March 28, 1961

WITNESSES lNvENToR

MH W Deon J. Moc Gregor
BY
Ma MM
ATTORNEY

Ser. 1961 1 2 circuit that requires the occurrence of two or three cycles of generated alternating current in the ñeld winding be 2. and prevent sensed by the synchronizing circuit 22. 811. 1959.circuit of greatly improved response and sensi No. assigner to West dips. which connects the syn sense when the synchronous motor has pulled out of step chronous motor 2 to the power lines 6. No. and assigned to the same tivity. motor control scheme for pull-out protection as disclosed respectively. For a further description are not “remembered” indefinitely and thereby cause of the operation and characteristics of a NOR logic cir faulty operation of the pull-out protection circuit upon 60 cuit and a memory logic circuit. The resultant out cal _transients‘which generate an alternating current in 70 put from the NOR element 28 is amplified by the power theifield winding The basic difîerencebetween these amplifier 32. The excitation leads 8 are illus trated to have a polarity as shown in the drawing. MacGregor.977.665 10 rent power supply is indicated by the leads 6 while a 4 Claims.” May 1957. The synchroniz ing false operation due to transients which occur during ing circuit 2_2 may be of any suitable type capable of synchronizing of the motor during start-up. namely. East Pittsburgh. « 1 assignee. The conventional field discharge resistor 20 and claimed in a copending application Serial No. ì conditions and true pull-out. are illustrated and distinguish a true pull-out from mechanical or elec in their unenergized position. trical transients of short duration.977. providing a signal in response to the proper conditions The object ofk this invention is to provide the control for synchronization. One such synchronizing circuit is system for a synchronous motor having a pull-out pro described and claimed in my copending application Serial tection . Upon energization of the synchronous thepull-out protection system. 55 28 and NOR element 30. The Memory element protection circuit capable of preventing faulty operation 26 comprises two logic functions namely a NOR element due to synchronizing of the motor. the pull-out protection system com ing 4 to the excitation leads 8 at the appropriate syn prises the unique combination of circuit elements which chronizing speed as determined by the synchronizing' count the cycles of alternating current superimposed on circuit 22 indicated in block form and operably con the normal direct current excitation current in the field nected across the field winding 4.4 The Memory element will assume cleared. Both the field con winding of the synchronous motor. filed May 7.664. Amherst.519 Patented Mar. Pa.. 1959. mghouse Electric Corporation. The synchronizing circuit 22 provides an itiate unnecessaiy shut-down because of their inability to input to the NOR element 30 upon attainment of the distinguish between pull-out and mechanical and electri proper conditions for synchronization. Itis to be understood that the Memory element 26 is Another object of this invention is to provide a control a bistable device performing a memory logic function scheme for a synchronous motor having a pull-out pro which is capable of being triggered to assume one output tection circuit ycapable of resetting its sensing ability for state and remain in that state even after removal of the pull-out immediately after a pull-out condition has been 50 triggering influence. 20 is connected across the field winding 4 through the nor filed May 7. and assigned to the same assignee. sole figure is an electrical schematic diagram of an illus The memory element 26 is adapted to have means for trative embodiment of this invention. NX.519 fore providing a pull-out signal is inherently insensitive to currents generated by the rotor motion relative to the SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR CONTROL stator as caused by the load fiuctuations. “Control Engineering. S18-170) direct current supply source for excitation is indicated by the excitation leads 8. the invention is shown em corporation of Pennsylvania bodied in an electrical control system for a synchronous motor 2 having a field winding 4. The amplified output energizes the operat conditions is their duration. mally closed contact 14. United _States Patent O ” 1C@ 2. A conventional field contacter 10 is illus protection for a synchronous motor. (Cl. “Static Switching Devices. Another object of this invention is to provide a control the synchronizing circuit 22 provides an input signal to a circuit for a synchronous motor having a pull-out protec logic memory function illustrated as a flip-flop or Memory tion circuitl capable of discriminating between transient 45 element 26. elimination of the bias motor 2 by closing the line contacter 24. f its opposite state when an appropriate second input is Another object of this invention is to provide a con applied to it and will remainin the opposite state even trol Scheme for a synchronous motor having a pull-out after removal of the second input. the proper speed winding. The normally open contacts As more fully described and claimed in the aforemen. improving the response of up of the motor. lt will be of considerable assistance in understanding The present invention relates to an improvement of the present invention to first consider how the field con the subject matter disclosed in the aforementioned co tactor 10 is energized during synchronization upon start pending application. reference is made to a occurrence of an additional transient.615. 