# Workshop Problems

Transportation Workshop

PROBLEM 1
A local survey crew measures a distance of 2,500 ft for a new road construction. The
beginning point for the road is located at station 5+00. Assume stationing increases in
the direction of construction, what is the station of the end point of the road?
A) 30.00 Sta B) Sta 3+00 C) 3.00 Sta D) Sta 30+00

SOLUTION 1
End point station = (Sta 5+00) + 2,500’ = 500’ + 2,500’ = 3,000’ = Sta 30+00

PROBLEM 2
A vehicle is traveling at 60 mph on a level roadway when the driver notices traffic
stopped in its path. If the driver’s perception reaction time is 2.5 seconds,
approximately how much distance does the driver take to perceive, decide, react, and
stop the vehicle at a deceleration rate of 11.2 ft/sec2 after noticing the stopped traffic?
A) 220 ft B) 345 ft C) 570 ft D) 645 ft

SOLUTION 2
v = 60 mph; tp = 2.5 sec; a = 11.2 ft/sec2 ; G = 0
602
S = 1.47 × 2.5 × 60 + = 566 ft
11.2
30 ( + 0)
32.2

(OR) From CERM Table 79.2, SSD=570ft

PROBLEM 3
Two vehicles are traveling in the same direction at different speeds on a two-lane rural
highway. The lead vehicle is traveling at 40 mph speed. The following is traveling at
50 mph and intends to overtake and pass the lead vehicle. What is the approximate
passing sight distance required in this situation.
A) 600 ft B) 700 ft C) 800 ft D) 900 ft

SOLUTION 3
See Table 3-4 in AASHTO GB, Use the row that has 38 mph for passed vehicle and
50 mph for passing vehicle. Then, PSD = 800 ft

1

Transportation Workshop

PROBLEM 4
Two semitrailers are traveling down a 5.5% grade at 40 mph on a two lane highway in
the same lane. Truck A has new tires. Truck B has worn tires. The roadway is paved
with Portland cement concrete.

Driver A suddenly slams on the brakes to make a panic stop. Assume it takes Driver
B 1.5 seconds to react to Driver A.
Friction factors for New Tires = 0.76; Friction factors for Worn Tires = 0.33
(a) What is the new distance between Trucks A & B?
(b) Repeat the problem assuming Truck A has worn tires and Truck B has new
tires.
(c) Repeat the original problem assuming the trucks are going up the 5.5% grade,
Truck B following Truck A.
(d) Repeat case (b) with both trucks heading up the 5.5% grade.

SOLUTION 4
New
Case Truck A Truck B
Distance
2 2
(a) s bA = 1.47t p Vmph +
Vmph
 CERM eqn.79.43(b )
Vmph
s bB =1.47t p Vmph + ;
30(f+G) 30(f+G)

s bA = 1.47  0  40+
402
=75.65' s bB = 1.47  1.50  40 +
402 76’+250’-
30(0.76-0.055) 30(0.33-0.055) 283’=43’
s bA ~76' s bB = 88.2'+193.94' = 282.14' ~ 283'
2
(b) 40 402
??? = = 193.94′ ~194′ ??? = 88.2′ + 194’+250’-
30(0.33 − 0.055) 30(0.76 − 0.055)
= 163.87′ ~164′ 164’=280’
(c) S = 402 402
bA = 65.44′ ~66′ ??? = 88.2′ + 66’+250’-
30(0.76+0.055) 30(0.33 + 0.055)
= 226.73′ ~227′
227’=89’
(d) 402 402
??? = = 138.53′ ~139′ ′
??? = 88.2 + 139’+250’-
30(0.33 + 0.055) 30(0.76 + 0.055)
= 153.64′ ~154′ 154’=235’

2

Transportation Workshop

PROBLEM 5
For a circular curve, what is its degree of curve for the following:
i) A Roadway curve with 800 feet radius using arc definition
A) 709’43” B) 8051’18” C) 8055’55” D) 7051’18”

ii) A Railroad curve with 800 feet radius using chord definition
A) 6050’55” B) 7010’00” C) 8055’55” D) 7051’18”

SOLUTION 5
5729.578′
i) For Roadway Curve: Da = = 7° 9′ 43.1" (Answer A)
800 ft
50
ii) For Railroad Curve: Dc = 2(sin−1 ) ( ) = 7° 9′ 59.92."
800 ft
= 7° 10′ 00" (Answer B)
PROBLEM 6
A running race track consists of two semicircles and two tangents, and is exactly five
miles long as measured along its centerline. The two semicircular curves constitute
exactly one-half its totally length.
i) What is the length of each curve?
A) 26,400 ft B) 13,200 ft C) 6,600 ft D) 3,300 ft

ii) What is the radius of each curve?
A) 4,000 ft B) 3,204 ft C) 1,208 ft D) 2,101 ft

iii) What is the degree of curvature of each curve?
A) 2043’37” B) 2020’27” C) 3043’42” D) 3020’27”

SOLUTION 6

i) Length
5 miles × 5,280 ft⁄mi = 26,400 ft
1 26,400
L= ( ) = 6,600 ft (Answer C)
2 2

1
Circumference = 2πR = × 26,400 ft
2
= 13,200 ft

3

101 ft (Answer D) 2π iii) Degree of Curve 5.Transportation Workshop 13. 4 .101 PROBLEM 7 Determine angle ‘α’ for the following circular curve: A) 44040’ B) 44’25” C) 88050’ D) 44025’ SOLUTION 7 I α= 2 Where I = 180° − 45° 20′ − 45° 50′ = 88° 50′ 88° 50′ α= = 44° 25′ 2 Answer D PROBLEM 8 A horizontal curve is shown in the figure below.200 R= = 2. determine the following: i) the back tangent bearing ii) the PT Station iii) PT Coordinate iv) the coordinates of the Center Point.729. Using the information provided.578 Da = = 2° 43′ 37" (Answer A) 2.

