Hydrocarbon which contain only Hydrocarbon which contain at least one
carbon-carbon single bond, C–C carbon-carbon double bond, C=C or triple
bond, C≡C

2.1 Nomenclature of ALKANE 
Alkane is a saturated hydrocarbon as it contain only single bond in its
General formula for homologous series of alkane is CnH2n+2 
Table below shows the naming of straight chain of alkane
Molecular Molecular
Name Molecular structure Name Molecular structure
formula formula

Methane CH4 Ethane C2H6

Propane C3H8 Butane C4H10

Pentane C5H12

Hexane C6H14
2.2 Naming alkane according IUPAC
Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4
Find the longest Identify the Place a prefix upon State the position
chain of carbon and ‘branched’ carbon the similar alkyl where the ‘branch’ is
name accordingly. (it (alkyl group) that group (if any). If located at which
does not has to be a attached to the there is 2 similar carbon based on the
straight chain). ‘main’ chain. Then, alkyl, prefix di is numbering gave
name the alkyl placed, if 3 similar earlier.
accordingly alkyl, prefix tri is
CH3– methyl placed.
CH3CH2– ethyl
3-methylpentane 3,5-dimethylheptane 3-ethyl-4-methylhexane

CH3(CH2)5CH3 CH(CH3)2C(CH3)3 CH3CH(CH2CH3)2 C(CH3)3CH2C(CH3)3

n-heptane 2,2,3-trimethylbutane 3-methylpentane 2,2,4,4-

2,3-dimethylpentane 3-ethyl-3- 2,2,3-trimethylpentane 3,3-diethylhexane
Step 3 Complete the structure by placing one hydrogen (H)
atom at each of single bonds.
Isomer of hexane, C6H14
2.4 Physical properties of alkane

Alkane CH4 C2H6 C3H8 C4H10 C5H12 C6H14 C7H16 C8H18

– 162 – 8.6 – 42.2 – 0.5 36.3 68.7 98.4 126
point oC
Boiling point

-- -- 0.50 0.58 0.63 0.66 0.68 0.70


Not soluble in AAAAAAA..
organic solvent
A) Boiling point of alkenes
increasewhen going down to homologous series of 
The boiling point AAAA
All alkane possessed the same intermolecular forces : weak
Van Der Waals
molecular mass stronger the AAAAAAAAA 
Greater the AAAAAAAA, weak Van Der Waals’
the boiling point 
Boiling point of isomers of the same molecular formula varies with the
branched molecules 

higherboiling point compared to branched chain as
Straight chain has ..AA..
straight chain molecule has higher AAAAAAAAAAtotal surface areacompared to a
branched chain. The positioning of alkyl and number of alkyl also effect
the boiling point of alkane. 2-methylpentane as a higher boiling point than
3-methylpentane as it has a greater exposure of intermolecular forced
B) Solubility of alkane
All alkanes are often consider as AAAAAAAAA
molecule as the dipole of moment created in molecule is very
Since alkane is AAAAAAA. Molecule, it dissolve easily in
non-polar solvent such as benzene, and ether.
Alkane does not form AAAAA bond in water, so it is
insoluble in water. Thus, alkane is also described as
hydrophobic (water–hating).
The longer the alkane chain, the more insoluble it is in water.
2.5 Chemical Properties of Alkane
2.5.1 Preparation of Alkane 
Alkane can be prepared using the following methods : 
Decarboxylation of sodium salt of a carboxylic acid
R–COOH + NaOH → R–H + Na2CO3
Example : CH3COOH + 2 NaOH  CH4 + H2O + Na2CO3 
Kolbe’s method : electrolysing concentrated sodium ethanoate 
Cathode : 2 H2O + 2 e-  H2 + 2 OH- 
Anode : 2 CH3COO-  C2H6 + 2 CO2 + 2 e- 
Wurtz reaction : reaction of sodium on alkyl halide in ether.

