its simplicity as in its immanent self-movement. as long as it is united with it. “ nor has its principle of motion in another. W hat the soul experi­ ences in the body it experiences not in itself. 78). because. According to the testimony of Aristotle. But the oldest traces of this psychology are found in Heraclitus. speculative philosophy conceives simplicity as internality. in which view the soul itself is treated as an external object. be cause it moves itself. In like manner Cicero seeks to unite both phases of the ar­ gument : u Since the nature of the soul is simple. who declares the driest soul to be the ripest. for it is not extended. On the contrary.111 on Thu. if it cannot be divided it cannot be destroy­ ed. it cannot be dissolved. I t cannot get loose from itself.” (De Senect. but in all time simple. or also as persistency.” It lies actually already in this simplicity that the soul sub­ sists in itself. From the simplicity of the soul it accordingly follows that it cannot change into another.—4). neither in space. and on this ac­ count as simple. simplicity is more definitely this.184 The Immortality of the Soul . which ought not to be done so long as it is simple. for the sim­ ple is not a series. therefore immortal. As in- ternality. and dates the proper life of the same from the death of the body. (De Anima. Consequently the soul has no external principle. to-w it: it moves in and by itself and it is not moved by'another. Death reigns only where it can sunder and separate: therefore death has no power over the soul. for it is the body which keeps the soul from its fellowship with God. for indissoluble and immortal are one. A r­ istotle conceives it as the self-moving essence. 44which (as Goethe says) only im­ This content downloaded from 132. for it is in itself in­ dissolubly one.

The Immortality o f the Soul . 1S5

pinges upon it from w ithout/’ St. Augustine (De Civit. Dei XL,
10., De Spirit. An., cap. 24). If the soul had another, foreign
principle outside of itself, only then would it be dependent, and
would therefore be subject to change. But as simple it is in
itself and indestructible.
This proof, based on the simplicity of the soul, is also treated
by Socrates both in Plato’s Phredo and also in the Phsedrus, but
Plato is careful not to define the soul dogmatically after the man­
ner of a thing imaged in the mind, as a finite existence, but spec­
ulatively as the thinking activity itself, through which procedure
this proof is lifted into its higher category. First of all however
this proof belongs to conception (which thinks in images); ac­
cording to what this proof declares, it takes the soul as the “tliing-
in-itself.” Wherefore it is named the metaphysical proof; it would
be more proper to name it the theoretical proof, since the soul as
object is placed over against it, without being one with i t : it is
therefore par excellence dogmatic.
It is well to mark that this proof from the contingent existence
of the soul, as it finds itself immediately as simple in time, infers
in a consequent manner, its existence out of time, and from death,
by which the body through divisibility is subdued, infers immor­
tality which pertains to the soul by reason of its indivisibility.
As far as this proof evidently corresponds with the cosmological
proof for the existence of God, which irom contingent existence
infers eternal being, so far it is par excellence the psychological
proof for immortality.
In the Phredo, Simmias seeks to refute the premise which as­
serts simplicity as supersensuous, with the example of the ly re ;
but he is obliged to confess that the harmony which the lyre pro­
duces, although it is invisible, is not therefore supersensuous ; it
is dependent upon the instrument and does not have its principle
in itself, while the soul precedes the body as principle of the lat­
ter and of itself. (Hegel WW., XIV., 214). Ju st as little also
could Kant confute this time-honored proof with the category of
intensive quantity; for this category of degree, according to which
the soul is to fade away and vanish, as light, and heat, and sound,
applies only to finite, sensuous magnitudes, but not to the simple,
hence not to the supersensuous and infinite. (Hegel’s Logik, III.
•304, and Hegel WW., III., 260, V. 268-9). Kant has therefore
actually said no more than Simmias, nor more than Lucretius, who
long before him called attention to the diminution of mental

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186 The Immortality o f the Soul.
power with the age of the body, and also long before him was re­
futed by Anti-Lucretius. (Cardinalis Melch. de Polignac: Opus
posthumum). “ Do you then place the divine art of music in the
resonant shell ? and do you think that the instrument, and he
who uses it, the artist, are one and the same ? This is the rela­
tion that subsists between the spirit and the body.” It is not
this special instrument, not the external instrument, to which
the artist is bound.
The empirical observation, that the soul wanes in the body, and
with it, till it finally burns out like a candle, from which La Mettrie,
together with all materialists, infers the mortality of the soul—
this fact of experience, which also strikes down the most exalted
spiritualism, can hence only prove the participation of the soul
in the ills of the body during its connection with the body. Thai
is to say : the soul diminishes only outwardly, but it itself is not
outw ard; it itself does not expire, burn out, but this its external-
ization burns out after it has served its purpose.
Thus the butterfly is imprisoned in the chrysalis, and its wiugs
are folded up until the chrysalis bursts. Plato in the Phsedo also
treats of this confinement and redeliverance. The body is the
instrument of the soul, but also its temporary restraint; hence
while the body serves the soul it likewise limits it; if the ser­
vant becomes weak, the mastery also suffers thereby. With the
dissolution of the body the soul becomes free again ; now it
rouses itself again to lift and move its pinions once more.
Wherefore we often see the soul in the most vigorous power when
the body dies; often in the last moments of the dying hour we
are permitted to see the spirit yet again in all its supremacy and
independence. Schubert, (in the Christoterpe for the year 1834),
has furnished us with two illustrious examples of this kind.
They are derived from ancient times, and concern the Emperor of
Morocco, Muley Maluk, and the Bishop of Caesarea, Basil the
G reat; the last moments of both these men were the most lumin­
ous points of their whole busy lives, wherein the might of the
spirit unfolded itself in the most glorious and the most independ­
ent way. In them we may visibly see what otherwise invisibly
transpires in the hour of death.
Nevertheless we must confess that this last highest outbeam-
ing of the soul at the moment of its separation and release from
the body which fades and sinks down while-the soul mounts up,
only evinces its difference from the body and its superiority over

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The Immortality of the Soul . 187
it, but does not therefore of itself prove the immortality of the
human soul. Should not this fact also serve this purpose: even
while this phenomenon of itself, as a sensuous phenomenon, does
not prove immortality, on the other hand it is by this shown that
the waning of the soul with the decease of its external organ
cannot prove the mortality of the soul. This serves only to re­
fute the refutation of the preceding proof.
As often happens, we have by this descended into the purely sen­
suous sphere, while we wished to defend the supersensuous es­
sence of the soul. Kant’s intensive magnitude, which belongs to
this sphere, contains the immediate occasion of this descent;
hence it also misses the speculative content of the proof to
which it is opposed, and is directed only against the dogmatic
form of the same. In regard to the substance of the proof itself
it stands in much the same relation to Kant’s refutation as exists
in the case of Kant’s procedure against the ontological proof for
the existence of God, which Kant meant to invalidate but really
has not invalidated by the renowned example of the $100, the
thought of which is not equivalent to the possession of the same,
and which may be thought ju st as well on the debit side of the
ledger as on the credit side. For the assumed discrimination of
the conception of a thing from its existence, which he pictured in
the sum of $100, is valid only of the finite, sensuous thing, or
generally of things, while in fact the difference of the finite as
opposed to the actual, infinite or absolute, consists precisely in
this discrepancy between the conception and its reality.
If the soul is truly simple, it is also as little exposed to a grad­
ual diminishing as to division : it is no mere “ thing,” it is inter-
nality, and as internal is not subject to the sensuous conception
of a separation of the inner from the outer, but the internal has
the external in and by itself.
So much for the first, for the so-called metaphysical proof for
the immortality of the human soul, which is the rational, and as
rational, is simple. The Critique of Pure Eeason has shattered
or rather annulled this proof only in respect to its dogmatic form,
according to which the soul is treated as thing. And this is the
immortal service of the critical philosophy, to have overthrown
the dogmatic form of modern philosophy, and herewith again to
have paved the way for the speculative comprehension.
2. But further, the soul, as it is, is constituted and destined for
ends, which being infinite can never be attained here nor in time.

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It is well to observe that the destiny of the inner man. but art is long. in a prac­ tical relation.” Here belongs also the notion of the education of mankind. G. as the “ thing-in-itself. which rests upon the infinite capacity of the development of finite spirit. and he found the sub­ jectivity of this demand necessary to be constantly put forward for the avoidance of all self-deception. as that God himself is eternal and cannot contradict himself. conscience. against which he fortified himself step by step. the goal for which it was destined. or. the actual infinity. in which the soul alone finds satisfaction and sufficiency. Therefore that is also only a species of this proof. as the im­ mediate expression of the soul. Here belongs the proof derived from consciousness. remained involved in the dogmatic mode of apprehension .27. in which it among other things is applied to moral compensation. In so far God is presupposed as absolute justice. This content downloaded from 132. 12 Jun 2014 12:27:52 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . if it should again cease its possession of it.188 The Immortality o f the Soul. uLife is short. J. to the rec­ ompense of good and evil according to the principle of justice. but only the fullness of time. But leaving this out of view. in which its destiny subsists. if it is also thought as complete. Consequently there belongs to the essential nature of the soulr eternal persistence which can alone adequately respond to its wants In its infinite destiny by which it is also a determining First Cause. Fichte also confesses : u Man must have an end transcending this life. It is well worthy of re­ mark how in accordance with this. infinite persistence is as surely appointed to it. in the midst of his op­ position to dogmatism. can be complete only in so far as the soul attains the infinite.—a proof which Kant included under the form of a postulate.” to which the designation of u subject” could not be attributed as an objective quality. for he still regarded the soul as a thing.236. self-consciousness. For the spirit of man neither the present nor any other time is sufficient. while yet to the soulTnothing can be more appropriate than to be subject.” Fichte finds this end in the will. and has been more definitely demonstrated by Lessing. if it does not retain. But the soul would moreover not yet have attained the infinite as its end. this is the proof which Kant has admitted in another form. but the Ego of this will seems destined to go down before the moral order of the world.111 on Thu. Kant. because he would not acknowledge it except as demanded by consciousness.

The death of children. and must have been potentially before.” so at least now and then every one feels. why does he look to this future gene­ ration.236. and a whither. 14). require in themselves the past in their origin or motive. the internal. Socrates arrives at the same proof. (Hegel WW. i. First of all moreover the proof in its dogmatic statement is di­ rected to the future. lies already im­ bedded in the concept of all activity. which accompanies the self. and from the constitution and destination of the soul.111 on Thu. for which the soul. exists.. immortal and imper­ ishable in me. it expresses the presence of its futurity: in its existing im­ perishableness. e. if after generations do not pertain to him VJ (Tusc. 72 to 78). * Upon this jointly depends the idea of creation in general. in a seemingly opposite direction. it is exter­ nal and persists internally. i. The Immortality of the Soul. in which the self-con­ sciousness utters itself.. and from pre-existence is inferred post-existence. Pre­ existence is itself nothing felse than the presupposition of a de­ sign. in immediate feel­ ing. the breaking down of the strongest activity in the midst of the course. or the future destiny of the soul. which is nothing but reminiscence. and which no one can entirely d en y : u However low and mean I am. which as yet does not exist: it infers this from the capacity of the soul for it. Hence reminiscence is nothing else than the energy with which the indi­ vidual soul becomes that for itself which it actually (actu) is in itself. I. 203-213). These ends. it feels its futurity.. the dying of youth in the midst of their first unfolding. disp. XIV. 4*yet there is something godlike.. the setting amid the rising.27. and 1 3 This content downloaded from 132.’7 So the soul in its innermost being affirms: herein. in which pre-existence is inferred from the circumstance of learn­ ing. Cicero says that the soul is directed more to the future than to the present. for which the soul ex­ ists. Upon the ethico-religious basis of this proof rests also the simple protestation. as an aim or limit. 12 Jun 2014 12:27:52 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . u He plants trees which profit another generation . namely the Ego itself. That the sotil goes to the future. as the world to come. 189 This very proof is also otherwise more used than any other in the various applications. has also helped to strengthen this proof. in my Ego. and in the concept of self­ activity. (Sect. In Plato’s PhsedO. just as . e.well as they require the present for their completion in the future: just as everything which is determined presupposes a whence as a determining..

Jerusalem. inference is made of the infinite capacity of the soul for development. but also as physiological in the organic progression of the finite spirit and its analogy to the natural organism.111 on Thu. e. 12 Jun 2014 12:27:52 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . as the work of infinite spirit. of now attaining its proper end. Above all. by which betimes in the moment of death it exults over the future. creation also. and in the joy of now de­ parting and coming to God. and from this limit in its continual assimilation and penetration. it is conditioned in its origin. but with an ardent longing after eternal life. It is ever the same proof which we have traced under its man­ ifold metamorphoses: it is known under the name of moral or practical. e.. Kaestner. and Sintenis. Jacob. it is the inner.27. its true life element. which before death sings its most charming and lovely song. herewith the multiplicity of creation is set over against the unity of God. and has been popular especially since the time of Spal­ ding. the perfectibil­ ity. In so far as this proof goes over from the adaptation of the soul to its attainment. which dwells in the created in­ finity as its limit. or in a word it is the finite spirit.. man is finite spirit. the relation of creation to an actual creator. not per­ haps out of fear in the presence of death. it corresponds to the teleological proof for the existence of God. And upon this is grounded the so-called physiological proof of immortality so much sought for. which admits that there is in the soul a truly fixed but essentially pertaining self-progressive form of finitude or limitation. with a pre­ sentiment of the higher good itself. the cre­ ated spirit is an infinite becoming: God is absolute sp irit. spirit. Mendelssohn. as the outer. as mankind are wont to think. is also explained the idea of matter. i. to which this proof points. In this finitude. And as this last is also apprehended as physico-theological. so also the moral proof has been apprehended as theological not only in its rela­ tion to God. i. Thence also is explained the higher elevation of the soul. it is teleological. before and after Sulzer. e. and it This content downloaded from 132. but finite in its being. God is infinite being. an infinite striving after God. is infinite. higher improvement. infinite in its be­ coming. Since God is ap­ prehended as the unconditioned infinite being. In Plato’s Phsedo there is espe­ cially an allusion made to the beautiful simile of the swan.. The human soul contains this proof in adjecto in its predicate. i. hence as the abso­ lute spirit. Kampe.236. as well as in the becoming of the organism within its limits evermore transfigured in accordance with its principle.190 The Immortality o f the Soul .

since it rests upon the infinite destiny of the soul. But if we now inquire more particularly we shall have in the moral proof as heretofore in the metaphysi­ cal proof. And if in the next place.. since it rests upon the simplicity of the soul. The Immortality of the Soul . as eternal per­ sonality. for itself mortal. The truth of this view however consists in this. which dwells in the soul as the higher princi­ ple. as upon the beyond which as yet is not. in the latter as activity. in the former the soul is first of all seized as thing. For since the soul. it has self-consciousness of the same as its essence for its basis. Upon this height Anselm seized the religious-moral proof. while in the moral proof it does not remain stationary but progresses without losing its identity. which are met in his works and follow from the same. the latter on the contrary as subject. the consciousness of absolute personality. ju st as all conscious teleology pre­ supposes the theological principle. there lies an inliuity of purpose at the basis of it. which never can be attained. Herewith the concrete forms of this soul-proof change only the more: until the present time they have run together in a confused manifoldness. recognizes the con­ sciousness of God. 66-72). In relation to the metaphysical or theoretical proof. Hence also the purposes. that the end can never be com­ pletely attained. C. that the soul first of all as simple remains unchanged. (Monolog.236. In the ultimate analysis this proof rests upon the idea of creation. that the soul cannot cease attaining it. 12 Jun 2014 12:27:52 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . which we read in the human soul and which we know as the bases of this proof.111 on Thu. its finite individuality is also secured from perishing. hence upon the presuppo­ sition of God as the creator. In its dog­ matic statement the proof is primarily based upon the future. hence also limit and end are demanded reciprocally by speech. that the future is found in the progres­ sive present and is discerned as already existing. ceases. that the former begins to consider the soul as object. essentially but two steps to distinguish. but much more in this. the moral or practical is pre-eminently the higher step : it lies already in the naming. what it is. in the higher apprehen­ sion of the first proof. since in­ finity itself is not yet mediated in itself. if it is attained. have likewise been seized as the purposes of God. comes through thinking into a conscious relation to God. in the theo­ retical proof immortality consists in this.27. whence also in­ finity no longer consists in this. so now also the second proof in its statement. while a finite end. This content downloaded from 132. 191 might be termed anthropological.

The linger of God has touched it. and the end is that in*a broader consequence that intuition of the supreme God is invested with immortality. still de­ stroy the soul. already sheltered from death. by God. (so has onfe actually expressed it). God will not do it—God’s will is expressed in the soul and the will of God is indestructible. points to a double mode of finding the transition from one to the other. according to the rela­ tion of being and thought.236. the creator. God could do it. if he would.192 The Immortality o f the Soul. This first glimpse of comprehension brings it into fearful ne­ cessity and labor in the service of an angry goddess. in which the soul truly subsists. In the Timaeus. According to the metaphysical proof the soul is through its moral nature. unfolding suc­ cessively all the moments of being and thought. The image of God is the created God. Immortality is deification (Goettlichkeit). if it sees God. in which it moves. The most perfect work in the creation of God. First through this inward repletion with God the abstract infinity of persistence rises to the concrete infinity of the presence.27. in this cannot perish. Only that which is finite in the soul perishes. and thus it subsists in the Eternal. To this is attached that higher truth. but the truth is. must die. elevated above all other works of creation. with whom she has been connected hitherto. that only its mere finitude per­ ishes. because it is a contradiction to the most perfect creator to destroy his most perfect creation. according to the second proof. in the process underlying them as a ground. we must more definitely examine the two previously named proofs. It is therefore to be kept in mind that all proof. namely. as well as in other relations. Hence it appears clearer and clearer how it is that the moral proof as well as the physiological and physico-theological proofs depend upon the consciousness of God. in order to find the essential transition. Ver­ ily a/ saying runs through time that the finite creature. 12 Jun 2014 12:27:52 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . According to the first proof God could. which. Plato teaches the same. It has found its principle in which it cannot perish. and cannot be overcome and annihilated by any other being. For in­ This content downloaded from 132. But before we proceed further.111 on Thu. but he will not. though invisible. ex­ cept alone the being which is over him. according to which the intuition of eternal Godhead invests him who intuites with immortality. but it is love which is angry. Well does the Psyche shrink and quake before the aspect of God. is the image of God. and through the will of God which we read in the soul.

inasmuch as it is necessary. The idea of persistence is moreover necessary. from which it follows that the soul must persist. belong to the first way. and draw inferences from its na­ ture. is simplicity. Be­ sides this there remains yet the other mode of proof. and participates in infinity. which in­ troduces the third sphere of the psychological process. 12 Jun 2014 12:27:52 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . has this ground and purpose. The soul exists . it either proceeds from a given existence and infers from its quality or constitution its necessary sequence. the soul. Ratiocination is itself nothing else than the constraining power which dwells' in the inner necessity of the idea. which have been hith­ erto considered. The soul thinks persistence. to what belongs to its totality. instantly annuls itself. as its point of beginning.236. to its complete ideal. Upon this negation of negation hence rests the proof of the idea of persist­ ence in its further unfolding and higher statement. is therefore attributed to the soul. The idea of persistence. and in its result on the one side. is simple. or it proceeds vice versa from the sub­ jective concept of persistence with which it formerly concluded. be­ cause its opposite cannot be thought. which has no sensuous existence but is based only upon the necessity of think­ ing. whereby the negated being is again restored. from which it follows that the soul can­ not be changed. Thought as quality. That the negation of persistence is unthinkable. according to its essence it is composed of self-consciousness or of thought. From the idea of persistence follows its actuality. it has an infinite destiny. for it is the very essence of negation that it negates itself.27. It now becomes necessary that we pursue more definitely the concreter statements of this to the illustrating of this thir^ proof. 193 stance. and must actually b e . that the cancelling in which it is posited.111 on Thu. leads only logically to reality itself. because the entire exter­ mination of the determinations of being is simply incompatible with thought. so being belongs also to thought. In both cases the transition is made from the what and how of its exist­ ence. The Immortality of the Soul . for they proceed from the position that the soul exists. and infers in the next place from its ne­ cessity to its reality. Both these proofs. accord­ ing to its objective side. and 1 3 * X I—13 This content downloaded from 132. accord­ ing to its subjective side or according to its intensive fullness. as thinking. As being belongs to being. on the other side is the intensive capacity for infin­ ity. for the soul as spirit is this idea itself. hence indestructible.

I am not. and nothing is more foreign to the soul. but this presupposition is instantly annulled. Dust remains dust. its other being is no disadvantage. which is to kill death itself. although it sinks away into the sea. hence it also suffers no damage. 44for so long as I am. since in thinking itself. the thought which rests upon self-con­ sciousness. and seizes him who had hitherto disputed him away. in its transition into other: for the spirit. This content downloaded from 132. and if thou art. i. indifferent to its dissolution . I can­ not also not be. Xon-being hence is as incompatible with thought as with. which it cannot of course suffer. but it is also ingenious and suggestive: “ I would be a fool to fear thee. e. to be without self-consciousness t We cannot think that anywhere a particle of dust in the mate­ rial world perishes : how much less can a soul perish in the world of spirit! Everything endures. so teaches the concept with constraining necessity. for death consists pre­ cisely in non-being.194 The Immortality o f the Soul. indifferent to its other being. nothing is more out of harmony with thought than nothing. and laughs at the artificial proof.” says the Ego. as if nothing had happened to it. and yet the soul is not to remain what it is.236. Everything remains what it is. since it can­ not endure annihilation. e. it is indestructible. what is divisible remains divisible. no destruction. and is this unthinkable nothing to be the destiny and the outcome of thought 1 or is thought. O death. so that death itself is not. the wave is afterwards as before selfless. namely. as the inner­ most oneness of being.” In this alternative it is presupposed that death could be . indivisible. it cannot think annihilation.. thou art not. spirit is not to remain spirit. The wave remains what it is. since it nevertheless comes.27. And is not the self to remain what it is. self! Persistence is necessary. nothing as nothing. 12 Jun 2014 12:27:52 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . But to death its non-being is scarcely methodically shown. contradicting its dissolution ? For the material.. to become the thought of another. be self­ consciousness. should it not have it 1 Can thinking thought be and yet be with­ out being? Vice versa. so much the more chillingly with his ice-cold hands. there is on the contrary annihilation in the destruc­ tion of its self hood. Upon this truth also Sterne’s oft repeated apos­ trophe to death is wrecked. pure nothing. i.being.111 on Thu. which is one with the soul. uninjured notwith­ standing its further perfection and transformation. Since I am.

the negation of this negation is deduced. since death negates itself. Life affirms itself. The Immortality of the Soul . or from the contrary of persistence. Now follows however also likewise from this negation the further negation which death has in itself.236. Contraria fiunt e contrariis. As death arises from life. the contrary of the contrary is deduced. In the first place language itself cannot forbear ascribing to the past an essential befng. the negation of death. which thinks for us. Death moreover affirms life. 195 Hence death announces itself to the senses as the negation of life. in the course of his conversation shortly before his own death. since from the necessary conception of persistence is deduced its real­ ity. or truth in the system of its particular elements. 12 Jun 2014 12:27:52 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . which is death.111 on Thu. also depends upon this. This content downloaded from 132. The first ground in Plato’s Phsedo which Socrates renders prominent for proving immortality. so life again comes from death. from the concept of negation. and then dying and wholly decaying it re­ turns to life. and with the conception the reality of persistence depends upon this. frdm nothing to the nothing of death. because it vin­ dicates to the logical its reality. Moreover the name of the proof is self-evident: it is in its es­ sence the logical. From this circumstance are explained the many attempts to develop. more definitely the ontological. for it arises from the absolute negation with which death is overcome. to the nothing which is not. So we read especially in the Christian Platonic Dialogue which JEneas of Gaza wrote on the subject of immortality. which from its own ashes rises again. and this further nega­ tion. This is the negation which according to its own essence inflicts upon itself what it has in itself. From the negation of life proceeds the opposite of this negation. Everything originates from its contrary and from what it is not. Language also shows itself in this respect as the utterance of spirit. in a methodical manner out of language. Likewise it is clear that it cor­ responds to the ontological proof for the existence of God. The expressive emblem in the sphere of this proof is the Phoe­ nix. The bird Phoenix is said to live five hundred years. and before we are conscious of it. in unceasing progress. which now verifies itself as imperishable. the new life.27. This proof also draws support from language: we express it unconsciously. It transforms the nay of death into the yea of life. death negates itself. The conception. thought and the entire content of philosophy. is the renewal of life.

In proving the necessity of imperishableness. to be apprehended as the persistence of self-conscious­ ness. since these proofs become in it transparent toward each other. The conception of personal imperishableness accordingly has its deep­ est ground in the conception of absolute personality. It vindicates the conception of an eter­ nal essence.196 The Immortality of the Soul. comes generally first through its relation to the This content downloaded from 132. or to which it is trans­ ferred. since he cannot free himself from absolute eternity. Hence in the first place the ontological proof for the personal persistence of the soul comes forth in its deepest signification. It remains that we pursue further the conception of persist­ ence. as in its innermost rela­ tion to the theological sphere. since the conception of absolute per­ sonality is necessary. This last proof shows itself identical with the first. The persistence of self-consciousness is in the next place fur­ ther defined in relation to God as personal imperishableness. The concrete conception of persistence mediates the double rela­ tion of the soul to itself and to God. The ontological proof. personal imper­ ishableness for sclf-consciousness is also proved as necessary. in order to learn how this third proof unites in itself the two preceding proofs. from God.27. which at first was apprehended as simple. of which it is predicated. to which the conception of persistence as self-conscious­ ness developed itself in its necessity. and now has become adequate to the ideal. which. is in re­ spect to the soul. both these sides. the idea of imperishableness. Man cannot fail of personal imperisha­ bleness. Hence the conception of personal im­ perishableness is necessary. for there is 110 other imperishableness for self-consciousness than the personal.111 on Thu. are united and concentrated. its irrefutable necessity. In the sphere of the third proof. Self-consciousness however was the foundation of the first proof. which belongs to the theologi­ cal province. particularly to the ontological proof for the existence of God. as the consciousness of God indwelling in the soul was the founda­ tion of the second proof for immortality. from the conception of which the third proof proceeds. and in the next place in relation to the finite spirit.236. The necessity of persist­ ence has its ground in the very essence of self-consciousness. and through this the conception of a personal persistence gets its final substantiation. The persistence or the imperishableness. 12 Jun 2014 12:27:52 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . which shape first both spheres of proof. and the reality of personal imper­ ishableness.

This is the first. The Immortality of the Soul. Thought is : hence moreover its existence is thereby expressed. This content downloaded from 132. to which it attributes being. Personal immortality is to be verbally translated as self-conscious knowledge of God in the finite spirit. finds itself by means of this thought in a thinking. Hence Marsilius Ficinus says : u The human soul is immortal. 197 finite spirit. proceeds from thinking. whose reality is hereby warranted. Thinking consists essentially in this inner union. The second is that thinking itself relates just as well to God. a self-conscious relation to the eternal essence. the necessary reality belonging to it. Since in this his self-consciousness widens into God-conscious- ness. according to its essence.. Its actuality consists.27.236. to its complete content. rests in its last analysis. The onto­ logical proof.77 And Cardan confesses: “ I have known the immortality of the human soul not now first but al­ ways. e. The reality of this relation to the eternal essence of God consists moreover essen­ tially in the imperishableness of the self-conscious knowledge of God. through which it is purified as well as preserved.77 As often as we feel or perceive our innermost s6ul in its sensual relation to God and to itself. that we see that we are again one with him. since it harmonizes both the foregoing proofs. it presupposes the inner union with its object upon which the third proof rests.111 on Thu. for I feel sometimes that the intellect is so possessed of God. and ascribes to this thought of God in its essential content. upon which the ontological proof for personal immortality. hence in the psychological sphere. because it cleaves to the divine. ju st so often do we feel or perceive also its im­ perishableness. The meaning is this : the finite spirit which thinks God. as its name would indicate. 12 Jun 2014 12:27:52 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . in the infinity reflected into itself. i.

penn state urineisity piess OF THE DOGM ATIC PROOFS OF THE IM M O R TALITY OF THE H U M A N SOUL A u th o r(s): K arl F ried rich G oeschel and T. and students discover. 3 7 2 -3 8 9 Published b y : Penn State U niversity Press Stable URL: http://www. V ic k r o y Source: The Journal o f Speculative Philosophy.jsp JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars. and build upon a wide range of content in a trusted digital archive. use. http://www. V ol.jstor. Penn State University Press is collaborating with JSTOR to 1877) 4 (O ctober. For more information about JSTOR. pp. researchers.jstor.236. 11. available at http://www.jstor.111 on This content downloaded from Accessed: 1 2 /0 6 /2 0 1 4 12:28 Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of the Terms & Conditions of Use. 12 Jun 2014 12:28:16 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . preserve and extend access to The Journal o f Speculative Philosophy. N o. please contact support@ jstor. W e use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms of scholarship. R.

Man and the life of man. and the great life That is the all------: Shakespeare and Socrates. The woods. Will make thee sweet in life. slippery their selves And in themselves of no account.236. when thy heart is weak and fails thee. and check Them there.111 on Thu. by T . even I. Herein is peace divine. In order to point out in a word the progress o f this proof. Jesus of Nazareth. transform and penetrate the conception underlying them as a ground. Come thou to me through Him! come thou in prayer— Come. And poets old. and let my will be thine alone.372 The Immortality o f the Soul . the sea. V ic k r o y . 12 Jun 2014 12:28:16 PM A ll use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . And blind. R .27.— Make thou thyself but mine—but me—in Prayer! OF THE DOGMATIC PROOFS OF THE IMMORTALITY OF THE HUMAN SOUL. still stumbling in contingency . in fields. and have seen how they are developed from one another and follow one upon another. Come! Brute is the world in externality. But I. and smooth the pillow for thy head. according to its growing content. am Lord: I will control The monstrous masses as they wheel. it can be said that it advances from the This content downloaded from 132. the glory of the stars. Translated from the German o f Karl Friedrich Goeschel. prophets and saintly priests. Hitherto we have examined the historical traditional proofs for immortality. and at the same time complete and perfect it and raise it to an adequate form. and in death mine. Enjoy Thou me. in streets. Children and the woman by the hearth—Love ! Nor doubt but He. The steps are but the steps. From step to step we have seen how they complete and fulfil.

and hence of the true idea itself. since everything else is indifferent to it.236. Fur­ ther discussions concerning the inner agreement of the proofs of immortality will be brought up further on. in the ontological proof. in the second proof. to be also the non-self. as refiected- into-self. It is so nevertheless with this difference.111 on Thu. God the creating. which. We have moreover seen how the proofs of immortality thus far presented correspond throughout to the proofs for the exist­ ence of God. and includes personality in itself. 373 immortality of the human soul to immortality itself. is the absolute reason. while on the contrary. the future. as such. With the accession of power the soul becomes a being. God like the soul is the true ideal itself. It is not without good reason that the immortality of the human soul. In the first proof. like the soul. was objective. For its way is this that it pursues the immortality of the human soul first in its objective and secondly in its subjective relation%until it finally. with man the becoming. reveals itself in its necessity. hence in its nature change is an­ nulled. the soul the created. only to the per­ son. and under immortality everywhere nothing else is understood but the immortality of the human soul. or the personal persistence of man without qualification is briefly named immortality. since an internality is attained by it in the form of reason. God. since personality consists even in this. consequently he was inferred from. it persists. God like the soul was subject.* As the existence of God as opposed to the contingent existence of the world. are connected. hence it is actual. is infinite. so also the necessity of its persistence is revealed also in the contingent existence of the soul. that is. as the principle determining things according to a purpose. more This content downloaded from 132. and just for this reason it finds its general self-preserva­ tion in phenomena that continually present new phases. just as the duration of the soul is inferred from its simplicity. the soul cannot be destroyed* Again. 12 Jun 2014 12:28:16 PM A ll use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . The Immortality o f the Soul. grasps the unity of both of the hitherto one-sided notions.27. that is. With God is the eternal now. is the created reason. For so much is already clear: that the conception of im­ mortality applies only to self-consciousness. the finite spirit becomes actual. In the third proof. to be other. the soul as determined to this infi­ nite purpose. and in consequence this reality is imperishable. conse­ quently it. that God is actual. existence and internality is apprehended in it. member for member. and how both spheres.

but this internality is. The first difference is this. inasmuch as thought as yet only infers its existence. On the other hand. finally the soul attains to its actuality through an insight into its nature. And furthermore this proof does not belong here. But now a difference between these proofs pre­ sents itself. just as also the unity of the soul and of life itself. It is evident therefore. This is itself a progress in the more defi­ nite knowledge o f the soul. But this difference vanishes if we leave words and take up the consideration of the subject itself. that the premises from which we start and the conclusion at which we arrive.111 on Thu. definitely an objective somewhat. With this. hence to the true character of its persistence. but this truth is yet so far only a formal one. im­ mediate. although the imagination struggles with the forces of externality because it feels itself hampered by it. with the accession of Rea­ son. Without this real difference we could not speak of their resemblance.374 The Immortality o f the Soul. the ex­ istence of a finite spirit is the fact from which we start.27. In like manner in the second proof. as an external individual. As regards This content downloaded from 132. Upon this already rests the first. and infers the existence of an absolnte spirit. it belongs to the sensuous phase of thought. and upon which we base our argument to prove the eternal duration of this existence. like a stone which one picks up in or­ der to examine its properties. and external being is ascribed to the soul as persisting. yet crude notion. 12 Jun 2014 12:28:16 PM A ll use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . which conceives the soul as a thing. as yet. only the antithesis of an objective world. and its complete actuality. Since it always refers to the future. the further stages in the development of the proof already mentioned are not excluded. But there is also in the development of the proofs themselves. more than one difference to be pointed out. In the third proof. are different in the two proofs. a subjective internal being with progressive development is ascribed to the soul. upon which actuality depends. inasmuch as the unity o f thought and being upon which the proof rests is first a mere assumption. for this is acknowl­ edged from the beginning. is a mere assumption in this proof. in the psychological province. that the theological proof conducts us to God's existence. Hitherto the complete resemblance of the theological and psy­ chological processes of proof have also verified themselves from step to step. however.236. It is evident that there can be no question of the difference between the objects of these proofs.

in so far as it relates to God. The Immortality o f the Soul . the world. e. but to be [in all time]. that is to say. hence as persistence or as immortal­ ity. not the existence. Without this persistence. his exter­ nal existence in the world. which first of all is posited in the future. its truth and actuality are deduced. From his existence.27.. does not arise from the conception of the soul but from the con­ ception of persistence. from his externalization. The second difference consists in this. From the immediate ex­ istence o f the soul. while the discussions about . 375 the starting point. in which the soul itself is not yet developed into identity with itself. from the conception of God. precede the proofs for the immortality of the human soul. in so far as it on the contrary points towards the immortality of the soul. which is the world. and in the second place. or at least from step to step seeks to become like itself. So also in the psychological scope. With this the second difference is also removed. in the first case. otherwise it would be impossible to reach the di­ vine existence. in which the soul at last becomes identified with itself. but he according to his nature is not external. [i. But it does not remain here as differ­ ent. the being and attributes of the first cause in his existence seem to follow the proof for the existence of God. for. The existence of God is consequently in this externality nothing else than the antithe­ sis of absolute spirit.236. 12 Jun 2014 12:28:16 PM A ll use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . to whose perfection existence belongs.reality. it is properly the existence of God. from which the two first theological proofs start.111 on Thu. This content downloaded from 132. to the actuality—the idea. inferences are made to his absolute. This reality of the soul is expressed as becoming. Herein the first seeming difference is again cancelled. As regards the conclu­ sion or the goal of the theological proof. for actu­ ality is precisely this. as it cannot exist. to realize its ideal self]. whose existence was the premise from which we started. not only to be now. properly speaking. it is the conception of finite spirit for whose per­ fection infinite persistence is required. The existence of God is his external being. Therefore in the capac­ ity for improvement there lies also the necessity of persistence in such a manner in the finite spirit that it cannot think the con­ trary. that the third proof. the actuality of the soul is not thinkable. A third difference could be found in this. it is. that the discussions about the essence and qualities of the soul. but the actuality of God. it is really the conception of ab­ solute spirit.

and goes hand in hand with it. We shall later consider its proper position. on the contrary. In the third all were transfigured to­ gether. in order that persistence may be de­ duced from it. to which yet an indefinite multitude of different modes of view and inferences are joined. to separate existence and its attributes. hence it is here excluded. But we need to examine seriously the i f and the how. and finally from its total idea—in order to attain to the conviction of its persistence.27. On the contrary it is now asked whether and in how far with the three previously considered proofs for immortality as laid down in the history of thought. and the conception of persistence are there first established. The third difference vanishes also herewith without further discussion. has with this been exhausted. Aside from this we have already seen that the many proofs in the third have one origin. that within the same proofs not only their different stages but also the different proofs join This content downloaded from 132. We shall further on be able more definitely to enter upon the investigation which concerns the discussion of the divine being. We have also moreover further seen that within each sphere o f proof definite steps [develope themselves from one another. separate proofs. We cannot yet exactly see which way is left after the soul has been consid­ ered in two aspects. The objective immateriality (simplicity. or the that and the what. Wisdom and Love. The historical proof has already been mentioned in the intro­ duction. indivisibility). the sub­ jective infinitude of the soul. in order to convince ourselves of its insepara­ bleness. One inquiry presupposes the other. existence seems to be proved. Herewith multiplicity is finally disposed of.111 on Thu. is postponed for the present. 12 Jun 2014 12:28:16 PM A ll use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . or whether there are more proofs to be found: whether thought in so far as the same consists o f proofs. Here first. in order to compare more accurately also the phases in the proofs for the divine being with those for human immortality developing themselves differently to the same end. So much for the present about the internal affinity of both series of proof. the whole realm of proof on this subject is exhausted in this. Add to this. or whether yet other mode& of proof are accessible. The further consideration of these and of the arrangement of individual. before we can further deduce from it Omnipotence.376 The Immortality o f the Soul .236.