250 cos 600 = -125.00 = 250.  Use CERM Equation 79.  Use CERM Equation 79.  Find the tangent length.85350 = N 72.000 .00 iv) Center Point Coordinates – see sketch 5 . T.47.9578(47.85350 E ii) PT Station = PC Station + L = Sta.00/572. R = 5729.578 / 100 = 572.  Check the Center Point coordinates using trigonometry and working from the PI.125 = 399. = 89000. 892+21.51 = 500. 887+50.1  Use CERM Equation 79.51 Latitude = . – PC Sta.51ft EPT = 500.00 ft.9578 ft.00 ft NPT = 400.464 ft i) Back Tangent Bearing – see sketch 1800 .14640 .216. T = PI Sta. paying careful attention to the Ahead Tangent Bearing. I = 2 tan-1(T/R) = 2 tan-1(250.875.4 to solve for I. Center Point.00 + 471.1 to solve for R. It should resemble CERM Figure 79.464 iii) PT Coordinates – see sketch Departure = 250 sin 600 = 216.464 = PT Sta.600 00’ = 72.00 – 88750.000 + 216.3 to solve for L.14640)/3600 = 471.578 / Da = 5729.Transportation Workshop SOLUTION 8 Basic Approach –  Draw a rough sketch of the curve.5 to solve for E.9578) = 47.  Determine the bearing of the back tangent  Determine the PT Station  Use the above values and trigonometry to find the coordinates of the PT.14640 L = 2πRI/3600 = 2π572.  Use CERM Equation 79.

98 ft Using CERM equation 79. A) 22.2.578′ D = 10o 45’ = 10. The centerline Degree of Curvature.75 o R= = 532.98 ft 10.0000 .479 ft ECC = 500.496.65 × 305 HSO = R (1 − cos ( )) = 514.67 ft C) 305 ft D) 533 ft SOLUTION 9 From CERM Table 79.479 = 499. for V = 40 mph.45.1960 = 399.572.216.0274 Latitude = .98 ft – 18 ft = 514. S = 305 ft.286.98 Answer A 6 .572.98 × (1 − cos ( )) = 22.9578 sin 300 = -286.750 The centerline of the inside lane is offset 18 ft (12 ft + 6 ft) from the roadway centerline. Therefore. D is 10o 45’ Determine the required clearance (or in other words HSO) from the center of the curve’s inside lane (or in other words center line of the lane with the shortest radius) based on Stopping Sight Distance criteria.41 ft R 514.875.1960 ft NCC = 399.378.9578 cos 300 = -496.Transportation Workshop Departure = . 28. 5729. R lane centerline = 532.804 PROBLEM 9 A four-lane undivided highway has a design speed of 40 mph. The lanes are 12 ft wide.930.65S 28.41 ft B) 21.50635 .

11’ (radius of roadway centerline).11 − 23. The lanes are 12-feet wide and a continuous hedge of 8-foot high trees is located along the right side of the highway in your travel direction.32 ?= [??? −1 ( )] 28.  Determine the radius of the centerline of the inside lane (603.11’)  Find the actual HSO distance: 29. exactly 29. Based on this data.32’. PI Sta.65 ? 597. Take the lower of the two speeds which is 40 mph 7 .32 ft from the highway centerline.6’ = 23.Transportation Workshop PROBLEM 10 You are travelling on a two-lane highway in eastbound direction that curves to the right. 79-44 and solve for S. The following curve data describes the centerline: Da = 9o30’.11 597.32’  Plug the above values of R and HSO values into CERM Eq.11  Your calculation should result in S = 335’.5 = 603.65 597. 335’ falls between 40 mph and 45 mph. what should be the maximum safe posted speed of this highway? SOLUTION 10 Use the following solution procedure:  Convert Da = 9o30’ to R = 5729.11’ – 6’ = 597. ? ? − ??? ?= [??? −1 ( )] 28. 16+00. Comparing this S value to CERM Table 79-2.578 / 9.

) and a superelevation of six percent. Required rate of superelevation. what is the MOST appropriate advisory speed for this curve? A) 50 mph B) 45 mph C) 40 mph D) 35 mph SOLUTION 11 Refer to Table 3-7 in the AASHTO Green Book: For given e = 6%. ed b. Policy dictates that emax= 8%.Transportation Workshop PROBLEM 11 A rural highway curve has a radius of 150 m (500 ft. Take the lower of the two speeds which is 40 mph. Determine the following: a. Lr c.190 (C) 926 (D) 711 SOLUTION 12 Reference AASHTO GB Table 3-7. Using AASHTO criteria. Length of Superelevation runoff. If the posted speed limit is 55 mph. the minimum rounded radius (ft) is most nearly: (A) 1. and a 1637 ft radius horizontal curve.050 (B) 1. 500 feet radius falls between 485 with associated speed of 40 mph and 643 ft with the associated speed of 45 mph. Length of Tangent Runout. Lt 8 . p 3-32 Answer C PROBLEM 13 A proposed highway is to have four lanes and a design speed of V d = 55 mph. Answer C PROBLEM 12 A horizontal curve will be designed for a high-speed urban street with a design speed of 50 mph and a maximum superelevation rate of 4%.

For R =1637 ft.Transportation Workshop SOLUTION 13 Part a. To find Required rate of superelevation.U. use the next smaller radius.S.8% d 9 . R = 1560 ft. Customary) as shown on the next page. Find e = 6.use AASHTO GB Table 3-10b (emax= 8%.. ed.

Customary) shown on the next page.S. Lr = 260 ft. we find the Superelevation runoff. To find the Length of Superelevation runoff. Knowing that Vd = 55 mph. go to AASHTO GB Table 3-17b (U.8% and the number of lanes rotated (on a four-lane roadway) is two lanes. Lr . 10 .Transportation Workshop Part b. ed is 6.