1959. f trated having an operating coil 12. f. be readily Vapparent from thefollowing detailed descrip Of course. a pull-out protection ing coil 12 causing the normally open contacts 16 and . pulsing the element to have no output prior to start-up of Conventional pull-out detection yschemes frequently in the motor 2. Such a system will tactor 10 and a line switch 24. and other transient conditions. but it is to be understood that opposite polarity may be This invention relates to synchronous controls and lshown with the appropriate polarity changes throughout more particularly to a system of control for pull-out the system.invention is to provide a con ment 28 is connected to the NOR element 30 and an trol scheme for a synchronous motor having a pull-out output from the NOR element 30 is connected to an in circuit capable of “forgetting” so that minor transients put of the NOR element 28.” by Further objects and advantages of the invention will Robert A. Thus. providing for the resetting of the system im for application of the excitation to the field winding 4 is Vmediately‘after the occurrence of pull-out. any suitable form of NOP` element or Memory tion taken yin conjunction with the drawing in which the element may be used. The output of the NOR ele „Another object of this l. 28.. a normally closed This invention is an improvement of a synchronous contact 14 and two normally open contacts 16 and 18.` 16 and 18 provide means for connecting the field wind tioned application. 811. ’ f publication entitled. a Referring to the Figure 1. supply voltage Dean J. An alternating cur Filed May 7. Mathias. Upon proper conditions for synchronization. 811.

the Zener diode 128. p ^ f_ t' ' Y in the place of the Zener diodelZS. l. The 40 requiredto initiate» a pull-out signal. 'die'input to the pull-out protection The second transistor 300 having a base electrode 302. A Zener diode 128 prevents discharge When the Memory element 26 is switched to have an of the accumulated charge below a predetermined level. 200 switches the flip-dop arrangement comprising the tran one pulse for each cycle of slip frequency as determinedy 20 sistors 200 and 300 so that an output signal results at the n by the voltage developed acrossl the shunt 34. output terminal 350.18. The base motor is properly synchronized and steady state operation Cil electrode 202 is also connected to ground 118 through a is attained.` 20 from the field winding 4l In such a manner.g voltage pulses appearing at the base electrode 102 of the put voltage from the NOR element 30 charges a ca transistor 100 block the transistor 100 for a period of time 45 pacitor.4 and variable resistor 50 and the collector electrodeV 40610 the ungrounded side 126 across theemitter-collector circuit or" the transistor of the capacitor 122 through a resistor -408. Where desired. a biasing resistor 110 connected to a negative bus-bar 112` It is to be noted that the potentiometer 126 controls The base electrode 102 has'imposed upon its‘negative the magnitude of stored charge per pulse on the capaci bias a positive bias of lesser magnitude through a biasing tor 122 and thus allows election of the number of pulses resistor 114 connected toV a positive bus bar 116. and al collector electrode 406 is amount of charge is accumulated on a capacitor 122cm connected with the emitter electrode 404 to ground 118 nected in series with a rectiñer 12. and also to provide hating current in the field winding even when the motor sharp switching action to >avoid relay chatter. v f l . The negative out. an transistor 100 is rendered nonconductive and a certain emitter electrode 404.. lt is to be noted that the in-Y The output Vfrom the pull-out protection circuit pro~ duced alternating current in the ñeld winding will have a videsV an input to the Memory element 26Y causing remov frequency equivalent tothe slip of the synchronous ma 30 al of the output signal from the Memory element 26 chine. the out receive the pulses from the differentiating circuit 44 put from the pull-out protection circuit may also be through an isolating impedance 50 and its base electrode 35 used to open the line contactor 24 in any conventional 102. The transistor 200 also> has an emitter chargingfthe `capacitor 122. l Referring to Fig. »Upon occurrence of a pull~out condition. The base contact 14. ' .to shut. the to have operating characteristics such that alseries 'of negative pulses Von the Ybase electrode 202 of the transistor pulsesis obtained on the secondary side 40 of the corer36. -The the characteristic of blocking current iiow in one direc capacitor 414 then discharges through the base electrode tion when the voltage is below a predetermined value 402 of the transistor 400 keeping it conducting for an while current is permitted to flow freely when the voltage interval when synchronizing transients may occur in is above aV predetermined value. 