Up to the latest times. feelings and convictions. movetur. (6) esse suum habet in sua essentia. that it scarcely availed to subordinate its material ^and to retain the widening stream in its channel. Thus Marsilius Ficinus. It would be even as instructive as it is interesting to hunt up and examine the whole literature of this discipline in ancient and modern times in consecutive order. and that of the following centu­ ries. However. in part. so is it also (11) per se vita.111 on Thu. nam quod sibi hseretper se. But these judgments extend over. as (12) This content downloaded from 132. to the higher spheres. in quam possit resolvi. enumerates fifteen grounds for immortality. stat. in most won­ derful colorings. for example. particularly that of Descartes and Spinoza. in the fifth book of his Platonic The­ ology.— (3) materise dominatur. and unification. to the end that we might discover the confirmation of what has been said. purposes. and again in the seventh book ten grounds for the immateriality of the hu­ man soul. 377 and intermingle.236. (5) individua. clearing up.27. as well as in modern philosophy. that they conflict among themselves without final disentanglement. until finally a countless multitude of the most different views arise. (4) est a materia libera. (10) non habet in se potentiam ad non esse. (8) sibi per se convenit esse. non separatur a se ipso. opinions. and by this the number of proofs is still in­ creased. Greek philosophy. The Immortality o f the Soul. To these fifteen proofs the most important of the first sphere of proofs belong: (The soul) Anima (1) per se movetur et in circulum. (2) stat per substantiam—manet licet moveatur. As the soul per se est. (7) esse proprium habet et nunquam a sua forma disce- dit. It lies also in the immediate human interest of the doctrine that its literature is broader and more copious than any other. had already attained such extension in the Neo-Platonic and Scholastic. the tenth into the third : it is generally more easy in most propositions to reduce all distinctions to the dead level o f tautology than to define properly the difference. (9) non componitur ex aliqua potentia. from which again immortality is derived. the sphere of proof itself is completely exhausted in the three branches be­ fore mentioned. 12 Jun 2014 12:28:16 PM A ll use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . especially that of Plato and A r­ istotle. popular philosophy has poured into it all her fancies. with which the idea of the soul itself approaches the second cycle of proof: here belong also more or less the further characteristics. regarding which it may be said.

by which the system of Creationism of the soul is acknowledged against Traducianism. besides. So much the more important however are the discussions in the patristic and scholastic philosophy concerning the cardinal question.but also the characteristic categories of being. (13) per se refertur ad Deum (14) esse a Deo accipit sine medio. if it is stated as follows: (15) vita prsestantior est corpore. whether th j soul is life itself or the effect of life. nothing else than that self-consciousness and God-consciousness as a unity (not sameness) essentially dwells in the soul. finds five grounds for the immortality of the human soul. 14). that they lack not only the adequate categories of thinking. (2 ) because to God alone glory. the human soul is the casket..236. whether the soul is vitality or vitalized. this is the third. and (3) from the nature of liberty. So says St. of such categories of relation. (tit.378 The Immortality of the Soul haeret divinis. These discussions are important. By comparing man to himself. quae est per se ? The self less remains what it is. In general we may say. lib. be­ cause persistence is inherent in it. speculatively expressed. Ambrose (Specul. it belongs to the third sphere of proof. From this likewise the position and consequent order of these three re­ lations are justified. since the immortality of the soul rests upon them. and in how far it could be life itself although created. in which God glorifies himself. that is. is the soul immortal. Yincent re­ peats it in connection with the opposing grounds. for a thing lasts as long as its function: this means. come into an uncertain fluctuation. to man usefulness. hence they. (for it is added to it): corpus ipsum nunquam desinit esse corpus.111 on Thu. The soul is incapable of death. in relation to the external world. ( 1 ) because the soul can be under obligation to the immortal and infinite God. 207). the soul is nothing else but simple: this is one. limited to the category of relation. according to its divine charac­ teristic. and cannot take up into themselves their chosen content. which requires recompense: this is the second. c. Naturale. 24. but he himself reduces them to three relations. how much more the self? So also Raymond of Sabund in his natural theology. By comparing man to God. in reference to others. in relation to himself. The soul is the life of the body and its This content downloaded from 132. quanto minus vita. On the contrary. since it is life. By com­ paring man to other creatures. 12 Jun 2014 12:28:16 PM A ll use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .27. and through this Is the contrary of death. in which we consequently again recognize our three proofs in the previously considered succession. the soul is immortal. and St.

she measures her cir­ This content downloaded from 132. “ Returning again and again. The proper object of poetry is man in all his relations and circumstances. and his immortality in his poem. break up into the manifold. The soul power is the same in youth and age. The soul is the reflection-into-itself. Palearius found his death in fire at the stake. In the first stage. The immortality of man has more than once been the particular subject of didactic poems.236. In the first book the exis­ tence of the eternal Godhead in his trinity is shown. so the poem of Aonius Palearius closes mediaeval times. and the independ­ ent persistence mediates itself as constantly progressive creation. in which the infinite multiplicity completes itself. 379 own life. Also the history of thought appears to us to point to no fourth proof. Italy has her Palearius in Latin. the various proofs passing in panoramic view before us. nothing is con­ creted from the elements. that is. nor light darkness. 12 Jun 2014 12:28:16 PM A ll use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . until finally in the third stage both moments grow together into a concrete unity. Everywhere we are led back to this triplicity of proof. for upon the eternity of God depends the immortality of man. N ot has Germany remained silent. The second book makes clear the distinction between soul and mind [anima and mens']. the infinite multiplicity is once for all overcome. France has her Polignac in Latin and her Delille in French. to (jonsult poetry also. and as rays of light. consequently externality is removed. but the soul persists amid the change.27. The Immortality o f the Soul. and is hence me­ diated to a unity. In him we can see. It need not be regarded as inappropriate here. in the second this abstraction is denied and the soul subsists only through its relation to God. for poetry is the mirror in which all thoughts o f the time concenter and are reflected. as in a mirror. nor is it susceptible of death. England has her Browne in Latin (Isaak Hawkins Browne) and her Sir John Davies in English. The triplicity is this. As Lucretius’ Ode to Nature closes the olden time. since human personality depends upon absolute personality. in which the difference in the two is made clear. always and everywhere distributing itself through the whole body. whether the soul is independent life : the discussions on this touch throughout all three spheres of proof. But just for this reason it is asked. independence is maintained as objective simplicity. nothing is mixed. just as beat cannot per­ mit snow. We see the mind increase and diminish with the body.111 on Thu.

“ Do you not also see what the perception o f things signifies!” She can even comprehend the contradictory.380 The Immortality o f the Soul. conceive.27. much quicker than a swift current of air. capable of cognizing God. and features. she is mightiest when she frees herself from the body! “ Do you not see that the more the soul frees herself from the body. she trusts in herself. and hence cannot go oat into anything external. See ! now she hastens to the shores where the sun sinks into the ocean. through which she is able at once to wander through all time and space : What is quicker than thought ? “ The soul wanders through all pathways. and as the father of all things. she investigates everything. “ Alas! if the last glimmer of life despoils everything. as well as her dominion over it: “ We see how the soul rules over the entire body. she lives a God like life. and expresses herself in every form. she can think.111 on Thu. “ For such longing is not inserted in vain in human desire. now to the treasures and peo- This content downloaded from 132.. how un­ happy would mankind be! It would be cruel injustice. permeate everything : “ Yea.236.” The soul can comprehend the infinite : “ How could that which grasps and measures the infinite. and breaks to pieces the fetters of the body and the dark prison. if she should nevertheless be destined to dissolution. and form. she measures everything in her flight. 12 Jun 2014 12:28:16 PM A ll use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . she forms herself. e.’’ She affirms her difference from the body. She is nothing whatever external. She cannot lose herself. the eternal. she permeates all things. she presently comprehends both in one. the more mightily she prevails ? And as she mounts the ether to the upper world without a leader. be finite and go to ruin in death?” The soul can enter everything. repeating in herself color. “ Tell me. not a sweet nourisher. “ Add to this also that what are in constant strife among themselves have not the power to strive against the soul: what one calls cold and the other hot. i. but spiteful fatality. cle or orbit. and whither does she depart when she ex­ pires ? ” She can see what 110 eye sees. comprehend the universal.” Therefore nothing could be so wretched as the highest work of creation. whither does the soul then go.” Yea.” But her infinite speed is also a warrant for her infinity.” To this is to be added her longing after imperishability.

She wanders through all lands and the track­ less wastes of the sea.” The grounds of these proofs belong to the sphere of the first and second proofs. since the future belongs to her. but really in narrower limits does Polig- nac’s Anti-Lucretius move.111 on Thu. It contains consequently a series of energetic pictures. u The power is not mortal which is thus able to know the fu­ ture. The poet collects them finally. This is justice.27. 12 Jun 2014 12:28:16 PM A ll use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . for the restoration of justice. And if I do not err the proofs . For right as it is here adminis­ tered by men. upon which the universal belief of mankind in persist­ ence rests. “ Great things this song unfolds. One is that the soul alone is able to move This content downloaded from 132. 381 pies of the East. through the air and the skies. which in every as­ pect it endeavors to make harmonize with the religious conscious­ ness. u What bond unites natures so unlike.” This corresponds to occasionalism. otherwise they could not in any way be united. does not full}7 satisfy justice. ^until now are >three. “ Surely it is the Godhead himself who has united the soul with the body. is demanded in a manner that cannot be refused. The Carte­ sian philosophy is here rendered in verse. The Immortality o f the Soul .—and of this the third book treats—that the future as righteousness. Spinoza and Locke.” The last is also this. In the same vein. Body and soul are in such manner separated that their connec­ tion is only to be explained by the continual influence of God. It begins with the power of simple self-consciousness.” This is the principal content of a poem now no longer read [Palearius : “ Three books on Immortality of the Soul” ]. when he prepares to disclose the mystery of the connection between soul and body. with which this life closes as with a discord. as God the requiter administers it. “ What is determined to him as wages certainly awaits this in the fixed order of certain penalty.236. The proofs themselves rest upon the dualism to which Descartes had found the solution.” The soul penetrates the future. In the fifth book upon immortality he comes to confute Lucretius. which for the most part in sensuous expressions wit­ ness for the supersensuousness or immateriality of the soul. but also otherwise do not overleap the limits of the already devel­ oped spheres of proof.

since it brings together in relation to the immortality of the soul all the rays of philosophy from more than a thousand years of its his­ tory. but the interval which separates it from its origin and its destination. which had to grapple with the most boldly expressed doubt. and at the end of the course of the fleeting years of life. They are such questions as al­ ready have their answer in themselves: “ What end does such a seed of the divine mind serve. Therefore so long as the body with its organs cleaves to the spirit. or rather not the middle state. is a condition which is not adequate to its ideal. and seizes the individual moments of proof with freshness and vivacity. nor with oppressing weight of fate does the dark power of nature. Finally.236. But the poem on immortality lies completely before us. the position between its past and its future. and that they live for­ ever. It begins in the most vital part with the question. if it cannot grow and bear the fruit which exists as a germ within it i ” This proof is seized in its profundity. “ But so long as life lasts. whatever the will plans and does. and cannot expand the wings freely for its upward flight. Against the former the poet defends in a lengthy Latin poem the personality of absolute spirit and the immortality of finite spirit.for it was contemporary with Bolingbroke (11751) and Hume (fl776) [“ Essays on Suicide and Immortality” ]. (we call it life if it is concealed in the dark shell of the body) the living power of the spirit is benumbed. this is done with the perfect freedom of the mind.27. but the mind freely takes up or deserts the object o f its ap­ plication.” But of still weightier import is the Latin poem of Izaak Hawk­ ins Browne. the pure and perfectly just await an endless life. from which all the branches of the moral proofs o f immortality are developed. The son after the death of his father has communicated to us a portion of this apology.382 The Immortality o f the Soul the body. Then it follows that the souls of men are not woven of parts. 12 Jun 2014 12:28:16 PM A ll use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . that their nature is indissoluble. in what else does the intensity and the intention of the personal persist­ ence of the finite spirit consist than in reminiscence wrhich points not only backwards but also forwards ? The middle state in which the soul finds itself. Matter does not coerce the union. It is important on account of its content.111 on Thu. the soul can merit wages and earn punishment. It is also important on account of the time in which it was written. And in what else does the deeper ground and the content of immortality consist. Yet This content downloaded from 132.

“ Upon the mum­ my is traced the likeness of the living. fears and hopes. “ What do funeral obsequies mean? What is the sig­ nificance of the anxious care over the dead and the elabo­ rate structure of the sepulchre?” if they are not the expressive witness of universal belief in immortality. and enjoys himself and is afflicted by his own inner power. elevated above all intermixture with matter'? He is yet conscious of himself.” Not less the mummies with all manner of embalming and picturing. u Imper­ ishable stand the colossal pyramids. so firm is the trust that after the dissolution in death our better part persists. from which we are unable to separate ourselves. Among other things are also the Egyptian pyramids. So deep inborn in each is the hope. Nevertheless the universal author­ ity of conviction. in externality or materiality. For whence otherwise orig­ inates reminiscence ? Does not the mind arrange everything in one so skillfully and lay it aside again for a purpose ?” This reminiscence is the chief power of spirit: but the same spirit is in every line of the anti-Lucretian verses in all its force. The public voice proclaims it. in all its aims and manifestations brought forward to testify that here is more than nature in all her glory. for to thought the body is always subser­ vient. so. the forcing to a faith in persistence is yet This content downloaded from 132. This o f itself leads back into the content of the first proof. “ And whence is the miracle of spirit? Does not power dwell in it free and independent. on the one hand presses forward with the constraining force of a conviction.” But the more the superiority and dominion of the mind is evi­ dent and is reflected in illustrious individual examples.” Thus widely the powers of the world to come operate.27. u Who does not feel in his innermost being that in his death something of himself survives? It is an inward testimony. on the other hand. in all its works. No people are plunged into darkness so profound that they do not look beyond the grave in expectation of a future. 383 many vestiges of its origin remain. wills. it has its difficulties. 12 Jun 2014 12:28:16 PM A ll use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .” And funeral services of all descrip­ tions.111 on Thu.236. which no natural force can overcome. wills not. It is not everybody’s affair. The Immortality o f the Soul. Its difficulty lies in its sensuousness. the more closely does it approach the historical proof for immortality. Of this all antiquity testifies. the speaking prdof of immortality itself held forth ? But as this proof. hates and loves. no tooth of time destroy.

to sep­ arate the mind from what is tangible. with their fables of Orcusand Hades in order merely to maintain the concrete self. mov­ ing on in Virgilian verse. the grasp of human reason is only still more required and empowered to de­ velop light from light. which have astonished many centuries ! Of this the poem treats.” This superiority and freedom of the mind unfolds itself in the final weakness o f the body. this is the characteristic of the recipro­ cal bond. as to the separation of the soul from the body.111 on Thu. though nature often proves itself sprung from a divine stock. there This content downloaded from 132. namely the bond between the soul and the body. indissoluble. “ The fullness of time now brings to us what we long to see. to the independence of the soul from the body in this separation. Now it appeals to Socrates. the connection with itself. she prefers to admit crude images of sense perception. for thence all the proofs accessible to human reason are taken.” With the mentioned light of revelation however. it overcomes all difficulties which the senses offer. overcomes all doubt. “ If in the approach o f death. Yet this light was previously announced in the wonderful proph­ ecies of the Roman poet Yirgil. if it advances from step to step.” The way which thought takes. yet the duration of the soul in itself.27. “ Since it is so difficult for the soul to think herself as existing without the body.384 The Immortality o f the Soul . and to develop itself in the light. the childish thought of the people lends to it the form of the b o d y /’ So far the poem. But also the spirit which is far removed from na­ ture. particularly to the conversation of the Grecian sage before his death. namely. the members grow stiff. help from above and the advent of God. which like sunrise on the heights illumines all darkness. 12 Jun 2014 12:28:16 PM A ll use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . But now also the poet has recourse to the light of revelation. For however inward also the connection is. shows itself not identical with it. The overcoming life of the soul often raises itself most conspicuously in the moment of death. which is not to be ignored. ‘‘ Hence it is not to be denied that the spirit unites itself with the body in many ways. Before faith will give up immortal life.236. Yet these prophecies them­ selves are looked upon as rays cast back from that light. “ Therefore we despise not the aid which reason affords us. mightier. is more secure. leads just as well to the connection of the soul with the body.

” To this indomitable pride of duty which glories in its disinter­ estedness and simultaneously is wrapped up in its own self­ praise. no other than to see God as Le is. so be i t ! No­ thing further follows from it than that our moral objector need not give himself such immaculate and virtuous airs. that a man follows his heavenly calling. but is something-for-itself. who from his innermost longing raised above the earthly. so here it is opposed to it. The various sides o f this proof are examined : the objections to it are answered.” It is so easy to comprehend that not the purpose. and on ac­ count of this. For his virtue is sordid who does light that he may receive a reward after death. but he wills it not. And as in all times morality itself has declared against the moral proof. Finally all proofs are collected fora better survey. he could do it if it were the divine will. 12 Jun 2014 12:28:16 PM A ll use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . for the reward is like the vocation. which the earthly never can sate. independent. It does this daily in trite forms of expression. It touches at once the third proof. not the reward in itself but the sordid view of it. verily the thirst of the eternal. For verily the power of cognition.111 on Thu. nor by a sense. But if ethics will de­ clare him only to be good and virtuous.236. but the kind of purpose. who does not hold fast in view the goal which his vocation pre­ scribes for him. not by love for the good. “ He who is able to think purely and to will. “ But you complain that he is moved by the hope of reward. who does not cling to this. does not soar up in intense desire to behold the everlas­ ting beauty. 385 the lightning of the spirit raises itself higher: full of God the soul shines forth. and the desire of our 2 5 K I—25 ' This content downloaded from 132. “ So be it! Yet he would be bad. can pervert virtue unto her opposite. hope also deliverance from the body of this death. The Immortality o f the Soul . But God could extinguish it 1 So be it! God could do it. which comprehends so many things. in order to see God and to enjoy God. who follows no other end. this spirit is not woven out of earthly material.27. immor­ tal. Virtue consists in this.7’ In the second book of this remarkable poem the moral proof especially is more particularly carried out. the answer is easily given. and demands no other reward than to end self less. which reaches out beyond this life. for the right and the truth holds to duty.

on the other side the rich content of faith in the first form of i.236. in order to do justice to the external and internal. We have in this found in the mirror of poesy. During this time it has been more convenient and more accessible than the Platonic Phaedo. It is nevertheless impor­ tant to mention Mendelssohn who in his Phaedo sought to unite the metaphysical and moral proof for reciprocal support. are not in vain. to know it in its necessity and to transform it into a unity. exactly what expresses outwardly the inner content of philosophy. where on the one side the understanding through the defeat of its dogmatic process. no Critique of Pure Reason would be able to displace it. It is evident that we cannot follow this exercise farther into detail. where it was neither awakened on ac­ count of a deeper speculative founding nor on account of a liv­ ing mystical mode of comprehension. And so it happens that in one time. They are the same notions and feelings which up to our times have transmitted themselves in the most varied forms. It seems as if no anti-Phaedo. For feeling faithfully holds its power among men. This book was read as much in its time as Men­ delssohn’s Phaedo. Tiedge’ s Urania partic­ ularly treats. poetry on the other hand utters thoughts in mental pictures.ts immediateness.111 on Thu. aspiring after the perfect. improved in manifold ways and connected with each other without adding any new content to it.” So much from the well-nigh forgotten poems of the past. all three proofs in their ac­ cessible stages according to the manner of cultivated feelings have been connected with each other. even when all higher and more per­ fect faculties of spirit rest as paralyzed.27. and since both books only touch the surface. and through extension loses its proper nerve and germ. This Phaedo of Mendelssohn since 1767 has maintained a lasting and wide spread fame. the credo itself had lost its credit. In the same category. for it has in its content an invisible ally which contends for it. and on the contrary reflects ideas into feelings.386 The Immortality o f the Soul . belong John Paul This content downloaded from 132. 12 Jun 2014 12:28:16 PM A ll use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . soul which deeply moves within us. in which thought evermore goes to ruin. O f this union of intellectual proofs in the form of feeling. Also more recently many have followed it. only with a more clearly marked determination. Here is likewise opened the wide sea of popular philosophy. While philosophy has to struggle with the contrast between the inner and the outer or between the soul and the body. they enjoyed a common popularity.

One more popular exper­ iment succeeds another. and seeks to derive logically from these its un­ changeableness in opposition to the changeableness of all visible things. including meditations upon the Proteus Anguinus. is seen to proceed from the two proof-spheres. Sir Humphrey Davy’ s “ Consolations in Travel.” without mentioning his innumerable predecessors and followers. for each one has a different statement of the same proof. but also the deep longing o f the human spirit. Such combinations of different proofs are partly involuntary. and each proof has different sides. and this proof further rests upon negation. demanding the co-operation of all spiritual powers for its conviction. longs for the invisible and the enduring. But there lies in them this defect. While these reflections seek to discover the secret of spirit which everywhere proclaims itself. which in the p r e se n c e of all visible. 12 Jun 2014 12:28:16 PM A ll use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . which also appertains to the changeable. upon mixes everything with everything else and stirs them together in the most affecting manner. in order to cover the baldness of the understanding and to gain for it a content where it is lacking. although sometimes one and sometimes the other prevails.” have been translated into German. which turns on the simplicity and invisibil­ ity of the soul. This proof consists in this. and upon immortality.27. inexorable perishableness. but This content downloaded from 132. upon closer analysis. that what there lacks in the individual proofs to produce conviction must be made up through the combination or completed through the feeling. Each one supposes that he has found something new.” or the “ Last Days of a Philosopher. Herewith at once seems to struggle forth at last out of the full­ ness of feeling still another new content for an intellectual proof. These “ Consolations” contain many historical and physiological observations. that the invisible and unchangeable are deduced from the visible and transient. On the other hand. Of late.236. partly premeditated. 387 Richter’s “ Campaner-Thal” and “ Selina. And yet in such commix­ ture and confusion is expressed not only the actual combination o f individual proofs which mutually support each other. This view. in despair of all intellectual proofs. some have indeed wished to vindicate not only immediate faith. Hence it also happens that. But with this also this view goes over to the third proof and in its result to the first. they bring it nearer to feeling.111 on Thu. The Immortality o f the Soul.

388 The Immortality o f the Soul .
also natural feeling, as immediate’ certainty, and to give it the
preference over all mediation, since the latter and the knowledge
proceeding from it, seems to consist precisely in those proofs and
to remain externally in these. As we find the existence of God
elevated above all proof, the essence of God above all existence,
so we also find the persistence of the personal subject immedi­
ately certain, since the medium of proof is according to the view
which it holds, and is not adequate^to its task, and hence cannot
answer to an inner conviction.

In this we are now drawn to the last inquiry in this part of our
work. It is asked whether the force of the proof does actually
lie in the previously considered proofs for immortality. The
question has likewise been put in such a manner as to inquire
whether the immortality of the humau soul can be demonstrated.
So much have we already seen, that the agreement of thought
and being lies at the bottom of all the proofs in their various
shapes and applications]; for these rest upon the laws of thought
which are applied to the present and future being of the soul.
This agreement is however as yet an unproved presupposition.
The proofs rest consequently upon a ground which is not stead­
fast, and itself is now wanting in inner justification. Hence the
agreement of thought and being must first be proved, which is
not possible in this method of proof, since each proof presuppo­
ses this agreement, while the proof itself is realized only through
thought [and not through being]. Or it must be able to vindi­
cate the being of thought itself, or it must show thought and its
persistence to be independent of being itself, or in fine the duality
between being and thought must be cancelled. However within
the sphere of this proof it has not yet been done, although we
have made the speculative content as conspicuous as the same
can now be made in its highest development.
Hence so long as these proofs remain dogmatic proofs, that isr
so long as they rest upon the dualism, and the agreement of both
sides is only presupposed, so long as external demonstrations,
they cannot produce any inner conviction. On that account one
generally is understood to be in agreement with a dualistic stand­
point. One says, k4Our views are so and so, but who will give us
a warranty that objective validity may also belong to them VJ And
moreover whatever may be in this critical doubt, this much is
evident, that the dogmatic procedure itself demands it in ad*

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The Immortality o f the Soul. 389

vance, since it itself rests upon this dualism, and yet does not
apply to it. Thus if, like every other external object, the soul be
treated as a “ thing,” existence will be ascribed to the soul just as
it is imputed to every other thing; and to this external objective
mental picture there is again applied a predicate which does not
apply to a thing, but belongs only to the personal subject, v iz .:
simplicity, immateriality. Or the soul is comprehended as sub­
ject, but to this subject is attributed as essential a property
which does not belong to things, viz.: persistence, futurity. Or
a subjective conception is applied to the soul, as if it were a
thing. In all three cases, the process of a presupposed dualistic
notion is not adequate and is not correspondent to the being of
the soul itself. Nay, on the one hand, the whole conception of
being in all its external dimensions seems indeed to correspond
to the soul as to thought, in so far as the soul exists, although
the very question is, whether the soul exists; but on the other
hand, it is not at all satisfactory. Existence seems to belong to
the soul, but its essence and completeness do not consist in
this. For the soul is essentially this: 44to be for itself and not
for another being [i. e., dependent on it], and therefore primarily
it is never an object at all, still less a thing-in-itself.” (Schell-
ing’s Philos. Writings, I., 224).
In this the dogmatic process appears also again to be vindica­
ted. For if both being and thought inhere in the soul in a unity,
so it appears also to be fitting that the dogmatic psychology ap­
plies to its object both determinations, since it not only deduces
futurity from present existence, from outward objective being, but
also from the nature of this existence, from the internality of be­
ing. This only is wanting to the dogmatic procedure, (1 ) that
it does not justify itself; (2 ), secondly, that its conclusions, its
goal, does not elevate itself above the sphere of being itself, in­
asmuch as it is seized simply as future being. The principal de­
fect however is, that the relation between being and thought re­
mains unexplained. From this it seems again to follow that the
proofs heretofore considered, if they are speculatively compre­
hended, lead to an actual knowledge and conviction, only that in
being so comprehended they cease more and more to be dogmatic

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Source: The J o u r n a l o f S p e c u la tiv e P h ilo so p h y , Vol. 17, No. 2 (A pril, 1883), pp. 154-162
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C h apter II.—E d .1 Personality. 12 Jun 2014 12:25:55 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . and exposed its inadequacy. As the crowning result of the labor of all previous periods. and the dogmatic method of demonstrar tion (in part under the altered name of construction) prevailed until philosophy attained insight into the genetic development of the idea. be supplemented by objec­ tive experience. is. by such as these. and published in volume xi (pages 65. however. TRANSLATED FROM THE GERMAN OP CARL FRIEDRICH GOESCHEL BY SUSAN E. and that this subjective logic must. BLOW. it is still to many an insoluble enigma that the content should be developed from the concept—“ from the concept ” mean­ ing to them just as much as. It is true that the critical philosophy arraigned the dogmatic procedure. but has also substituted for it the progressive development of the concept or notion growing out of and moving towards the identUy of subject and object. philosophy has at last discovered its true method. Even now the speculative method is grossly misunder­ stood .111 on Thu.154 The Journal o f Speculative Philosophy.236. Thereupon this experience is interpolated ex­ tempore instead of being included as method in the identity of Being and Thought. 872) of this journal. R. and therein attained the one form adequate to its content. therefore. and condescendingly urged . harangued and tutored. The object is not something 1 [The introduction and first chapter of this work were translated by consider the wonderful fact that a formal or subjective logic is not adequate to objective reality and true conviction. Vick> roy. the old a priori. under­ standing the open secret quite as little as others. 177. The philosophy which has not only recognized the inadequacy of a method based upon the dualism between Being and Thought. and developed and mediated in the develop­ ment of the concept or notion.27. are those who. or the Immanent Development o f the Soul and its Immortality . ] This content downloaded from 132. and not one whit more than. T.. THE IMMORTALITY OF THE SOUL. In the worst case of all. yet this same critical philosophy fell into the dogmatism it denounced. yet insist upon their own comprehension.

an utter failure. Thought immediately presupposes and postulates itself. or categories outside of and beside each other in whatever is immediately given. reveals itself as the most vital experience—we shall learn in the progress of the task which we have set ourselves. itself presupposes..236. in the Logic. to the Notion or Comprehension and the Absolute Idea. In this manner we see Being develop itself logically out of Nothing. without demonstra­ ting. It then sought to show that this agree­ ment could not be proved . and this reproach was deserved. we are at home everywhere in general. it is the beginning which realizes and confirms itself in its development. This done. which the subject looks upon and follows. 15& different from its concept or notion. being transcendental. or from the object identical with its concept.111 on Thu. for we have learned to complete the circle from any given point of its circumference. With the recognition of this defect. hence. we experience it in ourselves. The Immortality of the Soul. is necessarily external. progressive philosophy learns to presuppose nothing. That thought is its own mediation is no ground for rec­ This content downloaded from 132. and we shall also see clearly how this movement differs in the sharpest manner from the dogmatic method of proof of which dualism is the root. and the proposition that the unity of Thought and Being could not be demonstrated proved to be itself undemonstrable. but one with it. while challeng­ ing and censuring the presupposition of the as yet unproved iden­ tity of Being and Thought. pro­ gressive movement from the concept identical with its object. the object develops in and through itself. moments.27. through Becoming. the attempt was. Methodically pursuing and following the object. It may be objected that. Critical philosophy reproached dogmatism for presupposing without proof the agreement of thought and its object. we answer that thought is immediate only in so far as it is its own mediation. and through this devel­ opment comes to its experience. and in itself it both finds and surmounts being. How this may be more definitely understood—how the self-developing. however. It is most remarkable that this critical philosophy. and which (whether interposed a 'priori or a posteriori). and then conversely find these several steps. the duality of subject and object. 12 Jun 2014 12:25:55 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . neither to assume anything nor to accept anything as already settled. but to investigate and discover how everything given immediately develops and mediates itself. Therefore.

and can. but. the soul develops in itself. For. because here the subject is unquestionably its own object. however. on the contrary. went away sorrowful. it remains as it is and what it is : having This content downloaded from 132. in obedience to its own laws. withdraw itself from the categories of Thought. therefore. Pure philosophj' thrives only under poverty and restraint. this self-mediation forces us to recognize thought as the true beginning from which Being develops itself into Comprehension—herewith proving. It is given as Thought. moves forward to its immortality. 12 Jun 2014 12:25:55 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . We shall.156 The Journal of Speculative Philosophy. therefore. can be held valid in the object has certainly no validity in the psychological sphere. and. if the soul does not progress neither can it perish. If.236. though in manifold and varied forms. The command laid upon Philosophy. in this sphere must the demand be insisted upon that there shall be no transition as in a demonstration from one to the other in order to bind to­ gether in thought things which exist as separate . The question whether the soul persists presupposes the progres­ sive development of the soul. then. as subjective forms. but shall simply ob­ serve how. the one shall produce in and out of itself its own deter­ minations. This general course of development once mastered. like the nun.111 on Thu. not make even this presupposition. still less than other given objects. it cannot be reproached with having borrowed help from something external whose accord with its nature must be demonstrated. the same moments or categories which revealed themselves on the plane of pure thought. who. hear­ ing it. We shall take the soul as it is—abstracting nothing from it—imputing to it no foreign or exter­ nal element. the soul develops according to its own essential nature. The critical consideration whether the categories. The given object in our present investigation is the human soul.27. says a great master. ognizing something different from thought as prior to thought. that being pertains to Comprehension. The more rigorously. but that. it is bound by the three mo­ nastic vows. and with ever new astonishment we shall be confirmed in the recognition that in whatever is immediate may be found. also. is like the Saviour’s command to the rich youth. any special experience in any sphere of the real world will reveal itself as a necessary internal development of the thought of the given object. on the contrary.

