Exm card n.


1. study designs in medical research:experimental and observational
studies.true and quasi experiments.clinical trials.cross over design.

1.) explain the term ‘study design’ applying it for medical research.
 Study characteristics tht are determined by the clinical information sought
a. the specific type of study design that will be employed.
b. The manner in which the study wil be conducted,including the
criteria used for subjects selection and treatment and the way in
which data are collected and analyzed.

 strength and limitation of clinical study are design by the methodology which
intern affects the validity and generalisability of the results and possible

a.its study design as well defined and well recognized strength or

b.The method employed within any study design for the selection and
treatment of subjects,data collection and analysis can vary greatly
,thereby strengthening or weakening the study design.

 Major methodologic consideration
- subjects collection
- data collection : prospective data collection,retrospective data collection,methods
of data collection.
- Statistical analysis

2.) Experimental and observational studies.explain the differences.

 Experimental studies – test the effect of some intervention on a certain aspect of
health or illness .in these studies,the investigators controls both the population and
the factors to which the population is exposed.
 Observational studies – use existing phenomena in an attempt to understand
aspects of health or illness.in these studies,the investigators control neither the
population nor the factors to which the population is exposed.

3.) True and quasi experiments.

occupational hazards.obesity.randomized controlled clinical trials. .Clinical trial usually is used to compare outcomes between differents treatment(eg. Modified : smoking. . 5.A population with a clinical characteristics requiring intervention must be identified.good socio-economic status. .factors affecting health.health is a state of complete physical .) ways to form healthy life style in population. .mental.biological. .high blood cholesterol.conductive physical. 1.) characterize healthy life style and its components. .) Clinical trial as a study design for research of clinical problems. .environmental factors : physical.It can also used in clinical decision analysis to compare outcomes.Nonmodified : age.genetic factors. .cannot be changed. 5.social .proper genetic environment. 4. .) groups of factors affecting health by social theory of diseases.proper nutrition.hypertension. . . .family history. 2.race.problems in public health interventions related to life style modification.Modifiable risk factors : if there is intervention the probability of the occurrence of a diseasenis reduced.and social wellbeing and not merely the absence of disease of intimity.) explain health as a multidismentional term. 3.) modified and non-modified risk factors.) Cross – over design.sex. .host factors.psychosocial environment. 4.antibiotic treatment for a specific disease or chemotherapy for a specific cancer) . .clinical trial is a an experimental study design used to assess differences between 2 or more groups receiving different interventions or treatments.biological.can reduced by intervention. 2.proper education.