11 .500 D) 1.08 ft/ft.8284 stations (Answer D) ii) The rate of change of curvature = DC / LS = 30 / 2.0 ?1 = ?? = (260) = 76?? ?? 6. page 3-66 ??? 2.86 ft 3° 3. Lt Use Equation 3-24. A design criterion requires that this curve be spiraled.06070 / station. i) What is the length of spiral curve given the rate of increase of lateral acceleration is 2 ft/sec3? A) 1910 ft B) 5729 ft C) 179 ft D) 283 ft ii) What is the rate of change in degree of curvature (in degrees per station) along the spiral? A) 30 B) 2.15v 3 mph Ls = Length of Spiral Curve = (CERM Eqn 79.870 C) 1.578 R= = 1909.Transportation Workshop Part c. Calculate required tangent runout.84 ft 1910 × 2 Ls = 282.84 ft = 2.8 PROBLEM 14 A new rural highway is to be designed with a design speed of 70 mph and a max rate of superelevation.8284 stations = 1. The highway will have a curve of degree of curvature 30. emax = 0.62b) R ft Cft⁄sec3 5729.15 × 703 Ls = = 282.060 SOLUTION 14 i) 3.

40 ft. Da = 20. if the first curve has degree of curvature. using a reverse curve taper.20 ft Answer C 2 2 PROBLEM 16 A 4-lane. The highway is divided by a 12-foot wide grassed median.79 ft Da 2° R(1) R(2) R min(2) = = 1432. a ratio of 2:1 5729. Proceeding in the direction of traffic. what is the minimum radius of the third curve? A) 2865 ft B) 1432 ft C) 716 ft D) 358 ft SOLUTION 15 As per AASHTO Green Book’s page 3-84. A 12-foot wide left turn lane is to be constructed in the median on the eastbound approach to the intersection.Transportation Workshop Answer D PROBLEM 15 The horizontal alignment of an interchange exit ramp consists of a series of three consecutive and progressively sharper circular curves that form a single compound circular curve. R min(3) = = 716. east-west highway intersects a 2-lane. the radius of the flatter arc can be as much as 100 percent greater than the radius of the sharper arc. which measured parallel to the median is to be 80 feet long.578 5729. for compound curves at intersections where drivers accept more rapid changes in direction and speed.578 R (1) = = = 2864. north-south cross road as shown. 12 .

Create a sketch similar to the figure at right. 200+82. 200+40. 200+81.44’ 2) What is the PRC station? A.60 C. Note the right triangle created by connecting the centerpoints of the two arcs. Use the Pythagorean Theorem to solve for R: 13 .33’ B. 200+40. 200+40. 200+82. 126.60 C.35 B. 200+81. 131.Transportation Workshop Assume the following:  the median edges are parallel  both arcs of the reverse curve have the same radius  the reverse curve stationing starts at PC STA 200+00.77 D.44’ C. 139. m = 6’.00 and continues eastward 1) What is the largest radius that can be used on the reverse curve that will connect the existing eastbound and westbound median edges? A.20 B.98 3) What is the PT station? A. and L1 = L2 = 40’.60 SOLUTION 16 Part 1) Note that p = 12’.33’ D.30 D. 200+40. 136.

L1arc ?1 17. ?1 − ?1 136.60 The correct answer is B.33’ Correct Answer C Part 2) Determine the intersection angle I.33 ( ) = 40.597 PRC STA 200+40.20 The correct answer is A.33 Determine the arc length.060 ?1 ??? = (2??1 ) = 2?136. Part 3) Determine the PT Station PC STA 200+40.60 PRC STA 200+81.Transportation Workshop [(2(? − ?)]2 + (?1 + ?2 )2 = (2?)2 [(2(? − 6)]2 + (40 + 40)2 = (2?)2 −48? + 6544 = 0 R = 136.597′ 3600 3600 ?1 ??? = ?2 ??? Determine the PRC Station PC STA 200+00.060 ?1 136.33 − 6 ?1 = ??? −1 ( ) = ??? −1 ( ) = 17. 14 .00 + L1 arc= 40.60 + L2arc = 40.

22+40 -> x=2.00)/4= -1.Transportation Workshop PROBLEM 17 A +5.5806 sta Sta.65 ft B) 1678. = 1678.75% grade at Sta.20 ft.20 . Determine: i) the turning point station A) Sta 19+75 B) Sta 21+75 C) Sta 22+33 D) Sta 23+75 ii) the turning point elevation A) 1698.65 ft B) 1678.20’ Elev. = (R/2)x2+G1(x)+PVC Elev. = 1678.06 = Sta 22+33.45 ft SOLUTION 17 i) Using CERM equation 79. + x = 1975 + 258.65 ft Answer B iii) First find out the elevation of vertical curve at Sta.65 ft Vertical clearance = 1698.65 = 20 ft (Answer C) 15 .46 on page 79-12.75-5. 21+75.65 ft C) 1682.9375 x = -G1/R = 2. A 400-ft vertical curve connects the two grades.65 Elev.65 – 1678. = PVC Sta.20 ft D) 1700.06 Answer C ii) Elevation at PVC = 1682.00 ft iii) clearance available at the overpass point above the vertical curve (Overpass is located at Sta 22+40 with bottom of beam elevation 1698. and elevation 1682.65 ft C) 20.00 ft D) 26.2(5) = 1672.65 ft) A) 1698. = (R/2)x2+G1(x)+PVC Elev.00 % grade intersects a -2. R = (-2.

and C.36.35 sta = 1035 ft z−1 1. The vertical curve connecting the grades passes through a fixed point located at Sta. 80+20.Transportation Workshop PROBLEM 18 A -6.0% grade at PVI Sta. ElevA − ElevC 711.0804 − 1 Answer C PROBLEM 19 A -6. 80+00 and Elev.60 C 700 + 0.2)(1.80 Step 2. Solve the following equation for L.2’(-6) = 698. Point Calculation Elevation A Given 711.36. 700. B. Calculate the elevations of points A.0% grade intersects a +3. 700.36 sta = 1136 ft G1 G2 −6 ∗ 3 Answer B 16 . What is the length of the vertical curve? A) 698 ft B) 711 ft C) 1035 ft D) 1200 ft SOLUTION 18 Step 1.52.00. What is the length of the vertical curve? A) 700 ft B) 1136 ft C) 1200 ft D) None of the above SOLUTION 19 Using CERM equation 79.36 − 698. 2(G2 − G1 )(elevPVI − elevTP ) 2(3 + 6)(700 − 711. and elevation 711.0% grade at PVI Sta. 80+00 and Elev.80 z=√ =√ = 1. 2w(z + 1) 2(0.60 Step 3.00.0804 + 1) L= = = 10. Calculate the constant z.36 − 700.36 B 700 + 0.2’(3) = 700.0804 ElevA − ElevB 711. The vertical curve connecting the grades passes through a turning point at elevation 711.0% grade intersects a +3.36) L= = = 11.