We shall follow the soul in its own path. The subjective con­ cept divides itself in judgments that it may reunite with itself in the syllogism. but he dirempts himself into outward and in­ ward. and. Thus man. so we can follow its progressive development and note the various phases of its manifestation. e. too. with Thought—everywhere. There is no ground for presupposing a difference between Being and its experience. and whether or not it persists. its essence remains unchanged. Evidently all turns upon the mediatorial question of how the soul develops or progresses. we shall learn whither the path tends. therefore. are also answered.236. is first a single and undivided essence . it be­ hooves us to see if it remains what it is—that is to say. As we know the soul first under the form of its immediate existence. The comprehension or concept dirempts itself in itself into subject and object in order to annul this separation in their identification. the immediate questions of whether or not the soul progresses. the second. whether. the end of an untravelled road. The first phase is the immediate unity and total­ ity . whether we move from the accidental and immediate—i.* The universal particularizes itself in differences which then again mediate themselves in unity. and this diremption occurs not only in thought through reflection. this is the res- 1 1 This content downloaded from 132.111 on Thu. in order therein to recognize the same categories. move from Thought as our start­ ing-point. We might.. on the contrary. but also in fact through death. can it lack continuance? If.e. under changes in its modes of manifestation. 12 Jun 2014 12:25:55 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . No matter how we begin. we shall find the same progressive move­ ment. it does not remain as it is. from a given object—or whether we start with the Universal—i.. Just on this account we must postpone these immediate questions which insist on fixing. thus following. in advance. the self-diremption of this totality into being and essence. 157 permanence. The final phase would be the transfigured unity of soul and body. however. The Iinmortality o f the Soul. In the answer to this. and confine ourselves to the concrete question of how the soul develops and unfolds. outward and inward. Herewith we are directed into the path of experience.27. body and soul. the soul progresses. rather the experi­ ence develops itself out of Being as Being develops itself out of thought. in the most dis­ tinct and varied spheres. the third is the transfiguration of the difference into unity.

as individual. As Thought. is Thought sunk in the Material. thought distin­ guishes itself from being .27. the perpetuity of the body in a manner corresponding to its conception or notion.236. self-separa­ tion. in this indifference and unconsciousness. that in the idea of resurrection there is im­ plied. develops itself into consciousness in that Being: since as individual it reflects itself after its self-separation both in This content downloaded from 132. in its immediacy. in its immediacy. whether in the soul. the soul of man—but the entire soul. and. not assume it. urrection in the *Spirit. as well as its reunion with the soul. Let us ask.111 on Thu. as resurrection is the ultimate truth and goal of the soul. the starting-point is not man .158 The Journal o f Speculative Philosophy. he has served us only as the example of a universal law of de­ velopment. The human soul. as a necessary condition. therefore. completed the spheres of being. namely. the soul. the soul has unity only because it is unconscious and undeveloped. is blank. thought and being are opposed to each other until thought becomes conscious of being. has for its starting-point the total man. that the immortality of the human soul has for its starting-point the soul itself. which ascribes to man body. separates itself from itself. may be discerned progress through the ever-rccurring moments of unity. distinguishes. also. and to the Godhead ascribes three persons. the soul. 12 Jun 2014 12:25:55 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Upon this insight rests the trichotomy of the New Testament. for we must seek our goal. however. and self-identification. In the second phase. In our present inquiry. may be pre­ supposed. which is that of externality or otherness. in order to realize its unity. is our initial point. Not man in his totality is our starting-point. is homogeneous and undivided. in its imme­ diacy. As Being. it contradicts its own essential nature. and the Material is Being in which thought lies concealed and undeveloped. Neither is resurrectjon our goal. Thus much. It is obvious. considered as a totality. itself first abstracted through reflection—namely. it is obvi­ ous that from the beginning of our inquiry some kind of persist­ ency conformable to the essence of the soul must be presupposed. As a totality. this unconscious being of the soul having. soul. In this immediacy. first. potential thought—thought without distinction and with­ out reflection. Nevertheless. but a part of man. but just from this it follows that the soul sunders. then. In the second stage or moment. while the resurrection of the body. and spirit. the soul.

this is the soul which. it attains unity with its other. passes through phases of development corresponding to body. 159 itself and in its other it falls into self-difference . accordingly. includes and transfigures both. First is the body—that which obeys and serves the basis of all further development.27. That is to say. Consciousness. holds sway over body and spirit. therein realizing a mediated unity . in so far as it recognizes itself not only in itself. The progressive movement of the soul can. Thus the soul is first its own body or its own foundation . What have we thereby gained ? Can we abstract the meaning of our formulated statement ? Are we able to show how the content of these several moments is self-unfold­ ing and self-revealing ? Primarily. The third is the actually mediated unity. be indi­ cated in three words—Soul. making itself its own object. But the question arises.. 12. rising above body and soul. 4. identifying itself with its object realizes itself as Spirit.111 on Thu. and Spirit or Indi­ vidual—Subject and Identity of the Subject with the Object. in its third phase it penetrates to the identity of sub­ ject and object. in its second phase it estranges itself from itself. it may be mentioned that in this division the Aristo­ telian doctriue of three souls seems to be realized in its underlying truth. distinguishing and uniting. The third is the rational Soul (rj vorjriKtj which rises out of human consciousness. and spirit. To this trichotomy is related that into which Plato analyzed both the individual Soul and the State. and therein realizes itself as Spirit. 12 Jun 2014 12:25:55 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . With the act of distinguishing comes also synthesis. 13. the soul in its first phase is an immediate totality. t o — This content downloaded from 132. The first is the nutritive Soul {f} dpe7TTifcrj yfrvxv)^ found in and identical with the life of the plant. for self-consciousness necessarily implies con­ sciousness of all that through self-separation is made other than self. The Immortality of the Soul. 3. and. but in its other. “ De Anima. Consciousness is this difference itself.) As man develops himself in body. The third phase demands that this divided consciousness annul its tension. and spirit.236. soul. it serves itself without distinguishing itself from the body. 2. abstracted from its sensible. so the soul. The second is the life of the animal or the sensitive Soul aiadrjTLKr) yfrvxv) > this sen­ sitive Soul in human life comes to consciousness through reflect­ ing itself in itself. and thus finding the internal in itself. iii.” ii. tangible body. (Aristot. soul. which.

or Reason. this is the soul’s im­ mediate unity with its other. has no other content than before. is proved in the end by the fact that the soul. finally. Consciousness as distinguishing and uniting. Even the rudest empirical theories of the soul teach something of this awakening.236. the third Thesis: or. To us. through its own self-diremption into inner and outer and conscious mediation. after as before its development. consists in the identity of thought and the object of thought. brtOvfjurfTtKov tj 'Xprj/jLaTioTL/cbv. and its re­ moval. but the truth of this phenomenon. The youth recognizes the differ­ ence from and the elevation above himself of what seemed before one with him and subject to him . the second. Spirit or Reason. 2. with which are necessarily bound up the consciousness of its ob­ ject and its own distinction. The perfection of the soul is simply the mediation of this unity and its elevation -into consciousness. The child longs for and tries to grasp the moon.160 The Journal o f Speculative Philosophy. t o Xoyurrucop. Soul. In so far as the soul is thought as abstracted frbm its external body. called t o dvfiutov fj dvfio-eiSes and iirLtcovpi/cov. the unity of both. and of conscious­ ness into spirit. has revealed and vindicated itself as the universal dialectic of imme­ diacy. 1. the third is the spirit. The development of the soul into consciousness. the third is Reason. is experimentally confirmed : it is in general rep­ resented as an awakening. the man comprehends that the star which the child tried to seize with his hands is but a single moment in the totality of spirit. The first is Hypothesis.111 on Thu. its soul is its self-consciousness. o Now. its body subsists through its (soul’s) individuality . 3.27. That the soul in its progressive movement develops from itself. The nature of the soul. the sec­ ond Antithesis and Synthesis. in its highest perfection as spirit. Through this same organic process of estrangement. or that which simultaneously sunders and reunites. however. receiving into itself nothing foreign and external. therefrom. The realized idea of love is marriage. Parallels This content downloaded from 132. the immediate unity of love comes to its rational media­ tion or idea. or the mean between the first and last. and dependent on himself. or the Spirit which takes up into itself and mediates both the pre­ ceding phases of development. is not brought to light. because he feels it as his object. the content of this observation. 12 Jun 2014 12:25:55 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . this progress of the soul. or the mean above the first* and second. is the Soul.

the result unmediated. He. we have compounded with a poetic myth . She is enticed by the longing to know. this myth belongs essentially to the history of the doc­ trine of immortality. betrothal. in inmost oneness with the unseen and invisible God. and seen it attain its crowning result.27. the king’s daugh­ ter. immortality does not seem to develop itself. and transplanted immediately into imme­ diate relation or spontaneous union with the all-unifying Spirit of love. thus reuniting herself with the alien­ ated Spirit of love. the marriage is ratified in heaven. But there comes a moment of temptation—temp­ tation which she does not resist. is still near her. As the soul has risen out of immediate unconscious unity. 12 Jun 2014 12:25:55 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . he sustains her. For logical development. does not necessitate the immortality of the soul* 1 1 * XVII—11 This content downloaded from 132. and the bride receives immortality. marriage. The soul is at the goal of the race. the development of the soul through its successive grades is embodied and illustrated : but the content of the soul is not disclosed .236. how she is rescued and borne away by Zephyr. she struggles to cancel differ­ ence and annul separation. how. the bridegroom comes. shall it not complete the circle of its life by return into the same? Is this final rest the reconciliation which follows the long and weary struggle? So it appears: the soul’s movement. The Immortality o f ike Soul. for immortality consists in this marriage of the mortal and the divine. like Iphi- genia. she knows the bitterness of slavery. She feels the misery and degradation of estrangement. in the supreme moments of trial. She rests in love.111 on Thu. We discern these organic moments in the tender and significant myth which closes the old world and opens the new. love realizes itself in marriage. but to be bestowed from without. and in the sweat of her face performs her cruel tasks. in the distance. At last she is con­ scious of reconciliation and deliverance. which we have traced empiricallv. but into alienation. In this ancient myth. she is exposed by her own parents. In it we see how Psyche. We have followed the course of development in time. 161 and symbols of marriage are found throughout the spheres of spirit. outgrows her origin and breaks loose from i t . and this may involve the de­ struction of the soul. Unity is followed by separation. separation by reunion. the determinations remain abstract. She steps out of innocence and unconsciousness not only into knowledge. But she has also the hope of deliverance.

however. but we must inquire. we can find its beginning and its end in God. and how. nothing external. at once negate itself. be what the soul can find in itself. because it implies this internal realiza­ tion.162 The Journal of Speculative Philosophy. This appearance will. but consists in the immanent self*development of the soul into Spirit. With reference to our beginning. We often gain more by repeating a journey than in making it for the first time. it needs no eternal continuance. This investigation is. This develop­ ment can only be called “ di/vine ” in so far as the Godhead is its beginning and its end. in its exhibition of the idea of the soul through making explicit all that this idea implies. in order to determine if anything further follows from it. This content downloaded from 132.236. The investigation is a long one. a long and divine investigation. the Spirit. T ie next step. 12 Jun 2014 12:25:55 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . follow­ ing the movement of the soul. definitely what is the Spirit. there­ fore. according to Plato. the initial question must. its immortality consists in its development into spirit. The end of the course in which the soul moves we may name. if the soul is immortal. and has taken no cognizance of the content of this development. Completing itself in time. with slow and carefully considered steps. To exhibit the nature of the soul involves. in advance. therefore. for it belongs to the thought of immanent development that noth­ ing shall be given from without.27. To experience its length. and its unfolding. we must at first place it in the soul.111 on Thu. however. is to consider the various stages of the soul’s movement with refer­ ence to their content. and. for it is based npon the outward course of development. the road over which we have already rapidly passed. we must travel again. which is the realized idea of the soul.

penn state urineisity piess
Source: The J o u r n a l o f S p e c u la tiv e P h ilo so p h y , Vol. 17, No. 3 (J u ly , 1883), pp. 246-263
P ub lished by: Penn State U n iversity Press
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246 The Journal of Speculative Philosophy.

T A L IT Y .

C h a p t e r I I — ( Continued).

Personality , or the Immanent Development of the Soul and its
Immortality .
1. A t the very first the soul is seized as fortuitous, ungrounded
unity, placed in the outw ard world, immersed in its own outer
b o d y ; consciousness is apprehended as the distinction or diremp-
ticn into inw ard and outw ard, the Ego and the non-Ego, the
knowing of self and its o th e r; spirit is seized as the m ediated
necessary unity of the Ego and the non-Ego developed out of the
double consciousness and grounded in itself. The task to which
we now address ourselves is to learn more definitely the content
of these different stages, and sim ultaneously to search out, step by
step, what occurs in the progressive unfolding of the soul, and how
in this unfolding the content of the soul is revealed.
2. I t is not a brilliant paradox, but the simple tru th , th a t the
im m ortality of the soul demands the death of the soul. T h e
soul, as soul— i . e., the soul in its im m ediate undeveloped phase—
m ust die like the body; as soul, the soul cannot persist. The
soul m ust not love its life, but give up its life, in order to win it
again as thought in Reason. Its life is the naivete of im m ediate
unity, which, having no consciousness of otherness, neither knows
nor fears anything external to itself. Its death is the resurrec­
tion of consciousness; henceforth it is burdened w ith its o th er;
unity is shattered, opposition is given with object; upon the one
side is the Ego, upon the other the non-E go; thus consciousness is
itself double and co n trad icto ry ; consciousness of itself and con­
sciousness of its other. H erew ith, however, consciousness transfig­
ures itself. F or in knowing tlie other it cancels its separation from
the o th er; the other of which it is conscious belongs to it quite
as well as the self of which it is conscious. Through insight into
the Id en tity o r C ontinuity of subject and object the conflict ot

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The Development of the Soul and its Immortality. 247
consciousness is overcome, and the death of consciousness is the
birth of th e spirit. S pirit is the transfiguration of consciousness;
the reconciliation of subject and object. In the spirit, soul and
consciousness are born again, and this new b irth is a transform a­
tion in which the self-consciousness in consciousness is both posi­
tively and negatively cancelled.
3. I n exact accord with this double-dying is the famous, but
grossly misunderstood, distinction of A ristotle between the m ortal
y/rvx^} and the im m ortal vovs ; for the vovs is realized only as the
external existence of the tyvxn is annulled. Its reality is th o u g h t;
this reality is im m ortality, for death lies not before it, but be­
hind it.
4. I t is worthy of rem ark th at the oldest Greek fathers, J u s ­
tin M artyr, Tatianus, and Theophilus, in accord w ith the scrip-
tu rartrich o to m y of body, soul, and spirit, prom ulgated the identi­
cal doctrine of the soul which we have been defending, and
recognized th e same categories, though they seized them under
the form of sensuous representation. They taught mortalem est
animam ; notw ithstanding, they rightly opposed the heathen, who,
seeming to propound the same doctrine, m eant the annihilation of
the spirit and denied the persistence of self-consciousness. T here­
fore the fathers added, a but the soul ( \ j ) shall rise again with
a m ortal body, for the spirit is im perishable and gives life ” (irvevfia
a<f>dapTOP f a o i r o i o v v ) .
5. Throughout it is the spirit which, first in the phase of exist­
ence, and then in that of consciousness, invisibly rules the soul
until finally it realizes itself and manifests itself in its own proper
image. F irst it appears as soul in and with the body, hence as
in d iv id u a l: this is the anthropological sphere. In the second
sphere, th at of phenomenology, it appears as subject, hence as
consciousness. The subject is distinguished from the simple indi­
vidual in th at the latter only reproduces the species, while the
former is subject only in so fa r as it is a self. B ut is not the
subject, like the individual, subordinate to the otherness to which
it opposes itself ? W e behold it die as the soul enters its third
phase ; the only question is, w hat elements of the previous phases
does this th ird phase take up into itself? A t first we recognize
in the soul’s progress and transition only this much, th at in the
third or psychological sphere the spirit appears in its own proper

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it is found in the R esult. yet this very beginning. B ut this is as yet not found. which stood opposed to finite spirit. 8. W e have now attained a point of view from which. as Abso­ This content downloaded from 132. A nd conversely this im m ediate origin points necessarily to an ul­ tim ate origin in thought. A s this contingent beginning led to thought. Because the spirit is thinking activity. Consciousness can­ not rise out of the unconscious. 12 Jun 2014 12:29:03 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . I t is w orthy of rem ark also th a t the Individual does not make his beginning. in accord w ith the content of the Spirit. There­ fore it can have lost nothing of its essential n a tu re . th a t is to say.111 on Thu. it must have come out of thought. the realized form of the U niversal. it has m ediated both individuality and self-consciousness.248 The Journal of Speculative Philosophy. F o r obviously this other. finds its origin— moving forward. A lthough it has found a beginning in itself as individual. it m ust have saved out of its first period its individuality. image. As realized in spirit. and added to them all th at they lacked. Thus as Spirit it is all in a l l .236. or finally it is th at in which the spirit (which up to this point has progressively developed itself before us). finds its goal. it is conscious at last of the wealth it has always possessed. we can pursue our inquiry into the fu rth e r destiny of the S pirit. and has become con­ scious of this m ediation. Its final end and ultim ate origin m ust lie in this other through which it has m ediated itself. considered relatively to the spirit. out of the second period its self-consciousness. I t has m ediated itself through its other— taken up its other into itself. rather. the soul has cancelled the opposition of subject and object. m oving backw ard. whence it came it knows not even yet. and its other. only a relative. this beginning points. through its contingency and immediacy. nay. he only finds it in him ­ self. it m ust recognize itself more definitely . Its beginning was im m ediate. 6. and corresponding to the relative begin­ ning from which it moved. it came to the knowledge of itself and of its other w ith­ out know ing how it ca m e. therefore. The end it has thus attained is. I f the spirit is a m ediated somewhat. for it has transcended the external. however. through which it is m ediated. it is able to trace itself back to its im m ediate origin. 7. points to an origin outside of itself.27. to a higher origin. and has reconciled and taken up its object into itself. is either subordinate to it or equal with it (in both of which cases opposi­ tion cannot be cancelled in identity and the beginning rem ains u n fo u n d ).

the finite spirit is through the A bsolute Spirit. thus really we plunged at once in medias res / we had not the ultim ate or prim itive origin of the so u l: this ulti­ m ate origin can only be the final result. i. as Subject. The Development of the Soul a/nd its Immortality. and has its begin­ ning in time. it is. whence it follows th at the finite spirit partakes of th e Infinite Spirit.27. The finite spirit is in the A bsolute Spirit. 9. 12. wTe are led to the ultim ate Ground or Origin which we presup­ posed in the earlier stage of our inquiry. reach Absolute Being. it has developed itself into Con­ scious U n itjT with God and the W o rld . 249 lu te Spirit. 12 Jun 2014 12:29:03 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . from any given starting-point. 11. however. e. 13.111 on Thu. to make this im plicit idea explicit is the soul’s development. The im ­ plicit idea of the finite spirit is M ediation. I t cannot really recognize itself as spirit w ithout recognizing itself as finite s p irit: as finite spirit its nature is its relationship to A bsoluts Spirit. I t is not a fiction of the mind set up as a tranquillizing conclusion to the endless. is n o t simply a formal postulate— i. moving from our given starting point. restless series of This content downloaded from 132. W e found th at the soul had a beginning in its own nature and de­ veloped itself out of itself. finite spirit. we m ust. and as Spirit. or Causa Sui . The Absolute Spirit posits itself from etern ity .236. The ground of the finite spirit is the A bsolute Spirit. The soul is now spirit. which is also its origin and goal. This nature of the soul was. The soul does not develop arbitrarily into something dif­ ferent from itself. and the Absolute S pirit in the finite. J u s t because the ultim ate ground of finite being is Absolut© Being. fo r it finds its beginning as som ething given.. i. e. 10. e. in which it finds its condition and its tru th — th at w ithout which it could not be and th a t toward which it endlessly strives. b u t moves from its finite beginning toward the A bsolute Beginning. T h at which is its own ground m ust be also the ground of the finite o r dependent. The recognition of God as A bsolute Spirit. identity with and through the A bsolute S p ir it. we shall attain. som ething given . which. however.. B eholding the soul deter­ mine itself successively as Individual.. W e took the soul as we found it for our initial point. and the A bsolute S pirit is the spirit which has its ground in itself. it is not a postulate which lacks reality and with which we try to satisfy ourselves m erely because we can go no farther.

as Individual. th e individual is S pirit by means of union with subjectivity from everlasting to ev e rlastin g : for S pirit is the tru th of individuality and subjectivity in the sense th at these latter are complete only in their union as Spirit. T he realization of self-conscious spirit is Absolute P ersonality. 16. F o r both U niversal and P articu lar are lim ited. and P er­ son . for the developm ent of finite spirit ends w ith the recognition of God as the A bsolute S pirit. Thus the ternary process of life develops itself three times w ithin the essence of God. I t follows th at th e Absolute Spirit produces itself in itself in the same m anner in which the spirit made in its image develops itself.111 on Thu. The deeper insight is this. P articu lar. b u t it is reflected as a totality in each of the M oments of its Self-determ ining activity. The U niversal is the true Individual. Secondly. Subject. T hirdly. in its second phase. The Infinite has the form of self-relation *or U niversality. T hrough this reflection the spirit realizes itself or determ ines itself as personality. determ ined. 12 Jun 2014 12:29:03 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 15.27.236. The Individual is so entirely the tru th of the U niversal and the P articu lar th at they both become Individual through an individualizing or de­ term ining process. the spirit can — have its presupposition only in spirit. e. The spirit is th at which is Causa Sui i. 14. or individualized by the Jimit which separates them from the Individual. Personality is inclusiveness— transparency—th at which penetrates all and is penetrated by all. To recap itulate: The finite depends upon and implies the Infinite. S pirit as such is not only a T otal­ ity complete in itself. The presupposition of finite spirit is therefore necessarily A bsolute Spirit. in th at out of the Universal through the P articu lar he becomes Individual. Thought. therein cancelling num erical differ­ ence. and as self-com­ This content downloaded from 132. In its first phase it appears as U niversal. and In d iv id u al.. R ath er has our inquiry yielded the result th at in th e finite spirit God realized himself. or rather from eternity to eternity they de­ term ine themselves through this lim it as individual. as th at which determ ines itself in itself— as th at which is determ ined by itself. whose presupposition is necessary to its own being as spirit.250 The Journal of Speculative Philosophy. The Individual has the form of self-conscious Spirit. in the th ird and final phase.. th at from eternity to eternity God produces him self in Him self. Each of the M oments of the T otal is therefore itself a totality penetrated by and mir­ roring the whole.

H erein God realizes him self as Absolute Spirit. Consequently the A bsolute S pirit not only engenders him ­ self within him self. in accordance with the foregoing. £.236. rather. through the particular into the Individual. for. par­ takes of the Absolute S p ir it. the finite spirit is pro­ gressively united w ith the Absolute Spirit. it differs from the latter in th at it is created and finite. and upon the gross misapprehension of this insight rests the absurd accusation brought against him. so it is contradictory to speak of a plurality of spirits coexistent or successive. from the A bsolute Spirit. S pirit is not a num ber. 12 Jun 2014 12:29:03 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . but also creates outside of him self his complete image. outside of it there is nothing real. however. as spirit. S pirit itself is U nity . Through this essence it m ust have developed out of the Universal. As.111 on Thu. Second. con­ ceived as existing external to all men. 18. I t is the created image of God. which is its ground. A s personal .27. it is a self—bu t a created self. This personality is seized as the U nity of Thought or Spirit— S pirit is one. as there is nothing outside of spirit. Upon this insight rests the philosophy of A ristotle. it necessarily ascribes to itself pre-existence. th at he attributed to the whole of hum anity a single soul. and yet the common prop­ erty of all. 19. through the force of his absolute personality. 20. is. th a t pre-existence This content downloaded from 132. The speculative content of the doctrine. The finite spirit is also sp irit. spirit is always em phatically one and the same. Like the Creator. This image. pre-exist­ ence involves the contradiction of existing before existence. which is its own object. con­ sequently it proceeds from spirit— i. or the flowing union of the finite with the Infinite Spirit. or. th at is to say. to be distinguished from a pre­ ceding or following num ber.. and which realizes this object through itself. f i r s t . before beginning the individual developm ent which up to this point we have considered. he penetrates and concretely realizes. it is essentially s p irit. The finite spirit. Held under the form of sensuous representation. This perfect image is th e finite spirit. an essence prior to existence. This implies th at its destiny is to realize itself through a progressive self-unfolding. To this end the first requisite io per­ sonality. 251 m unicating person proceeding again out of this determ ination. spirit cannot be outside of itself. Spirit is the only re a lity . The Development of the Soul and its Immortality. 17.

111 on Thu. H ence a procession out of God.236. I t is therefore as essential to creation to have a begin­ ning in tim e as it is essential to God to have realized him self from all eternity. which is Becoming. being finite spirit. the contradiction of the divine essence m ust exist under the form of time. it is not eternal. and it is d o n e ! The next step is. 21. the contradiction of him self which God produces out of himself: J u s t on this account. as the beginning of this existence in tim e finds This content downloaded from 132. 12 Jun 2014 12:29:03 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . has as phenomenon its beginning in time. however. not be identified with G o d . and. more adequately grasped. it is rather the negation of the divine essence. Creation is essentially th a t which is brought forth out of w hat is not. th at Existence should become Conscious Being. for only tim e e n d s. This processioti m ay be indicated as follow s: M oving from God it manifests itself first as U niversal or the undeterm ined unity of Being and N au g h t — thence it passe3 through the particular. though this result was lim ited in a former stage of our inquiry. God th in k s it. C reation is Been to be divine in its origin. his revelation of him self outside of himself. From this insight follows still another result. in other words.252 The Journal of /Speculative Philosophy. C reation m ust. had its beginning in time. before its M anifestation in tim e it was inherent p otentiality in God. for only God is eternal in his existence. it follows that. b u t the im m anent contradiction in God. it m ust. as phenom enon. 22. it is our d u ty to re-state it here in the light of the deeper insight and more adequate deter­ m ination to which we have now attained. As essence. although this contradiction as im m anent essence is itself eternal. th at phenom enal existence should move forw ard into actuality.27. and it has this end only in tim e. into Existence. Consequently. Inasm uch as Crear tion is essentially the externalization of God. however. or the eternally spoken W ord. refers to the essence back of m anifestation. T he tru th of pre-existence is therefore essence. So m uch follows logically from our premise (and nothing more). it is not the abstract contradiction 0/ . and belonging to creation. or. I f the soul. Only the phenom enal existence of the soul has an end. as existence. 23. as phenom enal and external. however. have its end in time. which as proces­ sion is existence. or pure b e in g . the pure being back of existence— the existence which underlies self-recognizing Being. From this it follows th at the soul of man. or ra th e r poten­ tiality in God.

the indivisi­ ble itself. w hether it also reflects itself in itself. To us. Through this reflection of the individual by the world is tested w hether the soul has its own true being in itse lf.236. is an in d iv id u a l. In w hat does this content con­ sist ? T he cogency of this question is now definitely apprehended : we m ust therefore study it more closely. the soul. on th e contrary. 26. the end of the soul is the nega­ tion of this beginning. i. we recognize it first as Being which is for itself. therefore. 253 its origin backw ard in eternity. therefore. The soul is to the world as unity to the manifold— rather it is the unity which includes this m anifold in itself. like every other object. The Development of the Soul and Us Immortality. Its origin in eternity was pure being and essence. P u re being is. 27. the soul appears first u n d er the form of In d iv id u ality . 25. Time. As subject. upon the question w hether the devel­ oped content of the soul is identical w ith the pure being in which. I t has now become more glaringly evident th a t the im m or­ tality of the soul depends upon the content it develops and reveals in time. the principle or essence of all individu­ ality. f 7 This content downloaded from 132. A ll turns. for Soul realized is being developed into Self-conscious Spirit. W e m ust therefore say th a t w hat the soul receives fro m eternity undeveloped it takes back developed into eternity. so its end in tim e flows forw ard and melts into eternity. The content of this first determ ination is as follows : A s being for self. be the content which it has developed out of its essence and existence. as soul it is the individual. it originated. 24. sim plicity and unity. and we are able to do this because we have found in God’s self-revealing process the same categories through which the content of the soul develops itself. The soul meets the test by developing itself into consciousness: the Individual becomes Sub­ ject. This renews the question. but of its o th e r. The im plicit being of the soul first realizes and reveals itself as Individuality. and this developm ent follows necessarily from the idea of created being— which has defined itself as being externalized or projected in time. the germ of individualization or determ ination. nothing b u t undeveloped b e in g : therefore.27. which lies between. 12 Jun 2014 12:29:03 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . This is the first relationship of the soul— its relationship to the world. is the developing process. e. it is conscious not only of itself.111 on Thu. the end of the soul as phenom enal existence m ust. however.. before existence.

the difference out of which spirit proceeded is both negatively and positively cancelled. On the other hand. a vanishing elem ent in the total self-mani­ festation of Spirit. and the tru th or outcome of this subject in th e highest or Absolute Subject. resounding from the This content downloaded from 132. Thus self-consciousness culm i­ nates in the consciousness of God . which N ature itself can never do.27. and. in the Absolute Consciousness thus tran ­ scending the contradiction. and secondly distinguishing in its other subject and object. herein uniting the contradictory. 29. the original identity w ithin the Absolute S pirit is realized or brought to con­ sciousness. 28. thus identifying the opposites. rings through the Universe. H erein lies the distinction between N atu re and the Spirit. There remains. Both these results are m ediated through Personality. W h at is not S pirit is not actual. herew ith the soul enters into its relationship to God.. The subject not only finds the object in itself. Through this identity of the hum an Spirit. Thus con­ sciousness finds itself in its other.111 on Thu. it grasps even N atu re as a totality. consciousness is still divided against itself and the contradiction unsolved. N atu re manifests in isolation and fragm entariness th at which S pirit holds in indivisible U nity. viz. and its other in itself. and therefore knows the difference between itself and tlie other. but also finds the sub­ je c t outside of itself.236. it knows this other as other. it becomes conscious of contradiction in each of the mom ents of th e contradiction. thus it rises into personality which m ust verify it­ self as penetrability. thus the soul develops itself through consciousness into spirit which is essentially to be f o r the Spirit. Inasm uch as consciousness holds in itself not only self but the other of self. nothing but Spirit. it has no subject and no object b u t itself. 12 Jun 2014 12:29:03 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . S pirit is one. The subject itself is finally penetrated by the A bsolute Spirit to which originally it opposed itself. which. inasm uch as it finds the other in itself. sounding forth from God. As result of this first contradiction. inasm uch as finally it finds the Source and the outcome of itself in the other. its process is one in which the contra­ diction posited is progressively annulled. Thus the subject as person attains to partici­ pation w ith th a t which was form erly opposed i t . and itself in the other. therefore.254 The Journal of Speculative Philosophy. separating itself first into body and soul. but only a m om ent of actuality. Spirit as such is subject and o b je c t. B ut this relationship is still burdened w ith alien elem ents.

31. leads necessarily back to God. as God is Spirit. This path which moves from creation. The soul is created by G o d . rather. created to be Spirit. the goal of Creation m ust be also Spirit. finally.236. to consciousness. and of all being . also. 32. for th e form er implies at least the soul. persists and progresses into the infinite. not only the negative cancelling of finitude. that. through this return into God. which. Therefore. 255 finite Spirit. through its individuality. 12 Jun 2014 12:29:03 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . H erein this path of the soul’s developm ent is seized as a Regressus or return into God. The persistence of individuality and subjectivity is also dem anded by the very idea of personality. while the la tte r is utterly de­ void of any determ ination. I t is. it develops itself out of the conditions of creature. The Development of the Soul and its Immortality. it comprehends its own idea. and progressively unfolds it w ithout losing. or individuality. in that. however. more exactly out of being for self. it is and remains conscious of itself. however. out of the passive determ ination of existence. in other words. in any phase of its developm ent. or Being in and for itself. neither does it return to the form of its own im me­ diate existence in time. echoes through all the Spheres of Creation.27. th a t is. In the light of our attained insight we are now able to de­ fine more adequately the difference between the immediate unity of the soul in its first appearance. a single elem ent o f its realization. as inclusiveness. I t is. for. w ithout detri­ m ent to its finitude. which in its tu rn moves from God. or. The developm ent of the soul is therefore not concluded with its return as S pirit into G o d . implies. 30.111 on Thu. it is externalized— posited as existence*. This is its first phase. penetrated by the S pirit of God. a progress. it is and rem ains distinct from God and from all creation . it is essential to the idea of S pirit th at. but it returns to God as the complete reali­ zation of w hat it was created to be. determ ined to be self-de­ term ining. bu t the taking up of fini­ tude into itself. and. out of con­ sciousness into Spirit. through its personality it annuls its lim itations. T he im m ediate unity of the Soul is not pure immediateness. 80 far as it3 content is concerned. of God. through its subjectivity. P u re im m ediateness is the uneon- This content downloaded from 132. for the soul does not retu rn into the essence under the form of which it was from eter­ nity in God. and the mediated unity which th e finite spirit in its complete developm ent proves itself to be.

it is the' undeterm ined void. 12 Jun 2014 12:29:03 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .111 on Thu. for it is th a t contradiction of the external which still feels the pres­ sure of e x te rn a lity . we have referred to"essential being as m ani­ fested in N ature.256 The Journal of Speculative Philosophy. for w ith­ out an individuality of its own it could not ascend through con-' sciousness to th at identity o f subject and object in which it com­ pletes and reveals itself as spirit. because it is im m anent in the soul. but it pene­ trates and includes its other as it is itself penetrated and included- T he im m ediate unity of the soul is itself still som ething external. also include otherness in the individual spirit itself * This other. This body is also the soul’s mediation. from which the soul can separate itself. in this aspect. and the internal body. Spirit. being simple. is the body. To this sim plicity we are led by the abstraction from otherness. does not abstract from otherness in order to preserve itself. is attributed to the soul in consequence of a previous abstraction from otherness based upon an antecedent recognition of otherness. the soul is seized in its im ­ m ediate unity. the last retreat into which the soul as essence retires. This content downloaded from 132. scions abstraction from all distinction or determ ination . is the identity of body and soul* 34. in so far as the soul rem ains a fte r all manifoldness recognized as externality has been consciously abstracted. thus conquering a footing outside of it through which we secure ourselves against it. however.1 S im plicity. For. In speaking of the body of the soul we 'm ust again distin­ guish between the external body. W e m ust. W hen. Thus far. this unity m ay be more adequately defined as th e sim plicity attributed to the soul. for the outw ard belongs to it. cannot separate itself. in speaking of the other w ith which the individual spirit identifies itself. H ence it is a m ediated immediateness. when otherness emerges. which necessarily grows out of the recognition of other­ ness.27. however. we can at first transcend it only by abstracting from it. and we understand by sim plicity th at final inwardness which rem ains after all th a t is outw ard has been abstracted. in the world of spirits and in God. on the contrary. 33. 1 A6s pot xov <rrw. the m ediated unity.236.. therefore. from which the soul. M ediated unity. on the contrary. I t is through this body th a t the soul is f o r itself \ and distinguishes it­ self from others. is im m a­ nent. which belongs im m ediately to the individual spirit.

or rath er the principle of all individuality. in the first m om ent of its movem ent. The Development of the Soul and its Immortality. Through the abstraction of all th a t was bodily we attributed to the soul. I t is the spirit. In th e final phase of developm ent. we have defined it as pene­ trability. on th e contrary. 257 35. 1 7 * X V I I —17 This content downloaded from 132. and o f the new development whose goal we have anticipated in intro­ ducing the elem ent of freedom into the idea of Spirit. as it were. I t has been said that from the personality of the finite spirit follows its freedom. on the one hand. in the identity of the spirit itself w ith its object. As m entioned. W e have now a more adequate knowledge of the content which has developed itself in and from the soul. and in the exact definition of each particular word . Nature is otherness to God. the latter the Spirit outside of itself. I t is through the identity of the spirit w ith its object th a t the spirit preserves its personality in its freedom. This individuality is. we seized individuality first by abstracting the body. The object in con­ sciousness is the otherness or other-being of the subject. however.27. in the identity of the soul w ith its body. individuality. 12 Jun 2014 12:29:03 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . A nd spirit consists. but as the organic content both o f th at original developm ent whose course we have retraced. and. In itself and out of itself it is.236. F o r the m oment. we m ust concentrate our attention on the dif­ ference between the identity of the soul w ith its negation and the identity of the spirit w ith its negation. only thus will it be rec­ ognized not as a form al result. This result m ust be com prehended word by word. 37. The form er is the S pirit in itself.111 on Thu. and. P en etrab ility is th at quality through which the finite spirit enters into inw ard union and vital interaction w ith the 1 The German word Andei'sseyn has been rendered “ otherness ” in this translation. it is the body which realizes and protects individuality and distinguishes one essential being from another. the protection of th e soul’s identity throughout th e different phases of the soul’s self-externalization. I t is through the identity of the soul with its body th a t the soul preserves its individuality and its subjectivity in its personality. To distinguish personality from the individu­ ality and subjectivity included in it. however. as result of the identity of the inw ard and outw ard negation. always the same spirit. The reader will gather the import of the term from the context. is shown to be im plicit in the soul. on the other. 36. F or the body is otherness1 or negation.

yet this determ ining spirit relatively to the deter­ m ined spirit is not an external. On the negative side. and through this Absolute S pirit into union and interaction with tfye whole created universe. as finite spirit. because determ ined by spirit. The essence of freedom is. therefore. objective. the finite spirit is seized as the totality of all its moments which in N atu re lie outside of each other. it is the power of self-determination. B y virtue of this personality. conform ably to the essence of personality. Freedom of the spirit may be defined negatively as the negation of any lim iting or determ ining power alien to the s p ir it.236. there follow reciprocal action and reaction. it is passive. T hrough personali­ ty. A bsolute Spirit. it is no alien force which acts upon the finite spirit. only through its personality. to the spirit. it implies th at the soul. or rath er alien. in its first phase. freedom implies the disappearance of the negative power which threatened persistence. in the latter. Personality is. Consequently. positively con­ ceived. though the finite spirit is determ ined by the H ighest Spirit. the outcome o f continuity or stability. nothing re­ mains external. The spirit recognizes in its object itself as other. The spirit penetrates all because it is itself penetrated b y the 'A bsolute Spirit. identical with personali­ t y .27. is self-determining. therefore. 39. Through personality freedom is mediated in the finite spirit. which in the disjecta membra of the m aterial world recognizes itself. and are united only in spirit.111 on Thu. In the form er it is im m ediately active. 12 Jun 2014 12:29:03 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . freedom is included in and conditioned by the person. therefore. this is the logical result of the process of development. Absolute Spirit. alien force. Personality belongs to the Absolute S pirit and to the finite Spirit. 38. The con­ tinuous action of the Absolute S pirit upon the finite spirit m ust m ake the la tte r increasingly self-determ ining. the transfiguration of identity. H ence.258 The Journal of Speculative Philosophy. on the positive side. and th e cancelling of contradiction in both a negative and positive sense. but. The in­ dividuality of the soul and the consciousness of the subject are preserved in the personality of the finite spirit through the free­ dom demanded by personality. Thus. herein cancelling alienation and revealing the nature of the object. which herein m anifests itself as highest. The possession of freedom is the guarantee of im m o rta lity . For. m atter itself is penetrated by the spirit. T he complete This content downloaded from 132.