38 and a secondary winding 40. VThus. the pull-out Once sut'licient poles are slipped to charge the capacitor 70 122 to the breakdown voltage of. (Thus. The base elec trode 102. A like amount of charge will be added to the. thereby deenergizing the operating coil 12 of the field A transistor 100 having a base electrode 102. 'the voltage 412 connected to the ungrounded side of ¿the capacitor ` across the'capacitor 122 increases in increments as eac-h 414. .thereby disconnecting the field discharge resis electrode 202 is positively biased through a biasing resis tor. During that time` the l The transistor 400'having a base electrode 402. 414 through a rectifier 402 and also drives a equivalent to the duration of each voltage pulse appear transistor 400 to saturation. „ . narrow pulse signal regardless of the frequency of the The output signal is also fed backrthrough a capacitor alternating current imposed on the field winding 4. _The base electrode 102 is biased negatively through manner . The capacitor 42Vin series connection with base electrode 302'is connected to the collector electrode the input to the core 36 serves to block the direct current 206 through an isolating impedance 312. circuit embodying my invention is a voltage developed an emitter electrode 304 and a collector electrode 306y across a shunt 34 in the excitation circuit. . the rectifier 124 and a Zenerr'diode 12S prevent 55 output of the Memory element 26 through va resistor the capacitor 122 from discharging. ' ing at the base electrode 102. When 'the transistor 300 is rendered The pulses are received by a differentiating circuit 44 nonconductive. »any tribute to the charge accumulationon the counting ca device with a breakdown region as described may be used ` Í pacitor 122. Uni 314 and resistor 316 to maintain the output long enough form pulses are obtained for each cycle of induced alter for the controlled elements to switch. a signal appearing 'atl the Voutput terminal 350 switches thereciprocal output of the VMemory element 26 f‘on” negative pulse appears on (the base >electrode 202 of a making the transistor 400 conductive and thereby‘Ídis 'transistor 200. the output signal will appear at the ter comprising a capacitor 4-6‘ and resistor 48 to provide a minal 350. The pacitor 42. The path through the re electrode 204 and a collector electrode 206. the tor 210 connected to the positive bus bar 116.""l`hel breakdown is non 65 the excitation field Winding. The charge the counting capacitor 122. ca electrode 402 is positively vbiased by the positive bus pacitor 122 during each voltage pulse to the base elecf bar 116 through a biasing resistor 410. A square loop magnetic core 36 having a primary negative bus bar 112 through a current limiting resistor winding. f rectifier 212. usually a silicone diode.down vthe motor when pull-out occurs. The emitter sistor 408fand‘transistor 400 also servesasl a high re electrode 204 is crmnectedY to ground 110v while »the col 75y sistance ’discharge pathforthe countingfcapacitor 122 . an emitter contacter 10 and disconnecting the iield winding 4 electrode 104 and collector electrode 106 is connected to from the excitation source 8. Of course. ' isV slowly slipping poles. Y ' ` .has its primary 303. ` » emitter electrode 104 is connected to a ground 118 while The reciprocal output of the Memory element 26 as the collector electrode 106 is connected to the negative Vit appears from the NOR element 30 is used to dis bus bar 112 through a current limiting resistor 120. Ywhich has the NOR element 30 is connected lto ground 1. The base electrode 302 is positively Vbiased by the winding 38 connected across the shunt 34 through a ca positive bus bar 116 through a dropping resistor 310.The core 36 is'selected 122 to the breakdown voltage of the Zener diode 128. The shunt 34 is connected with the emitter electrode304 connected to provides a low> loss method for obtaining the current sig ground 118 and collector electrode 306 connected to the nal. the switching tran destructive so the 'current is cut ofi when the voltage sients incident to >synchronizing'the motor do not con again drops below the breakdown value. output by the synchronizingcircuit 22 upon proper con ' It vwill -be understood that the Zener diode is a semi 60 iditions for synchronization the reciprocal output from conductor rectifier. 18 to connect the field winding 4 to the excitation source lectorelectrode 206 is connected to the negative bus bar and momentarily thereafter open the normally closed 112 through a current limiting resistor 200. When the transistor 100 again becomes con trode 402 is also connected to receive the reciprocal ductive. ' The 'base 100. n excitation current in the lield winding and preventing such Once sufficient poles areslipped to charge the capacitor current from saturating the core. ` pole is slipped.