R.Transportation Workshop PROBLEM 20 State Route (S. find the elevation on the vertical curve at Sta. After a heavy storm the river overtops the bridge and crests at elevation 560.00 ft C) 0 ft D) 10.42 ft B) 15.) 707 crosses the Raging River in a narrow mountain valley. determine: S.R.00 ft C) 0 ft D) 10.00.0% G2 = +3.0% i) How deep the water is at Station 890+50 at the roadway centerline? A) 10.00 L = 500 ft G1 = -4.71 ft ii) How deep is the water at the low point in the profile? A) 10.71 ft SOLUTION 20 i) First. 890+50. Given the vertical alignment data. 707 Vertical Alignment PVI Station 889+50 PVI Elev 545. rA 17 .42 ft B) 15.

29 = 10. Based on AASHTO criteria.857 sta′s R 1.857)2 + (−4. L = 600 ft.0)(2. Take the lower side of the speed which is 45 mph even though 413’ is closer to 425’than 360’. This value of S agrees with the assumption: S < L Answer A ii) Compare S = 413 to the values of S listed in CERM Table 79. This value falls in between the S required for 45 mph (360’) and 50 mph (425).5%.70 ∶ R 2 1.Transportation Workshop ii) First. AS 2 6. Assume S < L. find the elevation on the vertical curve at the lowest point on the curve.4. determine: i) the actual head light sight distance (HLSD) of the curve A) 413 ft B) 851 ft C) 0 ft D) 500 ft ii) the maximum design speed (based on HLSD) A) 40 mph B) 45 mph C) 55 mph D) 60 mph SOLUTION 21 i) Using CERM Table 79.70 = 560.5S 400 + 3. −G1 −(−4) Low point (turning point)location: xt = = = 2.5S S = 412.70 Elev.70 = Sta 889 + 85.4 Low Point Station: BVC Sta + xt = 88700 + 285.29 2 2 Depth at Sta 889 + 85.7 = 88985.5 × S 2 L= . G2 = +2.57 ~ 413 ft.0%.00 − 549. at Sta 889 + 85.00 = 549.857) + 555. 600 = 400 + 3. Answer D PROBLEM 21 An unlighted roadway is on a vertical curve with the following parameters: G1 = -4.4 x + G1 (x) + BVC Elev = (2. (Answer B) 18 .71 ft.2.

The minor road is a two- lane north-south highway with a speed limit of 35 mph. A) 768 ft B) 868 ft C) 832 ft D) 606 ft SOLUTION 22 Reference: AASHTO Green Book pages 9-28 to 9-41 A right turn is expressed by Case B2 per AASHTO for i) and ii) i) a1 = 18 ft which is the max per page 9-36 + ½ LW = 18 + 6 = 24 ft ii) b = ISD = 1.47 Vmajor tg = 1. i) Determine the maximum length of the “a1” leg of the intersection sight triangle for a RIGHT turn at Approach 1. see Table 9-6 in AASHTO Green Book A left turn is expressed by Case B1 per AASHTO Green Book for iii) and iv) 19 .Transportation Workshop PROBLEM 22 You are the city engineer and recently you have been asked to evaluate the stop sign controlled intersection described in the figure below. You may assume a lane width on the minor road as 11 feet and a lane width on the major road as 12 feet.1x4) = 719. ii) Determine the lengths of the “b” leg of the intersection sight triangle for a RIGHT turn at Approach 1. Compute the following items for approach 1 with 4% uphill for single unit truck design vehicle. iii) Determine the maximum lengths of the “a2” leg of the intersection sight triangle for a LEFT turn at Approach 1. A) 36 ft B) 76 ft C) 687 ft D) 606 ft iv) Determine the lengths of the “b” leg of the intersection sight triangle for a LEFT turn at Approach 1.5+0.6 ft NOTE: For tg value. In this intersection the major road is a two-lane east-west highway with a speed limit of 55 mph.47 x 55 (8.

a2.2x4) = 832. and b items PROBLEM 23 A minivan is traveling along a level one lane street in Center City Philadelphia at 30 mph when suddenly a jogger runs out into the street 495 feet ahead of the vehicle. waiting to cross a two lane highway with 12- foot lanes and a design speed of 70 mph.5+0. The travel lane is 12 ft wide and there are parked cars on both sides. p. see Table 9-5 in AASHTO Green Book Answer C NOTE: See AASHTO Green Book Figure 9-15 for the a1.8 ft NOTE: For tg value. What is the minimum sight distance (ft) required to avoid hitting the jogger? (A) 220 (B) 275 (C) 330 (D) 490 SOLUTION 23 AASHTO GB Reference Table 3-3. 3-7 PROBLEM 24 A passenger car is stopped at a stop sign.Transportation Workshop iii) a2 = 18 ft which is the max +LW+ ½ LW = 18 + 12 + 6 = 36 ft Answer A iv) b = ISD = 1.47 Vmajor tg = 1.47 x 55 (9. What is the required design intersection sight distance (ft) for a P vehicle on a +2.5% approach making a crossing maneuver? (A) 600 (B) 670 (C) 750 (D) 830 SOLUTION 24 AASHTO GB Reference p 9-40 and 9-41 Answer B 20 .

2 = 896. tg = 11. (A) 720 (B) 840 (C) 960 (D) 1275 21 .7 sec is for crossing the second lane for combination truck) ISD = 1.7 ft Answer B PROBLEM 26 Given the physical layout of the grade crossing described below and assuming a train is approaching the crossing at 50 mph. four-lane.5 sec + 0.7 sec = 12.8 fps. undivided highway in the hills west of town.Transportation Workshop PROBLEM 25 A manufacturer plans to build a new plant on SR 39. Note that this truck has a maximum speed in first gear of 8.2 sec (NOTE: 0. which is a windy. SR 39 has a design speed of 50 mph. The plant will generate a significant amount of combination truck traffic. p. 9-37 ISD = 1.47 * 50 * 12. What is the required intersection sight distance (ft) for left turns from the plant onto SR 39? (A) 501 (B) 897 (C) 712 (D) 740 SOLUTION 25 AASHTO GB Reference Table 9-5. determine the required sight triangle distance (ft) along the railroad for a truck stopped at the stop bar to safely depart and cross the track in front of the approaching train.47Vtg V = 50 mph. In evaluating possible sites for the new plant. you consider the required intersection sight distance.