it is penetrated by being. ju st as the idea of spirit includes essen­ tially these same m om ents apprehended as soul and subject. it also guards and m aintains within itself individuality. but this enemy has disappeared. likewise. but th at which penetrates through and through is not some­ thing alien and inimical to th e in d iv id u a l. as pene­ tratin g and penetrated. abstract being. this tem poral end would. therefore. individuality could only be submerged in its abstract opposite. 1 Erinnerung means recollection. no point of tim e in which the soul attains to perfect and complete recollection. both the internal principle of the developing soul and the ultim ate result of this development. hereupon rests the P latonic psychology. W hile. F or it is implied in personality th a t the moments out of which it emerges (Individuality and Consciousness) shall each be included in their essence. There is. for w hat is is individual. 40. and in this place also a deepening of the soul in self-knowledge—it is a sort of descent into one’s self. viz. one of Erinnerung.1 Recollection is tw ofold: it looks backward and moves fo rw ard .236. The indivisible has become penetrable. e. personality is secure from destruction and certain of persistence through the freedom which belongs to its idea.. the individual has become per­ son. is in both active and passive union w ith its other or the A bsolute Spirit. it is developed being— the tru th or outcom e of b eing. I t is. or indivisibility. like color in the light. consequently. it is not destructive of individuality. it presupposes a source which it remembers and dem ands—a goal toward which all its activity shall tend. The persistence of the hum an soul has proved itself to be essentially personal persistence— i. Such a point would be the tem poral end of the so u l. In other words. 12 Jun 2014 12:29:03 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .27. consciousness can go over only into universal consciousness. 4^1. though transfigured in their form . and consciousness. therefore. The activity of the finite spirit is. There is no point of tim e in which the soul cannot rem em ber a preceding p o in t. This content downloaded from 132. and in this it becomes clearer and purer. the finite spirit. 259 penetration of the finite spirit by the A bsolute S pirit would be th e finite sp irit’s complete self-determination. therefore.111 on Thu. it has coalesced indissolubly with being. b u t conscious­ ness has emerged from b e in g .. therefore. The Development of the Soul and its Immortality. So consciousness could lose itself only in its opposite. im m ortality itself.

out of a prim eval past. try as we m ay. th a t penetration becomes com plete in the resurrection.260 The Journal of Speculative Philosophy. be eternity. much of the future. seeks its ideal development. and things forgotten corne again to the recollection only when all things are seen in connection. for it will aid us to orient ourselves. for the body unpenetrated by spirit decays. 12 Jun 2014 12:29:03 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . in This content downloaded from 132. the totality of all m om ents as actu­ ality. and the transition to an eternally pro­ gressive reflection and reciprocal penetration. H erein. 43. in face of the sneer and jeer of pantheism . for it leaves nothing foreign and im penetrable to the soul standing over against the soul. shall we never grasp the other? 42. aa mom ents in an inclusive process. Contingency is negated only through the appre­ hension of continuity. recedes into the invisible distance. The spirit transcends it as it learns to distinguish the false from the true selfhood. the hope guaranteed by faith of conscious reunion before the throne of God.27. which once was near and vivid. T he last enemy has been destroyed. B u t in m ortality there is not complete penetration. and Erinnerung are the more exact determ inations of personality which develop themselves out of its contents and exhibit the relations of the finite spirit w ith itselfT and to all th at is other than itself. however. e. so philosophy is not ashamed of the childish representation of this reunion. blessedness is not the pure light. A s faith is not ashamed of the Gospel. the final cancelling of contingency. the prophetic long­ ing of feeling to meet its loved ones beyond the grave.111 on Thu. too. b u t if we have forever lost the one. but. This is one side of d e a th . I t is w orthy of rem ark.. we cannot make the vision definite. 44. determ ines itself in personality as a m ediated concept. im m ortality. i. vague visions of things know n and unknown . The resurrection is the consummation of the soul’s beatitude. F rom tim e to tim e there seems to float before us. blessedness is only negatively defined. the other is. M uch of the past. th a t freedom .236. melts into unconsciousness. The reason th a t much seems accidental to the understand­ ing is one and the same with the reason th at so much slips out of th e m emory. Posi­ tively defined. Thus. which tried to come to us and could not. however. though a low stage. which is nothing else than the penetration of the body. but the fulness of colors in the light and th eir reciprocal interpenetration . This childish representation is one stage of the developm ent.

we know not even in ourselves. As the spirit.236. when one person shall. an d als5 in the communion of the finite S pirit w ith the Absolute Spirit. so in each sphere it moves through three phases. and through its yet dream ing internality. be within a n o th e r. Freedom . W ith Personality is bound up. whose unity is the Reason of the Subject. to its actuality which is attained when internality comes to itself in the body. the third of which always includes the other two. 45. and one w ith the Soul in the Spirit. as yet. as the This content downloaded from 132. literally. the im perishable basis of “ being in and by self. which proves itself to be Personality. Now. the body opaque. in the process of self-development and self­ realization. In the Anthropological Sphere the soul moves through its natural existence or corporeality. and it shall be for all tim e. Personality consists in the active and passive participation of the soul with the body in the Spirit. 46. we must now again (as dem anded by the spirally progressive m ovem ent of the idea) circle around our course from its remote beginning.” In the sphere of phenomenology. the Spirit.27. Reason is thus the persist­ ence of being fo r self. there­ fore. the subjectivity which results from feeling direm pts itself into the double consciousness. the soul is clearer than the body— mens notior corpore • the soul is transparent. A ll shall be transparent. which is the Concrete realization of Reason. This A ctuality is the unity and individuality of the soul. Erinnerung . m anifested feeling. when each one of us shall read in the other the hidden secret which. There shall come a time. and therein develops (though always within the lim its of th e special sphere) the enduring germ of im m ortality. and only in the third sphere attains its adequate form .111 on Thu. and through its practical sphere in which it acts upon the object. to its tru th or actuality. Feeling is. In the psychological sphere. moves through its theoretical sphere in which the object acts upon it. on the one side. the transfiguration of the body w ith the soul in the spirit. 12 Jun 2014 12:29:03 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . T h at w hat has been said may grow clearer. B ut the tim e shall come when the body shall be completely penetrated. thus develop­ ing a fresh content and a further completeness. moves through three spheres. 47. on the other side. and with all other Spirits. 261 o th e r words. and. as the outcome of Feeling. The Development of the Soul and its Immortality.

ultim ately lightens even this darkness and penetrates This content downloaded from 132. the servant. descending in the form of graee. nevertheless. darkens and degrades b o th . H e loses the power of participation only in so far as he. O bdurate persistence in isolation is e v il. being created. e. Conversely. is not yet thoroughly participative. and.. in virtue of the indw elling freedom of the Person. in other words. I t is defined more accurately as “ the flesh ” — i . I t has been stated th a t in Personality the unity of the soul with the body in the S pirit is bound up as Erinnerung . 48. to his own shame. or conflict between the flesh and the spirit. of dam nation in slavery and disobedience. there is bound up with obdurate isola­ tion..236. consequently^ im ply the beatitude of the soul as the corporeality of the S p irit in the service of God. is essentially personal— i. instead of allowing itself to be penetrated by the soul. 12 Jun 2014 12:29:03 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . m akes him self m aster. it is the opposite of participation. capable of participation or Person in the process of becoming. th e outcome of Reason is the participation of the S pirit in the cor­ poreal externality of Creation in which consists the R esurrection. on the one side. and. outcome of Reason. the body rules instead of serv in g . conflict between the soul and body in the flesh . which is good. e. or. slavery and disobedience. I t is the “ flesh” or the rebellious and obdurate body which. The destiny of m an.27. falls VLW&yfrom it. he is. conformably to the idea of Creation and its preservation. In so far as he. and the unity of the spirit with creation in the Creator is bound up as free­ dom. man is called to communion w ith God and w ith Creation. From the enduring discord between body and soul follow the progressive m ortality and im penetrability of the soul. the m aster falls into disgraceful slavery. whence follows Im m o rta lity . u n til the R edeem ing Personality. the relationship of the body to the soul has been rev ersed . on the other side. the rejection or expulsion of the soul from participation. reversing the relationship between soul and body. The outcome of feeling is the unity of th e soul with its body in the Spirit. from persistent alienation or isolation results an endless future. whence flow the im m ortality of the soul and the resurrection of the body. 49. opposes him self to it.111 on Thu. already begun. it hardens and obscures the soul. and obdurately persists in this fallen condition.262 The Journal of Speculative Philosophy. B oth presuppose the A bsolute Personality.

i. belongs to the objective representations of the world. the problem left us: to explain the possibility of this fact from the totality of consciousness. into freedom. and restores to the soul blessedness. C h a p t e r V II. and a self-abandonment to the objective external power. fourth.THE MORAL LAW . FICHTE BY A. a system of organized bodies of these Egos.111 on Thu. TRANSLATED PROM THE GERMAN OF J ..---. This perceptibility of the products. in point of fact. when the body has become one w ith the soul in personality. obedience is converted. This content downloaded from 132. F A C T S O F C O N SC IO U SN E SS. P a r t S e c o n d . H ence it is not the individual. b u t also the product of its activity. 12 Jun 2014 12:29:03 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . E. B a t our previous assertions involved still another. W e have elaborated three main parts of the objective representa­ tion of the w o rld : a system of Egos.— Concerning the Practical Faculty . etc. Let us first determ ine the fact still closer. thus. and. act as an individual. The individual does not. Facts o f Consciousness. we have established as a mere naked fact of consciousness. and this absolute perception of the products of free beings. through p ar­ ticipation with God and creation. W e have. COMMUNICATION BETWEEN FREE INDIVIDUALS AS 8UOH. as we have seen.236. and perceivable as such. point. which is the power of the one Life.. the freedom of obedience. F o r corporeality is obedience. and thereby to m ake it a p art of the system of th at consciousness. KROEGER. his self-determ ination to act is.27. 1. 263 even this im penetrability. as such. but as the one l i f e . m ust be perceivable. G. W e have stated th at not only the body of a rational being. since we do not conceive consciousness as a m ere collection of separate phenom ena. b u t as one in itself connected phenomenon. a renunciation of his individuality. which rests upon the mere free conception. which acts.. but the one life. to the body true corporeality. by all other rational b ein g s. and a sensuous world. e.

18. pp.jstor. No. 12 Jun 2014 12:26:39 PM All use subject to JSTOR Term s and Conditions .org/stable/25667997 Accessed: 1 2 /0 6 /2 0 1 4 12:26 Y our use o f the JS T O R archive indicates y our acceptance o f the T erm s & C onditions o f U se. available at http://w w w .111 on Thu. preserve and extend access to The Journal o f Speculative Philosophy. Penn State University Press is collaborating w ith JS T O R to digitize.jsp JS T O R is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars. BLOW Source: The J o u r n a l o f S p e c u la tiv e P h ilo so p h y . please contact support@ jstor. 1 (Ja n u a ry This content downloaded from 132. W e use inform ation technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new form s o f scholarship. 1884) s. 21-37 P ub lished by: Penn State U n iversity Press Stable URL: http://www. For m ore inform ation about JST O R . http://w w w . researchers. penn state urineisity piess THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE SOUL AND ITS IMMORTALITY (Concluded) A uthor(s): CARL FRIEDRICH GOESCHEL and SUSAN E. and students discover. Vol.jstor. and build upon a w ide range o f content in a trusted digital archive.

and Creation presupposes the Creator. BLOW. however. through personality. That which is given is explained only through a Giver who is in Himself and has developed out of Himself all that He gives: the g i v e n cannot be explained through emanation. and with this freedom gaining not only immortality. We seek and find the ground and goal of selfhood in the Absolute Self.236. W e took the soul as we found it.) Personality . the personality of the finite spirit lacked origin and destiny—beginning and end—its Alpha and its Omega. This content downloaded from 132. to eternity determines Himself from Him self. This Creator is the Absolute Spirit. 21 THE D E V ELO PM EN T OF TH E SOUL A N D IT S IM - M O ETA LITY . keep in mind that we reach this result only when recognizing the soul as a Self. Such is the concrete content into which the soul develops itself. apprehended as Absolute Personality. The whole course of development lacked ground and guarantee. The soul from which the process of development immediately moves is itself immediately given. immediately in time. in which the Absolute Spirit.27. freedom of the Spirit. this self-determination reveals itself as the Trinity. The Development of the Soul and its Immortality. We could find both only in a Being who should be the Absolute Realization of all the moments which we had dis­ covered successively in finite and posited forms in the develop­ ment of the Spirit. the individual was without soul— consciousness without a subject. who from eternity. for the unconscious activity presupposed in emanation cannot pro­ duce what it has not in itse lf. just because it devel­ oped itself from a given point. (C h a p te r I I — Concluded. 50. however. but also the resur­ rection and transfiguration of the body. explained through Creation. the given is. attaining. mediates itself—in which also the idea of Creation finds its truth. TRANSLATED FROM THE GERMAN OF CARL FRIEDRICH GOESCHEL BY SUSAN E. and the Spirit into which the soul developed itself was finite.and transfiguration. 12 Jun 2014 12:26:39 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .111 on Thu. or the Immanent Development of the Soul and its Immortality . and the Created Spirit its interpretation . We must.

is in continuous relation with all the moments of Being and Thought. and communion. Creation has not once been. progressive. personal. renewal. i . and manifests the richness and fulness of this Spirit just in proportion as it develops itself.236. participative. of the created personality of the finite sp irit. In accordance with this view. or before which they stand paralyzed. Only through this insight can we explain how. therefore.y through the insight that Thought in all of its moments partici­ pates in the Absolute Spirit and in all Creation. the Absolute Personality of God is the condition of Creation.22 The Journal of Speculative Philosophy. The crucial insight of Philosophy is the identity of the imma­ nent movement of the concept with experience. In so far as this participation has been interrupted on the human side. itself a proof of the Divine Creation—more definitely of the continuously progressive Creation. 12 Jun 2014 12:26:39 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . through its fall. from any given moment of Thought. the act of progressive Creation manifests itself as deliverance and reconciliation through the condescension of God to the finite spirit which is thus recalled to life in Him after becoming. This realization or medi­ ation is.. hence it implies preservation. Notwithstanding this chain of connections and dependences. draws its nourishment from this Spirit. it is essentially continuous.111 on Thu. accidental. also. the personality of the finite spirit (which herein proves itself the inde­ pendent reflection of the Absolute) is the condition of the freedom of the finite s p irit.27. but it is . subject unto death. the pene­ trative participation of the Absolute with the finite spirit. According to an old fancy—embodied most purely in the great This content downloaded from 132. e. we are able to proceed immediately from the S oul: the Soul develops itself into Spirit and points of itself to God. arbitrary. This is the stone of stumbling and rock of offence on which the many are wrecked. i. the Trinity is the immanent con­ dition of the absolute self-conditioned personality of G o d . intermediate phases of apostasy—for each moment. there may develop the empty. the freedom of the finite spirit in the Absolute Spirit is the condition of its personal imperishability. e. and hence. This identity grows clear only through apprehension of the Personality of Thought. being pene­ trative and participative. This seeming para­ dox is solved by the insight that the Soul in its immediacy has in itself as its dowry the witness of the Absolute Spirit—that it ex ists in communion with this Spirit.

is so imperative as adequate apprehension of the rela­ tionship between Being and Thought. though the latter includes and concen­ trates within itself the whole expanse of Being. from Being to Thought—from the Individual to the Person. and. and which. it seems to threaten all consciousness. The Development of the Soul and its Immortality . On the one hand. how­ ever. on the other hand. it is so reliable and so real that. in its infinite expansion. Everything. and correct valuation and distinction of the categories which develop themselves in these dif­ ferent spheres. it wrould seem Thought cannot be. manifests itself in the Redemption. This is the magic power wielded over us by Being as opposed to Thought.111 on Thu. who. startled and terrified by Being. Existence as extended in space and time is so mighty and overwhelming that. therefore. and this ooncursus Dei. has borne us up­ ward and backward to Absolute Personality. after listening to the Astronomic discourses of her would-be philosophic husband. on the one hand. in its infinite dispersion. and. 23 poem of Dante—what man does not yet know he shall learn in the vision and recognition of God. without it. and doubt whether the Existing Thought or Thinking Soul is secure of this existence in the fu­ ture. and. when he held forth on Pneumatology. Therefore. it is impera­ This content downloaded from 132. The main obstacle to Knowledge of God and of the Soul lies in the fact that even in Thought we are hampered by Being and the categories of Being. nevertheless. Nothing. W e are now at the end of that process of development which has led us from immediate existence to Actuality or Individual T otality. depends upon seizing that focal point from which flashes at once the inmost comprehension. We are all like poor Lenette. declared in her distress that he made souls seem so small that she had to stretch them all out of joint to have anything left of them. Thence it is that we inquire so anxiously if Existence necessarily belongs to the Absolute Thought which we call God. Such witchcraft does Being exert over Thought that. and upon attaining that specula­ tive insight in which the truth is perfectly mirrored.236. 12 Jun 2014 12:26:39 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . in a fallen world. it is. to attack all individuality. complained that he made the stars seem so large that she could not hold them in her little heart and h ead .27. moving on from the Person. In the same sense it is true that all is determined in the coficursus D ei . feels itself dependent upon Being. On the other hand.

who. we have rejoiced in its culmination as Spirit in total Thought—how can we then still anxiously doubt and question whether Thought.236. even with this insight. we have noted its immediate origin in Being . And. as has been said. This difficulty lies. stumble over the criti­ cal doubt whether Thought as subjective and Being as objective could really coincide. Nor. shall still have the existence out of whose externality it has ascended. and have recognized existence in its externality as only a single Moment of Thought. in that future which it includes within itself. could we ever deny to human thought the power to recognize truth. again. but of and from God. The Journal of Speculative Philosophy. Thought cannot be. is negated in the totality of moments— i. indeed. mourns the plough-horse now forever lost ? But not only is the objective validity of thought often made de­ pendent upon its external existence instead of its immanent idea —but the withdrawal from thought of external existence is claimed to threaten its subjective validity. e. He who has learned to think Thought as the coming to itself of Being (and what is thought if it be not this) can never doubt that the thinking subject belongs essentially to and is inseparable from T h o u g h t. This content downloaded from 132. after such a recognition. simply. we frankly confess that the main difficulty is not overcome. N either could we. Consequently. We have followed the Soul in its upward path . which. through Personality or the power of participation.27. in its isolation.. we have seen it rise out of Being into Consciousness or subjactive th o u g h t. We reply. and reflecting itself in itse lf. 12 Jun 2014 12:26:39 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . for we should know that Thought is One. unless we resemble the worthy country­ man. and whose limits it has annulled ? How. tive that we learn to know Thought as well as Being. we could never question whether to this inmost Thought belonged the outwardness of Being. human thought is not simply human.111 on Thu. Yet. gazing thoughtfully at the ascending'Pegasus. in Thought itself. W e liave already characterized it as the internality and truth of Being. without the thinking subject. if we could become conscious of Thought in its height and depth and fulness. I f only we were able to realize that Thought is the purest transfiguration and clearest self-explication of Being—that in it Being comes to itself by turning itself inside out. mediated in the individual man. and to snatch away the think­ ing Subject.

the thinking subject is the conditio sine qua non of Thought. to put it in other words. just as Being develops itself ever explicitly in individuals. Herein lies the doubt. True. open to the charge of being still clouded and hampered by the Externality of Being ? The whole doubt is based upon a supposed analogy between Being and Thought: its procedure appears reasonable and just. there will always be existence. but that which exists is not the sam e. 12 Jun 2014 12:26:39 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Being is and shall forever be. Thought thinks. so there is change in the Subjects which are the bearers of Thought. W hat answer can we make to this objection ? In how far is this doubt which distinguishes between Being and Thought. But what matters this to This content downloaded from 132. The Development of the Soul and its Immortality . In the transmutation of material object there is preservation of the species. It is always the same Being. I t is necessary that this diffi­ culty. so with Thought is bound up the thinking subject. therefore. as the process of Being demands objective individuals. be clearly set before the mind. Our first question. W ith this Thought there shall be always a thinker. the river of Being flows on forever. but never for a moment are its waters the same. But. in order that we may read its refutation in that progressive development of the Soul which has been already traced. but in the Crude Being which is blindly and in­ voluntarily shoved under Thought. is whether this analogy is really carried out with the intended fairness and justice—whether as much has been conceded to Thought and the Thinker as to Being and the natural object. 25 not in Thought.27. as there is change in the individual objects which are the bearers of Being. and acknowledges the distinction.111 on Thu. neces­ sarily persistent. and this existence will realize and repro­ duce itself in individuals. so does it ever return upon itself implicitly in Thought. but not one whit more. or. upon which really rests the whole doubt of personal imm or­ tality. out of the infinite womb of Being are born forever fresh individuals. no more than the latter.236. and shall think foreverm ore. but not of the individual. I t will concede to Thought ju st as much right as to Being . So too is it with thought. just as Being demands the object in order to become Existence. but these subjects which emerge from Thought just as objects emerge from Being are.

in every change experienced by the subject. the assumed analogy between Being and Thought must concede to the subject that in such process of change as accords with its na­ ture it shall remain itsdf. So. ” before and after each change it is dependent upon ex­ ternal conditions . I t becomes another for the subject. a thinking subject changes into another. Yet who would venture to arraign death for equalizing the inequalities of human life? In the beginning men were equal—in the grave they are equal again ! The poor man loses less than the rich. So death robs the subject of consciousness. only to be object. on the contrary. But doubt is not yet silenced. an object which is an element merely and not a self. and with renewed energy it now directs its attack against the complaining subject. it loses its all in losing its Self. 12 Jun 2014 12:26:39 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . while from the miserable wretch who has nothing it takes nothing ? The rich and happy man loses much in death which the man who is poor and miserable does not lose. it is destroyed.111 on Thu. If. for itself it is essentially the same as before . unjust. but cannot take consciousness from the natural ob­ ject which never had it. therefore. being both men. and it is only a negative element in an inclusive totality.26 The Journal of Speculative Philosophy. as it belongs to and is dependent upon the externality which changes it. therefore. its nature is stamped upon it from without. and Subject and Individual become equal as they sink back into universal Being. which in change changes only fo r the subject. as the body of the man resembles the body of the child. but then during life the poor man had less than the rich. just as the object in its own manner retains its essential identity under all changes of form. are in their essence alike. The nature of the objects of being is. the subject must remain itself • it may vary its manifestation.236. In vain we reply to Doubt that the rich and the poor. and which itself is indifferent to change. however. it resembles its earlier form of being. whereas the change of the object is the realization of its nature. If* the subject is changed. but its essence must be self­ hood. Its procedure is not. while the subject and the This content downloaded from 132. To be just. The nature of the thinking subject is to be subject—to be self—to be one and the same. In every modification to which the external object is subjected it remains “ th in g . Dare the rich man complain of death because it takes from him his wealth.27.

which sees that it is Thought from whose fulness Being is projected as an isolated radius or single moment. the ground of all natural objects and of all conscious subjects . Being externalizes itself in Things which return again into Being as they proceeded from i t . to state it more concretely.236. consequently. This is the plague-spot of doubt—the cancer which eats away the life of thought. adequately apprehended. only a mode of universal Being. Through this insight we strike at the very root of dou b t. Thought is. recognizes. Thus Logic proves to be the Monism of Thought. But though the sud­ den revolution by which Thought is posited as the ground of Being may paralyze the sceptic who has always instinctively pos­ ited Being as the ground of thought. wherein Thought reveals itself as Absolute Personality. As the rich and the poor.111 on Thu. which. scepticism pleads guilty to and is con­ victed of the error of which we had accused it. and culminates in concrete Theology. that to the sceptic Being is the fountain whence and the bottomless gulf whither all things flow—the womb and the grave of life. Boldly comes the startling answer that Being is the com­ mon mother of life and thought—the common source of all indi­ viduality and all subjectivity. are alike the issue of Being. that it deified nature a& This content downloaded from 132. 12 Jun 2014 12:26:39 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 27 natural individual are essentially unlike. is the Trinity. not in Being but in Thought. out of Being come both the natural individual and the conscious subject. The Development of the Soul and its Immortality . as immanent Logic. Being concentrates and comes to a consciousness of itself in subjects. and that this single moment comes to its actuality only in connection with all the other moments of the inclusive Totality. or. Our accusation was that scepticism always implies Being as the infinite Substance and the ultimate source of all things . so nature and spirit. which in like manner emerge from and sink back into B eing! Making this declaration. The re­ proach was that scepticism made of Being the Alpha and the Omega. doubt hurls it back upon Speculative Philosophy. individuality and subjectivity. in his appre­ hension. that the equalizing process which is just in the one case is unjust in the other. Its medicine and cure is Speculative Philosophy. the paralysis is only for a moment. which. are alike men. the happy and the wretched.27. and thus accepting as a fact the reproach hurled upon it. we storm scepticism in its last intrenchment. and back into Being shall each return.

ultimate source and final goal—that it gave no honor to the T ri­ une God. is the culmination of a progress devel­ oped. existence. and absolute ness. 12 Jun 2014 12:26:39 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . not. your beginning and your end. the Idea itself in its subjectivity. that everything is developed from Being . Paragraphs and pages are pointed out to convince her that she derives from Being. essence and phenomenon. in her Physics derived every­ thing from N ature.27.111 on Thu. B ut if this Spirit has developed itself out of N ature.28 The Journal of Speculative Philosophy. not only without loss.236. and claims for it eternal persistence. as you assert. This is the final word of doubt. but accentuated and glorified. The Idea which has thus slowly emerged from the depths of Universal Being she then salutes as Spirit. it is time that you should recognize that this difference between your principle and your result. out of whose Absolute Personality was wrested the personality of the finite Spirit in its identity with free­ dom and immortality. and. into whose Absolute Consciousness finite consciousness returns. deny its origin ? Is not this origin denied unless the soul returns into it as its goal ? Vainly we remind our antagonist that from our contingent and immediate beginning in Being we were led back to the true. while this same human consciousness is stifled and drowned by return into Being. This is the accusation now hurled back upon Specu­ lative Philosophy. manifestation and reality. but it claims as result of the long conflict that it has also forced Speculative P h i­ losophy to a surrender. you abandon and deny the very logic and philosophy which you claim thus to further and expand. W hat shall we say ? Has Speculative Philosophy done her This content downloaded from 132. Self-Mediated Origin. and thus herself thinks Thought as a Mode of Being. must it not return into N ature? Does not Philosophy itself demand this circular course in which the end meets the be­ ginning \ In the process of Philosophy does not everything rise out of and sink back into Being ? Have we not ourselves seen the soul awake out of an individual existence which was sunk in the material—has it not arisen before our eyes out of the state of unconscious identity with the all into the freedom and conscious unity of the Spirit ? Dare the soul. with the claim that she herself in her Logic derived everything from Being. Herein is the reply of scepticism . then. I t abandons its own prin­ ciple. but in contradiction to it. objectivity. becoming. finally. out of your principle. being for self.

why. then. From Being. if Philosophy does not misunderstand herself. I t may. whereas the Philosophy of Im plicit Thought knows itself as its own fundamental principle. this means nothing else than that to Thought its own being is first. 29 work in the world by bringing to light the Supremacy of Thought. surrender her assaulted principle. Thus Thought is the Identity and Totality of all its determinations. or rather from itself through Being. The Development of the Soul and its Immortality . of which determinations the first and crudest is Being. or Being is Thought in its first immediacy. and. Being is that which is first thought by Thought. and shall she now. Consequently. for. but as such also the Identity of its determinations. admit the newly found answer to the old enigma to be indeed the Solvent W ord ? W hat concerns us all is that truth should prevail. The emphatic difference between Philosophy of immanent thought and its predecessors lies in the fact that they were not conscious of their fundamental presuppo­ sition. Truth is saved when the Supremacy of Thought is vindicated . Being is only the first chaotic abstract object of Thought. Thought develops its richer and fuller determinations until in the concrete self-reali­ zation of the Idea it concentrates in itself the determinations which it has successively developed.27. Is this so ? May not the attack upon that Logic which develops itself from Being rest upon a misapprehen­ sion % The immediate starting-point and principle of Philosophy is Being. indeed.236. That the Logic which moves This content downloaded from 132. no m atter what may be posited as a first principle.111 on Thu. Being predominates in the beginning and at the end ? The question rises. Thought is consequently not the mechanical conglomeration of these sepa­ rate moments. Thought is its own prius and its own principle. in spite of variations. Thought is not merely the Total­ ity. but it is the unity prismatically reflected in their various categories. giving glory to the truth. it is al­ ways Thought which posits it. Thought as implicit is its own principle. But. be urged that in this sense all methods—that of Spinoza equally with that of Descartes—have presupposed Thought. blushing and speechless. for it is Thought which recognizes in Being its own first crude determination. 12 Jun 2014 12:26:39 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Consequently. should we not rejoice in the new discovery as though it were our own ? W hy do we still cling to a form over which. and belongs itself to Thought.

however. In the form of Rep­ resentation. The Alpha and Omega is not Being.111 on Thu. Subjec­ tivity. The process of the finite conscious­ ness is to know itself first in identity with being—then to sunder itself in soul and body. seen in the light of the Idea. and Spirit—Individuality.30 The Journal o f Speculative Philosophy.236. therefore. or that Thought originated in the withdrawal of Be­ ing from externality into the Internal. more definitely the Absolute. and into this divine conscious­ ness shall all thought return. but only as included in Thought. Being shall come to it­ self. thus mak­ ing itself its own^object. but shall prove itself to belong to the Internal. viz. Thus. this did not imply. The process of development. it is the inward which has an outward. to be con­ scious that it is saved and glorified in the divine life.27. as it is revealed to the finite consciousness. This content downloaded from 132. as thus apprehended. They fail. self and its other—and. as the sceptic claims. If. by an apparently different path. personal consciousness of God. demands that Thought as prius shall externalize itself in Being. From this divine consciousness. and with Thought the threefoldness that is in Thought. it reveals itself as a radius of the infinite circle of Thought. for Spirit is essentially this Being for the Spirit. hence it thinks them as isolated and successive. is proved by its culmination in the Monism of Thought. Soul. Scepticism thinks all things under the form of time. is isolated in its own exclusiveness. it shall not be simple externality. and. 12 Jun 2014 12:26:39 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . from Being is conscious of Thought as its underlying pregnant principle. we have attained again the same result. as only Thought really is . and therefore wreck themselves upon Being. therefore. and Personality. all thought proceeds. therefore. : Body. to recog­ nize this ground. finally. it may be said that Being will perish but Thought shall abide. as person participating in and penetrated by God and creation. but Thought. This were impossible. returning into itself enriched. that Being was the source of Thought. Being cannot be apprehended as isolated and sundered from Thought. earlier in the process of de­ velopment. which. The history of Philosophy is the external confirmation of the insight that all methods of philosophy—the crudest as well as the most complete— have the same ultimate ground. whereas. In other words. for the outward has no inward . But. we defined Thought as the coming to itself of Being. through this self-separation. on the contrary.

on the contrary. is. its particularity as such is cancelled in the Totality.. e. exactly the negation of the Ego.236. generously sinks itself in Abstract Being. Therefore. nevertheless. Phil. Just as certain is it. To set up the empty Category of Being as the first principle of the world is necessarily to reduce consciousness to a vanishing mode of Being. as though without it we were nothing.1 For only Thought can be the object of T hought. emerges again as the conditio sine qua non of the system. thanks to its imperishable persistence. that which would destroy the Ego were it not transcended by the Ego. and Mirabeau. I. In this transcendence Being vanishes in Thought— i . to make it the transient expression of a blind activity into which it shall be reabsorbed. 12 Jun 2014 12:26:39 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .. The Development of the Soul and its Immortality . in order to escape from the empty and evil Self. as quite unconsciously it testifies to that very priority of Thought over Being which it assails. To follow step by step the pantheistic procedure is most instructive. all denial of personal immortality is denial of Spirit in its essential idea. to which we cling so desperately. 168. 169. 31 By the path which we have ju st traversed we have also attained to more adequate apprehension of Being—mere Being is only ex­ ternal. Its result is that in the very moment when the subject. Schelling. Positing it as first principle. and that only from Thought could proceed the development of the Finite Spirit into its Essential Content. it is evident that all denial of immortality in its ultimate analysis is grounded in the assumption. Schrift. La Grange. 1 Cf. I t is henceforth clear that this external Being. we learn its dangers. N ature the suprema­ cy over Spirit. consciously or unconsciously expressed or implied.” or in the more subtile systems of thinkers who abhor Holbach. we learn its emptiness. th at Being has the ascendency over Thought. search­ ing for its hidden depths. This content downloaded from 132. In a word. I t should not be ignored that the pantheistic-m aterialistic struggle against the persistence of individuality (in its ancient as well as in its modern and fashionable forms) rests solely upon the presupposed superiority of Being. it. to think Being abstracted from Thought is as impossible as to think Nothing. whether it be in the crude form of the famous “ System of N ature and of the N atural Laws of the Physical and Moral Worlds. in its abstraction.27.111 on Thu. that the guarantee of Immortality is the Supremacy of Thought..

the Spirit is neither soul nor body. Hence follows a second result. or conscious insight. but the Unity of all the mo­ ments of time. whether with prophetic feeling. The other rock is Abstract Thought—Thought empty and non­ existent. surrendering the con­ sciousness which is bound up with the finite. which ad­ mits no Body and no Being. maintains itself. Recently Schelling has recognized anew that the ultimate truth is the “ subject which. which he denounced as prolonged mortality. thus apprehended. though through the mighty working of the subject within him he was saved from entire de­ struction. crude external Being. This Eternity manifests itself in Thought: Thought includes and subordinates B ein g . True eter­ nity is. triumphing over all. to which alone belongs Ac­ tuality. so we cannot think Nothing without implying Being—for to think nothing is not to be and not to think. Thence it follows that those who hold to personal immor­ tality. He gave his verdict against individual per­ sistence. Upon the second rock Schelling was nearly stranded.111 on Thu. however. Body. His moment of danger was when claiming that consciousness could not be thought save in relation to the body and to finite conditions generally. Here rises before us another cliff upon which the thought of immortality is often wrecked. is N ature. Being. Eternity is not timeless.27. As we cannot think Being without implying Thought. that false infinitude which lacks the finite. Thought rules Being. presupposed as Origin and End of All. This Being is not. how­ ever. destroys itself. The first rock of danger was Being—Abstract Being. but with a final effort he called up all his strength and steered away to safer shores. and therefore belonged to the passing time. glorified and transfigured. the fulfilment and realization of the Infinite— the U nity of the Infinite and Finite. and therein. realized faith. hold on also to Being. 12 Jun 2014 12:26:39 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . the material and finite.32 The Journal o f Speculative Philosophy. This is exactly This content downloaded from 132.236. but Being insists upon being included in Thought. and herein. but that inward Being which belongs to Thought as the body belongs to the Soul. celebrates its realized unity with Thought. but the U nity or Actuali­ ty of these in themselves false and untenable determinations. neither infinite nor finite. which finds in the Spirit its adequate form. Upon the first rock was wrecked Spinoza. and appre­ hended eternity as pure timeless infinitude in Grod.55 and proposes an empirical development from what is.

The Soul which thinks. R em ark. Being personal. transparent. must also really be. really thinks.” He should have added: “ In one sense I cease to think whenever I think that I shall not think. must be identical with its Result. The Actuality of Thought expressed in terms of Being is “ the Totali­ ty of all its Moments. but accentuated and transfigured in the Conscious­ ness of God and of Creation. As the categories unfold. which only knows itself to be immortal as it realizes itself in Personality as this finite Personality is actual and immortal only through the Absolute Personality. being absolute. it is therefore not only the goal in which the finite Spirit.27. Being only is when it exists at once in all of its dimensions. but it is also the ground which preceded the development that begins with the human soul. and shall be. Thus Being belongs to Thought as the Body to the Soul. following the method of logi­ cal development and organization. which consciously includes Body and Soul in the Spirit. however.” but. Herein the genetic principle of Philosophy is indicated as Logic.111 on Thu. and knows that each requires all the others. participative Unity. as though having at last found its element. W hat is . and in its progressive development carries Being in and along with itself. The Absolute Personality of God is the Actuality of Absolute T hought. and therein conquers and cancels externality. comes to itself. and realizes itself in a vital. but the full and complete Being which at once has been. Thought shines through them more and more clearly as “ that all- encroaching subjectivity ” which claims all that is external as its own.” For it is Thought which includes in itself the scattered dimensions of Being.236. in its essence Thought is nothing but imperishability. 33 what has been done by Philosophy. is T h ought: this Thought begins with Being. not limited Being. This is. its ultimate and adequate form is personality. Therefore even La Mettrie confesses : “ In one sense I cease to be whenever I think that I shall not be. is. The Development of the Soul and its Immortality . as realized in the highest category or form of Thought itself. it is Personality. Self-consciousness is not extinguished. which P rin­ ciple. 12 Jun 2014 12:26:39 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . As this 3 * X V III—3 ' This content downloaded from 132. Ilence thought contains within itself the witness of its im perishability. the Soul is imper ishable. The soul develops itself out of itself into the finite Spirit.