In a pull-out protection circuit for a synchronous 50 motor having a iield winding adapted to be connected References Cited in the file of this patent to an excitation source. integrator means connected to said pulse of time length proportional to each cycle of said 40 differentiating means and including capacitive means for induced current.519 5 6 so that the charge accumulated by a transient fault con nected to said differentiating means responsive to the dition will slowly discharge from the counting capaci narrow pulses for accumulating charge proportional to tor 122 after a suitable time period sufiicient to insure the number of narrow pulses.235 Baude ______________ __ May 24. a predetermined level of said charge for disconnecting While certain specific embodiments of the invention 25 said field winding from the excitation source. 24. rence of said pull-out signal. filed May 7. signaling means responsive to a predeter quency of the induced current. 2. and means for preventing said circuit.875 Bellinger __________ __ Mar. charge is below said predetermined level and for dis The discharge paths insure that the charge accumu charging said capacitive means at a relatively fast rate lated upon the capacitor 122 during transients is not when the charge is at least at the predetermined level. “remembered" indefinitely. The present invention current. capacitive means at a relatively fast rate when the charge for example. 20 said differentiating means responsive to the narrow pulses At the same time provisions are made for allowing the for accumulating charge proportional to the number of pull-out protection circuit to slowly “forget” disturbances narrow pulses. capacitive means connected to counting of pole slippage incident to synchronization.632. capacitive means con 2. 2.189 Ewing ______________ __ June 10.977. In a pull-out protection circuit for a synchronous 35 ing of said synchronous motor for producing a pulse of motor having a field winding adapted to be connected to time length proportional to each cycle of said induced an excitation source. providing a pull-out signal. diüerentiating means for providing a narrow pulse to the frequency of the induced current in the field for each said pulse regardless of the frequency of the winding of said synchronous motor for producing a induced current. sive to a predetermined number of narrow pulses for discharge means including a transistor. pulse generating means respon UNITED STATES PATENTS sive to the frequency of the induced current in the field winding of said synchronous motor for producing a pulse 2. 3. 1955 quency of the induced current. means responsive to a that the disturbance was in fact transient in nature. the transistors have been illustrated to be 30 is at least at the predetermined level. 1950 duced current.664. means responsive to said collector electrode. 1941 of time length proportional of each cycle of said in 2.914. it is to be understood that various modifications. pulse generating means responsive accuracy of the pull-out protection scheme disclosed to the -frequency of the induced current in the field wind and claimed in the previously mentioned copending ap ing of said synchronous motor for producing a pulse of plication Serial No. pulse generating means responsive current. In a pull-out protection circuit for a synchronous Thus. 811.709. integrator means respon mined level of charge for providing a pull-out signal. 1953 narrow pulse for each said pulse regardless of the fre 2. discharge have been shown and described for the purpose of illus means across said capacitive means for discharging said tration. pulse generating means responsive I claim as my invention: to the frequency of the induced current in the field wind 1. As. means for adjusting the quantity of charge as a result of transient conditions which may cause accumulated per narrow pulse. 1959 .997 Schaelchlin __________ __ Nov.718 Baude ______________ __ Nov. differentiating means for providing a narrow provides `fior resetting the pull-out protection circuit pulse for each said pulse regardless of the frequency immediately after pull-out occurs and also prevents the of the induced current. and emitter electrode. means responsive to fault indications of a pull-out condition. said base electrode connected to said signaling integrator means from responding to frequency slippage means rendering said transistor conductive upon occur incident to synchronization of the motor. and time length proportional to each cycle of said induced assigned to the same assignee. diñerentiating means for providing a 'accumulating charge proportional to the number of narrow pulse for each said pulse regardless of the fre narrow pulses. a base electrode. 24. an excitation source.530. differentiating means for providing a 2. of the PNP type but it is to be understood that the 4. it is readily apparent that the present inven motor having `a field winding adapted to be connected to tion has provided rneans for improving the response and an excitation source. capacitive means at a relatively slow rate when the charge substitutions and alterations within the spirit and scope is »below said predetermined level and for discharging said of the invention are herein meant to be included. predetermined level of said charge for disconnecting The discharge circuits provided for the counting ca Ul said field winding from the excitation source.245. 2l. discharge pacitor 122 insures that a full number of counts is means across said capacitive means for discharging Said available in the capacitor 122 upon occurrence of the capacitive means at a relatively slow rate when the next disturbance acting upon the synchronous motor. 1959. In a pull-out protection circuit for a synchronous NPN type of transistors may be used with suitable changes moto-r having a field winding adapted to be connected to and polarity within the control circuitry. said capacitive pull-out signal for disconnecting said field winding from means connected across the collector-emitter electrode the excitation source.