5 + 2(15) + 5 − 26.47(50) ( + + 2.8 73.47 8.0) = 1274?? 1. using Eqn. 9-189 in AASHTO GB ? ?+2?+?−?? ? ? = ?(?? ) ( ? + + ?) ?1 ?? 8. p.Transportation Workshop SOLUTION 26 For Case B. 9-4.3 ? ? = 1.8 Answer D 22 .

L. Minimum Deceleration Lengths for Exit Terminals with Flat Grades of Two Percent or Less. i) What is the minimum deceleration length. on the northbound exit ramp exit curve? A) 30 mph B) 40 mph C) 38 mph D) 36 mph SOLUTION 27 Referring to the table below. 23 . i) L = 440 ft (Answer B) ii) V’a = 36 mph (Answer D) AASHTO Green Book Table 10-5.Transportation Workshop PROBLEM 27 A new interchange will be located on a north-south highway with a design speed of 70 mph. V’a. Ramp is a taper type.0% grade and an exit curve with a design speed of 40 mph. The northbound exit will have a -2. on the northbound exit ramp? A) 490 ft B) 440 ft C) 550 ft D) 340 ft ii) What is the average running speed.

75 Mean Travel speed = = 27. the mean travel speed is: 6 × 2.18 mph (1790⁄3600) (Answer D) 24 .00 mph (2200⁄3600) (Answer D) ii) Similarly.Transportation Workshop PROBLEM 28 A total of six test car travel time runs were conducted on a 2.75 Mean Running Speed = = 33. Use this information to answer the following questions: Test Run Travel Time Delay (Sec) 1 5 min 40 Sec 50 2 6 min 10 Sec 90 3 7 min 0 Sec 100 4 5 min 0 Sec 0 5 7 min 20 Sec 150 6 5 min 30 Sec 20 i) What is the average travel speed for the test route? A) 29 mph B) 33 mph C) 30 mph D) 27 mph ii) What is the average running speed for the test route? A) 27 mph B) 29 mph C) 30 mph D) 33 mph SOLUTION 28 NOTE: This problem is asking for the Space Mean Speed Total Travel Time in sec = 340 + 370 + 420 + 300 + 440 + 330 = 2200 sec Total Delay in sec = 50 + 90 + 100 + 0 + 150 + 20 = 410 sec i) Using the totals from the table.75 mile route. The total travel time and total delay for these runs are shown in the following table. the mean running speed is: Total running time = total travel time – total delays = 2200 – 410 = 1790 sec 6 × 2.

0 ft/sec2  Maximum running speed: 55 mph  Dwell time at bus stop: 2.0 ft⁄sec 2 ) mi 3600 sec Answer D 25 . Bus performance characteristics:  Maximum acceleration rate: 4.522 ft C) 12.709 ft iv) What is the space mean speed between bus stops? A) 55 mph B) 49 mph C) 40 mph D) 39 mph SOLUTION 29 See CERM Table 71.200 ft B) 12.320 ft B) 980 ft C) 678 ft D) 813 ft ii) What is the deceleration distance between bus stops? A) 1.5 miles apart on a commuter busway that serves a large urban area. time and speed.8 ft 2a (2)(4.0 minutes i) What is the acceleration distance between bus stops? A) 1. The busway has a design speed of 70 mph. i) What is the acceleration distance between bus stops? Let daccel equal the distance a bus needs to accelerate from a stop condition to 55 mph: v 2 − vo2 (55 mi⁄hr)2 − (0 mi⁄hr)2 5280 ft 2 1 hr 2 daccel = = ( )( ) × ( ) = 677.Transportation Workshop PROBLEM 29 Bus stops are located 2.1 on page 71-4 for relationships between acceleration/ deceleration.8ft⁄sec 2 ) mi 3600 sec Answer C ii) What is the deceleration distance between bus stops? Let ddecel equal the distance a bus needs to decelerate from 55 mph to a complete stop: 2 v 2 − vo2 (0 mi⁄hr)2 − (55 mi⁄hr)2 5280 ft 2 1 hr ddecel = = ( )( ) × ( ) = 813.4 ft 2a (2)(−4.320 ft B) 980 ft C) 678 ft D) 813 ft iii) What is the distance travelled at a constant speed between bus stops? A) 13.387 ft D) 11.8 ft/sec2  Maximum deceleration rate: 4.

1 sec Determine the space mean speed between stations.Transportation Workshop iii) What is the distance travelled at a constant speed between bus stops? The total distance traveled between bus stops consists of three parts. 2.5 mi 3600 sec v= ( ) × ( ) = 49.200 ft.0 ft⁄sec 2 mi 3600 sec s 11. a −4.(daccel + ddecel ) = 13.2 sec + 145. dtotal = daccel + d55 + ddecel = 2.8 ft + 813.8 sec +20.708.15 sec. d 55. Determine the total distance traveled at a constant speed of 55 mph.4 ft) = 11.4 mph (49 mph) 182. d55 = dtotal . Answer D iv) What is the space mean speed between bus stops? Determine the total time required to travel between bus stops: v − vo (55 mi⁄hr) − (0 mi⁄hr) 5280 ft 1 hr t accel = = ( ) ( ) × ( ) = 16. a 4.8 ft.50 mi x 5280 ft = 13.15 sec = 182. t total = t accel + t decel + t 55 mph = 16.8 ft⁄sec 2 mi 3600 sec v − vo (0 mi⁄hr) − (55 mi⁄hr) 5280 ft 1 hr t decel = = ( ) ( ) × ( ) = 20.2 sec.8 sec.200 ft – (677.1 sec 1 hr Answer B 26 . v 55 mi ⁄ hr 5280 ft 1 hr The total time needed to travel between bus stops is the sum of the following three times.8 ft 1 mile 3600 sec t 55 mph = = ( )× ( )× ( ) = 145.708.