Thought in its crudest. therefore Creation. Being. consequently. Thus. which. the first phase of the secondary process of develop­ ment . any little cloud which darkens or obscures it will project long and heavy shadows over all the developments of Philosophy. as such. Thought is the genetic principle. hence the all in a l l . And as this Thought is the ultimate origin. 'vhieh being its content unfolds from i t . conditioned. Being is secondary. but also the origin of all that is. it is not only the goal. is in creation just as Thought is in C reation. which itself is a result. is itself Thought. Being. develops into Thought. but it has priority only relatively to the thought of the finite Spirit. or. all-generative truth ! Thought is the Principle —Being the beginning of the self-externalization of Thought. though relatively to . onsequently precedes the absolute realization of the un developed finite which first develops in creation. as Absolute it is realized. begins with Being. Therefore it were well for us to linger yet awhile by the fundamental prin­ ciple of Logic: this will also tend to a more complete illumina­ tion of the question with which we are immediately occupied. The philosophy of the day is widely obscured by these threatening shadows. W ith­ out this truth there can be no absolute knowledge and no Chris­ tian consciousness. As absolute.236. us posited by Thought. for it is Being which clouds and obscures Thought until it is wholly penetrated by Thought. includes its development which pre­ ceded Being as absolute in Absolute Thought. even in the first relationship Heing. the p rivs tempore et dignitate . as externalization. is the starting-point of the undeveloped finite. into Thought. and therein unites and transfigures all its isolated moments. on the contrary. more definitely. In the This content downloaded from 132. Such spots and shadows have their sole source in the position usurped by Being relatively to Thought. Thought is also absolute in its development. with its implicit content. 12 Jun 2014 12:26:39 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . most immediate form. develops itself in Man (who is rhe internality of Creation). so is it the ultimate goal. Realized Thought. principle is the focus of all true knowledge.34 The Journal of Speculative Philosophy.27. created. and.111 on Thu. Abso­ lute Thought is the original creative power. Thus. P ro p ­ erly ape* dang. Being. This is the all-leavening.Realized Thought — i. conformably to its implicit content. relatively to the Absolute Thought. the ground that the Principle posits in Creation. the beginning of Creation. from all Eternity.

and this not in time. and this is the Trinity. penetrating. just as in the Spirit it proceeds from the two above-named determinations. the Being-for-Self of Being-with-and-for-Self: finally. yet Spirit is also the reality and outcome of N ature—Spirit is the only truth—the one reality. i. 1. or hinting of a privative separation. So the Son is not exclusively for himself the Being-for-Self. with Thought. hence it is itself in each of its moments— i. the Being-with­ Self of the Being-with-and-for-Self. Absolute Being with Self. but the Being-with-Self of God. and penetrated. according to its idea. For us the presupposition of Spirit is N a tu re . it is only in the sphere of time that Being-with- Self precedes Being-for-Self. the Father is not merely Being-with-Self. the Spirit is not simply the realized Being-with-and-for-Self. Thought is the actuality of Being. was the W ord or Realized Thought. 12 Jun 2014 12:26:39 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . The Development of the Soul and its Immortality. e.111 on Thu.. personal. be said that the first and second persons of the Godhead are realized through the Third. and their apparently fixed isolation is attributable only to Nature in its exclusiveness or space in its discreteness. hence. belongs to the O th e r. but from Eter­ nity. or. so the precedence and succession of the three essential moments of Thought is only the finite process in time. essentially Thought. It may. According to this view.27. Spirit is the Absolute P rius of Nature. and. i. more definitely. as such. indeed. but interpenetrate each other. in fact. Th qprius of time is the Absolute in which the three already named categories do not follow each other. and Being-for-Self precedes Being- with-and-for-Self. From this insight is developed the highest Idea as the Light of Absolute Personality in its realization. The Absolute is. but Absolute Being-for-Self—the Being-for-Self of God . in each of its moments it is abso This content downloaded from 132. e. in other words. Each is the Other.— Jo h n . but this is only stating that the Trinity is essential to the Absolute Idea of God without therein implying a prius and posterius tempore. As the different moments of Being-with Self and Being-for-Self in truth belong to and penetrate each other. or.236. Consequently. it necessarily from Eternity belongs to the Being-with-Self of God in the Father and the Being-for-Self of God in the Son. Each. but inasmuch asBeing- witli-and-for-Self being absolute and conditioned only by itself is from Eternity in God. 35 beginning..

distinguished from its own incarnation in time. and it finds in W ater its death. The Journal o f Speculative Philosophy. One ! This oneness is. and Nature into a Moment of the Spirit. and without this absolute personality the idea of Creation. and tangible manifestation. to be distinguished from the created man . lute. or an active process. eternal and im m ortal. being grounded not in Creation. but in the presupposed Creator. wherein forms arise only to vanish.111 on Thu. personal. it rises into self-conscious Individuality. of which it. as a mode of Being. It must. and is therefore only explainable and realizable through the Idea of Personality. wholly itself.236. of course. hence Abso­ This content downloaded from 132. Likewise the body is an essential moment in the Unity of the created finite Spirit. If. like its own immanent soul. as Thales set up W ater. is submerged in Universal Being. visible. it is. instead of an Abstract Universal. the active principle of Being whose passivity is within itself. I f philosophy sets up Being. however. In the light of these results it grows ever clearer that all prog­ ress in philosophy depends upon insight into the nature of the true first Principle. and the human Soul is grounded in N atural Being. and the connection is again restored. the Individual more definitely—P er­ sonality. in the idea of Creation. to be distin­ guished from its external. it swallows up in this empty universal all personality. this immanent humanity of God is. however. 12 Jun 2014 12:26:39 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . absolute and finite.* is independent. be admitted that the finite (hence the hu­ man) is an essential moment in the immanent unity of the self­ generation of G o d . as the origin and end of all. sinks inevitably into the Conception of Emanation. in which the Individual becomes Universal. which. From anv other standpoint the idea of God is grounded in the created human Soul. on the contrary. On the other hand. W ith Thought is set up as first Principle. despite all artificial props. which is at once that which posits and that which is posited. when adequately apprehended. the Absolute Personality of God is revealed and confirmed. then Being subsides into a Moment of Thought. Again. however. the Self-immanenceof Absolute Personality is only realized in the Trinity.27. as eternally self­ generated. Complete this process with the insight that the attained indepen­ dence of the human Soul can be perpetuated only in personality. the circle again rounded to a whole. philosophy finds its Alpha and Omega in Thought. this essential body is. oneness with its other.

As ultimate Origin and end.. and brings forth its single moments in succession. Further. Thought thinks itself and posits itself in itself. Thought is Absolute Personality— i. Being: o is an immanent integral & moment of Thought and of all the personified forms of Thought—a moment whose isolation is negated in the Totality wherein Being itself is organically preserved.27. Our antagonists can only gainsay our results by renouncing the principle of Thought. This is the Creation whose successive phases are described by Moses. in the fulness of time. So much by way of general explanation and indication. but also its apparently harmless principle. and its own mirror .. 12 Jun 2014 12:26:39 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . We have rejected not only the fatal results of pantheism. throwing themselves in the arms of Being and resting on her bosom until. but. e. its own Subject and Sub­ strate.111 on Thu. The Development of the Soul and its Immortality. e. being herein transformed into his image— i. 37 lute Personality posited by itself.. These moments are externalized that they may develop themselves in time. and thus not fall back into Thought as into a gloomy grave. which appears first as the Contradiction of God.236. knowing that the more ex­ plicit the confession the more definite will be the expression of opposing views. We have made it frankly. it is. therefore. To this end an open avowal of our owTn philosophic faith was necessary. and the more clearly differences are stated the sooner will the reconciling truth be found. Thought proceeds out of this im­ manence. they are delivered by the truth. transfigured and glorified. finite personality. and it is all these three in one. To set this principle clearly in the light and exhibit its radical defects has been our main object. This content downloaded from 132. Creation. its own image and object. move forward in Thought as their illuminating elem ent.

use.111 on Thu.27. BLOW Source: The J o u r n a l o f S p e c u la tiv e P h ilo so p h y .236. penn state urineisity piess GOESCHEL ON THE IMMORTALITY OF THE SOUL A uthor(s): CARL FRIEDRICH GOESCHEL and SUSAN E. please contact support@ This content downloaded from 132. Penn State University Press is collaborating w ith JS T O R to s. 19. Vol. 12 Jun 2014 12:20:16 PM All use subject to JSTOR Term s and Conditions . W e use inform ation technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new form s o f scholarship. No. 2 (A pril. 1885).jstor.jsp JS T O R is a not-for-profit service that helps Accessed: 1 2 /0 6 /2 0 1 4 12:20 Y our use o f the JS T O R archive indicates y our acceptance o f the T erm s & C onditions o f U se. and build upon a w ide range o f content in a trusted digital archive. For m ore inform ation about JST O R .jstor. 172-189 P ub lished by: Penn State U n iversity Press Stable URL: http://www. http://w w w . and students discover. preserve and extend access to The Journal o f Speculative Philosophy. available at http://w w w .jstor. researchers. pp.

BLOW. fathers. The successive is never the in­ clusive and penetrative. and prefer some “ old-aunt-of-the-tiniverse ” theory by which every people simply has its inborn character given to it from time to time. Casting another backward glance at the path over which we have travelled.236. BY SUSAN E. which tries vainly to organize its scattered stores. seen in the light of speculative philosophy. This discursive Thought first attains organic unity in the immanent development of the Notion . C h apter III. Yet I will say. from the immanent movement of Thought from Being to the Notion and the unfolding of finite Spirit out of Soul into Personality.172 The Journal of Speculative Philosophy. hence it arises that these same proofs. 12 Jun 2014 12:20:16 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . happy disposition of the Japanese. These proofs rest upon discursive thought. This speculative light radiates from the elevation of Being (in whose sphere the three This content downloaded from 132.27. we discover that. therefore. which must otherwise be mysteries to the devout and stumbling-blocks or superstitions to skeptics and infidels. really produce Conviction. On the Triplicity of the Proofs o f Immortality in the Light of Speculation. and that’s all. they bring no conviction of truth. careless. in themselves. the fact that these and kindred speculations have excited acrimonious pietistic opposition and frequent accusa­ tion of gross materialism is remarkable. TRANSLATED FROM THE GERMAN OF CARL FRIEDRICH GOESCHEL. there falls a light which illu­ minates and transfigures the three original external proofs of im­ mortality. but even give grounds for a literal and rational belief in many or all of the principal re­ ligious dogmas. GOESCHEL ON THE IMMORTALITY OF THE SOUL. considering that in reality they not only lead to the finest spiritual views and create new in­ centives and guides to the highest morality. The exquisite climate of Japan may in like manner have occasioned the bright.111 on Thu. But perhaps you are impatient at such discussion about the probable natural origin of different temperaments.

for only from consciousness can simplicity be deduced .27. The ne­ gation involved in the isolated proof is felt. It is true that in the first proof consciousness is presupposed. the Categories of Being and Essence are transfigured into their Truth contained in the Categories of the Notion. in whose participative Personality the Soul realizes its notion. however. of which the soul. Therefore it becomes our duty to notice how the several con­ ceptions which underlie the dogmatic proofs of immortality are transformed when received in the light of the speculative method 1 2 This content downloaded from 132. it is seen to go over into the succeeding proof. and in its development it exhibits its own insufficiency. but the positive truth. proves noth­ ing. arid into. is conscious. Thus far the speculative movement of the idea offers nothing new. The movement is dialectical . 12 Jun 2014 12:20:16 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . whence we look at. and. and yet both are known as content of consciousness. The content of each proof sinks. This is the transition to the third sphere. 173 dogmatic proofs darkly struggle) into Thought. this development falls within the second sphere. and not developed. if taken alone out of this organic unity. is ignored. into an organic phase of truth. and through the heretofore scattered and isolated proofs. as in the immanent movement of the notion. corresponds to the consciousness of the subject into which the soul awakes. This dialectic must now be more attentively con­ sidered. the discovered proof contra­ dicts and annuls itself. and that the thought of persistence. veiled in the inadequate form. and consists in that diremption of consciousness wherein self and its other fall apart. Ooeschel on the Immortality of the Soul. This done. It is evident to the most superficial observation that the sim­ plicity which is the basis of the metaphysical proof corresponds to the Individuality of the soul whence proceeds its immanent move­ ment. Another difference lies in the fact that. tive standpoint. however. In the immediate form in which it is posited it is not true. In the series of proofs. either in its content or in its successive phases. it is. according to the moral proof.. that the capacity for infinite development and the destiny to infinite ends. whereas each proof in its dogmatic form is exclusive and self-sufficient from the specula.236. for it is the intrinsic though unrecognized cause of the doubt which the separate proofs have left behind them. therefore. finds its analogy in the Spirit. which is the basis of the ontological proof. it places us.111 on Thu. upon a new standpoint. only presupposed.

236. but from God . The Subject becomes conscious of the Object as well as of itself. subjective and objective. which is the basis of the first proof. knowing both itself and its other. each equally necessitates the aliena­ tion of the soul from itself. its es­ sential destiny is to go over into that which is not Jtself.. i . in that therein the diremption into Subject and Object. that the simplicity of the soul. Ultimately we shall doubtless find a point toward \frhich our scattered thoughts will converge. Finally. In the same manner the content of the second proof is negated in the third. finally. In the first proof the soul. be its end knowledge or activity. is indivisible. But though in this transition negation has declared itself. is cancelled.27. Stated dif­ ferently : According to the first proof the soul persists in itself. and is therefore really negated in the second proof.174 The Journal of Speculative Philosophy. and its movement is not from itself. the presupposed immediate Unity of Thought and Being is mediated in the Personality of the Spirit. the soul’s capacity for and destiny to high ends) be­ comes explicit in Consciousness. as simple. the underlying truth of simplicity is revealed in Individu­ ality . in the third proof God and the Soul are mediated in the Spirit. £. Thought and Being. This content downloaded from 132. for. and the estrangement between them forever cancelled. Though the soul. is not able to maintain itself when confronted with the thought to which it nevertheless belongs. 12 Jun 2014 12:20:16 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . being simple. it lives and has its Being in God. and to Thought (which is Persistence) is ascribed Being (which is Persistence). and consequently can neither separate itself from itself nor go out of itself. and all its movement is from and within itself. according to which each is in the other. there must be recognized simultaneously the positive moment. is dry and arid. which. the form in which the Content of the negated proofs is still preserved. whence results the content of the third proof. in the second it becomes fluid in its forward movements. feels itself to be active and passive. having become self-conscious. The first point to be noted is. the implicit truth of destina­ tion (i.111 on Thu.. and how the dialectic movement of these proofs brings out their relationship to each other. e. according to the second. Similarly. Thus. yet. After these general statements we shall venture to dwell freely upon the isolated proofs. for Individuality is that Unity which in its diremption maintains its integrity.

Matter is the limit temporarily allotted in thought to the finite spirit—therefore darkness is its nature. the truth is that the soul has its real body in itself. 175 The first crude representation of simplicity is so barren. Spirit is the opposite of matter. the first conscious meaning is that the soul is dis­ possessed of the body and its independence of the body is de­ clared. Thought first contests the supremacy of matter. But in dualism thought can find no rest. without detriment to its unity. so unthinkable that no man can persevere in holding it. the whole battle is won if its meaning is really apprehended and de­ This content downloaded from 132. The truth of simplicity is there­ fore the unity of its varied determinations. This force. Thought struggles to free itself from matter .111 on Thu. Again. With this definition. exerts itself in different directions. Ooeschel on the Immortality of the Soul. is wholly negative. is the Representative Activity which manifests itself in different faculties (facultates). and what is dead cannot die. The soul is spirit. moreover. we therefore really declare only that the soul is not subject to matter. But without a body the soul cannot exist. 12 Jun 2014 12:20:16 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . while Idealism confesses a belief in dualism. In predicating immateriality of the soul. That the soul. in fact. is characterized as immaterial. moreover.27. for the simple is dead. it demauds to know what matter is. In the course of this contest it falls upon many different concep­ tions which are far more than fancies of the imagination. this is the deep internal significance of the conception of immateriality. in virtue of its simplicity. When Idealism says. it understands by spirit only that it is not matter. if it is not material.of life is self-alienation. and. when the soul. cannot die we willingly concede. This predica­ tion. but the validity of matter is as little contested by Idealism as by Materialism—the difference between the two schools of thought being that Materialism ascribes the sole supre­ macy to matter. animus est spiritus. according to him. The unity really underlies the dogmatic conception of simplicity. then its validity. The char- acteristic. Wolf detines simplicity as vis or primary force. being simple. This more adequate defi­ nition of matter has also the great significance that it finds in mat­ ter the negation which was ascribed to the soul when the latter was characterized as immaterial. so un­ productive. we have neither explained what the soul is. nor have we defined matter itself. that body and soul are one in the Spirit because both are of the Spirit.236.

111 on Thu. yet seek to rise above the dogmatic dualistic standpoint upon which the conception of immateriality immediately rests. Again. however. This content downloaded from 132. In all these representations the body is negatively but not posi­ tively cancelled. In the development of this definition. but as the unity of these two moments. not as the synthesis of body and soul. This impenetra­ ble limit of the finite spirit is what we call matter. together with a scholium. according to which indeed the existentia mentis ceases with the body. matter is defined as the illusory image conjured up by the understanding in lieu of the “ thing-in-itself ” . they as­ cribe reality exclusively to the soul. Their inadequacy results from the fact that they appre­ hend this negation only in its alienation from positive reality.27. The forms of representation will. but from Substance or Being. though developed from the presupposed immateriality of the soul. in the variation of views which have not ripened into in­ sight. vary until they culminate in the adequate concept. as an “ intellectus in Deo conceptus. this latter it can never find. Ultimately the truth grows clear which is hinted in all these representations. but the essentia mentis.” persists in God to all eternity. Finally. according to which the spirit is seized. They contest that validity and authority of matter which idealism left unimpeached. and thus reduce matter to negation. matter is first character­ ized as the difference between the infinite and finite spirits. 12 Jun 2014 12:20:16 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Thus the abstract nega­ tive conception of immateriality leads ultimately to the concrete notion of the spirit.” Under this proposition stands its mathematical demonstration.236. It is a most instructive and noteworthy fact that even those systems of thought which move not from Thought or the Subject. veloped. This truth is the monism of the spirit. matter is characterized as soul in the process of becom­ ing. through whose reaction it is quickened into conscious life. for the former includes its limit and the latter does not. are forced involuntarily to admit this immateriality.176 The Journal of Speculative Philosophy. this dead soul during its slow self-transfiguration serves the living soul. They are forms which. as it lies beyond the subjective sphere. Under this head must be classed the well- known proposition of Spinoza in the Ethics : “ Mens humana non potest cum corpore absolute destrui sed ejus aliquid remanet quod aetemum est.

as Things. This is the radical insufficiency of this stage of thought. instinctively asserts anew its own validity. This loss of existence and recollection is the logical result of a system which apprehends God as Being or Substance. too. on the contrary. modus quo res creatae in Deo concipiuntur. or extension and essence. in virtue of its absolute freedom. Goeschel on the Immortality of the Soul.236. Thus even this original and highest Being of the “ essentia55 falls within the range of Speculative Knowing. in his view. is somewhat illogically pre­ served. the consciousness retained in God its radical incon­ sistency—an inconsistency. and that he grasps both Thought and Exten­ sion as attributes of substance. Consciousness. however. With him. whereas the thinking Being and the extended object are.27. e. The esse existentiae to him is ipsa rerum existentia extra Deum et in se considerata quae tribuitur rebus postquam a Deo creatae sunt. but while so doing still holds Thought apart from the subject de­ manded by and inseparable from Thought.55 In illustration of the difference between the esse essentia and the esse existentia Spinoza instances the work of art whose es- 1 2 * XIX — 1 2 This content downloaded from 132.. which is “ tertium genus cognitionis sub specie aeternitatis.111 on Thu. both of which are apprehended as dependent upon the body. simplicity or thought. 12 Jun 2014 12:20:16 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 177 It must be admitted tbat with the existentia mentis perish Repre­ sentation (imaginatio) and Re-coUection (recordatio rerum praeteri- tarurn). because the spirit. With such a presupposition it is forced to concede that the starting- point of the finite spirit is also its goal—to declare that nothing is accomplished by existence in time. It is worthy of remark that Spinoza seizes Thought as simple because he op­ poses it to Extension. the esse essentia signifying the thought in God which is eternal. and to assert that the soul shall return to God in the same form of essentia mentis in which it was originally in God. All finite beings without distinction are therein apprehended as external. exist­ ence is externality. and therein cedes to Being the supremacy and priority over Thought. as often as it is re­ nounced. simultaneously'the idea of emanation is substituted for that of creation. only modes or affections of these attributes. which is unavoidable. When Spinoza attempts to explain the difference between the esse essentiae and the esse existentiae he involuntarily substitutes Thought for substance as the ground of the esse essentiae. i.

or. though. 0 . the Spirit is increasingly illuminated until. leads to personal persistence. the Eternal Personality God is. From this insight follows the eternity of created personality—that is to say. Thus Spinoza’s own illustration. logically completed.178 The Journal of Speculative Philosophy.27. Lethe blots out only the nugatory. and reproduces for us in the thirty-three Cantos of the “ Paradiso ” the content of recol­ lection. it knows itself as God’s-eternal image. dis­ solves in infinite substance. when the creature is thought by the creator as thinking. Returning to the immateriality of the soul. thought as thinking. For this same reason the creature thinks God. thought by the creature because it is thought by God. because it is not only thought by God. together with all representation and recollection. as thinking. personal per­ sistence. and is thus purely external. vain. penetrated by the vision of God in the glory of his threefold Being. and this finite spirit is the This content downloaded from 132. the Thinking Being. and it thinks God. sence is vitally persistent in the mind of the artist. Moreover. viz. “ Because iQ drawing near to its desire Our intellect engulfs itself so far That after it the memory cannot go. in the view of Spinoza himself.. both of things human and of things divine. as it advances through the realm of light. or (expressing it passively to make it more clear) God. and unreal memory of Sin. the creature must also think. Thus thought and think­ ing the creature endures in eternity because it is once and for all thought by God. This illustration ignores the fact that God is thought as the subject who thinks the creature. it endures as it is thought. i . by the Thinker. upon the soul’s entrance into Para­ dise. to express it passively.236. whereas its existence is projected and disjoined from thought. Thereafter.” But the great poet of Christianity recovers the memory.111 on Thu. but.. 12 Jun 2014 12:20:16 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . as the subject by whom the creature is thought. let us say once more that its outcome is the finite spirit. is reciprocally thought by the creature who is thought as thinking. In this separation from /the creative thought it may easily be destroyed while the essence survives in the imagi­ nation of the artist. while Eunoe. It would seem that even Dante fears to lose recollection as he plunges his soul into the depths of the glory of God.” and renews and vivifies the power of memory. restores to consciousness “ all good deeds done.

as external and only external. The soul. the driver is the soul of the soul. hence as unity. Upon this identification rests the conception of resurrection. and its presupposition is the immortality of the soul. it ie not bestowed upon the soul from without. Therefore it is in the soul that the body finds itself.. “ Cyrop. 17 . being This content downloaded from 132. as our eyes see it do. As far as we can trust our eyes. nec quum discedit apparet. and again that its body is itself. the soul has its individual form though it sepa­ rate from its outward body. The body is immanent in the soul. so is the body which pertains to nature its other. this separation is not to be denied. is consequently indivisibly one with its in­ ward body. L e. the union of the two is not to be grasped as a synthesis but as one force.” The chariot ia the inner body of the soul. “ Memorab. or. Ooeschd on the Immortality of the Soul. as spirit. The external body of the soul ia its v\rj. 3. however. to the outward body—hence the soul separates itself from its body only in so far as the body is purely external. This is the resurrection. only in so far as the body being visible is already different from the soul. Its first phase is that the soul. As all nature is the other of soul.” iv. in other words. it is the extemalization of the soul.14.. *0 parai Se ovB’ avrrj yfrvxh*—(Xenoph..” viii.236. It may be said that the soul is its own body. but we can trust our eyes only in so far as that which transpires in death is vis­ ible. its own organ.. This is the outcome of the metaphysical proof. and it has to be in the soul in order to come forth out of the soul.27.) Animus autem solus. Hence it is indestructible. that through separation this other may be identified with soul. its externality shall be dissolved in the soul. is deserted by the soul. 179 identity o f the soul with its body. Visibility is limited.^ t ryj) Karakehrei t o acofia.111 on Thu. Plato says in the “ Phaedrus ” : u The soul resembles the united power of the chariot and of the driver who sits thereon and guides it. the body which. the internal body its wro/cel/jLevov. nec quum adest. for death consists only in the souPs separa­ tion from its other. 12 Jun 2014 12:20:16 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .— Xenoph. 7.” c. but that the soul leaves the body . It is not and should not be said that the body leaves the soul. only in so far as the body is the other of the soul. “ De Senect. shall be again united with the soul. —Cicero. Death is the consumma­ tion of this thought. or. in other words. Death actualizes what is already ideally contained in the distinction be­ tween body and soul. 2 2 .

which is visibility. 12 Jun 2014 12:20:16 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . after the separation. just as the body after death is scattered in its atoms and transmuted into varying forms. self-active.27. Through this resurrection the verifica­ tion becomes complete of the unity of the soul as spirit with its so-called body. in the future. and Ulysses is tossed upon strange seas and wanders through strange lands. therefore. Psyche labors and serves. in death ceases as »appearance/i>r the soul. and the island of Ogygia the earthly dwelling-place. or rather the transfiguration. its second phase is the resurrection and transfiguration of tlje outward body into reunion with the soul. As Psyche is the soul and Eros the spirit. semblance which alone has visibility. Its real transformation falls. e.236. The ex­ ternal separation of death takes place in the same nioment in which the soul as spirit internalizes its body. Reunion is resurrection in the Spirit. death is f o r the soul the dissolution. according to the ground and final end of time. Eros watches and protects. the visible is that which is only a fleeting show. This internalization is itself the cessation of externality. and poetic. is victorious over death. being indeed its own body. Rather. fo r itself and for those who remain behind the external body is still external. and of its distinctness from the body only in so far as the latter is appearance—i. Calypso waits and weeps.111 on Thu. still ex­ ternal to the soul. the unity and totality of which is the Spirit. so the nymph Calypso is the soul. In this development of simplicity and of difference the origi­ This content downloaded from 132. The truth of this conception may be more definitely developed from the genetic idea of externality.. But even after death the realm of appearance endures.180 The Journal of Speculative Philosophy. but does not imply that the separated lovers cease to exist. These moments are. The separation of the lovers is death. however. the earthly man Ulysses the body. Out­ ward phenomena are thus the dismembered elements of the in­ ternal. death consists in the dissolution of their union. This externality. The body represents the isolated moments of the individual soul. Externality is nothing else than the isolation and mutual exclusion of the particular moments of the notion. of the external. and is conceived as resurrection and glorification of the flesh. Therefore the res­ urrection is only understood when it is apprehended as the trans­ figuration and penetration of the body by the soul in the spirit. independent of its external body. as nature represents the isolated moments of humanity.

and also (Tra- ducianismus Corporis. the inseparability of the divine and the human as united in the spirit. Language has one word for ev and ip.27. 12 Jun 2014 12:20:16 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Which without act is not perceptible. which may also be This content downloaded from 132. The generation and birth of each man is an act of divine creation. the less will it at first be comprehended. external and sensible demonstration of Statius— inadequate. from which later arose the system of Epi­ genesis) the separability of the external body until its transfigura­ tion. and the simile of the shadow with which it culminates in lines 100-108. may ascend through the simile of the mirror into which the argument rises in lines 22-27.” Still more definitely Statius (“ Purgatorio. into that speculative reflection of the external in the internal through which philosophy in these modem days has renewed its youth.111 on Thu. He who has advanced so far in thought that he finds the dogmatic-—i. 49. it is inter­ esting to look back upon precedent conceptions.. “ And wouldst thou think how at each tremulous motion Trembles within a mirror thine own image. with minds illuminated by this insight into unity and distinction.236. and particularly is it delightful to glance into that crystalline mirror of scholastic thought which we inherit from Dante.” xxv.” canto xviii. In the “ Purgatorio. The richer any given thought. to pass before the observing subject as the inner self­ movement of the subject itself. the more diffi­ cult for it to gain complete self-mastery. That which seems hard would mellow seem to thee. Unity. Therefore..” Simplicity. Herewith the metaphysical or theoretical. e. 37-108) de­ velops. which herein becomes visible to the subject in the object as in a mirror. the fuller its content. e. 181 nally abstract and barren conception of simplicity realizes a rich and pregnant content. Internality. Specific power has in itself collected. This speculative in­ sight consists in the apprehension of what seems to happen ex­ ternally—i. are different grades of one quality. Virgil teaches as follows : “ Every substantial form that segregate From matter is and with it is united. even though we may not pause adequately to develop its content. in speaking of the creation of the soul (from which later developed Occasionalism and Preformationism). Goeschel on the Immortality of the Soul.

proof realizes more and more its implicit truth. and no one excludes any other or in any way impedes it as material bodies are wont to do. Hence is deduced its imperishability. 34 et seq. of souls) there is no scantiness of room. In other words.27. as created. and de­ This content downloaded from 132. the soul is determined to be self-determining.111 on Thu. and limit annulled. yet the soul is self-determining.«. and this determination is not through itself. though this prescribed destiny in relation to which the soul is passive is nothing else than that the soul shall actively develop it­ self. for the one thing necessary is not place. according to which the soul in its immediacy is determined. in itself and through itself. but the unity of space and time.” ii. which culminates in the immediate unity cf the soul and the body. of the body and the soul. there is not another life beyond the grave. for all are one.236.”—(. however. Thus it happens that each finds place in the other. this truth is the moral or practical. “ Theophrastus. We. The solution of this contra­ diction is as follows: The soul is determined by God.^En. ^Eneas of Gaza was able to refute the doubt where place could be found for so many millions of souls. are still oc­ cupied with the first proof. and thus per­ sonality is realized. Through this aperqu. just as it is this ego which endures and not another. the soul is further as monad..r interpenetrates each and is interpenetrated by all).. “ In those dwelling-places of intelligible essences (i . e. more adequately the subjective proof. both in the positive and negative sense.). i. negated in the moral proof. but a perfect abundance of it. both in the individual and ex­ ternal to the individual.182 The Journal of Speculative Philosophy. e. This self-determination is. self-active and self-determin­ in g. as Dante too experiences with astonishment (“ Purgatorio. hence has not its ground in itself. from the opposite of determination. 12 Jun 2014 12:20:16 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . however.”) According to the metaphysical proof. Gaza. determined by God and determined to ends. thus it completes itself into a circle. This unity involves the unity of life. externality dissolved. besides these two proofs there can be but one other which shall include them both. Herewith otherness. Each one fills the entire space and at the same time admits into itself all the others (i. called the objective. We find the soul. but it is this life which continues. is completely cancelled. The moral proof thus deduces from determination the same re­ sult which the metaphysical proof deduced from simplicity.

He that believeth in me. though he die yet shall he live. as Spinoza says. The unity of the two is the immortality of the soul. the activity of the latter is only pos­ sible as result of the activity of the former. manifests itself also as personal.236. This Continuous activity of the Absolute Spirit is the source of the continuous activity and devel­ opment of the finite Spirit. 16) that only God has immortality in Himself with Christ. but withers if it is torn from the vine. Thus from the creation of God results its progressive continu­ ance as concursus Dei continuus. “ The Creatio Dei demands the Concursus Dei. but the Absolute Spirit. who as one with the Father in the Holy Spirit is Himself the Kesurrection and the Life (John xi. sed percipit ex conjunctione cum spiritu. for God is not an Essence alien to the soul. Man receives immortality. sed continuo a l^eo procreari. or rather this is the outcome of the second proof which transcends itself as it consciously unites the content of the first proof with its own. whose presupposition is the personality of the absolute spirit and whose result is the personality of the finite spirit. the Scriptures teach (1 Tim. The creature continuously creates its existence and its thought out of the Creator. and is mediated in the notion personality. as the branch lives if it abide in the vine. penetrated and penetrating. Thus. vi. creates and preserves the finite spirit.27. or. the finite spirit progressively developing itself in itself through a constant influx from the everlasting fountain of the divine life and thought.” The first proof affirms as Aristotle also teaches: Anima per se vitam habet. for as personal he participates in the imperishable personality of the Absolute Spirit. which latter. Persistence itself is nothing but continuous creation. 12 Jun 2014 12:20:16 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Ooeschel on the Immortality of the Soul. fonte vitae aeternae. The second affirms as the Greek fathers of the Church particularly taught: Anima non per se vitam habet. These seemingly clashing statements contain in reality no contradiction. This is the content of the second proof which herewith has taken up the first proof into itself. The first point is that the soul exists. too. says Christ. which. 183 rives its essence from no other essence.111 on Thu. the spirit out of the Spirit. consequently that the soul This content downloaded from 132. He who is called to communion with God in Christ can never die. as per­ sonal or penetrative and self-communicative. 25).” To this he clearly and truly adds: u Nullam rem creatam su& naturd ne momento quidem posse existere.

or rather finite spirits (for finitude implies plurality).184 The Journal of Speculative Philosophy. The remembrance and preservation of departed spirits in the Absolute Spirit could not be if these spirits themselves were not. maintains each species in its appropriate category. The outward mani­ festation of the spirits of men outwardly vanishes. and this thought is their creation: the Absolute Spirit remembers the hosts of finite spirits who. and the creation of God is eternal. The certainty of the conviction of immortality tests the depth of insight into the nature of Absolute Spirit.” writes the Psalmist. and the surety of God’s throne. 12 Jun 2014 12:20:16 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .111 on Thu. upheld and transfigured in the Absolute Spirit. inasmuch as God remembers finite spirits. but history comprehended opens our ears to the cry of the prophet. and this remembrance is their preservation. without it God would be lifeless isolation. during the long course of history. The truth and majesty of God’s throne demand the assembling of the children of men for his footstool. and this demands as consequence the concursus Dei con- tinuus. On its external side the history of what has been closes in the grave­ yard.27. have vanished from this earthly scene.236. He who creates up­ holds his creation. and implies that. He who is sure of God is sure of his own life in God. and truth only in so far as finite spirits are preserved and perfected in their self-con­ sciousness in this absolute life of God. the truth. so the per­ petual remembrance of God maintains life. then. The vital concept of the Absolute is a reciprocal concept. but the spirits themselves. This content downloaded from 132. live in the life of God. and the Preacher adds: “ I know that whatsoever God doeth it shall be forever. If. the Absolute Life consists in conscious­ ness. certainty.” The Absolute Spirit thinks the finite spirit. being itself living. God’s creation never ceases. is created. For all who can truly re-think this thought the meaning is this: that the Absolute Idea preserves itself in its actuality. and in him remember themselves. “ O ye dry bones. hear the voice of the Lord ! ” Resur­ rected humanity is the actuality. these finite spirits must remem­ ber him. Its creation presupposes the intellectus in Deo con- ceptus. creates life. As the thought of God. all that is maintained in this life must be also conscious. He preserves each object in the mode corre­ sponding to its nature. That is to say: “ The thought of God is creation.” “ He spake and it was done. and yet transfigures all the separate moments through organic membership in the totality.

Decreta deinde Dei immutabilia esse jam demonstravi- mus. “ si aliquis objiciat. Deum nihil con­ tra naturam agere [for Creation is his Will] sed supra naturam. Ex quibus omnibus dare concludimus. the Spirit shows itself under the inadequate presupposition. This is the profound truth in which Hegel’s “ Phenomenology of Spirit ” finds its infinite culmination.1 Because man is created to be spirit he is created to be immortal. Most significant is it that this has been recognized by that great thinker who moves from the being of substauce in that he claims to recognize the Will of God as natural reason in nature itself. again. quas humano intellectui non communicavit. Deum suam immu- tabilem voluntatem circa durationem animarum hominibus non tantum revelatione sed etiam lumine naturali patefecisse. “ Leges autem illae naturae sunt Decreta Dei lumine naturali revelata.” says Spinoza himself.” The lumen naturale is in this sense. Ooeschel on the Immortality of the Soul. This. it is not in nature but in the creation of the human spirit. the first revelation. Deum leges illas naturales aliquando destruere ad effieienda miracula: nam plerique ex prudentioribus Theologis concedunt. ut ego explico.111 on Thu. “ Nec obstat. Unde liquidissime constat.” he adds.27.236. in which his expressed will is the persistence of the Spirit. aeque naturales essent. “ Hinc clare sequitur. mentes esse immortales. 12 Jun 2014 12:20:16 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .” This can only mean that God has the physical power to enter into contradiction with his own creation. and which throughout is met 1Nothing is more misunderstood in the much misunderstood philosophy than the sublime conclusion of that vast cathedral structure which Hegel built for our age in his “ Phenomenology of Spirit. that Spinoza reads the Word of God. Here. is only saying that God can contradict and retract his own will. quae si humano intel­ le cts communicatae essent.” he continues. Such an ascription of simple physical power to the Godhead is an unthinking and unthinkable contradiction. “ none but God can de­ stroy the soul. or in thought itself. Deum multas etiam leges operandi habere.” This content downloaded from 132. quam caeterae. “ animam immor- talem esse? u Consequently. hoc est. again.” We have now arrived at a point where we may touch more definitely a question which runs secretly through the whole his­ tory of the doctrine of immortality. as creation itself. 185 Such is the ultimate development of the second proof in its transition into the third.

his reason is united with the Spirit of God and his nature still in relation with its su­ pernatural origin. the stream may be cut off from its source. it is nevertheless united with it. nothing more than an answer to the question concerning the source of our knowledge.27. which is pro­ gressively revealed in creation. creation is conceived as an accom­ plished fact and not as a continuing process. A perpetually flowing stream of water is mani­ festly unthinkable without a perpetual source..186 The Journal of Speculative Philosophy. however. we apprehend creation as progressively continuous. having lost its source. If. but. by an unexpressed answer. With such a crea­ tion and such a nature—a creation which has ceased to be.236. and a nature which. In the same way. We must therefore affirm that the personal immortality of man can only be recognized in its participation with the personality of the Absolute Spirit. The first necessity is that we should make the question itself clear to our minds. 12 Jun 2014 12:20:16 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . we do not get this knowledge from nature.111 on Thu. from the Spirit of God. This question contains the presupposition that creation is something once done and finished. and this revelation after man’s alienation from God is recognized only in Redemption. this participation is recognized only'in the progressively continuous creation and reve­ lation of God. Our whole present explanation is. We are pointed toward the answer by the second proof of immortality. in fact. and in this continuous creation recognize the persistence of the finite spirit. which goes back to God and reads the Will of God in the nature of the finite spirit. and that man once created is emancipated. has lost its life—not only the demonstration of immortality but immortality itself is impossible. The question is whether the immortality of man can be recognized in the creation of man alone.. This question is whether the immor­ tality of man can be recognized immediately by the light of na­ ture or only in the light of the special divine revelation through the Word of God. In other words. 0 . by as much light as remains in fallen man. The concept of a progressively continuous creation includes the revelation of the Absolute Spirit in the finite : this creatio continua manifests itself as Providence. but from the source of nature—viz. which is therefore apprehended as a second creation. by as much of flowing water as it contains. God’s second act of condescend- This content downloaded from 132. the answer is ready. the actual abstraction from the continuous creation) as Redemption. and after the fall (i. This done.