2 R–X + 2 Na  R – R + 2 NaX
2 CH3CH2–Cl + 2 Na  CH3CH2CH2CH3 + 2 NaCl
2.5.2 Reaction of Alkane
saturated hydrocarbon, so alkane is inert to most of 
Since alkane is a AAAAA.
the chemical reaction 
Table below shows the description of reaction of ethane with other
Reagents Effect on ethane

Sodium hydroxide aqueous No effect on hot or cold condition

Concentrated hydrochloric acid No effect on hot or cold condition

Acidified potassium manganate (VII) No effect on hot or cold condition

Air (oxygen) No effect under room condition. Burns when heated

Bromine water No effect on dark. Decolourised slowly under sunlight

Chlorine gas No effect on dark. Reaction occur under sunlight 

From the series of reaction above it can be conclude that 
Ethane does no react with polar or ionic substances 
Ethane react with non-polar substances such as Cl2 , Br2 and O2 and
energies are required for reaction to occur.
1. Combustion of alkanes 
All hydrocarbon react with oxygen to form carbon dioxide and water. 
The equation for a complete combustion for all hydrocarbons can be
represented by the equation
 y y
CXH y + x +  O2 → x CO 2 + H 2O ∆ H = − m kJ / mol
 4 2

C2H6 C2H6 + 7/2 O2  2 CO2 + 3 H2O
C5H12 C5H12 + 8 O2  5 CO2 + 6 H2O
C8H18 C8H18 + 25/2 O2  8 CO2 + 9 H2O 
Note that the reaction is exothermic for all hydrocarbons. Equation above
is also known for ∆Hc. Higher the number of carbon, the more exothermic
the reaction. 
Under limited supply of air (oxygen), sometimes, carbon monoxide (CO) is
produced instead of CO2.
2. Halogenation of alkanes
 When alkane is run together with chlorine gas under the presence of
ultraviolet ray (which comes naturally from sunlight)
Example : CH4 (g) + Cl2 (g)  CH3Cl (g) + HCl (g)
C2H6 (g) + Cl2 (g)
 The mechanism for the reaction of chlorination of alkane can be explained
using the following steps
Step 1 : Initiation Step 2 : Propagation Step 3 : Termination

Since chlorine radical are highly When 2 free radicals collide with each
reactive, when it collide with methane other and combined, the reaction stops.
molecule forming HCl This reaction is highly exothermic,
Cl – Cl  2 Cl• ∆H = +242 kJ/mol and methyl radical where
H3C–H  CH3• + H• H3C• + •Cl  H3C–Cl
H3C–H + •Cl  H3C• + HCl ∆H = -349 kJ/mol
∆H = + 433 kJ/mol
chlorine Methyl radical will propagate with other H3C• + •CH3  H3C–CH3
Since ...................... required lower chlorine molecule and (H = -368 kJ/mol
energy to form radical, so the initiation forming back chlorine radical Usually, termination will occur when
[radical] > [molecule], which is after
will start off with AAAAA.. Gas H3C• + Cl–Cl  H3CCl + •Cl
chlorine thousands of propagation.
Under such propagation reaction The presence of small amount of
thousands of methane and chlorine ethane may also present due to the
molecules will react continuously collision between 2 methyl radicals
2.1.1 Sources of hydrocarbon 
The main sources of hydrocarbons are :
a) crude oil b) coal
c) natural gas 
Since all these main sources are made up from dead animals and plants,
so they are also known as AAAAAAAA fossil fuel 
Coal is complex mixture consisting mainly hydrocarbons, which is mainly
made up from dead plaints in swamp. 
Petroleum is a mixture of hydrocarbons (alkanes, alkenes, alkyne), while
natural gas contain mainly A.AAA methane
and some AAAAAethane 
The mixture in petroleum can be separated by using
fractional distillation in oil refinery. Diagram below shows the chamber
and oil refinery used to separate the mixture of petroleum.
Products Uses
Petrol gas Use for house cooking gas

Gasoline Use as fuel for automobile vehicle

Naphtha Use to synthesis different petrochemical

Kerosene Use as fuel for jet engine and oil stove

Diesel oil Use as fuel of heavy vehicle such as bus
or lorry

Lubricant Oil Use for lubrication, making wax and polish

Fuel Oil Fuel for ship and power station

Use as tar for paving road surface and
Bitumen (asphalt) coating underground water pipe
 The separation does not end with fractional distillation. They are then
treated with various ways to improve the quality and quantity of useful
hydrocarbon. One of the major treatments gives after fractional distillation
is cracking process.