Transportation Workshop PROBLEM 30 Given the following speed data that were collected on a highway: Speed Determine the following: Group in Freq. i) Time Mean Speed in mph MPH uency A) 55 B) 58 C) 32 D) 48 26 to 30 15 ii) 85th percentile Speed in mph 31 to 35 22 A) 50 B) 58 C) 32 D) 48 36 to 40 41 41 to 45 71 iii)Modal Speed in mph 46 to 50 89 A) 55 B) 58 C) 32 D) 48 51 to 55 75 56 to 60 55 iv) Upper Limit of Pace 61 to 65 26 A) 55 B) 58 C) 32 D) 48 66 to 70 6 SOLUTION 30 Expand the table as shown below (fill the missing cells): Assumed Total Cum Speed Group Frequency Speed Speed Frequency (mph) (mph) (mph) 26 to 30 15 28 420 15 31 to 35 22 33 726 37 36 to 40 41 38 1558 78 41 to 45 71 43 3053 149 46 to 50 89 48 4272 238 51 to 55 75 53 3975 313 56 to 60 55 58 3190 368 61 to 65 26 63 1638 394 66 to 70 6 68 408 400 400 19240 19240 i) Time Mean speed: x ̅= ( ) = 48.10 mph 400 Answer D 27 .

89. Upper limit of the Pace is 55 mph. Therefore the 85th percentile speed is 58 mph. The associated assumed speed is 58 mph. Answer A PROBLEM 31 An automatic traffic counter indicates that 2340 axles passed over its detector. It is known that 8% of the vehicles were 3-axle trucks.08 28 .92 C=( )T ∴ C = 11.08C + 0. it is possible to write the following simultaneous equations: T 2C + 3T = 2340 and = 0.08 C+T Where: C = the number of passenger cars.85 = 400 x 0.08T 0. is associated with the 46-50 mph speed group. Therefore. This is an indicator of Max. The mode is the “Assumed Speed” with the greatest frequency.Transportation Workshop ii) 85th percentile speed of vehicles: Step 1: total # observations x 0. Solve these two equations: T = 0. Speed Limit. How many 2-axle passenger cars actually passed over the detector? A) 90 B) 900 C) 975 D) 1035 SOLUTION 31 Given the information provided above. Answer D iv) Pace is 46 to 55. the greatest frequency.5 T 0. T = the number of trucks.08(C + T) = 0. As shown in the above expanded table. (Answer B) iii) Modal Speed = Mode. Therefore the mode is 48 mph.85 = 340th observation Step 2: The 340th observation is in the 56 to 60 mph speed group. maximum speed limit is 55 mph.

and Control C Guidance. Page 2-2.5 ∗ 90 =1035 cars Answer D ALTERNATE METHOD: 2340 = 0. Inchg Crashes Highway Crashes Segment Exit ADT per yr Segment ADT per yr Length 48 28500 73 48 to 55 68000 890 7. The corridor includes three freeway segments and three interchanges.2 Driver Task Model. Navigation. Guidance. and Maneuvering B Guidance.5T) + 3T = 2340 ∴ T =90 trucks ∴ C = 11. Using the crash data and traffic volumes tabulated below. a.92(2)X (Where X = Total Vehicles) PROBLEM 32 The three major subtasks performed by drivers include which of the following? A Communication.08(3)X + 0.96 29 .Transportation Workshop Substituting the above expression for C into the first equation: 2(11. b. Section 2. The correct answer is B. and Control D Communication.12 58 23150 68 58 to 61 63000 478 2. Control.18 55 11250 49 55 to 58 72000 490 3. Communication. Rank the interchanges by number of crashes per year per million vehicles for each interchange from highest to lowest. and Navigation SOLUTION 32 HSM. Rank the highway segments by number of crashes per year per million vehicle miles. PROBLEM 33 A traffic study of an urban freeway corridor identified the locations with the highest incidence of crashes. Figure 2-1.

Transportation Workshop SOLUTION 33 a.000 veh⁄day)(365 days⁄yr)(2. not 100 million.000 veh⁄day)(365 days⁄yr)(3.98 crashes⁄MVM (2) (72.02 crashes⁄MVM (1) (63.150 veh⁄day)(365 days⁄yr) b.12 mi) (478 crashes⁄yr)(106 ) R (Inchg 58 to 61 ) = = 7. Interchanges Ranking (73 crashes⁄yr)(106 ) R (Inchg 48 ) = = 7.250 veh⁄day)(365 days⁄yr) (68 crashes⁄yr)(106 ) R (Inchg 58 ) = = 8.96 mi) PROBLEM 34 You’re traveling on an undivided highway in a suburban area.500 veh⁄day)(365 days⁄yr) (49 crashes⁄yr)(106 ) R (Inchg 55 ) = = 11.02 crashes⁄MEV (3) (28. (890 crashes⁄yr)(106 ) R (Inchg 48 to 55 ) = = 4.99 crashes⁄MVM (3) (68. What is most nearly the accident rate per Million Vehicle Miles of Travel? (A) 3 (B) 4 (C) 5 (D) 6 i.18 mi) (490 crashes⁄yr)(106 ) R (Inchg 55 to 58 ) = = 5. Highway segments.000 veh⁄day)(365 days⁄yr)(7.93 crashes⁄MEV (1) (11. There are 20 access points per mile. Use 106 instead of 108 because the ranking is per million vehicle miles.05 crashes⁄MEV (2) (23. SOLUTION 34 AASHTO GB Reference Figure 2-32 Answer D 30 .

5 SOLUTION 36 AASHTO GB Reference Figure 2-33.5 (D) 5. Traffic Safety Research Program. The correct answer is A. Amherst. p 2-76 Answer B 31 . what does a “K” code represent? A Fatality B Incapacitating Injury C Possible Injury D Property Damage Only SOLUTION 35 University of Massachusetts. PROBLEM 36 The estimated crash rate per Million Vehicle-Miles of Travel on undivided rural roadways with a total of 20 Driveways per mile is most nearly: (A) 2.5 (B) 3.Transportation Workshop PROBLEM 35 On the KABCO scale.5 (C) 4.