He expresses this proof negatively when he says: N ullam nos ideam habere. Thought. however. qu& concipiamus substantiam destrui. and that it needs matter for its support just as the Hebraic Yocal. cum se sub aeternitatis specie contempletur. through the grace of God. Herein is cancelled the confusing difference between an immortalitas naturd taught by the first proof. To deny to Thought its persistence is nothing more nor less than to deny persistence to the persistent. e. and herewith over the naturalized reason of Thought. is im­ mediately necessary to the soul. while the idea of its destruction is wholly alien to and contradictory of its substance. se aeternum esse scit.236. under varying modifications of the form of existence. is really so little dependent upon Being that the truth rather is that eternal persistence belongs essentially to and is immanent in Thought.27. Therefore the positive statement is as follows: Homo. With this continuous creation and revelation is given the con­ cept of immortality from which the third proof deduces the being of immortality. and the immor­ talitas gratid upon which the second proof essentially rests. which Spinoza compares with the soul. demanded a fulcrum external to itself as its body. we still desire something fixed and tangible to which Thought or Con­ sciousness may attach itself. Throughout his system is manifest with reciprocal overthrow and destruction the conflict of Being and This content downloaded from 132. It therefore needs not the imputation of Being as something external to itself in order to be. the eternal and indestructible. however. The scientia aeternitatis is herewith also essentia aeterna. 12 Jun 2014 12:20:16 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . but to Being.111 on Thu. When fettered by sensuous modes of thinking. Goeschel on the Immortality of the Soul. It is most remarkable that Spinoza again and again ascribes the eternity which he finds as idea in consciousness not to conscious­ ness itself. Spinoza touches this third proof when he teaches that the idea of persistency as well as that of progressive develop­ ment.. This is the distinctive content of the third proof. So far as the natural creation still endures it endures through the continuity of its relationship with God—i. it has be­ come clear that the Notion or Thought as Spirit is itself the high­ est. 187 ing grace. All such sensuous thinking implies that thought in itself is not—that only in the tiXr) can it find its inro/ceiftevov. In the light of speculation. It is merely a proof of the power which natural Being has usurped over the natural man.

animae.27. It mentions seven grades or stations through which the soul is developed before it comes to God and dwells with him.188 The Journal of Speculative Philosophy. 12 Jun 2014 12:20:16 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . or. for in the Notion nothing is lost. nisi non esse: unde nihil est eesentiae contrarium. Upon this concept also rests the third proof. In the third proof. nisi quia est. aliquid habet contrarium. from the nature of being is deduced its future. Augustine says: u Si nulla essentia. In so far the two proofs agree. reminiscence is apprehended as the inborn knowledge of an eternal past. Thought.” 1 liber unus.” This content downloaded from 132. but. u De immort. it dwells within the concept of per­ sistence as its determination. although in fact they are all contained substantially in the above-discussed triplicity of proofs— should be mentioned the dialogue Be Quantitate animat. quae dicitur veritas. again.”—(Augustine. in quan­ tum essentia est. as of importance in the history of the doctrine of immortality. in its most specific determination. As the Subject is preserved in Per­ sonality. in quantum essentia est. 1 2 . in a word. Omnis essentia non ob aliud essentia est. but the capa­ city for infinite development is grasped as objective quality of the existent soul. The process here moves from past to future being. on the contrary. and from this eternal past is inferred an endless future. Primum autem verum est. just as being is contained in consciousness. multo minus habet contrarium prima ilia essentia. The last station is the mansion of “ contemplatio Dei apod Deum” See also the writing of Augustine “ Be spiritu et anima. so the Natural Individual is preserved in the Species.236. The truth is that the being of persistence is not some­ thing external added to the notion of persistence. their difference lies in the fact that in the second proof the concept as concept is not explicit. The essential basis of the second proof is that the soul. c. quae maxime ac primitus est. Esse autem non habet con­ trarium. the concept of per­ 1 Besides this book—which contains an entire series of proofs of immortality. The explicit content of the third proof is that in Consciousness is contained all Being—that all that is is preserved in Thought and included in the Notion. Nullo modo igitur res ulla esse potest contraria illi substantiae.111 on Thu. or. in other words. is itself the embodied concept of im­ mortality. is stamped with the seal of immortality.) Relatively to the third proof there is still one observation to be made. It would be wonderful if it had not been urged against the triplicity of the proofs of immortality that the essential con­ tent of the third proof falls into the much-articulated sphere of the second proof.

189 sistence is comprehended as Thought. from that which is necessary to Thought to that which necessarily exists. Immortality of the Individual.111 on Thu. The physical manifestation of individuality after death by the exertion of power to control matter.27. 1. August 1. in that from the reality of the object. Tertuilian. ix. 1884. it deduces the reality of the subject apprehended as Creator. and does not have to seek it elsewhere.1 BT W . too. Our argument for immortality will be based chiefly on psy­ chology. Thus. T. The return to life of those who have died—a resurrection in the body—notably the example which the Christian Church teaches as the basis of its faith and as the symbol of the resurrec­ tion of the individual man. 1 Read at the Concord School of Philosophy. apprehended as creation. the movement.236. Introduction. is from subjective thought to its objective reality. This content downloaded from 132. 12 Jun 2014 12:20:16 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . The outcome of this proof is the concept of Thought which includes Being. The proofs on which most men rely for their convic­ tion that they will continue their individual existence after death we therefore pass over.” Cap. for example. the first proof coincides with the third in that both rest upon unity : their difference lies in the fact that the immediate unity of the first proof is mediated in the third. or to materialize in tem­ porary bodies as in cases of reported modern and ancient spirit­ ualism. HARRIS. A similar difference is found between the teleo- ological and ontological proofs of the existence of God : the former finds God as subject in the objective world. “ De Anima. and from this transition is made to the Being of persistence or to the actuality of the con­ cept. The proofs that we omit from our discussion are— a. IMMORTALITY OF THE INDIVIDUAL. xxviii. 115. 1 Sam. * As. therefore. I. the latter thinks God and moves from the thought to its actualization. b.

org This content downloaded from 132. use. BLOW Source: The Journal o f Speculative Philosophy. 1885).jstor. and students discover. preserve and extend access to The Journal o f Speculative Philosophy. V ol. please contact support@jstor. penn state urineisity piess GOESCHEL ON THE IM M O R TALITY OF THE SOUL (Continued) A u th o r(s): CARL FRIEDRICH GOESCHEL and SU SAN E. W e use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms o f scholarship. Penn State University Press is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize. For more information about Accessed: 1 2 /0 6 /2 0 1 4 12:25 Your use o f the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance o f the Terms & Conditions o f pp.236. and build upon a wide range o f content in a trusted digital archive. available at http://www. N o.jstor. 3 (J u ly .111 on Thu.jstor.jsp JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars. http://www. 2 9 9 -3 1 0 Published b y : Penn State U niversity Press Stable URL: http://www.27. 19. researchers. 12 Jun 2014 12:25:12 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .

It is also remarkable that while Leibnitz. It is true that children and savages have the mind less altered by customs. is that we have found the threads of this development in the very system which seems most antagonistic to personal immortality. as well as your excellent author. however. and. and who are enveloped in thick clouds. which are infallible and sinless. The Triplicity o f the Proofs o f Immortality in the ligh t o f Speculation. which gives attention. Some one will say that the more ignorant you are the more you approach the advantage of a block of marble or of a piece of wood. Goeschel on the Immortality of the Soul . C h a p ter III— ( Continued). B Y SUSAN E . that would be lowering the gifts of God. and it is reasonable that pure and spotless thoughts be the reward of cares more noble. then. 12 Jun 2014 12:25:12 PM A ll use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . It would be an inappropriate endowment that the brightest lights should better shine in the mind of those who less deserve them. We have seen how the current proofs of immortality are re­ flected and transfigured in the light of speculation. Their thoughts are mostly confined to the needs of the body. he reaches a result diametrically opposed to that of the ancient philosopher in that he proves per­ This content downloaded from 132. but they also have it nurtured by the teaching. since you are as learned and as clever as you are. moves from atoms as his starting-point. But. I would not have you.236. you sin in neglecting to acquire it.27. unfortunately.111 on Thu. as far as you are capable of knowledge. TR A N SLATED FROM THE GERMAN OF CARL FRIEDRICH GOESCHEL. The most sig­ nificant feature of our investigation. like Epicurus. That Spinoza himself has forged for us the arms with which we combat pantheism is overwhelming testimony to the inextirpability of the concept of persistence. and you will err so much the more easily the less information you possess. BLO W . ■GOESCHEL OIT THE IM M O K TALITY OF THE SOUL. glory too much in ignorance and barbarism. Philalethes. 299 other thing. it is not by ignorance that you approach this advantage.

and are preserved through continuous creation. quodlibet animal. It is clear also that within its own sphere the content of the first proof has two apparently antagonistic sides. then it is recognized that originally this autarky belongs only to the primi­ tive Monad. But such annihilation would be anni­ hilation of the divine will. and this mo­ ment is the body which the soul has in itself. he then leads us through the varied orders and series of monads to the rational Monad.300 The Journal of Speculative Philosophy. and that on the other it requires these subsequent proofs for its own development and completion. Leibnitz begins the de­ velopment of his system with the content of the first proof. vel nova capiat. But this very independencs of a visible external and tangible body presupposes in the soul a separating and self-limiting moment. Not less noteworthy is it that in the system of Leibnitz the three proofs develop out of and successively to each other. sonal immortality from the indivisible internality of the Monad. the first proof of immortality. quamvis machina ipsius saepiusex parte pereat. Immediately there is attributed to each Monad certa quaedain avrdpKeca. Nequeunt monades interire nisi per annihilationem. animaque involucra organica vetera relinquat. esse indestructibile. and thus we reach the final result. on the one hand. and is thus withdrawn from the power of death. that immanent unity and insepara­ bility of the soul and the body which is indispensable if the soul after separation from its external body is to persist in its indi­ This content downloaded from 132. and created monads exist as continual divinitatis fulgurationes. wherefore throughout creation nothing can perish (and here we reach the third proof). is the basis of all the subsequent proofs. An evident result of our investigation up to this point is that.236.27. The consequence is that nothing perishes. in which all things live and move and have their being (the kernel of the second proof). It may be added that the Monad theory of Leibnitz which moves through the complete cycle of the proofs of immortality has recently taken on flesh and bone and appeared in concrete poetic form in the Conversations of Goethe with Falk. viz. commonly called the metaphysical proof. 12 Jun 2014 12:25:12 PM A ll use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions ..111 on Thu. The one is that the soul as immaterial is ex­ hibited in independence and separability from its external body. and finally to the divine primitive Monad. The second phase of the first proof is. therefore. Leading first from the compound to the simple.

The death of the body is nothing more than the continuance of the disjectio membrorum. So. on the other hand. As we trace the progressive movement of proof through its various phases. The source of this divinity and freedom is the spirit of God breathed by God into man. and consequently to that per­ sonality of the spirit without which communion is unthinkable. leads in its progress­ ive course to communion with God.27. He claims immortality only for the ‘yfrvxv XoyitcT). essay­ ing to demonstrate immortality. ButvorjTLKt). and. According to this insight. it is constituted. and as divine free. For this reason. the physiological principle emerges simultaneously with 2 0 ♦ This content downloaded from 132. rests the whole weight of his argument upon the separability of the reasonable God-conscious soul from the body which fetters and clogs it. on the one hand the separation of the soul from the body develops to reunion of soul and body by means of the resurrection . he necessarily pre­ supposes in the soul an immanent organ. 301 vidual form. 12 Jun 2014 12:25:12 PM A ll use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . and penetrates its body and its relationship to the body. The soul does not abstractly develop itself. W e recognize the physiological principle in the second phase of the first proof which is the first mark of the advancing move­ ment. the indivisible Being-for-self or individuality of the soul in its internal body. which in its first phase is concerned with that external body which has been given over to death. The develop­ ment of the soul is essentially physiological. and implies the insepa­ rability of the soul from its inmost bond. in that it wakes and ascends into consciousness. transforms. whom he thus created in his own image. teaches Plo­ tinus. The second moment eads immediately to immortality. and the vision of God. by the relationship of the soul to the body. the sensible completion of that schism in which the whole creation travails and groans. remaining external. the first mediately through its content to resurrection. When Philo. in fact. contradicts itself. There­ fore the destiny of man is to behold God. it is most important that we seize definitely and clearly its physiological aspect and significance. too.236. because this is divine. Geosehel on the Immortality of the Soul . The soul must be different from its external body. but it develops. the crown of physiological development is personality. but indissolubly one with its internal body if after death it is to preserve its individuality and substantiality.111 on Thu. W e may see also in the philosophy of Philo how the content of the first proof leads over to the second.

The death of the body must therefore not be apprehended as the disembodying of the soul. the result of this conformably with self- revealing physiological laws in that reminiscence. does not rest in an abstract and formal unity. the body. who must so perpetuate the soul as he has created the soul. in virtue of its perfectibility. or. The presupposition of this union is the creation which renews itself in each generation and birth. grows ever clearer. the soul mounts from light to light. the corporeality of the soul. grounds the persistence of self-consciousness primarily in the soul’s physiological development. in virtue of its simplicity.111 on Thu. Death is followed by ever deeper inter-penetra­ tion of body and soul. The soul does not become bodiless when it leaves the body soulless. Thus. reminiscence (recordatio). which completes itself in the third through the concept of personality. the soul is imperishable. The physiological principle of the process of proof moves from the connection of the psychic and somatic moments which condi­ tions consciousness and culminates with the unity o f these mo- This content downloaded from 132. and more luminous. no voucher for the persistenc of self-consciousness. moving forward at once to the corporeality of the soul. and he appre­ hends the soul in its marriage with this inborn body as person. Herewith we are already in the sphere of the second proof. however. ex sua natura. more definitely. As consciousness rests upon the union of the soul with its organ. this inborn body W olf indicates by a special word in order to distinguish it from the external body. Anima est ens simplex: from this follows the incorruptibility of the soul. which is merely its palpable manifestation. together with all its representations and images.236.302 Ths Journal o f Speculative Philosophy . Most significant in this connection i6 the procedure of the school of W olf. This incor­ ruptibility of the soul is. but from the concept of creation or from the nature of God. in whose uninterrupted con­ tinuance consists the physiological process. but. but its indissoluble union with its body follows. of course. and accompanies each freshly begotten soul throughout life and beyond death. the persistence of consciousness. more definite. which. may now be physiologi­ cally explained. the starting-point. Self-consciousness rests upon the union of the soul with its inborn body. Immediately.27. the incarna^ tion of the soul is an act of creation. not from its nature. The abstract simplicity of the soul is. in the sphere of the metaphysical proof. 12 Jun 2014 12:25:12 PM A ll use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .

“ Pur- gatorio. 49. and we emerge at last out of night into the morn­ ing. Night is the mother of light. leads the way. better] still. In our own day the validity of this physiological considera­ tion has been profoundly discussed on many sides. from abstract. color­ less light he leads us into night and mystery. we have already referred to Dante. in the course of its self-development. The soul must develop itself by its own activity into the image of G od . xxv. From the surface of appearance he finds a path into the hidden depths of existence. Finally Schu­ bert has gone straight to the kernel of the whole matter and given us a history of the soul replete with suggestive reflections and profound insights. What is still neces­ sary is that the rich material which Schubert has accumulated should be inwardly digested. third. with her torch. first. that with a deeper plunge into the hidden world of miracles we may find a fairer morning and gaze with clearer eyes while the crimson glow of the sunrise grows into the perfect day. through which the divine and the human. 303 ments in the concept of personality. however. pre-existence. perfecti­ bility. merge in one.27. second. Obviously. is an in­ dispensable stipulation of the union between the infinite and finite* Adequately apprehended. it may tear itself away from God and may persist in this fallen state of subjective isolation until divine power condescends to a second act of creative grace. which. yet it can do this only by constantly drawing freely power from God. or. Goeschel on the Immortality of the Soul.236.” xviii. where the truth we have wrested from the gloom reflects itself in a thousand shining forms. the body of translucent color. The culminatiou is always personality. Without descending into the darkness we can never mount to the li^ht. essence.111 on Thu. necessarily in­ cluded the possibility of lapse. In this power of development is. creation and generation. The phases of the move­ ment are. by means of which perfecti­ bility completes itself without ceasing to be. and finds peace without sinking into sleep. W e have already indicated how the triplicity of the proofs of This content downloaded from 132. the infinite and the finite. Through the profound darkness Faith. 12 Jun 2014 12:25:12 PM A ll use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 37. into the very essence of Being. With reference to these representa­ tions and conceptions. and that too in the form of consciousness. this perfectibility is the development o f the created spirit through which it becomes what it is created to be.

second. in the identity or mediation of self with its other in the individual. hence. This position is the middle point between two extremes. immortality is repeated and transfigured in the immanent de­ velopment of the concept of the soul. lies. third. the essential basis of the present and future is sought in what has been. A parallel to this process is found in the cosmological proof of the existence of God.finite Spirit and as Abso­ This content downloaded from 132. upon thought. or the one in opposition to its other.236. seizing the world in its im­ mediacy. second. which. the finite spirit. for this proof seizes the soul in its immediacy and seeks for it in the future what it lacks in the present. behind i t . This triplicity develops of itself from the position in which we find the soul.27. because it misses him here. before it. third. Thus. And as the present asked the question. e. which is the background and ultimate presupposition of the soul. as consciousness of itself and of its other. pointed us back to that Absolute Spirit which was prior to the . so in the present we found its answer. The nature of the world is to seek that which fulfils and explains it— that without which it is nothing. So.. because it has not found him now. in its second phase. 12 Jun 2014 12:25:12 PM A ll use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . what the soul shall be. upon its infinity. The first longing aspiration after God seeks him in the future . As we find the soul. consciousness of G od . as essence. which was the actualization and unveiling of the soul. what the soul has been. starting with it from that middle point of time in which it is placed. the present answered instead of the future by becoming itself the future it questioned. lies. the question of immortality is addressed by the present to the past. upon the simplicity of the soul. as spirit in its personality— i. the soul reveals itself first as individual. Upon this procedure rests in its final ground the so-called metaphysical proof of the personal persistence of the soul. in the development of the concept. the soul already is. Therefore in our investigation we first essayed to follow the forward move­ ment of the soul toward its culmination in the finite spirit. as actuality. This triplicity rests/first. Thus.304 The Journal of Speculative Philosophy . The path of the soul out of the present into the future is scarcely trodden ere it points from the future into the past.111 on Thu. The question of the immortality of the soul is therefore immedi­ ately a question asked by the present of the future. seeks what it lacks in the highest essence.

to the unity of the three dimensions of time penetrated by the concept of Spirit. But the question with regard to the persistence of the human soul grows keener and more pressing in its forward movement. which reveals itself as eternity. In reminiscence Plato finds the pledge of that self-conscious future to which it bears a content. penetrating all time. because it includes in the present all the ' 1 X I X — 20 This content downloaded from 132. was. if. If in its importunity it turned first from the present to the future. but also from the contingent existence of the world to the essential nature of the world. Thus. which is both the presupposition of the soul’s existence and the guarantee of the soul’s immortality. We find in the finite spirit power over all the dimensions of time. for this leads from the nature of the soul as determined to the determining essence.111 on Thu. The same path from the present into the past and through the past into the future may be detected in the moral proof of immortality. In the Absolute Spirit we found the origin or essence of the pre-existent internality of the soul. which found in Thought itself the pledge of its persistence.236. it turns finally to the totality of time. 12 Jun 2014 12:25:12 PM A ll use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . which. and from this insight pressed on to the nature of conditioned personality. with­ out which as essence it could have neither completion nor fulfil­ ment. and from this to its aboriginal determining principle. Memory guards the content of the past. by means of extemalization or existence. 305 lute ever is and shall be. and shall be. or to that post-existence with which it was immediately concerned . includes in itself with the present both the future and the past. Goeschel on the Immortality of the Soul. to the outcome of time. It was thus that in our investigation of the soul’s development we attained ulti­ mately the concept of Absolute Personality. which. originating in reflec­ tion upon the nature of the world. which. sub specie aeternitatis. passes over to the future of the soul in God. Whence comes reminiscence unless from the Essence which has been? To what end is reminiscence given if not lor the time which shall be ? Similarly the physico theological proof of the existence of God leads not only from the conditioned to the prior unconditioned. the search for God in its second phase loolcsfor him in the past as the Absolute First. it addressed the future mediately through the past. next.27. is. according to its es­ sence. Crudely parallel with this movement was the process of the third proof of immortality. Reminiscence makes this past content present. which is the media­ tion of the present.

are themselves only the moments of the spirit which in its self-generation perpetuates its identity with itself through the unity of its content with its form. its second phase is the unrealized ideal. dimensions of time. This is the outcome of all demonstration. Just as the essence. ovala . Its so-called future is only the concrete realization of its infinite form. “ Where life feels the joy of living. Perfection implies that nothing is lacking— that all moments of the Totality are simultaneously present—hence eternity. In accordance with this attained result of our investigation.111 on Thu. The present is only complete when it includes the past and the future. With this insight the triplicity of development receives additional confirmation. or persistence. The spirit is eternal. 12 Jun 2014 12:25:12 PM A ll use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . through whose epochs moves the process of the soul’s devel­ opment.” The spirit is immortal because it is eternal. the third to the ontological proof. So. and it is eternal because it has the form of infinitude. t c X o ? . the immortality of the soul is grasped as the outcome and actuality of the soul.306 The Journal o f Speculative Philosophy. the future hastens. This inherent eternity of the spirit in its first phase is the Individuality of the soul. is essentially en- delechy. the second to the moral proof. and has done with further growth. Entelechy.236. e<. in the third phase it realizes its own image and becomes like unto itself. The infinite first attains its truth and actuality through the fact that it is complete or totality. but also present. the ontological proof of the existence of God found the existence of the Perfect Being included in the concept of the Perfect Being. It has therefore been said with truth that*the determinations of time. therefore present. the past endures. This outcome This content downloaded from 132. so is it also present as future : the first is also the last. or perfection. was and is now t o t I rjv elvai. which emerges from the discord of consciousness— i. which is mediated only through Personality. too. It is evident that the first of these phases corresponds to the metaphysical proof.27. it is the present quality of the soul. As complete it is not only past. and the moment is eternity. that the spirit should not remain in its first state of nature. and the future as the concrete present. The immortality of the soul must therefore not be conceived as something which shall be hereafter. the spirit is present. therefore already eternal. the concept of the spirit itself. but should become what by its essential nature it is destined to b e .

It may be mentioned here that in dogmatic philosophy not only the existence. and eminentiae. ergo sum. These ways are known as via negationis.27. the soul thinks. hence G od . Ooeschel on the Immortality of the Soul . which includes being. 307 develops itself first out of the being of the individual. it thinks itself and that which is other than itself. The same correspondence may be traced in the psychologi­ cal sphere. but also the essential nature of God is sought and indicated in three different ways. 12 Jun 2014 12:25:12 PM A ll use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . like the argu­ ment from Causality. Oo- gito.236. The ultimate meaning is thought itself. the ontological proof in accord with the method eminentiae infers the reality of perfec­ tion from its concept. and as simple it is unchangeable— the same to-morrow as to-day. The first and obvious meaning of the statement is this: the soul thinks. deducing the reality of this future out of what the soul as yet is not but in ac­ This content downloaded from 132. the reasonable is the actual. Its deeper meaning is diremption . The teleological proof. ergo cogitor. In the cosmological proof. from what the world is not and has not in itself. There are implicit in them essentially the same categories which we have discovered in the proofs of the existence of God and of the actuality of the Soul. second. ergo sum. The soul is. W e find them also as Reality. out of thought itself. the soul thinks and is thought'—it is thought by the thinking subject as subject. out of the essence of the Subject. The content of this statement is. the present tense of Being made fruitful by Thought has its development in itself. however. Negation. finally. In its ultimate analysis the whole process of proof rests upon the three words : Cogito. and the object of the soul is y both think and both are thought. cogitor. causalitatis. and Limitation in the Kantian Table of categories under the head of Quality. spirit is of and for the spirit. and as spirit is personality. developed through its various stages. therefore it is simple. an exist­ ence outside of the world. by the method of negation is de­ duced. which alone is real.111 on Thu. The parallelism of these methods of ascent toward the nature of God with the theological proofs of existence and the psychological proofs of immortality needs only to be indicated. Finally. deduces the presupposition of the world from the nature of the world. Analogically with the method of negation the meta­ physical proof ascribes to the soul the future it lacks. therefore it is infinite.

cordance with the concept of simplicity should be. inferring its internality from its externality and deduc­ ing the imperishability of the internal from the transcience of the external. from what is. Finally. the outcome of this pregnant being is thought. This construction attributes to the soul. we are really led to this simplicity or immateriality of the soul itself by the path of negation. for we find the soul immediately im­ mersed in matter. the eminence of being is being in all its dimensions. reasons backward to a cause corresponding to the effect. on the contrary. According to this content must be determined the relationship of the varied forms of proof. these elements are defined as expansive and attractive force. They are real and active This content downloaded from 132. and we reason from fhe contradiction between this condition of the soul and its essential nature to its imma­ teriality. and forward to. and therein accords with the method of causality which. Thought is the Alpha and Omega of Being.308 The Journal of Speculative Philosophy.27.111 on Thu. and forward to post­ existence or the Actuality after existence. The moral proof. and which merits the greater consideration. as we have seen. infers from the po­ tentiality of the soul its realization. but also from the present standpoint of philoso­ phy finds its justification in the immanent development of the goul. without detriment to its unity. as relationship to the object and to the subject. the ov ev€/caf as goal before. From these remarks it is clear that all these varied forms of proof differ in their content only because they develop separately the existence and the nature of God.236. Moreover. leads from existence backward to pre-existence or the essence before existence. Out of this twofoldness of the law of Causality is developed the double form of the moral proof which. two distinct elements. the ontological proof of immortality develops by the path of “ Eminence” . The odev lies as Ori­ gin behind.a goal corre­ sponding to origin and development. Before continuing the development of our subject it may be well to mention a construction of the sonl which proceeds from the critical philosophy. 12 Jun 2014 12:25:12 PM A ll use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . because it not only unconsciously includes the three dogmatic spheres of proof. more briefly still as impulse and sense. but as the Good both are one. and similarly seek the im- immortality of the soul as distinct from the nature of the soul. The unity of these two elements is the truth of both. Being and Essence are so related that only in the unity of both can be found the truth of each.

which is seized not as the neutralization. the object of the second proof is the expansion of force. while separating. 309 only in their synthesis or dynamic unity. we recog­ nize in its outline. the diremption of this unity. which is followed by the period of Understanding. Reason. and. and qualitatively in Reason. The object of the first proof is the simple.236. the three different stages of unfolding upon which rests the perfectibility of the human soul. according to the category of quality. according to the category of quantity. in which the pre­ ponderating element is sense. Out of their relation­ ship are developed. Universality is literally the unity medi­ ated through the circular development of the Concept or Motion. or ontological proof. but as the equalization of the two elements.111 on Thu. and qualitatively in the Understanding. third. the unity of the different determinations of the soul. seeks to unite them. just as the truth of sensuousness is Individuality. From this same relationship are developed. of the soul and its immanent body. the object of the last period is the supersensible or infinite. also in its narrowest sense. mediated unity appre­ hended quantitatively in Feeling. which vibrates between the internal and the external. apprehended as the unity of the internal and the external. being and thought. first. while the third. to which succeeds the period of Reason. wherein the balance in­ clines to the side of outward impulse. Goeschel on the Immortality of the Soul . and Feeling. is grasped as Universality. Omitting much inter­ esting detail which belongs to this peculiar standpoint. and the truth of Understanding the duplex nature of Consciousness. the essential—the intensive being of force as feeling. 12 Jun 2014 12:25:12 PM A ll use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . includes body and soul. From the standpoint of this ingenious conception of the nature and activity of the soul it may be said that the first or theoretical proof relates to the soul in its narrowest sense. recognized quantitatively in the out­ wardly directed Appetite. wherein neither element outweighs the other. the ov and the ###BOT_TEXT###709 . or simplicity.27. The first stage is the period of Individuality or sense. internal. second. the middle period oscillates between the two. the second or practical proof to the body. We have already recognized the truth of this Universality as Per­ sonality. This content downloaded from 132. the three principal powers of the soul: Representation. as Appetite. in distinction from Individuality. The object of the first period is the sensible. to which belongs Will as distinguished from Appetite.

is activity. held up to view its loves.236. soul and body are revealed as the mo­ ments of the spirit. neither of which is independent of the other. and its nobility. or. let no man put asunder ” — is the lesson to be learned in this most moral of moral tales. Meanwhile Charlotte. the impulse outward.] The central idea of the “ Elective Affinities” is the sanctity. 12 Jun 2014 12:25:12 PM A ll use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . of the mar­ riage relation. the body the active. in itself inactive centre. as the soul is the thought of thought. In the light of speculative philosophy. the second proof is practical because its attention is directed to the body of its object.— E d . NOTES A N D DISCUSSIONS. itself participates in this principle. as externalization of this internality. its firmness. their tastes are similar. and of the latter as the practical moment. 1879. as the active corporeality of the Supreme Principle. all unconsciously finds herself in love with and This content downloaded from 132. serving moment. The first proof is theoretical because it apprehends its object according to its nature. ANALYSIS OF GOETHE'S “ ELECTIVE AFFINITIES [W e reprint the following remarkable article on Goethe’s “ Elective A f­ finities ” from “ The Index ” of June 12. their friendship sincere.111 on Thu. and its weakness. the deed of thought. and this friendship and similarity of tastes they mistake for conjugal love. and shown too its superhuman strength. the body is essentially the practical direction of the soul. Neither is independent of the other. to its active manifestation. The soul. happy in their relation to each other as husband and wife. its passions. passionate sentiment binds them together. in other words. The soul is the calm. con­ templative ruling moment. the prudent. “ What God or Fate hath joined together. As externalization.310 The Journal of Speculative Philosophy . This in­ sight confirms the validity of the former as the theoretical. the body. W ith a skilful hand Goethe has laid bare the inmost recesses of the human heart. for creation. He brings before us a couple. discreet wife.27. No strong. is the calm. effective. as interna].

use. 88-104 P ub lished by: Penn State U n iversity Press Stable URL: http://www. W e use inform ation technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new form s o f scholarship. BLOW Source: The J o u r n a l o f S p e c u la tiv e P h ilo so p h y . For m ore inform ation about JST O R .27. and build upon a w ide range o f content in a trusted digital archive. penn state urineisity piess GOESCHEL ON THE IMMORTALITY OF THE SOUL (Concluded) A uthor(s): CARL FRIEDRICH GOESCHEL and SUSAN E.jstor. 1 (Ja n u a ry .111 on Thu. please contact support@ jstor. Penn State University Press is collaborating w ith JS T O R to JS T O R is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars.jstor. Accessed: 1 2 /0 6 /2 0 1 4 12:24 Y our use o f the JS T O R archive indicates y our acceptance o f the T erm s & C onditions o f U se. pp. researchers. available at http://w w w . 20.236. and students discover. http://w w w . 1886). preserve and extend access to The Journal o f Speculative s. 12 Jun 2014 12:24:17 PM All use subject to JSTOR Term s and Conditions . This content downloaded from 132.

C h apter I I I —(Concluded).111 on Thu. the mediation consists in the progress from the determined to the self-determining. It remains necessary to consider the position of Consciousness. philosophy. and that the so-called infinity and infinite divisibility of space are the ina­ bility of the mind to perceive or imagine a space which is not bounded by circumjacent space and ideally divisible. We have authenticated historically the relative order of the theological and psychological proofs. and through this dialectic comes to more profound analysis and more inclusive insights. and from this transition is made to the object invisible and remote. just as we cannot conceive a number which is not susceptible both of increase and diminution. Hence the standpoint of Reflection or difference is implied in the whole process of proof both in the theological and psychological spheres. between being and essence. and justified this order in the development of thought. From the standpoint of reflection the starting-point is the near and visible object. body and soul. BLOW. from that which is willed to Absolute Will. 12 Jun 2014 12:24:17 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .27. With reflection. for it is in Consciousness that we find the above-mentioned order of proof. in its dialectic form. The last and highest point reached s This content downloaded from 132. The Triplicity of the Proofs of Immortality. and the proofs of personal immortality arise in the effort to protect the Individual as Monad from this otherness. Underlying this starting-point is the implicit pre­ supposition of the difference between subject and object. and therefore presupposes motion . GOESCHEL ON THE IMMOKTALITY OF THE SOUL. The spires of a cathedral shift with the varying standpoint of the beholder. TRANSLATED FROM THE GERMAN OF CARL FRIEDRICH GOESCHEL BY SUSAN E. as well as in the development of the con­ cept of the soul itself from Individuality to Personality.236. Other­ ness is already recognized. begins. may not the position of the proofs vary with the standpoint of the thinker be­ fore whose mental gaze they are unfolded ? The conscious starting-point of the process of proof is the differ­ ence between the visible and invisible.88 The Journal of Speculative Philosophy. able in all directions.

death cannot conquer life. 12 Jun 2014 12:24:17 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . In its next phase the soul. which. not the secondary immediate unity. with which the stand­ point of dualism is annulled. it is this moment also. in its immediate form. and particularly to dogmatism. through all the thorny paths into* This content downloaded from 132. In other words. corresponds with the historic proof considered in the Introduction . is found on both sides of the first explicit difference. the soul is apprehended as an immediate unity. abstracted from the external scholastic form belonging to developed reflection. Therefore the soul is a secondary unity. the immediate conviction neither needs nor seeks proof. as Phenomenology. This is the secondary difference. which again breaks into difference in Consciousness. after the first distinction of soul from body. however. This condition corresponds with the ontological proof . the ov and the X070 ? are still one .27. its distinction from the bv)dy logically precedes its recognition as unity. As we fix our eyes upon this more remote beginning. which. the soul is first apprehended as unity in its distinction from the body. and the relative position of the three proofs is also reversed.111 on Thu. therefore. but life remains after death. apparently shattered by the Under^ standing. the standpoint of Reflection becomes the second in order. which. born in the thinking sub­ ject. and the last is first. In the development of man the start­ ing-point is the primary unity and undivided Totality of body and soul. nevertheless. Thus Thales could say : o Oavaros ovSev 8ia<f)epei In this condition. however. Henceforth the first is second. they commend themselves immediately as having objective validity.. man is still one with his life.tlie concept. 89* the interpenetrating identity of opposites. Thus. The ontological proof. e. in the progressive development of . The unity here referred to is the first immediate unity which precedes all difference. Goeschel on the Immortality of the Soul. Upon this standpoint the idea of God and the idea of immortality are not distinguished from their reality.236. lies back of Reflection. i. The beginning of the development of humanity. and resolved by further analysis into secondary difference. since it ascribes objective reality to the notion which is still subjective. has its difference in itself. glides. as consciousness. finds its ultimate ground and unconscious presupposition in the immediate unity of the subjective and objective concept. Philosophy. The starting-point is found in the sphere of the onto­ logical proof. necessarily begins with the standpoint of Reflection.