Cracking of hydrocarbon

Thermal cracking (Pyrolysis) Catalytic cracking 
Using high temperature, bond breaking  With the aid of zeolite as catalyst, carbon
(homolytic fission) take place and form cracking can occur at lower temperature
various products of unbranched alkane compare to thermal cracking.
and alkene  Products using catalytic cracking usually 
Example, when breaking decane, C10H22 contain branched alkane and alkene.
C10H22 → C3H6 + C7H16 C10H22 →
C10H22 → C4H8 + C6H14
2.7 Cycloalkane (alicyclic compound) 
Cycloalkane has a general formula of CnH2n 
Some examples of cycloalkane
Cycloalkane Molecular formula Displayed formula Skeletal formula




2.7.1 Naming cycloalkane 
The way of naming cyclolalkane is more or less the same with naming
alkane. If theirs is one alkyl attached to the cycle, it will be automatically
become ‘1’ by itself. E.g. methylcyclobutane
(not “1-methylcyclobutane) 
If there’s more than one “group” attaching the cycle, only then numbering
will be given to the particular number of C that it is attached.

1,2,4-trimethylcyclohexane 3-ethyl-2-methyl-1-

3-ethyl-1-methylcyclopentane 1,2,3-trimethylcyclooctane
2.7.2 Preparation and Reaction of Cycloalkane 
Cycloalkane can be prepared by catalytic hydrogenation of benzene at

Reaction of cycloalkane is similar to alkane. When react with chlorine /
bromine gas under sunlight, substitution reaction take place

Mechanism : 

2.8 Alkene – Nomenclature of alkenes and cycloalkenes 
The homologous series of alkenes has general formula of CnH2n. 
The significance of alkene is all of them have C=C in their molecules with
its name end with –ene
Molecular Molecular
Name Molecular structure Name Molecular structure
formula formula

Ethene C2H4 Propene C3H6

Butene C4H8
But-2-ene But-1-ene

Pentene C5H10

pent-2-ene pent-1-ene
Hex-1-ene Hex-2-ene Hex-3-ene
Hexene C6H12 
In naming alkene, the following steps are given
Step 1 : Find the longest C – C chain which contain double bond in it
(parent chain) and name them
Step 2 : Find and name the alkyls attached to the parent chain.
Step 3 : If there are more than 2 of the same type alkyls, prefix are put
Step 4 : Put the number of the alkyl that attached to the particular
carbon atom.
Example : Name the following alkenes accordingly
2-methylpropene 2,3-dimethylpent-2-ene 3,5-dimethylhept-3-ene

2-methylbut-2-ene 2-ethyl-3-methylpent-1-ene 3,4-dimethylhex-3-ene
2.8.1 Naming alkene with more than one single bond & cycloalkene 
A “diene” (alkene with 2 C=C bond) and cycloalkene has general formula
of CnH2n–2. 
In diene, the position of both C=C in parent chain has to be stated in alkan-
x,y-diene, whereas in cycloalkene, C=C is always place as C1=C2. So the
numbering is fixed for naming. 
Example, name the following diene / cycloalkene below

2,5-dimethylhex-1,3-diene oct-2,5-diene

2.9 Isomerism in alkene. 
Alkenes which contain at least 4 Carbon atoms may exhibit 2 isomerism,
structural and stereoisomerism. 
For example, butane (C4H8) contain 5 isomers. 
Isomers of pentene
2.10 Physical Properties of Alkene

Alkene C2H4 C3H6 C4H8 C5H10 C6H12 C7H14 C8H16 C9H18

– 164 – 12.0 – 5.8 – 0.5 38.0 72.07 96.5 117
point oC
point trend Boiling point increase
Solubility in
Insoluble in water (solubulity decrease)
A) Boiling Point of Alkene
increasewhen going down to homologous series of 
The boiling point AAAA
All alkane possessed the same intermolecular forces : weak
Van Der Waals
Greater the AAAAAA.., weak Van Der Waals
molecular massstronger the AAAAAAAAA forces,
higher the boiling point
2.11 Preparation of Alkene 
Alkene can be prepared in a few ways
Name of Reagent used
reaction and condition

Dehydro- Ethanolic
halogenation sodium
from hydroxide (heat
haloalkane & reflux)

Excess conc.
(removal of
at 1800C
Alumina (Al2O3)
at 350oC
2.12 Chemical reaction of alkene
Name of Reagent used and
reaction condition