Determine the peak hour LOS for the upgrade portion of the highway given the following:  46. ??? = 0.0 − 1) + 0. 2 percent RVs  0.Transportation Workshop PROBLEM 37 A 5-mi undivided 4-lane highway is located on level terrain.13(2.0 − 1) ?? = 1. ?? = 1.900 veh/h peak-hour-volume in one direction  13 percent trucks and buses.85 1 + ?? (?? − 1) + ?? (?? − 1) 1 + 0.90. 11-ft lane width  1.0 For the upgrade. and commuter traffic SOLUTION 37 This is a Multilane Highway Problem Step 1 – Compute Free Flow Speed – Given as 46 mi/h Step 2 – Convert volume to flow rate ? ?? = (???)(?)(??? )(?? ) Where: ? = 1. use specific grade tables in Exhibits 14-13 and 14-14 1 1 ??? = = = 0.9 ??/??⁄?? 46 LOS = D 32 . A 6.5 percent grade also is included in the study.200-ft. ? = 2.90 PHF.900 ??ℎ.236 ???ℎ?? Step 3: Determine LOS 1236 ??????? = = 26. segment with 2.0 mi/h field-measured FFS.02(3.

27(???? ) ??? ?? ≤ 10 ?? ?? From the above figure.2 + + 0. (vph) 491 672 825 858 Avg. the N-S crosswalk length is 69 ft. Determine the minimum green time for North-South pedestrian intervals. Control Delay by approach (sec/veh) 16. the minimum green time for a phase is estimated as: ? ??? = 3. determine the: (a) LOS of each approach. (b) Average control delay of the intersection.2 23.27(10) = 26. Based on this data and the HCM LOS criteria for signalized intersections provided below. Use 3. 69 ??? = 3. Approach EB WB NB SB Adjusted flow rate. 18-66.3 ft/sec walk speed due to proximity to retirement home.6 58 32.81 ??? 3.3 PROBLEM 39 A signalize four-leg intersection has the adjusted flow rates and total delays by approach indicated below. (c) LOS of the intersection.Transportation Workshop PROBLEM 38 The signalized intersection shown in the figure is located in a suburban area near a retirement home with pedestrian volumes of 10 ped/cycle. SOLUTION 38 Per HCM Eq.2 + + 0. See HCM page 18-66 for discussion of walking speed.0 33 .

Transportation Workshop SOLUTION 39 a) Per HCM Exhibit 18-4: EB – LOS B. 890 vph 2400 vph Main St.9 − 0. WB – LOS C.37 − 0. L×X 8 × 0. . (v⁄s)n ] [0.8 sec delay is equivalent to LOS C PROBLEM 40 The traffic volumes for a two phase signal at the intersection of First Street and Main Street are summarized below: Street Flow Rate Max Saturation Flow First St.42 Total Lost time: L = 2 x 4 = 8 sec / cycle 34 . 750 vph 1800 vph  lost time/ phase: 4 sec.90 What Cycle length should be used? SOLUTION 40 Using Eqn 18-17 (modified) from HCM. SB – LOS C b) Σ(?? )(?? ) ???????????? ?????.37 (v⁄s)2 = 750⁄1800 = 0.42] Where: (v⁄s)1 = 890⁄2400 = 0.9 C= = = 66 sec [X − (v⁄s)1 − (v⁄s)2 − (v⁄s)3 −. . NB – LOS E.8 ???. c) Per HCM Exhibit 18-4.6 × 672) + (58 × 825) + (32 × 858)] dI = (491 + 672 + 825 + 858) dI = 34. 34.  desired intersection volume to capacity ratio = 0. dI = (s⁄veh) Σv? Σ[(16.2 × 491) + (23.

35 ?⁄??? /?? 15 × ?? 15 × 14. ?? = ?? − ?? = 20.00 for min cycle length) ??? 8(1.29 PROBLEM 42 A 20 ft wide sidewalk along a highway is bordered by curb with trees on one side and fence on the other side.46 and the minor roadway as 0.5 Using Exhibit 23-1 in HCM. and the assumed lost time of 4. SOLUTION 41 Using Eqn 18-17 (modified) from HCM.46 − 0.Transportation Workshop PROBLEM 41 A two-phase signal has flow ratios on the major roadway as 0.5 ?? Using equation 23-3 in HCM. Estimate the minimum cycle length. answer is LOS C. What is the LOS during the peak 15 min on the average with no other obstructions on the side walk? SOLUTION 42 Using equation 23-1 of HCM. The peak 15-min pedestrian flow rate is 1.600.0 − (4.0) ???? = ? = = 32 ??? ?? − Σ ( ? ) 1.5) = 14.0 + 1. ?15 1.29.600 ?? = = = 7.0 sec/phase. 35 . (Use Xc = 1.0 − 0.

The correct answer is D PROBLEM 44 You are designing new guide signs for Enterprise Avenue. See MUTCD Section 2D. Minimum Letter and Numeral Sizes for Freeway Guide Signs According to Interchange Classification. See Table 2E-4.5 (C) 4.0 SOLUTION 44 The situation described above requires design of a guide sign for a conventional road.0 inches The correct answer is C 36 .32 Interchange Classification. this is a category (b) Major Interchange.Transportation Workshop PROBLEM 43 You are designing guide signs for a new major interchange of a freeway connecting another freeway.0 (D) 5.” Therefore the required letter size is 4. “…on urban streets with speeds of 25 mph or less.0 (B) 3. the principal legend shall be in letters at least 4 in in height for all upper- case letters.06 Size of Lettering. an urban street with a posted speed of 25 mph. What is the minimum size (inches) upper letters to be used for the principal legend. or a combination of 4 inches in height for upper-case and three inches in height for lower-case letters. The required letter size is 20 inches. What is the minimum size (inches) of upper-case letters to be used for the names of destinations shown on sign legends? (A) 12 (B) 15 (C) 16 (D) 20 SOLUTION 43 According to the MUTCD Section 2E. (A) 3.