12 Jun 2014 12:24:17 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . The soul anticipates not another life.236. performs its duty. It has been already said that the weight of the historic proof is found in the intuitive conviction of the majority of m ankind. and the first and second members fall together as the opposite sides of the second sphere. the ground of experience discovered. and. its starting- point is Being. but in otherness remains itself. and that the life of the soul is one. as we trace their shining outlines. the process of proof moving forward on the one hand directly from Being to its Actuality. or Personality. of Thought with its Actuality. then. and transfiguration of this life.27. It helps us while we scorn it. is again differentiated. it is the effort to unite the two sides of a dirempted u n ity . re­ newal. Evidently. it follows that its second phase is the P roof. and the whole sphere of thought in its complete Articulation surveyed. this is the standpoint of Reflection or Difference. it may now be added that its energy is verified in the Plus which belongs to positive faith in its opposition to the negativity of empty doubt. the cosmological and teleological proofs. unseen.90 The Journal of Speculative Philosophy. and thence to the future of this past. Granting. that the starting-point of development is the immediate unity of being with the future. and attains. proof first appears in the stage of Reflection . Only through speculative insight into the im­ manent movement of the Concept is the dogmatic process of proof transformed and completed by the addition of the third moment. In general. and supports us while we tread it under foot.111 on Thu. Only by go­ ing back of Consciousness is the true beginning found. finally. Grounded beneath and realized above. the proofs appear in a new light. and 011 the other hand from Being backward to Essence. which. as objectively given. Mediated Unity. within the domain of proof the third member is wanting. In this consummation of the process of devel­ opment is first made explicit the meaning of the statement that the soul is one with its body. we know that the future and complete history of the doctrine of immortality will recognize within the spheres of This content downloaded from 132. This speculative development comprehends within itself the pre­ ceding stages of the Spirit. the soul does not go over into something else. which the soul wanders. and in the psychological sphere the metaphysical and moral proofs. for the third member has become the first. and. therefore. but the development. whose two sides are in the theological sphere.

In both these proofs the soul is seized in its relationship to what is other than the soul. and asserts itself as persistence.27. Whoever has carefully followed the course of development up to this point must have observed an apparent transformation of the first two proofs. Relatively to our present standpoint the succession and connec­ tion of the proofs in Plato’s “ Phsedo ” are most remarkable. which. and the teleological determination which was the ground of the second proof was apprehended as the nature of the This content downloaded from 132. having assigned to Conscious­ ness the second place in the order of development.236. as self-affirmation is relatively to negation. Not only does the content of the third proof apprehended as the first moment precede the first and second proofs. 12 Jun 2014 12:24:17 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . and then infers the capacity and des­ tiny of the soul to develop this past which has no beginning through a future which has no end. originating from reminiscence. The correspondence with the ontological proof is evident (sections 70­ 72). we recognize in history the foundation. Simplicity. It is also worthy of mention that. Originally. In that existence affirms itself it has the supremacy over death. and shows that throughout the realm of existence nega­ tion negates itself. History has no object other than Thought. more definitely. and from the power of reminiscence deduces internality or simplicity (sec­ tion 77). which was the un­ derlying ground of the first proof. in the continuous process of history the development. which denies itself. from the conception of death. or. was grasped as the existence of the soul. Soc­ rates starts from negation. but these also change their position rela­ tively to each other. As life is in contradiction to death. Goeschel on the Immortality o f the Soul. 91 the separate proofs the same triplicity which we have striven to show in the totality of proof. points through this faculty to the past of the soul. such is the reminiscence of the soul relatively to the infinite and increas­ ing past which lies behind the soul. the third proof seizes the soul in its relationship to itself. that everywhere life rises triumphant out of death. Next arises spontaneously the second proof (section 72 et seq).111 on Thu. Thus the indicated reversal of the order of the three proofs of immortality is found also in Plato. and in comprehended history the culmination of the doctrine of immortality or science of the finite spirit.

In the “ Phaedo.” after the gradual exposition above referred to. the first proof is more clearly defined as ontological. but in the totality of its form. Finally.236. is higher than N atu re.111 on Thu. The total form or concept of the soul is life. in antagonism to Nature. Herewith the moment of exist­ ence becomes persistent in the second proof.92 The Journal of Speculative Philosophy . and shows that they belong to Nature or Being. Finally. Renewed reflection sunders this existence and finds in its determination its essence . more adequately. not as a thing. wherein he shows that change belongs only to Nature. The central point of this total move­ ment is the relationship between Existence and Essence. and the second stands out more and more boldly as the practical proof. its various phases are explained by the mutation and confusion of this rela­ tionship. This apparent contradiction in his teaching is solved in section 105. therefore Anaxagoras is com­ mended. the other proofs fell together in the second sphere. Spirit. Next. Socrates grasps the soul. and life rises triumphantly out of death. In section 95 Socrates returns to the conceptions of origin and decay.27. he now. when the realized content of the third proof revealed itself as the ultimate starting-point and final goal of the process of proof. Thought. what is. the nature of the soul was found in the content of the first proof. The concept cannot be the oppo­ site of itself. and its existence or corporeality relegated to the content of the second proof. as the real and indestructible existence saved out of the first diremption. as belonging to the same sphere. This reflection first seizes the internality in which it reflects itself as existence—in fact. though in him the Spirit is still hampered by Being. or the external appearance of things. while in the earlier part of the conversation Socrates taught that everything proceeds from its opposite. Thus. soul. or. and essence as moment retreats into the first proof. 12 Jun 2014 12:24:17 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . demonstrates in the Logos exactly the re­ verse—viz. the one excludes the other.. without reversal of the relative order of the two proofs. is either living or dead. howTever. in its further progress it finds the essence of determination to be self-realization or incarnation. this is the argumentum ex- clusi tertii (sections 102-105). and the explanation of this confusion lies in the nature of Reflection. and. that what is cannot be or become its own opposite. life cannot be also death . while duration and unchangeable- This content downloaded from 132. first asserted and then reversed their position.

The begin­ ning is always the same: Thought outgrows and awakes from the immediate unity and certainty which. This Concept—the Logos—is the true Actuality.” Reflection turns upon the one side toward Being in its subjectivity. for out of Non-Being. excludes its own opposite. leads from the past into the future. It may. reminiscence mediates the conception of reward and punishment (section 107). though more rapidly and invisibly. be said that Thought proceeds from Being. in its ontological truth. there­ fore. Herewith the whole course of the soul’s thought of itself is com­ pletely changed.. recognized as simplicity. herewith the second proof shows itself to be the practical proof. toward Thought in past and future infinity (this is the ratio cognoscendi in its subjectivity). Each in­ dividual must relive the whole history of philosophy. and upon the other side toward Being in its objectivity.111 on Thu. from the triumph of Being over Non-Being.236. Goeschel on the Immortality of the Soul. This is the first dualism—Being and Non-Being—Life and Death. And what we discover in the universal history of philosophy is repeated step by step. Being emerges victorious and imper­ ishable. Next. the nature of which. Such is Plato’s Ontology! In the sphere of manifestation we see the warm grow cold and the living creature d ie. dwelling within the object. but it is from Being in its universality. proves finally to be Thought itself (this is the ratio essendi in its objec­ tivity). 93 ness belong to the Concept. The consummation of development is the comprehension and inclusion in the Concept. or. In the same way he returns. more definitely. This ground is the vital Concept which. This is one of Plato’s most profound insights. which. but. in all the transfor­ mations which we call death. life cannot be also death. warmth can never take up cold in itself. in the experience of each philosophic thinker. finally. 12 Jun 2014 12:24:17 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . to the second proof. i. B v t w o p . is subsequently expressed in the historic proof. the Being that 7 This content downloaded from 132. to it alone belongs reality. With this in­ sight the apparent*contradiction is so completely solved that we even find the ground of that external appearance within whose sphere positive Being arises out of the Negation of Being. from it he passes to the poetic conception of Metemp­ sychosis. The soul is this total Concept of life. in other words. in the Concept to which be­ longs Being. in the Con­ cept. e. developed out of reminiscence.27. as in the “ Phsedo. more definitely in Consciousness.

The beating pulse of this objection is—death! Who is he that.94 The Journal o f Speculative Philosophy. but this very declaration implies that death stands ready and armed upon the battle-field. and.. Here is the starting-point of Socrates.236.111 on Thu. demands serious attention.27. the latter is grounded in that Union with the Ab­ solute Life which is revealed in Creation and in the uninterrupted active continuance of Creation. he looks full in the eyes of the death which faces him. alas! death has stolen into this consciousness. Herewith all contradictions are finally solved ! For. with death that we begin the investigation of that which is the contradiction of death. Being and Non-Being—the liv­ ing Soul and Death—meet in mortal conflict. dares to ignore death ? It is. 12 Jun 2014 12:24:17 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . the Thought which is one with its Actuality. the testimony of con­ sciousness to its own imperishability. and now. For the ground of this proof is the ineradicable Concept of persistence. if the consciousness of death finds its explanation in alienation from the This content downloaded from 132. tor in man there dwell together the consciousness of death and the consciousness of the impossibility of death. In the “ Phsedo” there is transition from the Ioni­ an Nature-Philosophy to Thought—viz. but thereupon arises an observation which the candid mind cannot ignore—an objection which. threat­ ens to destroy its flower and fruit! All is vanity! all passes away! Man himself is conscious of death! Herewith human Consciousness contradicts itself as life and death contradict each other. indeed. to 1/0 O9. knows. Such is the course of Consciousness. and the Knowing that is. The former rests upon man’s alienation from the Absolute Life and Consciousness. Who can deny that death has entered into the world ? Who can deny that it has found a place in the consciousness of man? Homo mortis sibi conscius! With this admission would seem bound up the final and irrevocable overthrow of the ontological proof—that proof upon which rests the whole psychological process of proof —that proof with which the struggle began and with which it had seemed victoriously to end. searching for immortality. though abrupt and seemingly accidental. like a gnawing worm. Death is the origin of the doctrine of immortality! The doc­ trines of the imperishability of being and the immortality of con­ sciousness are equivalent to an open declaration of war against death. and with this to> X0709.

it points forward to freedom. though long unrecognized. the Concept of Personality. both dog­ matic and ethical. and the very first factor of the proof of immortality.111 on Thu. Consciousness of death points beyond life and beyond nature. not overlook the fact that this truth is the ulti­ mate. therefore. but it goes This content downloaded from 132. which develops from the con­ cept of freedom. and to know a limit is to transcend it. Hence it points to the concept of justice. where is thy victory ? ” As consciousness in general. for it admonishes man to turn to a new life. It points to the freedom of the human will. which develops from the concept of justice. so the indwelling consciousness of sin and death. and to the truth of persistence. or. wherein is expressed man’s di­ vinity. for to be conscious of death is to know death as a limit. origin. 12 Jun 2014 12:24:17 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . It may be said that man knows himself to be immortal just because he is conscious of death. is the sting of death—then Re­ demption is the source of a fresh and self-renewing life. 95 divine life—if sin. Its utterance is nothing other than u O death. and it wrould not feel this opposi­ tion if its force did not reach beyond the object. ground. Goeschel on the Immortality of the Soul. nothing but the subjective consciousness of participation with God through the Redemption. the moral proof. it is the bless­ ing bestowed in the curse pronounced after the fall. therefore. in general. in truth. Hereupon rests. it is.236. and end of the psychological process of proof. It would not be conscious of its object if it experienced no opposition from this object. it points backward to freedom. and sin only. Conscious­ ness finds a limit in its object only in so far as it transcends this object. This development belongs to the second sphere of proof.27. bears in itself the proof of imperishability. The consciousness of personal im­ perishability and the imperishability of personal consciousness is. We must. and hereupon rests also that form of the moral proof w’hich is developed out of the consciousness of death. or the unity of the objective and subjective— the theoretical and practical proofs. for this consciousness is the exclusive privilege of man . in general. is correctly apprehended as the lever of life. for the consciousness of death is one with the consciousness of g u ilt. as well as the consciousness of imper­ ishability in particular. The outcome of the ontological proof is thus the central fact of the Christian revelation . far from contra­ dicting immortality. wrhere is thy sting ? O grave.

each argument. will not satisfy philosophy itself. It finds renewal in the freshness of concrete representation. The Journal o f Speculative Philosophy. but the consciousness of an object transcends this object only in so far as the latter is opposed to the former. in its refu­ tation. must be superior to God. Thus the argument against immortality derived from the con­ crete representations of death and of the consciousness of death is not only refuted by these same representations. the soul is immaterial because it is conscious of matter. This result. or the con­ cept of imperishability. By a similar process the first proof discovers the imma­ teriality of the soul. in pro­ portion to its exoteric expansion. in other words. Finding its limit in matter.27. because from the conscious­ ness of death follows the consciousness of its opposite. and to a more profound explanation of the doctrine of immortality. rather. Thus. but enriches itself. Without this esoteric activity. over through this into the third proof. The deeper its penetration into all spheres of mani­ festation. being identical with the other.111 on Thu. In thus assuming the burden of its own Apologetics. if conscious­ ness of an object proves superiority over it. In such a case This content downloaded from 132. and we are ceaselessly whirled around in the infinitude of particulars which the representation pictures. out of the brilliant refutation of the argument from the consciousness of death rises the fresh objection that. philosophy not only instructs others. The esoteric movement in philosophy consists in following out the adequate logical categories. however. the one. it may be immediately an­ swered that the consciousness of an object does not prove abstract and unconditioned superiority to it. and in seeking for the primitive phenomena so variously reflected in the sphere of representa­ tion. or is. will it feel the need of esoteric development. The ultimate result is that mortality is the path to immortality. 12 Jun 2014 12:24:17 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . it logically transcends this limit. To this. indeed. mere object. leads to a new objection. being con­ scious of God. and gains strength and versatility through the manifold vicissitudes of the strife.236. to a richer un­ folding of its content. in tracing the total concepts of particular appearances. then man. but is chal­ lenged thereby to self-comprehension and insight. without tran­ scending the sphere of representation. the more surely it realizes that it must collect and orient itself.

simple). But. against which. in Nega­ tion death finds its speculative significance. Finally. In what has been said we may find also a path to the most uni­ versal category which underlies the conception of death. The Negation of Negation is the end of all Negation and the absorption of all death—the self-affirmation and the self-perpetuation of Consciousness. Herewith opposition is transformed into recipro­ cal relationship. Even this result. 12 Jun 2014 12:24:17 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Continuous Creation. but also subject. it is transcended by Consciousness. Being and Thought atiirrn themselves as Spirit. Qoeschel on the Immortality o f the Soul. Negation appears in its own form. when the object of Con­ sciousness is Self-Consciousness itself. in protracted struggle. Thought proves its own infinitude. hence as the contradiction of life and consciousness—but in the felt ascendancy of life and con­ sciousness this death itself dies. which therein proves itself immortal. life to life. In this universality as Negation death moves through all phases of the doctrine of im­ mortality. with which it at once negates itself. With this Negation of Negation. Finally. in which form it is again negated by the Soul. First. Its next disguise isfinitude.111 on Thu. adequately ap- 7 ♦ X X —7 1 J ^ This content downloaded from 132. Death is—Negation. which herewith recognizes itself as immaterial (internal. and quickened through that communion with the Creator without which man can neither be nor think himself. on the contrary. This insight casts a new light upon that path of psy­ chological development which we have retraced so many times. and only from the further determinations of these related consciousnesses can we learn how far either one transcends or is subordinate to the other. In so far as death is merely the object and contradiction of life and consciousness. and. Consciousness is identical with its object. This is the standpoint of the im­ mediate certainty of persistence after death. Negation ap­ pears transformed as matter (externality. then we have Consciousness opposed to Conscious­ ness. 97 Consciousness takes up its object as a moment of itself. The application of this remark is evident. when the object is Absolute Self-Conscious­ ness.236.27. however. Negation is the universal truth of death . Next. the reciprocal relationship consists in the participation of the finite consciousness through Personality in the Absolute Con­ sciousness. the object of consciousness is not merely object. But if. Negation appears as death. is abstract and unsatisfactory until vitalized in the concept of continuous creation. plurality).

in K ant’s phraseology. rests also upon the fourfoldness of the Table of Categories. Developing the soul in its threefold relationship to itself. Fischer fails to comprehend that relationship to God and to the world are really the two sides of the middle sphere of proof. and a monad. Upon this basis of Relation rests also the psychological development in Dr.98 The Journal o f Speculative Philosophy. to the world and to God. Dr. 12 Jun 2014 12:24:17 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .236. accord­ ing to K ant’s terminology. The truth of matter is the immaterial. and consequently incorruptible. prehended. Fischer’s recent work on the u Science of Metaphysics ”—a volume which. the starting-point is immediate unity—it is seized as Substance in its unity with the subject. challenges our warmest thanks and admiration. its middle term being double.27. and its identity as intel­ lectual substance gives. In the critical deduction. and from this diremp- tion returns to a higher unity in the Spirit. The second phase is the difference into w^hich the original unity breaks. K.111 on Thu. or Immortality. The truth of this schema is found in our original order of succession. is that Redemption and Reconciliation through which alone the personality of man is secure. and herewith immateriality. as the result of reverent yet independent investigation. The truth is therefore this. and try to recall their ob­ jective image as an illustration of internal development.” while it is based immediately upon the triplicity of the Category of relation. too. the conception of personality or consciousness of itself and of its other. The soul is this substance or base of the body. while its incompleteness needs to be men­ tioned in the interest of philosophic truth. As we now again glance backward upon the original order of the successive grades of consciousness. for substance as regards its quality is simple. Ph. there arises spontaneously the remembrance of that transcendental sche­ matism wherein Kant sought to exhibit the presumptive paralo­ gism in rational psychology. while the final and inclusive sphere demands recognition of the This content downloaded from 132. therefore this second phase has two sides or limbs. and im­ plicit in it is the truth which we have learned to know as the Personality of the spirit in its living Actuality. We must not overlook the fact that the psychological schema traced and explained in the “ Critique of Pure Reason. Spirituality. that to Thought the immediate unity of Substance breaks into Individuality and Subjectivity. The third stage in which the tension of the two sides is cancelled is.

and beside him his brother man. it is still one with God and with the world. We can. The consummation and the crown of Thought is God in his Personality. 99 identity of the finite and Absolute spirits. the Alpha and the Omega. 12 Jun 2014 12:24:17 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . and this answer is Personality. And while on the one hand. the Ego reappears in God—in that communion with God whose solution is Personality. and that religion. on the other side stands God . to in­ sist that philosophy shall culminate in God. in virtue of its unconscious objectivity. The truth. The concept of personality casts the final light upon the efforts of the Understanding to prove personal persistence. or that participative identity of the Abso­ lute Spirit with the finite Spirit which in the form of feeling is love. Naturally. therefore. and the living truth which underlies pantheistic self-renunciation revealed. on the other hand. but for God. In the order of human development the starting-point is the Ego in itself . the implicit ground of every proof. there­ fore. in the consummation of development. Goe8chel on the Immortality of the Soul. this same concept is. only repeat that as the truth of Being is Self-Consciousness. through the Spirit. In the next stage the Ego appears in its separation from God and from the world. shall mark the highest stage of insight. it is the unexpressed and unrecognized presupposition which gives convincing force to the partial utter­ ances of the separate proofs—the truth which overpowers and con­ vinces before it is named and known. the necessary result of progressive development has been the increas­ ing recognition of the Concept of Personality as the Principle of This content downloaded from 132. is that God in his objectivity is not the final goal of Thought. all the dem­ onstrations of the Understanding are focalized in the Concept ot Personality. but the abstrac­ tion is at once negated. however. so the Actuality of Self-Consciousness is Personality. On one side stands the individual man . in Christ. Finally. It is characteristic of piety. In this light egoism is transfigured and glorified.27.111 on Thu.236. The soul cries out not for God in his abstraction and isolation. With this egoism is seized in its barren abstraction. In man the Ego is first and last. as the Israelitish faith is not the high­ est religion. the brittle isolation annulled ! The answer to the enigma is found. as the relationship of man to God. in its less developed though still praiseworthy forms. and in the form of Thought is Absolute Recognition. beneath man is nature.

Through insight into this expe­ rience we learn the form of the Spirit in its particular manifesta­ tions. The iEsthetico-religious Anthropology begins by rejecting the abstract and unpicturable conception of the soul as separate from the body. In the nature of creation is expressed its purpose. it is next declared. All these investigations agree in calling experience to the aid of abstract thought in order thereby to dis­ cover the content of the given form. to the concrete intellectual contemplation of corporeality. and on the other the Physio-theological doctrine of immortality.100 The Journal o f Speculative Philosophy. is stamped with immortality.” This concrete intellectual contemplation. it vindicates its immortality. we have it by living it. Vindicating the corporeality of the soul. It finds the general concept of Corporeality in logical Thought.” This relationship is mediated in Absolute Corporeality. Thus. while grounded in the same principle. Fichte. By means of such experience u the higher corporeality shows itself not unrelated to the present mortal and transitory copore- ality. u through the indwelling of the Absolute Spirit. Conformably with its theory. On the one hand we have the ^Esthetico-religious doctrine of immortality represented particularly by C. corporeality. the most noted exponent of which is J. this immortality is possible only through the persist­ This content downloaded from 132. Psychology. This corresponds essentially wTith the thought of continuous creation. develop in two different directions. it announces itself not as a psychological but as an anthropological system. w^hich. It is interesting to notice that these speculative essays. 12 Jun 2014 12:24:17 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . but does not find therein its concrete tru th . is the phenomenon of Beauty.111 on Thu. which is defined as the creative power that renews all created corporeality. H. as the finite in identity with the Infinite. or as the body in immediate union with the Spirit. and. therefore. and thus attain to concrete truth. it is original in the results which it develops from this conception.236. Experience is apprehended as externalized thought or as the material provided by Absolute Thought for the purposes of development and actualization. though there is nothing new in its fundamental conception. H. Upon this recognition are based all those recent psy­ chological investigations which seize the soul speculatively as immortal or actual.27. goes hand in hand with experience . it turns. which purpose leads by the teleological path to personal immortality . Weisse.

that the body is the expression of the Soul as individual. This u Simple” is the “ Monad” of Leibnitz and the “ dynamic quality” of Her- bart. Thus originates the Monad. that the purpose of crea­ tion. a soul and body . really first forms it into Personality. This content downloaded from 132. Again we observe that the starting-point is the unity of the Soul with the body in the Spirit. 101 ence of the same body.” Very similar is the procedure of the physiological or anthropo­ logical-theological method. logically and onto­ logically. and is able. Fully equipped. Granted that the ground and essence of all reality is the Soul. from phre­ nology and craniology. it traces experimentally all particularly given analogies. its presupposition is that creative force of Absolute Per­ sonality which itself is presuppositionless. Through experience thus contemplated it grows clear. and out of darkness emerges into light. Adequately apprehended. obtains information from physiology and physiognomy. also. under all conditions to generate anew that body with whicli it cannot dis­ pense. from animal magnetism and somnambu­ lism. Hereupon rests all generation which throughout all its stages is nothing but the self-projection of the Idea which thus actually begins to be. it is nevertheless. and follows all the footprints of organism in order to conquer for corporeality on all sides that which justly belongs to it. in time and space. that it rejects all abstraction and makes explicit the full validity of that corporeality in which the Soul is realized as Spirit. Goeschel on the Immortality of the Soul. Corporization is the indispensable condition of personi­ fication . The truth is. the indestructible basis of the manifold is the Simple. which is imperishability. It teaches that the Spirit is individual and personal in proportion to what it possesses of the substance of the Absolute and E ternal. This development moves principally within the sphere of the second proof in both its theological and teleological direc­ tions. u for this substance. The distinctive peculiarity of this system is.111 on Thu. and communicate eternal life to the world. it is the embodied Idea. and therefore presupposes between death and the resurrection an intermediate state in which the soul is not bodiless. is disturbed by s in . 12 Jun 2014 12:24:17 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .27. through sin death has entered into the world. far from robbing it of Person­ ality. This original purpose of crea­ tion will be restored when death is overcome. and to overcome death God must be made flesh.236.

out of which it develops continuously toward the light. more clearly than has ever been done before. and the process of death is far more gradual than is generally supposed.111 on Thu. So much with regard to the two speculative developments of Personality. The spiritual bread of life (pabulum mentis) is God in his revelation. and nourishment is the physiological condition of persistence.27. With respect to the latter. is appointed to participation with G od. This is that teleological moment of the second proof which rests upon the principle of perfectibility. therefore Consciousness demands a further development. In their detail much is left undeveloped. in accordance with its own Concept.102 The Journal of Speculative Philosophy. This ques­ tion. for when Consciousness has realized all its poten­ tialities. we are taught this through the revelation made in the incarnation of God. In both. This bread of life is inexhaustible. Its nourishment can never fail. includes bodily persistence. demands more definite develop­ ment. that Consciousness has a night-side. and thus fulfilled the purpose of Creation. and its body. notwithstanding all their defects.236. however. One cannot fail to recognize that this development emanates from the content of the first proof. In this life the night-side is never wholly overcome. these speculative developments have incontestably one distinctive merit. Death is the separation of the internal body of the Soul from its outlived husk. and there remain many interwoven conceptions which lack trans­ parency and mediation. God has revealed himself in the flesh—corporeality and finitude are impregnated with God. of which the external palpable body is merely the manifestation. we become involved in conceptions which involuntarily suggest Philo’s spirits of the air. only under the condition of per­ sistence can Consciousness realize itself by turning all its dark­ ness into light. why should it not pass away ? This doubt finds its solution in the theological phase of the second proof. the first point to be noticed is. the moment of This content downloaded from 132. This in­ sight does not. consequently the finite spirit is imperishable. begotten by God. Through it we learn that the finite spirit. 12 Jun 2014 12:24:17 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . together with many others. the night-side of Consciousness is ex­ perimentally verified. But. which. They ex­ hibit. In the discussion of the where of the Soul after death (with Fichte). and finds its completion in the sphere of the second proof. exclude the possibility of the destruction of Consciousness.

is withdrawn from the power of death. showing conclusively that the body is the immanent organ of the Soul. the Soul. through participation with the soul. no soul. or.55 According to this dialogue. . throughout the spheres of nature. which prevails only over what is devoid of reason and con­ sciousness.236. they present this insight only in its crude. And the greatest of all these creations or begettings on the part of the Demiurgus is man. Hence there is nothing that belongs to the essence of man that can perish entirely.27.55he continues. both in the in­ carnation of souls and the permeation and transfiguration of bodies. identical with its Content. “ our soul is immortal. being derived from experience and meditation. without a past there is no present. its presupposition in Personality: this Personality we have recog­ nized as the concrete concept of the S pirit. All organization. and the body of this soul. “ For. The final consummation is the obedience of creation toward God in God.55 In time the present is the central p o in t.111 on Thu. no spirituality. and. and^forward to its final purpose. published about four years since. as reasonable XoyiKi] and morally free. and penetrated by the Spirit. though. consists both in the externalization of a hidden internality and in the fusion of the external with this internality. The life of nature throughout all its degrees—so runs the confession—points both backward to the mystery of its beginning. Sm TTjv rfj? yjrvxfjs Koivcoviav. coming into union with the body. i t may. Therefore it has been said that all the paths of God end in corporeality. This trans­ parent corporeality in its final analysis is the obedience of the body to the soul in the spirit—an obedience which is free because identical with that which determines it. is immortal through its communion with God.’5 This concept of soul-permeated corporeality has. 12 Jun 2014 12:24:17 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . only in the light of this concept is the body transfigured and transparent. it leaves in it the germ of immortality. follow it out physiologically. immediate form. “ No body. Upon this fundamental insight rest the confessions of Heinrich Steffens. Goeschel on the Immortality o f the Soul. without a future there is no actuality. be helpful to refer in this connection to the views of immortality and resurrection which are developed in that Dialogue of JEneas of Gaza. And as all that This content downloaded from 132. in other words. no corporeality. they seize this moment aesthetically. by the aid of analogies. 103 Corporeality . perhaps. known under the name of “ Theo­ phrastus. however.

the latter is the light. and the ground and goal of renewal after its purity has been darkened in the incarnation of God.104 The Journal of Speculative Philosophy.27. or soul. “ It must be presup­ posed in each. and by this He puts on the form of man and becomes personal. “ the germ of Per­ sonality. and being by all others strengthened and confirmed. wherewith the soul stamps the body as its possession. e. Personality consists both in the incarnation of the soul. “ As the rays of light are refracted in each eye. each separate per­ sonality confirming and strengthening all others. exists exists in this middle point of time. the unicn of the two is life. and. and union with it is the sure road to blessedness. are yet inwardly united—so. would each human personality live in and with all others. 12 Jun 2014 12:24:17 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Personality consists. By this human personality is proved immortal. Personality is the end of the journey toward God. the germ of penetrability (i. and in the penetration of the body by the soul. though nature and body have become impenetrable and the Soul impure.236. and. so man is the middle point of this constantly appearing creation. This content downloaded from 132. without disturbing. in the fusion of body and soul—human personality in accordance with its con­ cept in the complete unity and purity of human existence.” The former is the night. while separate.. had humanity kept its first estate.” And even though original purity has been clouded and mankind subsists no longer in this transparent and harmonious personality. while all together swelled the harmony of an ever-blessed existence. through which is attained Individuality.” It takes place through union with Christ as a fact of experience. intersect each other . as in every melody waves of sound pierce and thrill through each other.” has never perished. mutual participation] and of purification. or body . and a future which shall be after all appearance. “ In the complete integrity of his existence lies a past which was before all ap­ pearance.111 on Thu. Such are the reflections through which we are led to the con­ cept of Personality. But just for this reason human personality finds its ground and goal in the Absolute Personality of God. therefore.

org/page/info/about/policies/terms. penn state urineisity piess GOESCHEL ON THE IM M O R TALITY OF THE SOUL (Concluded) A u th o r(s): CARL FRIEDRICH GOESCHEL and SU SAN E. V ol. BLOW Source: The Journal o f Speculative Philosophy.jsp JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars. 1886). W e use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms o f scholarship.27.236. pp. http://www. Penn State University Press is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize. For more information about JSTOR. and build upon a wide range o f content in a trusted digital archive. 20. N This content downloaded from 132. 3 1 0 -3 2 9 Published b y : Penn State U niversity Press Stable URL: http://www. please contact support@jstor. preserve and extend access to The Journal o f Speculative Philosophy.jstor. researchers. 3 (J u ly . available at http://www. 12 Jun 2014 12:23:10 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . and students discover. use.jstor.111 on Accessed: 1 2 /0 6 /2 0 1 4 12:23 Your use o f the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance o f the Terms & Conditions o f Use.

A ccording to Ludwig Noack ( “ Philosophic Geschichtliches L ex ik on ” ). 1832).) Page 615. 1832-1842). 1806. xvii. 65. For convenience. p.) C hapter IY .310 The Journal o f Speculative Philosophy. who had already proved his acquaint­ ance with Hegel’s writings in an anonymous treatise which was very highly prized by Daub. 172. 12 Jun 2014 12:23:10 PM A ll use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Goeschel applied next the principles o f this philosophy to questions o f jurisprudence. returned to Berlin in 1849.— “ To the defence o f Hegel against the writings o f W eisse stood up the man whom the mentioned ‘ hand-pressure ’ o f the master had so ennobled in the eyes o f the school o f Hegel that they greeted his book with joy after looking for it with breath­ less interest. counsellor o f state and president o f the Consistorium for the Saxon province in Magdeburg in 1845 . Before concluding our discussion of the subject of immortality we should fix our eyes more directly upon the essential moments 1 The work o f Goeschel completed in this number o f the J ournal may be considered as the best exposition o f the right wing o f the Hegelian school— a school that held speculative philosophy to be the same in content with evangelical Christianity. xi. and excerpted some sen­ tences from it verbally to use in his encyclopedia as his own. 154. BLOW. died there in 1862. {Concluded. vol. on account o f his stiff adherence to old Lutheran doctrines. though very different in form. in Thiiringen. a member o f the Obercensur collegiums in 1839. vol. 1803 to 1807.111 on Thu. to Naumburg again in 1861. we give here the references to the numbers in which the portions o f the translation already published. xix.” 4 Page 62 .. The Essential Moments o f the Spirit. GOESCHEL1 ON THE IM M O R TALITY OE THE SOUL.” a work to which he attached his initials only. xx. 88. vol. vol. pp. which claimed This content downloaded from 132. published in 1829 a book entitled “ Aphorismen iiber Nichtwissen und Absolutes W isser. 314. pp. 2 1 . i i — “ Karl Friedrich Goeschel. educated at the gymna­ sium at Gotha. Karl Fried­ rich Goeschel was born in 1784 at Langensalza. 17V. 37 2. Goeschel’ s ‘ Monismus des Gedankens’ (Naumburg. may be fou n d : Vol. xviii. 299. BY SUSAN E.27. Hegel greeted this work with a ‘ thankful pressure o f the hand ’ ( ‘ dankbaren Hiindedruck’ ). assist­ ant minister o f justice at Berlin in 1834. pp. pp. studied jurisprudence at Leipzig. 24 6. became Oberlandesgerichtsrath at Naumburg in 1817. as appears in his ‘ Zerstreuten B lattern’ (3 vols. The following excerpts will furnish matter o f interest to those who wish to know more o f his life. and o f the estimate that Hegel and some o f his disciples placed on his w ork: From Erdmann's “ Grundrixs d<r Gesehichte der P h llosop h ie( Berlin.236. vol. he was placed on the retired list in 1848. TRANSLATED FROM THE GERMAN OF CARL FRIEDRICH GOESCHEL. became attorney-at-law in Langensalza in 1807.

does not speak well for the thorough study o f a treatise in every way remarkable. Goeschel on the Immortality of the Soul. For his separation o f the formal from the real sciences separates form and content— that is to say. as an empire realizes its unity only through the monarch.— “ Strauss replied in 1837 in the third number o f his ‘ Streitschriften. and even causes us to do harm. the danger o f an appearance o f partisanship shall not prevent me from glad acknowl­ edgment o f the help which this book gives to the cause o f truth. which is the arch enemy o f all philosophy. (Berlin. In his col­ lected works. Rationalism is the antipode o f speculative philosophy as well as o f faith. thinking and being— while the recent philosophy had held fast to the unity o f these.” Goeschel’s “ Aphorisms on Agnosticism and Absolute Knowing ” was reviewed in 1829 in the “ Jahrbiicher fiir Wissenschaftlicher Kritik ” by Hegel himself. 1837).” “ It is an evidence o f the depth o f mind that it can bring the categories o f the mere understanding to the bar o f thought— those categories which the evangelical Christians sometimes use with double inconsistency— siding with rationalism against speculative philosophy.’ He said that the school o f Hegel.— “ The question o f immortality was treated in detail by Goeschel in his work entitled ‘ V on den Beweissen fur die Unsterblichkeit.’ I f the command to avoid all the appearances o f evil often holds us back from good. Rosenkranz in the centre.— “ Against Strauss’ s ‘ Life o f J esu s’ Goschel wrote an essay entitled ‘ First and L a st: A Confession o f Faith on the part o f Speculative Philosophy. X V II. in which he characterized three chief proofs parallel with the three proofs o f the existence o f God.’ sought to prove to Weisse that he had fallen into dualism. the eloquent Easter sermon which Goschel inserted as his preface. On the left side. w. page 82) assures us.27. or at least from fitting deeds. at the close o f the critique. and had claimed for our thinking the place o f a rethinking o f the creat­ ive thought.” Page 656. but struggling m ight­ ily in their death-throes. each o f which falls into dualism.111 on Thu. as the author o f this treat­ ise (Goeschel. The fact that many have attacked only the out­ work o f this book. It deals with the shallow doctrines o f the understanding which constitute its self-styled illum ination. in which he sought to prove that. so humanity receives its unity only through a primitive man (‘ Urmensch ’ ).” Page 652. These three proofs correspond also to the three stages: individual.’ which contained the chief thoughts that were expanded in his ‘ Contributions to Speculative T heology’ (Berlin. subject. Since Hegel’s method is the self-forming o f the content. 1838). had two sides. 1835). Vol. 311 of the spirit considered as essential relationships. h im self. and among them one passage which had been wrongly inserted in Hegel’s works by his editor. Gabler. It is indispen­ sable that these essential relationships be both distinguished and to be ‘ an apology o f the existing philosophy at the grave o f its founder.” Page 657. nor in behalf o f specu- This content downloaded from 132. who constituted a part o f ^God and at the same time lived sole in created humanity. he says that he “ greets in this book the aurora o f coming reconciliation between faith and science. 12 Jun 2014 12:23:10 PM A ll use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . and the appendix in which he printed extracts from Hegel’s works. and at the same time condemning the use o f those categories.236. Goschel seemed particularly well pleased with his preface. Bruno B auer. ‘ doctrines fast on the decline. Goschel. for he followed it with another book as commentary— ‘ Die Siebenfaeltige Osterfrage’ (Berlin. page 148. s. it has refuted both materialism and formalism.’ u. like the French Parliament. on the right. and spirit (institutional life o f man).