CH3CH=CH2 + H2 (g) Ni CH3CH2CH3 (g)
Hydrogen gas under
-------------- propene propane
Nickel (Ni) at 180oC
Platinum (Pt) at
room temperature
cyclohexene cyclohexane

Halogen gas, X2
(X2 = Cl2 ; Br2 ; I2)

Addition of Hydrogen halide
Hydrogen (H–X)
halide (X = Cl ; Br ; I)
Name of Reagent used and
reaction condition

Steam (H2O)
Hydration Phosphoric acid,
(H3PO4 )
At 300oC ; 60 atm

(cold, diluted KMnO4 (aq) / H+
acidified (cold and diluted)

(under hot,
concentrated KMnO4 (aq) / H+
acidified (hot &
potassium concentrated)
2.12 Chemical reaction
(1) Hydrogenation of alkene 
Carry out under mixture of alkene and hydrogen over a finely divided
transition metal as a catalyst. 
2 catalysts can be used in hydrogenation
i) Platinum : ~ can react even under room condition. Longer alkene required
some heat
ii) Nickel : ~ required high temperature to allow hydrogenation to occur
Hydrogenation is an exothermic reaction and its ∆H is about –120 kJ / mol 
CH3CH=CH2 (g) + H2 (g)  CH3CH2CH3 ∆H = –124 kJ / mol 
Catalytic hydrogenation is important in food industries especially in
hardening unsaturated fats and oil to make margarine. Unsaturated
hydrocarbon makes them too soft for commercial use. 
CH3(CH2)7CH=CH(CH2)7COOH + H2 (g)  CH3(CH2)16COOH 
In industries, a special “Raney Catalyst” is used to replace platinum as it is
(2) Halogenation of alkene 
Chlorine and bromine react readily with alkene and form dichloroalkane
and dibromoalkane respectively. Cl2 and Br2 gas are add across double
CH3CH=CH2 (g) + Cl2 (g)  CH3CH(Cl)CH2Cl 
The mechanism of halogenation can be explained by a few steps describe
below : 
Step 1 : Formation of carbocation – propene has region of high electron
density because of the π electron. When Cl2 approaches, molecule is
strongly polarised by region and consequently formed an induce dipole.
The positive charge end of Cl2 molecule act as electrophile and bond to
C=C via electroplilic addition and caused Clδ+–Clδ− repelled. As a result,
carbocation & chloride ion are formed. 
Step 2 : Nucleophilic attack to form addition product – carbocation
formed is very unstable. It quickly combines with Cl− ion to produce by
heterolytic fission of Cl2 molecule to give 1,2-dichloropropane. 

However, if bromine water is used instead of bromine gas, the results of
products are not as same as in bromine gas. When bromine water is
reacted with propene
(3) Addition of hydrogen halide 
Unlike addition of halogen, addition of hydrogen halide produced 2
products. For example, when propene react with hydrogen bromide (H–Br)
CH3CH=CH2 + H–Br  CH3CH2CH2Br + CH3CH(Br)CH3
Propene 1-bromopropane 2-bromopropane
(minor) (major) 
The major / minor product of the reaction can be predicted using
Markovnikoff’s Rule where it stated when an unsymmetrically substituted
alkene reacts with a hydrogen halide, the hydrogen adds to the carbon
that has the greater number of hydrogen substituents, and the halogen
adds to the carbon having fewer hydrogen substituents. 
Step 1 : Electrophilic attack – when the polar hydrogen bromide
approaches propene, the positively charged hydrogen ion is polarising
C=C, and caused Br− to form

δ+ δ– 

Step 2 : Nucleophilic attack – the negative bromide ion react fast with the
unstable carbocation. 
Relative stability of carbocation can be explained using Markovnikoff’s
Rule. According to the rule, a tertiary (30) carbocation is more stable than
a secondary (20) carbocation than a primary (10) carbocation. this is due to
the inductive effect of the electron-donating alkyl group. 
In the example above, there are 2 methyl group donating electron to
positive charged carbon electron at 20 carbocation whereas there are 1
ethyl group in 10 carbocation donating electron to the positively charged
As a result, 20 carbocation are more stable as the 2 alkyl group tend to
decrease the charge density of C, making the cation more stable.

