# Exam Card 22

I. Measures of descriptive statistics: rates, ratios, percentages,
percentiles.
1. Situations we need to use measures of descriptive statistics
in medicine & Public health.

2. Rates: types, calculation, examples.
i) Crude rate = number
population
ii) Specific rate – dominates with specific population
iii) Adjusted rate / standardized – direct/indirect

3. Ratios: calculation, examples.
= as index of comparison between 2 comparing subjects
eg i) Relative risk / risk ration = probability of developing disability
with RVS
probability of developing disability if no
RVS
ii) Odds ratio = probability of occurrence of event
probability of no occurrence
iii) Number of patients
Number of physicians

4. Percentages: calculation, examples.
= representation of an incidence in 100
eg x X 100 = ?
y

5. Percentiles: upper, lower quartiles (25th percentile), give
examples.
= probability of distribution/ representation of subjects in normal
distribution that’s grouped

II. Reproductive health as a component of Public health.
1. Definition of reproductive health. Components of Reproductive
health.
Reproductive health addresses the reproductive processes, functions &
system at all stages of life. Reproductive health, therefore, implies that
people are able to have a responsible, satisfying & safe sex life & that

life-threatening complication .during pregnancy/delivery or after delivery ii) 15% .experience some complication . classification.while discharging . it’s underused Analysis by time of maternal death: i) 50% . Maternal mortality: measures.some specific service must be provided iii) 5% . affordable & acceptable methods of fertility regulation of their choice.between 2-7 days after delivery . For every 100 women who become pregnant: i) 40% .need surgical intervention if < 5%. when and how often to do so. Adolescent pregnancy as a public health problem.control possible complications between 2-7th day . Health indicators in young women.they have the capability to reproduce & the freedom to decide if.during pregnancy iii) 20% .1st 24 hours after delivery ii) 25% . i) Abortion rate ii) Abortion ratio iii) Infertility iv) Birth rate v) Maternal mortality vi) Average early delivery of adolescent (14-18) vii) Use of contraceptives viii) % of attendance of professionals ix) Family 3. Compare different countries. effective. Components of Reproductive health i) Subjects ♀ ♂ ii) Baby iii) Health services 2. & the right of access to appropriate health care services that will enable ♀ to go safely through pregnancy & childbirth and provide couples with the best chance of having a healthy infant. Implicit in this are the right of men & women to be informed of & to have access to safe.

Causes of maternal death i) 25% . Pakistani.other indirect causes 5.after this period – 2-6th weeks Most is in India (25% of worldwide maternal deaths) 30% . age.unsafe abortion (→ haemorrhage) iv) 13% . Common technique in mx of pregnancy – risk approach . Euthopia If compare by regions. Causes of maternal death. Bangladesh Subsahara Africa (Nigeria).obstructive labour vi) 8% .haemorrhage ii) 14% . lifetime risk of ♀ is different – total life expectancy is related to number of pregnancy she’s had Africa – 1 in 16 Asia – 1 in 65 Latin America & Caribbean – 1 in 140 Europe – 1 in 1400 North America – 1 in 3700 4.hypertension v) 7% .evaluate possible risk of complication by score . disease (chronic condition) Studies that were conducted showed that it was impossible to predict which ♀ will get life-threatening condition. Ways to reduce maternal deaths & improve health status of women.other direct causes vii) 20% . 90% of ♀ identified for risk of obstructed labour didn’t experience any problems but among those ♀ who did.previous hx of reproduction. Compare different countries. Successful care is important in reducing maternal deaths: .sepsis & complication related to inflammation problem iii) 13% . Score is important but don’t show. iv) 5% .Indonesia. 70% didn’t have any marker of this problem.

even for professional attendant . midwife/nurse. toxoplasmosis. aware infection. More developed country – approach by a team of attendants (4 specialists) (O & G. bp.000 births) Recommended ratio = 1:5000 Sanitary & hygiene conditions . nutritional supplement (deficiency of Ca. . test for abnormalities of child . it’s only provided for < 30% of ♀ i) Developed country – almost all ♀ provided ii) Developing country – almost none provided Components – breast-feeding.to identify different problems – chronic diseases. . Screening – α-fetoprotein test. family planning. US.♀ who delivered on different days can’t stay in the same ward. nutrition. Fe) . I2.period to decide on termination . contraception. Counseling. fetal size. But to be more demanding. hepatitis B b) Delivery care Provide assistance of a skilled birth attendant (doctor/midwife) Developing country – lack of ppl (esp rural areas) (1 midwife/15. herpes. even in developed country – high rate of nosocomial infection in maternity wards (>60%) .Infection – rubella. CMV. education & psychological support is important.Mandatory weight.a) Prenatal care Every ♀ have to be consulted/observed by a doctor during pregnancy. anaesthesiologist) c) Postnatal care = care after delivery Interestingly. ♀ should have 1st visit in 1st trimester (<12 weeks) . Paediatrician. Therefore organization is used .