It treats this theme with speculative depth and thoroughness. ii.312 The Journal o f Speculative Philosophy. who is unknown to me personally. the other moment is that relationship to others whose culmination is subsistence in God. and these leaves now fall upon his grave. from thankfully pressing the hand o f the author. and sides with rationalism in adopting the principle o f ag­ nosticism.” vol. in his lectures on the “ P roofs o f the Existence o f G o d ” (“ Phil. This union is the concrete Unity which presup­ poses the destruction of the two included moments. With this it becomes active— movetur et se movet. This content downloaded from 132. despite its finitude. I who had received his loving hand-pressure from a distance— but it was otherwise or­ dained. however.” Goeschel himself. and replies to all the attacks which agnosticism has brought against philoso­ phy. The indissolubility of the Spirit in itself is the immanent unity of the soul and its internal body in the Spirit. conviction imperilled. The union of these two moments is the third— the partici­ pation of the finite Spirit with the Absolute Spirit— for Spirit is of the Spirit. a work directed. is only the first moment of its Concept. as relation­ ships.111 on Thu. he notices the same work again. manifests itself in its independence or indivisibility in itself. and peace of heart destroyed. I hoped to become acquainted with him face to face. In other words. if each one is not explicit. Through the adequate apprehension of these relations our intellectually attained results will be harmonized with the natural needs of the heart. 1831) in which Hegel died. It is this dualism of the moments which we wish now to consider more attentively. and to take his hand thankfully. The first point to be noticed is. 12 Jun 2014 12:23:10 PM A ll use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . It explains in detail the causes o f the misapprehension o f the pious mind which fails to apprehend the truth. in the preface o f his work on the “ Unity o f the System o f Thought ” ( “ Monismus des Gedankens” ).” Again. This. recognition is cloud­ ed. and says o f i t : “ This work is as deep in its Christian faith as in its speculative philosophy. It brings into the light all the points o f view and devices which the understanding urges against the theory o f Christianity. for clear insight demands that no one of them shall be merged in another. page 394). the Spirit gets its Content and its form as its two moments out of lative philosophy thus served by the work. against W eisse. and ex­ poses the false views that have been advanced against Philosophy and Christianity. P. concerns directly the point o f view here taken on the proofs o f God’ s existence. W hat the author says on the self-consciousness o f God and o f his self-knowing in man. combined. whom I had never met personally. “ I had hoped with these pages to greet the living Hegel. o f Religion. and makes common cause with it against philosophy. This Concrete Unity is the realized truth of abstract simplicity. as well as o f man’s self-knowing in God. S. says that it was written in the same month (November. as above stated.” — E d it o r J.27.236. that the finite spirit.

and we grow impatient over what seems to us wilful blindness. the first relationship of individuality is contained in the second .236. Goeschel on the Immortality of the Soul. we m. but as individual penetrability. material and shape. as yet been proved to be for itself in relation­ ship to others. The form has its con­ tent. according to the varying position of Consciousness. defined to be for Spirit. Yet it is declared incomprehensible that to the living spirit should belong its two moments.and now as the formative activ­ ity .e . in its own body it is its own object. Thus. It is universally admitted to be conceivable and com­ prehensible that to each clod and stone belong by nature the two moments.27. it is still only relationship to its own internal body. 813 itself. it is denied that body and soul are both of the Spirit. and hence that each is in identity with the other.ay now venture with Spinoza to represent the participation of the finite This content downloaded from 132. and the content has its form in itself. is more definitely de­ lined as Subjectivity. As soon as we truly comprehend this unity. The other side of the individual Spirit is its participation with God and with the world. and in like manner the body of the Spirit shows itself now as form and again as content or material. i. its unity and individuality as subject is thus only its first side. without the former the latter cannot be. indeed. This participa­ tion we have already comprehended in the Concept of personality or individual penetrability.. but not before. in its distinction from natural individuality. and approved as the inalienable possession of the Spirit. it has not. 12 Jun 2014 12:23:10 PM A ll use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . which. developed out of its relationship to otherness by means of the double Consciousness. and not relation­ ship to anything other than itself. Thereafter we wonder that the speculative concept of Unity is so incomprehensible to the major­ ity of minds. Protected by the Concept of Personality against pantheism. body and soul. Personality is the outcome of Con­ tinuity or stability. The nature of Spirit is. a participation in which individuality is main­ tained. the soul of the Spirit appears now as the Content. Personality is therefore not to be seized as penetrability in the sense of mere porosity.111 on Thu. This indivisibility or unity of the soul is Individuality. the latter being the abstract and the former the concrete Concept. Thus far the unity of the subject is only in itself. we have attained the standpoint of specu­ lative philosophy. content and form. The unity of the two moments is shown in the fact that. however.

Dom ine ! The heart longs to rest in God. in its inmost depths. This relationship. Spirit with God as Concursus D e i and as Creatio Continua: the Concept of Creation in its distinction from emanation of itself ex­ cludes pantheism. In the concept of Personality there is realized in the relationship of the Subject to God and to the World the same truth which was real­ ized in Individuality in its relationship to the soul— viz. as hidden This content downloaded from 132. that the nature of Spirit is to be for the Spirit. it remains now to consider the relationship of these two relation­ ships to each other. The question is: How is the relationship of the Spirit to itself related to its relationship to others.27.111 on Thu.. only the life of the individual hid with Christ in God. is. invisible Spirit— but. From con­ tinuous participation with God follows also the participation of the finite Spirit with the total Creation. and at the same time to be con­ scious of this rest in God. Cor nostrum. 12 Jun 2014 12:23:10 PM A ll use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . and Person­ ality in Individuality. This progressive Creation is the Eternal fount­ ain of life— the condition of all personal persistence. and vice versa f Who does not feel that each human heart.314: The Journal of Speculative Philosophy. Without the one the other is unthinkable. inquietum est. and from the participa­ tion of each individual follows again the peculiar relationship of each particular individual to his environment. The death of a particular person as indi­ vidual is. the rela­ tionship of both relationships would seem to be equal. it is not only hidden— i. understanding thereby not merely relationship to the outward body. herewith they are negatively cancelled as two relationships. Individuality is mediated in Personality.. the resurrection. but with this also relationship to the whole Creation and to God himself. in order that each may receive its due signifi­ cance. in its com­ pletion and transfiguration. e. each is in the other. donee requiescat in Te.236. which appears simultaneously with Consciousness. pants for them as the heart pants for the water-brooks. the heart longs for God’s consciousness of its conscious rest in him. and the moment of Personality) as relationships of the Spirit to itself and to others. and positively cancelled as one relationship. yearns for them as each creature yearns for its own elemant? According to this feeling. We have now considered the two essential moments of the Spirit (the moment of self-conscious Individuality. longs equally for both relationships. therefore. Moreover.

Death is negatively negated. This is the underlying truth of Absorption.236. it lacks that from which as individual it distinguishes itself. but becomes himself incarnate in the flesh. through the condescension of God in creation. 31 & with Christ in God. even unto the end of the world. because all is in him. negation is negated . being invisible. and herewith his personal iden­ tity is transfigured as Being-for-self is transfigured in Being-in-and- for self. xxviii. Difference or In­ dividuality is paralyzed without Personality— that is. through the progressive continuance of both Creations. K aT€ 7r60rj o davaros e k vikos. Goeschel on the Immortality of the Soul. The concept of Personality demands the maintenance of self-conscious individuality . but Being-for-self is retained as a moment of the Totality. wherein he breathed into man’s nostrils the breath of life. second. the finite Consciousness is maintained and transfigured in him: God is all in all. as created and contingent. receives the life of the Spirit from the Absolute Self-mediated Personality. Death is cheered by the promise of Christ: “ Because I live ye shall live also.111 on Thu. 20 : “ Lo. hence it is the condition of finite personality.” Absolute Personality is the life of the Spirit. but Christ liveth in me. first. it is forever secure. the particular man is hid with Christ the God-inan in God. It is easy to see that these moments of Individuality and Per­ sonality exist only in and through each other. but Consciousness in Consciousness.” The finite Ego is swallowed up not in Being. but of the living. That which is absorbed or swal­ lowed up is Death . 12 Jun 2014 12:23:10 PM A ll use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . God is not the God of the dead. flows uninterruptedly into the finite Spirit. the realized promise of Matthew.27. it is the key of the apparent paradox— “ I live. yet not I. wTherein God not only condescends to men. it is hidden in God and not in the World. which. the creature lives in him . finally. nega­ tively annulled or swallowed up in the victory which is the posi­ tive annulment or absorption of the subject. through Redemption or Second Creation. the grace of God. it is secure from the transitoriness of visible Being. it is not Being immersed in Being.” Through crea- ation and redemption. which is the stream of eternal life. the abstraction of mere Being-for-self is cancelled. in that He is Absolute Consciousness. lacking this. in the same way Per­ sonality without Individuality is voidTfor it lacks that which pene­ This content downloaded from 132. without inter­ penetrative participation— for. I am with you alway. in that He is life. but in Ab­ solute Consciousness.

in renouncing the selfish ego. For the untruth of pantheism is that. Dualism lacks the moment of mediating and permeat­ ing communion. and Person­ ality cannot realize its concept without the self-consciousness of the individual. the finite spirit finds itself in its indestructible simplicity cutoff from universality. 12 Jun 2014 12:23:10 PM A ll use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . but produce convic­ tion when in their union all the preceding moments become ex­ plicit in the all-including mediatorial concept of Personality. trates and is penetrable. we run into pantheism . "Within the human spirit one of its two moments always preponderates over the other. and is the witness of their heavenly calling. Therefore Plato justly replies to the pantheistic morality of abstract self-renunciation that the longing for personal immortality is most intense in the noblest men. In absolute Personality alone is all personal life realized and perpetu­ ated. In this same dualism is grounded all that doubt of personal persist­ ence which now and then overwhelms each man in presence of the transi tori ness wherein the individual vanishes and only the species is preserved. In the dualism of the moments of the finite spirit lies the ex­ planation of man’s twofold longing to be himself and to be in God— to be particular and universal. it surrenders also that real selfhood in which consists the essential nature of spirit. the self is freed from the pain and torment of isolation and This content downloaded from 132. holds fast by the truth of selfhood. When in its compelling force Individuality asserts its supremacy. when this universality for which the spirit pants asserts its abstract suprem­ acy. In this abstraction it is not adequate to itself. on the other hand. if we fail to recognize Per­ sonality. If we give up individuality.316 The Journal of Speculative Philosophy. its defect is that it clings also to the ab­ stract self. yet escape therefrom seems to involve the loss of self. but does not render it less unthinkable. He who loses one moment of the Spirit loses both moments. the mere self.27.111 on Thu. this self-renunciation gives pantheism its moral significance. Hence it is that the separate demonstrations of Immortality in their isolation prove nothing. and loses the Spirit itself. Egoistic dualism.^ we fall involuntarily into Egoistic dualism. Individuality cannot be saved without Personality. individual and personal. On the other hand. Pantheism lacks the moment of self-conscious Individuality.236. The underlying truth of pantheism is the surrender of the ab­ stract ego.

Actuality has already been defined as the Totality of its moments. From this discipline is de­ veloped. Until this muddy fountain is purified. This discipline is based upon relationship to the other of the subject. Goeschel on the Immortality of the Soul. there remains. Here at last we discover the Scylla and Charybdis of all doubt. is the disproportion of the moments of the spirit relatively to each other. thus manifesting and realizing their mutual participation. otherwise Individuality would not be actual in Personality. the fountain of all tears shed for doubt. who as Individual has also the right to be for self. Ilinc illae lacry- mae ! The crater of all doubt. In that discipline deters and fear restrains through persistence of the moment of difference. This Totality proves itself vital in that its moments work in and through each other. nor the individual man alien to his brother-man. for though the other is not alien to it. neverthe­ less.27. secondly. The Moment of Difference. sacrificed to its own longing for universality.236. yet at once it seems to vanish like the soli­ tary dewdrop that slips into the ocean and. This Pain will never be entirely lost. The conscious difference which we have called the Indi­ viduality of the Subject begets discipline or restraint toward others. must persist eternally in Personality. As we reflect upon Individuality and grasp its relationship to Personality as its Actuality. respect for and fear of others and reverence for God . which is the ground of this longing. the difference according to which man knows God as above and his neighbor as beside him. Herewith discipline is not only genetically explained. we have tracked self-impeaching thought to its ultimate retreat. though transfigured. we have chased doubt to its last hiding-place. for though in Personality God is not alien to man. is yet distinct from the Conscious Subject. It is necessary to our more complete comprehension that we should recognize the distinct yet united moments of the spirit in their activity in life and thought. is submerged in the abstract universal. we observe that from this Actuality arise three relationships which develop in succession from each other. for in this activity lies their ac­ tuality. but also jus­ tified as commandment. 317 breathes its proper air. 2 1 This content downloaded from 132. doubt can never be wholly overcome. there arises in the consciousness of the individual P a in at the separation from others. because the longing for others in which it is rooted will never be entirely stilled. 12 Jun 2014 12:23:10 PM A ll use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .111 on Thu.

which opposes itself to Discipline and Restraint. which stands over against Fear. but it penetrates this limit through recognition of its identity with its other. which. beneath. permeates. Creation is seized. The first is Freedom. in the same manner as Individuality is therein positively cancelled. or beside the subject. It recognizes in its limit the law before which Discipline bows. though penetrated. If we now grasp together these separate relationships we appre­ hend the totality of the moments which are active in Individu­ ality as Sorrow. in its increasing degrees of activity and actuality. The totality of the moments in which Personality is active and actual is. The soul of Creation is therefore the finite spirit or man. whether above. it con­ sists in this— that God. there results from the concept cff Personality the more definite apprehension of the inclusive concept or absolute This content downloaded from 132. which smiles in the face of Pain. but a sister. The difference between the three relationships which arise out of the Activity of Individuality in its relation to Personality may be more adequately defined as follows: Discipline is the limit. it conquers without taking the life of the conquered. to be apprehended as “ Predominant Blessedness. there arise from the participation of the Individual writh others. pene­ trates. The third is Joy. this Joy consists essentially in the conquest of Pain. and hence personifies the Creature. results the more adequate definition of Representation which is perpetuated in the total Concept. The second is Love. on the contrary. there­ fore. conformably with his Personality. On the other hand. 12 Jun 2014 12:23:10 PM A ll use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . This Sorrow we recognize also in God. God is separate and apart from the Individuality of the creatures whom nevertheless He loves. three relationships in which Personality proves itself active and actual in relation to the Individuality of Consciousness. It conquers in Fear not an enemy. Pain is the persistent difference between natures essen­ tially one. is not wiped out. and therefore cannot do without Pain.236. more definitely from Personality. for as In­ dividual. In these rela­ tionships the three above mentioned are harmonized. Cor­ respondingly.318 The Journal o f Speculative Philosophy. whose body is— Nature! From the concept of Individuality.27. Fear is the other which lies beyond this limit. as the first passion of God.” This triumphant Blessedness flows from God into and through all souls.111 on Thu.

Goeschel on the Immortality of the Soul. each pre-supposes the individuality of the Subject— each consists in participation. is absolute only in so far as in Reason is given the power to solve and cancel the fortuitous . it follows that the knowledge of God is absolute or perfect knowledge. and each particular comprehended in the totality.27. This is the eternal difference between absolute Knowledge in the Creator and in the creature . results from the different Individuality. True knowledge consists essentially in the negation of what is casual and contingent. the solution begins to be actual when the apparently casual and isolated elements of Knowledge are recognized as single notes of the universal har­ mony— Moments as yet unpenetrated of the inclusive totality. is pas­ sive and communicated. The Knowledge of Man. 12 Jun 2014 12:23:10 PM A ll use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . The difference between absolute Knowledge in God and in the finite spirit. An absolute object demands and necessitates absolute recognition. in that therein all con­ tingencies are negated. are themselves the negation of continuity and coherence. In this restored Con­ tinuity or concrete concept the separate Moments are positively perpetuated. 319 Knowledge. whence it is evident that the negation of these negations is the restoration of continuity. To know and to be a person is one and the same. and demands that all particular moments shall meet in the totality of the Concept. The absolute Knowledge of God is immediately active— the absolute knowledge of man. but cancelled so far as regards their abstraction and isolation. a distinction born of the more adequate apprehension of knowledge itself. To this persistent difference between the knowing of the Abso­ lute Spirit and that of the finite spirit must be added. the Knowledge of Man is Absolute because of the Absoluteness of its Object. and wlien there exists in Consciousness the conviction that what seems This content downloaded from 132. as such. If Knowledge in general consists in the cancelling of the accidental and immediate. The Knowledge of God is absolute be­ cause it is the absolute Subject that knows. Contingencies. they know what God thinks and knows in that they read it in his revelation.236. for the mo­ ment. as well as the difference between absolute Knowledge in different men.111 on Thu. the Blessed participate in the recog­ nition of the Absolute Subject through recognition of the Abso­ lute Object. into which as into u mirror they eternally gaze. on the other hand. in its first phase. all forms of immediacy cancelled.

in a single word. 12 Jun 2014 12:23:10 PM A ll use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .320 The Journal of Speculative Philosophy. but it is the limit over which participation This content downloaded from 132. and not to learn to recognize one’s ignorance is spiritual obduracy. will find that through the determination of limit. let us learn to comprehend soul and body— the internal and the external body— light and shadow— the subject and its other— the particular and the uni­ versal. as renuncia­ tion. the validity of externality. and that what is negated in. representation and concept. as we have striven concisely to indicate them. sorrow and blessedness.27. and therefore are not able to apprehend definitely the relationship of the finite spirit to Knowledge. and by which earnest but darkeued minds are constantly incited to fresh attacks against Philosophy. that representation is the moment of transcendence. There is some­ thing really touching in the misconceptions which clog and per­ vert thought in this our day.236. Grasping them thus. Insight into these fundamental relationships is indispensable to those who wish to orient themselves in Philosophy. and the concept the moment of immanence. pain and joy. The many are wrecked by Knowledge because they do not know what Knowledge is. and their persistent in­ vincibility in the concept of individuality. Other-being is the indelible limit which even Mysticism recognizes in the ad­ mission of discipline. If we now seek to define logically the moments which we have characterized as discipline and freedom. as applied to the Concept of Individuality. Whoever will weigh and ponder the determinations of these Concepts. is restored both in its objective necessity as Other-being and in its subjective aspect as patience and self-denial. fear and love. we may say. Many of these attacks are pure in aim and honest in motive^- and we should gladly hold them guiltless of their misconceptions did we not realize that ignorance itself is guilt.111 on Thu. to be accidental is not really so. To escape this stultifying ignorance. we shall understand their ideal solution in the concept of personality. more and more completely in their identity and in their difference. and shall be able to represent vitally Absolute Knowledge in God and man in accord with the very definite distinction which flows from the Concept of the Spirit. There is no immanence without transcendence.the Concept is only the contingency of the apparently contingent. and no transcend­ ence without immanence / the unity of the two in which each is negatively and positively cancelled is— Personality.

111 on Thu. but if it has any real significance its content must relate to the ultimate concept of the soul. Upon this dualism of the two poles. and does not inhere in the question with regard to the seat of the soul. the question contains an obvious contradiction. as immaterial is opposed to matter. manifests itself as a Moment of the-Whole. personal community. inward 2 1 * X X — 21 " This content downloaded from 132. . Its kernel lies in the ever-penetrated yet ever-abiding limit which isolated the individual. rests that concrete unity which is not singularity but actual. Neither position in space nor a seat in the material body can be ascribed to the soul.236. Matter. therefore. the former being the external. Ordinarily this question is supposed to refer to the position of the soul in the external body. however. and then of abstracting and withdrawing itself from space. as Thought is opposed to Being. Space is. Externality. Corporeality. however. because the soul transcends space and proves itself independent of the external body. The Whole is the Spirit to which soul and bodv. the penetra­ tion is eternal because the limit abides. the latter the internal— the union of the two the living Concept. It is not difficult to see the relationship of this explanation to the doctrine of immortality. The soul as inward has seat or locality relatively to the outward. The contradic­ tion inheres quite as much in the conception of the soul itself as in the conception of the seat of the soul. The conception of a seat of the soul.. Goeschel on the Immortality of the Soul.27. as internality is opposed to externality. however. because it is the finite that is penetrated in the infinite. space and position. i. involves in itself the contradiction of presupposing space as its externality. and as soul is opposed to body. however. e. The soul. as distinct Moments. this dualism is nothing else than the antithesis of Being and Thought. and the eternal duration is perfection. Hence the soul. like ex­ ternality. and be verified in all the successive stages through which this concept develops. 12 Jun 2014 12:23:10 PM A ll use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Fundamentally. In intimate connection with this insight is the ever-recurring question with regard to the seat of the soul. exclu­ sively a category of Being. It is important. in the outward the soul is its own seat. to remark that the contradiction lies only in the assumed relationship of the soul to space. The underlying ground of the question with regard to the seat of the soul is the conception of space. or rather as the inward. 321 manifests itself universally as predominant.

322 The Journal of Speculative Philosophy.

and outward, belong as moments; these moments are negatively
and positively cancelled in Personality as the contradiction of
position and space is solved in movement. As we ascribe to the
finite spirit a soul or Individuality, so we mast ascribe to it in
each stage of development a seat, i. e., a position relatively to all
other spirits and to God. Of this position as external, death is
the external destruction.
It is worthy of remark that the external life of the individual is
dependent upon individual organism; this organism again rests
upon the conflict between position and space, soul and body, in­
ward and outward; finally, this conflict results from the union of
these antithetical moments. When the union is dissolved and
separation occurs, the struggle is over— but the end of the strug­
gle is also the ending of life. Death approaches— u The clock
stands still, the hand falls! All is over! All over— nay, this is
the utterance of folly. To be all over is to be pure nothing, and
pure nothing is not.”
The soul’s doubt of its own immortality is grounded in the
question of the seat of the soul. Where is this seat? No one
knows and no one can know, for position is the negation of the
space in which it is sought. Wherever it may be, to the soul it is
always a stone of stumbling, because it is not only a contradiction
in itself, but through this contradiction leads thought over into
the physiological sphere. The physiological standpoint is the one
most dangerous to psychology. Involuntarily we shiver to hear
that the life of the spirit is dependent on brain and nerves, stomach
and intestines, heart and blood, lungs and breath ; a shudder creeps
over us when it is whispered that all the thoughts and impulses of
the spirit cling to a few feeble filaments, and perish if these be
injured or destroyed; we grow faint and giddy in presence of
that gloomy and mysterious force of Nature to which the most
brilliant aspirations of the spirit seem to succumb.
And yet, in so doing, Thought but starts back affrighted from
the view of its own categories. The seat of the soul is the here
and now ; the here and now are realized only when the here is
110 longer here and the now no longer now, but both move for­
ward. The here in its essential nature is the inward of the out­
ward, therefore it celebrates its victory in death, wherein the out­
ward is transformed.

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Goeschel on the Immortality of the Soul. 323

Death is logically necessary, for contradiction must be sdlved,
and to all conflict there is a goal. In that the soul eliminates
from itself the external that separates it from itself, it enters into
relationship with that sphere of externality which does not separate
it from itself. This is the region where position is transfigured
into individuality, and space into personality, and wherein indi­
viduality and personality are no longer antithetic, like position
and space, but are mutually conditioned and affirmed. Here at
last the contradiction is solved, and the relationship of the physio­
logical to the psychological sphere discovered.
In these two moments of Individuality and Personality— Being-
for-self and Being-in-and-for-self— the relationship of the theologi­
cal and psychological spheres comes also more clearly to light.
Immortality demands, 011 the one hand, that the individual shall
persist in his being-for-self, and, on the other hand, that, in order
to this self-persistence, he shall be personal— i. e., mi st be in pene­
trating and penetrated communion with the Absolute Spirit.
Where shall we find the guarantee of conditioned personality save
in Absolute Personality? How can I be if God is not?
The underlying ground of the conception of Immortality in its
first phase is the preservation of individuality. It is, however,
soon discovered that this individuality, in its immediate abstract
form, cannot be perpetuated, and that only through its constant
renewal and regeneration in personality— i . 0., through participa­
tion with God— is it secure against extinction. Hereupon are
grounded all representations of mortality in the soul and the per­
sistence of the same—the former in its outcome relating to the
transfiguration of the Soul in Personality; the latter to the awak­
ening of the Soul into Spirit. All psychological investigation
leads over into the theological sphere, because the finite spirit
points forever to the Absolute Spirit. The intellectual proofs of
the existence of God are, first of all, sighs of the soul for commun­
ion with God. The need of this communion incites the question
with regard to the existence and revelation of G od: “ My soul
tliirsteth for God, for the living God ; when shall I come and
appear before God ? ” The question is twofold, referring to God
and to me, demanding that God shall be, and that I shall appear
before Him. This is the double goal of all theological demon­
stration : to see God— to know God— to experience in self God’s

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324 The Journal of Speculative Philosophy.

actuality and activity— this is the consummate longing and strug­
gle of man. And what is knowing God other than knowing one’s
self to be in communion with God ?
This relationship of participation between man and God is,
however, grounded solely in the personality belonging to the Cre­
ator and through Him communicated to man. The eternal per­
sonality of God is the source of the immortal personality of man.
Were the human spirit incapable of recognizing God, it would be
incapable of immortality. Immortality and the knowledge of
God are one and the same; both are the inheritance of humanity.
As Dante says (“ Paradiso ” iv, verse 124):

“ W ell I perceive that never sated is
Our intellect unless the Truth illume it*
Beyond which nothing true expands itself.
It rests therein, as wild beast in his lair,
W hen it attains i t ; and it can attain i t ;
If not, then each desire would frustrate be.”

Thus both forms of proof in their content and consummation
meet in the confident assurance, “ 1 shall see God, whom I shall
see for myself, and mine eyes shall behold, and not another.” In
order to see God, the subject is as necessary as God himself—-the
subject sees because it is seen; God is seen because He sees.
Hence, passivity exists in God in so far as He is seen, but this
passivity is at once annulled, for the seeing of the subject is in
God, from God, and through God. The result is always the same :
the finite spirit finds its actuality and immortality in communion
with the Absolute Spirit. It doth not yet appear what we shall
be, but the highest consummation is always that we shall see God
as He is. Hence, we are like unto God, and, like Him, of imper­
ishable nature. In the vision of God man attains his imperishable
goal, or the actuality of that image of God in which he is created.
Toward this vision consciously and unconsciously is directed all
the thought, all the imagination, and all the aspiration of the soul.
Yet this future blessedness is only certain in so far as it is present,
and it is present only when, like Dante, we climb to the heights
of Paradise, and taste beforehand the joys of heaven in the recog­
nition of God.
To the general question of immortality may now be added the

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not with the external. can be verified only as the personal participa­ tion of the finite spirit with the absolute spirit. and the communion of the finite spirit with the absolute spirit and with his church. Its true meaning might easily be in­ ferred from its position in our confessions of faith. W e have also discussed in some measure the difference in this relationship before and after the resurrection of the body. or the individual per­ sistence of the soul. this article teaches the unity of the body with the soul in the finite spirit. but a single glance to convince us that in answering the whether we answer the how. it is cruel and despotic to vio­ late the freedom of reason by insisting upon the formal acceptance of an unmediated truth. it is. Thus far we have in appearance occupied ourselves solely with the whether. not with the other. This doctrine of the resurrection of the bt)dy is.236. in general. loses the truth it might have learned to know. which relates to the spirit. Immortality.27. This content downloaded from 132.111 on Thu. 325 special question with regard to the condition of the soul after death and before and after the resurrection of the body. there is no doctrine to which fleshliness has been so widely and persistently imputed. It needs. As thus defined. It needs really but very little reflection to be convinced that those who declare the resurrection of the body in­ compatible with a spiritual faith have themselves imagined the flesliliness which they first impute to and then blame upon the doctrine. to be deplored and denounced when reason cuts itself off from that progressive mediation which its nature demands. While. It is a doctrine which deals not with the flesh. the whether and how of immortality are identical. however. but with the appropriation and inclusion of the other. 12 Jun 2014 12:23:10 PM A ll use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . persists in darkness by clos­ ing its eyes to the light and contemptuously rejecting what it does net understand. but with the passing away of externality. It is marvellous that. on the other hand. and have held in abeyance the how of immortality. Goeschel on the Immortality of the Soul. The condition of the soul after death consists in its personal relationship to that Absolute Personality which we have already learned to know in its essential relationship to individuality. but with the transfiguration and resurrection of the flesh . most sensuously apprehended by those who reject it as sensuous. on the one hand. It belongs to the third article of faith. while no doctrine of Scripture or the Church tends so directly as this to the overthrow of the flesh. they would not reject it had they not first misunderstood it.

The question is so important and yet so neglected that it is well worth our while to bring it clearly before us. and why should the soul speak through these eyes. and which even now “ is catching the light of the stars that it may sparkle more brilliantly when placed as a diadem on the brow of the bride. for both body and environment are contained in the definite. In an earlier stage of our inquiry we learned to grasp resurrec­ tion as the transfiguration not only of the external body but of all externality. but even such things as these belong to that individual relationship which can suffer no loss and whose integ­ rity will never be impaired.236.).” xxxiii.111 on Thu. bewilders only those who avert their gaze from it.27. It seems like a jest that Goethe’s mother cannot forget her bridal dress. sq. resurrection in the more adequate development of its content is the transfiguration of the original relationship of each finite subject to all other finite subjects. partially and externally real­ ized during our earthly life in consciousness and transfigured after death into that shining. translucent limit which ever distin­ guishes without isolating the particular subject. but hopes to have it again in heaven. 112. The transfiguration of the body is not possible without the transfiguration of Nature. unless this face and these eyes were my soul’s permanent possession ? ” “ All our discoveries shall be guarded above.” u Why is this face mine. Under this original relationship is under­ stood the position of the particular subject appointed in accord with its aboriginal essence in God. together with her stolen nosegay . and peculiar relationship of each individual. It is with this doctrine as with the doctrine of the Trinity. 76-81. the glory of which. As in its externality on this This content downloaded from 132. according to Dante (“ Paradiso. which yonder shall become the heav­ enly raiment.326 The Journal o f Speculative Philosophy. To this relationship belong even “ the wedding robe of pale-green silk. 12 Jun 2014 12:23:10 PM A ll use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . complete. to Nature and to God.” and the “ jewelled nosegay stolen by a cruel thief. the one implies and de­ mands the other. This definite position or relation of each particular subject is conditioned both by the persistence of the particular body with all its organs and by the perpetuation of the particular environment. embroidered with gold and silver leaves.” Our fancies and imaginations shall be the hangings which will adorn our heavenly habitations. It is this relationship which is purified and transfigured in the resurrection. Hence.

so on the other side.111 on Thu. and retains this immanent body both in consciousness and in death. first. Death only actualizes the separation which conscious­ ness has recognized. Hence it follows that the soul is not first separated from the body through be born again as Self-Con­ sciousness. because in death sepa­ ration or complete Self-Consciousness is achieved. though ideally given in the Spirit. has its limit or body in itself. therefore atter death it can not be bodiless. 12 Jun 2014 12:23:10 PM A ll use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . is the germ of a vital truth— the truth. as in a temporary state of sleep or dreams. awakes regenerate through the identity of con­ sciousness into the Personality of the Spirit. This concept negates the representa­ tion of the abstract infinite—a representation already shattered by the reflection that in each Moment of Becoming already lies Being. Implicit in these dreams and fancies. the difference in the condition of the soul between death and the resurrection and after the resurrection may readily be apprehended. and the double consciousness herewith given. and thus the transfiguration of and reunion with otherness is prepared . Hence again it results. which we shall not attempt to develop in detail. we have already learned through development of the antithesis between space and position. however. that the soul through death develops to a higher perfection than it possessed in life. that the soul as such dies . That movableness is externally what personality is internally. From these suggestions. together with all the images which cluster about a Hades or intermediate state of the soul.27. Goeschel on the Immortality of the Soul. 32T side the grave it is movable and vet remains the same. but is already separated from it by Self-Con­ sciousness. in that it separates itself from its eternal body first through con- sciouness and then through death. which only realizes what consciousness implies. This difference has already been defined : it lies in the concept of perfection first realized in the resurrection. It has also been already shown that the soul as spirit is its own body . This content downloaded from 132. dying of its own dialectic. Thought develops itself out of itself. and in continuous thinking. Hence all representations of the soul after death.236. second. in its progressive internality.1 must be relegated o to the sphere of ingenious fancies and understood as dreams of the soul which has not yet awakened into spirit. it will become penetrable without ceasing to be the same. Hence it follows further that the soul.

that the soul attains its consummation in the resurrection be­ cause therein Personality as penetration of all otherness is com­ pletely actualized. The external body in its relationship to the subject is distinguished from all other bodily or natural external­ ity only as the shirt is distinguished from the coat. can it reunite with itself in the soul by which it is penetrated and through which it is glorified. at least. Separated from the soul.328 The Journal of Speculative Philosophy. they perpetuate themselves also in their ethereal interfusion— each giving to the other richness — no one in the others losing itself. rather the longing for communion than the truth of communion.27. instead of participation. we have intermixture— instead of communio. confusio. each separate color sparkles and burns more brightly as it is more deeply pene­ trated by the universal light. Only when mixed with earthy substances do they in their union decompose This content downloaded from 132. however. the body sepa­ rates from itself. and only when this division and dissolution is complete.111 on Thu. The next point to be con­ sidered is the condition of the body after death and before and after the resurrection. What is lacking is the personal communion gleaming with the rays of individuality. The beautiful image of two drops of water which in the mo­ ment of contact melt into one is a touching symbol of that mo­ ment of communion for which each subject in his isolation longs. let us reflect for still a single moment upon that individuality of Self-Conscious­ ness which is perpetuated in personal participation. That our hearts may be still more strengthened within us. In light both the dif­ ference and the community of colors are preserved. so the individuality of the body is heightened when penetrated by the soul. only when its decomposition is entire. Plato in the u Timaeus ” bids us notice that as colors are most brilliant in the light. each color has light for its soul and darkness for its body. for in it. inaugurates and compels. So much with regard to the condition of the soul after death and before and after the resurrection. It expresses. far from excluding. And not only in universal light are the particular colors preserved and intensified.236. 12 Jun 2014 12:23:10 PM A ll use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . we have found the adequate categories which shall be our guides in that further development that Absolute Sci­ ence. But the Kingdom of Nature offers other analogies in which are reflected the relationships of personal communion in the Kingdom of the Spirit. Herewith.

but must ever be revealed only to pure thought. soul and body. 329 into dull gray . the colors which are one in red. blue is the concrete darkness. Suggestive and interesting as these analogies may be. we shall permit ourselves to draw one single parallel. and yet not without law. but the gradations of each color and the tran­ sitions from one color into another are numberless. Only the external image of the Actual can ever be sensuously represented. it creates itself anew. nevertheless. Green points upward to red as the world points upward to God and the soul of man points upward to the Absolute Spirit. before reunited with the heavenly colors they can glow and sparkle in the penetrating light. Colors are three. Of threefold color and of one dimension. meet be­ low in green. 12 Jun 2014 12:23:10 PM A ll use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . they are. It is therefore hazardous to develop these sensuous sym­ bols in detail. only when fallen from their first estate do they need purification . very dangerous. What constitutes the truth of the Actual is that it cannot be represented. Purple is the royal color. Nevertheless. the ethereal identity and totality of all colors. into which purple decomposes and from which. As the concrete unity of substance and light. Yellow is the concrete light. “ Within the deep and luminous subsistence Of the High Light appeared to me three circles. Taken from the realm of Nature. and out of whose eternal fulness he drinks in renewal and immortality. Goeschel on the Immortality of the Soul. Again. and in their original unity kindle and burn as red. they can correspond only externally with the realm of Spirit. and it is these two colors which focalize above in purple. be­ low they concentrate in living green. It is marvellous that the poet of the “ Divina Commedia ” has chosen this image of color to symbolize the beatific vision of the Holy Trinity wherein the pilgrim recognizes the uncreated origi­ nal of the created image. This content downloaded from 132. And by the second seemed the first reflected As Iris is by Iris. green is its coun­ terpart or earthy image— the second identity of colors. Above.111 on Thu.236. and the third Seemed fire that equally from both is breathed. body and soul. these colors focalize in glowing purple.27. but this third moment in its concrete unity is itself again threefold. color is not only the third and inclusive moment of its concept. are yellow and blue.