02. ?? ????????? ????? ?? ??ℎ 37 . SOLUTION 45 According to MUTCD Section 4E. A flashing WALKING PERSON indication has no meaning and shall not be used. PROBLEM 46 Ridge Road is a three lanes wide (two lanes northbound / one lane southbound) as it heads north from Downtown and up-hill into Valley View Park. The required length of taper (ft) for the lane reduction is most nearly: (A) 240 (B) 280 (C) 320 (D) 480 SOLUTION 46 See MUTCD Figure 3B-14. 85?ℎ ??????????. (B) A pedestrian facing the signal indication shall not start to cross the roadway because the signal is about to change. ?? 2 ?= ??? ?????? ?? ???? ?ℎ?? 45 ??ℎ. (C) A pedestrian facing the signal indication should yield the right-of-way to vehicles lawfully within the intersection at the time this indication is first shown. The lanes are all 12- feet wide and the 85th percentile speed throughout is 40 mph. Meaning of Pedestrian Signal Head Indications. ?ℎ???: 60 ? = ?????ℎ ?? ????? ?? ???? ? = ??????.Transportation Workshop PROBLEM 45 A flashing WALKING PERSON indication symbolizes which of the following? (A) A pedestrian facing the signal indication is permitted to start to cross the roadway. A short distance beyond the crest of the hill. a flashing WALKING PERSON indication has no meaning and shall not be used The correct speed is D. the two northbound lanes reduce to one lane. (D) Nothing. Examples of Applications of lane-Reduction Transitions Markings.

Determine the appropriate spacing (ft) of delineators along the curve. For an 85th percentile speed of 40 mph.578 ?= = = 409. The required advance placement (ft) for the lane reduction taper is most nearly: (A) 670 (B) 775 (C) 885 (D) 990 SOLUTION 47 See MUTCD Table 2C-4. First determine the radius of a 140 curve.25 ?? ? 14 38 . The correct speed is A.Transportation Workshop ? = ?????? ?? ???? ?? 2 (12)(40)2 ?= = = 320 ?? 60 60 The correct speed is C PROBLEM 47 A “Lane Ends” (W4-2) warning sign is placed on the side of the northbound lanes a short distance to the south of the Ridge Road lane reduction described above. Guidelines for Advance Placement of Warning Signs.578 5729. The situation described is Condition A: Speed reduction and lane changing in heavy traffic. Refer to MUTCD Table 3F-1. the advance placement distance is 670 ft. (A) 55 (B) 60 (C) 65 (D) 70 SOLUTION 48 This problem involves the placement of a delineator panels on a horizontal curve. 5729. PROBLEM 48 A rural interchange contains an entrance ramp with a 140 horizontal curve.

The situation described is Condition B: Deceleration to the listed advisory speed (mph) for the condition.86.25 − 50) = 56.100 SOLUTION 49 See MUTCD Table 2C-4.Transportation Workshop Calculate the appropriate spacing. For an 85th percentile speed of 60 mph. S. ??? 55 ?? The correct speed is A. PROBLEM 50 The installation of a new traffic control signal at an existing intersection is most likely to cause which of the following traffic conflicts to increase? (A) Minor street left-turn and major street right turn (B) Through movements in opposing directions (C) Through movements in same direction (D) Through movements on crossing streets 39 . using the formula: ? = 3√? − 50 = 3√(409. Guidelines for Advance Placement of Warning Signs. the advance placement distance is 400 ft. How far (ft) in advance of the grade crossing should a Highway-Rail Grade Crossing sign (W10-1) be located? (A) 250 (B) 325 (C) 400 (D) 1. PROBLEM 49 A two-lane highway with an 85th percentile speed of 60 mph crosses a railroad. The correct speed is C.

The correct answer is C PROBLEM 51 Which of the following is not a valid warrant for installing a traffic control signal? (A) Two.01 Studies and Factors for Justifying Traffic Control Signals. PROBLEM 52 On a four lane undivided highway in north-south direction. right most lane in the northbound direction needs some repairs for one mile long. The installation of a new traffic control signal at an existing intersection can cause a significant increases in the frequency of collisions (especially rear-end collisions).03 Advantages and Disadvantages of Traffic Control Signals. All lanes are 12 feet wide and the shoulders are 6 feet wide.Transportation Workshop SOLUTION 50 See MUTCD Section 4B.hour Vehicular Volume (B) Peak Hour (C) Crash Experience (D) School Crossing SOLUTION 51 See MUTCD Section 4C. What is the most appropriate merge taper length to place cones for this work zone inside the northbound right most lane? A) 203 ft B) 270 ft C) 405 ft D) 540 ft SOLUTION 52 Refer to Figure 6C-2 and Tables 6C-3 and 6C-4 in MUTCD L = WS = 12 x 45 = 540 ft Taper length = L = 540 ft (Answer D) 40 . The 85 th percentile speed on this highway is 45 MPH.

The 85th percentile speed is 65 MPH and the offset required is 18 ft. and Figure 6H-5 in MUTCD. The 85th percentile speed is 25 MPH and the offset required is 12 ft. How far in advance of the first cone should a driver see the first “Right Side Shoulder Closed” sign? A) 1000 ft B) 1500 ft C) 1890 ft D) 2890 ft SOLUTION 54 See Tables 6H-3. L = WS2/60 = (12) (252)/60 = 125 ft Distance to first sign from the shoulder work area = 1/3 L + A + B = 1/3*125+100+100 = 242 ft Answer C PROBLEM 54 Shoulder work needs to be completed on a freeway. 6H-4.000 ft Answer A 41 . How far in advance of the shoulder work area should the very first sign be placed that drivers will see notifying them of the road work? A) 125 ft B) 200 ft C) 242 ft D) 42 ft SOLUTION 53 See Tables 6H-3. Distance from work area to the first “Right Side Shoulder Closed” sign = A = 1. and Figure 6H-3 in MUTCD. 6H-4.Transportation Workshop PROBLEM 53 Shoulder work needs to be completed on an urban two-lane low speed highway.