# No 1

1. Biostatistics: its branches and groups of studied questions. Laws of probability as
fundamental ones in statistical science.

1) Biostatistics as a methodological discipline of Public health: definition, branches, use
for biomedical research and health care practice.
Definition – Quantitative measurement of some event. It studies the quantity in
connection with the quality of events.

Branches: 1.general theory
2. public health statistics- demographic indications, morbidity, disability,
Physical development
3. statistical of health care establishment
Use- it is used widely in statistical investigation of public health condition and health care
establishment.

2) Probability as an essential term in statistical reasoning. Illustrate the use of
probabilities for studying medical questions.
- probability termed that an event will happen under given circumstances which defined
as the proportion of repetition of those circumstances in which the event would occur in
the long run.

3) Classification of events in biostatistics. Give examples.

Multiplicative rule- suppose two events are independent. For example, knowing that one
event has happened and don’t know anything about the other event.

Addictive rule- suppose two events are mutually exclusive. For example, when one event
happens the other event cannot happen.

5) Conditional probability. Odds of events.
Conditional probability- is probability of the event under certain condition.

2. Chronic non-communicable diseases and their characteristics, their place in
morbidity and mortality structure in different countries. Risk factors of chronic
pathology. Difficulties in etiological investigation of chronic diseases.

1) Chronic non-communicable disease: kinds of pathology, their place in morbidity and
mortality structure in different countries.
Kinds of pathology- cancer, DM, CVD, alcoholism, smoking, accidents, trauma

Cancer- most problem in developed countries. Developing countries and countries
involved in war also exposed to this problem.
DM- most problem in developed countries especially in asia.

50% of all death in developed countries and 15% of all death in developing countries.hereditary deposition .chemical abuse .occur almost in all countries and territories of world.avoid exposure to causative agents .manage nutrition . Pandemic pathology. atmospheric pollution 4) Difficulties in etiological investigation of chronic diseases. .mechanical trauma . 2) Pattern of pathology: meaning 3) Major risk factors of chronic pathology. 5) Peculiarities of prevention of non-communicable diseases.differential effect of factors on incidence and course of disease.climate. Alcoholism.biological disorder . Smoking and traumas.indefinite onset which makes difficult to collect data . . .environmental factors.use drug or chemical under physician’s advice .long latent period .multifactorial nature of etiology .education on safety measures . exposure to radiation.CVD.nutritional disbalance . .obesity.absence of a known causative agent .most problem in western and European countries. HT.