stability of carbocation increase.
(4) Hydration (addition of water) in alkene 
Using phosphoric acid as acidic medium, hydration of alkene can be
represent by equation :
(minor) (major)
2-methylpropene 2-methylpropan-1-ol 2-methylpropan-2-ol 
Similar to hydrogen halide, hydration of alkene follows Markovnikoff’s Rule. 
The mechanism of hydration of alkene is slightly different from addition of
hydrogen halide
Step 1 : Protonation of the carbon–carbon double bond in the
direction that leads to the more stable carbocation
Step 2 : Water acts as a nucleophile to capture carbocation

Step 3 : Deprotonation of tert-butyloxonium ion. Water acts as a Brønsted –
Lowry base: 

Other than using diluted acid medium, sometimes, hydration of alcohol is
prepared by adding concentrated sulphuric acid to alkene. 
When H2SO4 (conc) is added to alkene under room condition, it give an
alkyl hydrogensulphate 
Hydrolysis of alkyl hydrogensulphate will convert into alcohol
(5) Oxidation of alkene using acidified potassium manganate (VII) 
Alkene are readily oxidised by acidified KMnO4 (decolourised the purple
colour of KMnO4) and give different products under different condition
 If cold diluted acidified KMnO4 is used, a diol is given as a product.
 If hot concentrated acidified KMnO4 is used, a ketone or an aldehyde
is formed which will further oxidised to become a carboxylic acid or into
carbon dioxide and water depend on alkene.
a) Hydroxylation of alkene (react under cold dilute acidified KMnO4) 
The product of this reaction is a diol (di-alcohol) – which contain 2
hydroxyl group. 

This reaction is often used to distinguish between saturated hydrocarbon
and unsaturated hydrocarbon (alkane and alkene)
b) Oxidation of alkene using hot, concentrated acidified potassium
manganate (VII) 
When alkene react with hot concentrated acidified potassium manganate
(VII), it will oxidise immediately to form aldehyde or ketone, depend on the
type of alkene 
Using this method, the position of C=C in alkene can be deduced. If the
alkene is a 10 alkene, it will turn lime water chalky when the particular
alkene is reacted with hot concentrated acidified potassium manganate
Alkene Products Methanoic acid

a. CH3CH2CH=CHCH3 + H2 (g) CH3CH2CH2CH2CH3

b. CH3CH2CH=CH2 + Cl2 (g) CH3CH2CHClCH2Cl

c. CH3CH=C(CH3)CH3 + Br2 (l) CH3CHBrC(CH3)(OH)CH3 major
CH3CHBrCBr(CH3)CH3 minor

d. CH3CH(CH3)CH=CH2 + HCl (g) CH3CH(CH3)CHClCH3 major

CH3CH(CH3)CH2CH2Cl minor





Isomers of pentene
Practice : Write the chemical equation for the following reaction
1. Butane react with chlorine under the presence of sunlight
CH3CH2CH2CH3 + Cl2 → CH3CH2CH2CH2Cl + HCl
2. Pentane burned with excess air
C5H12 + 8 O2 → 5 CO2 + 6 H2O
3. Octane burned with excess air
C8H18 + 25 / 2 O2 → 8 CO2 + 9 H2O
4. Propene reacts with hydrogen gas using platinum as catalyst
CH3CH=CH2 + H2 → CH3CH2CH3
5. 1-hexene burned with excess air
C6H12 + 9 O2 → 6 CO2 + 6 H2O
6. 2-heptene reacts with bromine water
CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH=CH2 + Br2 + H2O →
7. Propene reacts with hydrogen chloride
CH3CH=CH2 + HCl → CH3CH2CH2Cl (min) + CH3CHClCH3 (maj)
8. 1-Butene react with excess oxygen
C4H8 + 6 O2 → 4 CO2 + 4 H2O
9. 2-Pentene reacts with steam catalysed by sulphuric acid
10. 3-Hexene reacts with cold dilute acidified KMnO4
11. 2-methylhex-2-ene reacts with cold dilute acidified KMnO4
CH3C(CH3)=CHCH2CH2CH3 + KMnO4/H+ →
12. Propane react with fluorine under the presence of sunlight
CH3CH2CH3 + F2 → CH3CH2CH2F + HF
13. Propene is polymerized at 2000C and 1200 atm

14. 2-methylbut-2-ene react with bromine water under the presence of
4. Proposed the mechanism for the following reaction below