Barber, Benjamin. 1995. "Jihad Vs McWorld" in Braving the New World: Readings in Contemporary Politics, pp. 17-27.

© 1995 Nelson Canada.

Jihad V s. McWorld
Benjamin Barber

Since World War II, up until the end of the comitant decline of state power, even as democratic or anti political character of both
1980s, two military superpowers dominated states still struggle to emerge and be rec- forces.
tile world scene. In addition, multinational ognized.
(or perhaps more descriptively "transna- This is a powerful and provocative piece: it
tional") corporations became major interna- In this widely read article, Benjamin Barber challenges the reader to think in global
tional actors, some having larger annual sets out the two principal forces of the post- terms. The reader's main task is to first ask,
sales than the entire gross domestic prod uct Cold War world: universalizing, globalizing as always, do I understand the relationships
of many state economies. Now there is only forces of technology, information, and trade; that Barber presents: the four imperatives of
one superpower left, and it exercises enor- and parochial, tribalizing forces of national- McWorld, the elements that make up the cim-
mous influence not only because of its mili- ism, ethnicity, and religious identity. The two trifugaJ forces of Jihad, and the antipoliticaJ
tary strength but also because of the cultural sets of forces combine to bring us together nature of both? Second, Barber uses a
and economic leverage it possesses. and drive us apart simUltaneously. Barber vocabulary that will be familiar to political
addresses a couple of themes worth noting scientists, but not necessarily to the general
State-to-state diplomacy now takes place at the outset. The first is the degree to which reader. He uses terms such as comity and
within a changed context, in which the old globalizing forces bear an American cultural community, sectarianism, ethnocentrism
rules of the game no longer apply, and in imprint Is technology noncultural or does it and,confederalism, which will have to be
which a key development is the "globaliza- inevitably carry with it American cultural discussed and thought abou~ not merely
lionn of national economies and a con- antecedents? The second theme is the anti- glossed over.

J
ust beyond the horizon of current events lie two ened Lebarionization of national states in which culture
possible political futures-botb bleak, neither is pitted against culture, people against people, tribe
democratic. The first is a rerribalization of large against tribe-a Jihad in the name of a hundred nar-
swaths of humankind by war and bloodshed: a tbreat- rowly conceived faiths against every kind of interdepen-

trade has disappeared almost overnight. of Jihad and the forces of McWorld operate with equal The market imperative has also reinforced the quest strength in opposite directions. international law ceases to be a vision of jusrice and becomes a workaday framework for geuing things MCWORLD. media specialists. The second is being borne in on us by viruleI1t traditional form-nationalism. regulating trade and currency relations. accounrams. the South Pacific. ensuring thar governments abide by deals. The old interwar national BBC. transnational markets within which reputation as the world's largest integral democracy while powerful new fundamentalist parties like the trade is free. It is the realists the onrush of economic and ecological forces that demand integration and uniformity and rhat mcsmerize who are now Europeans. India is trying to live up to its . as Four imperatives make !. Asia. OR THE done-enforcing contracts. whether dictated by pub- against McWorld's centripetal black hole. the outcome is closing British· paternalism. these imperatives have in combina. Americas such markets are eroding national sovereignty States are breaking up or joining up: the Soviet Union and giving rise to entities-international banks. computer programmers. fractiousness. • GLOBALIZATION OF POLITICS and so forth. isolation. cient international economy. and they produce common market imperative. Orthodox fundamentalism. Afric:l. Sabbath-observing Jewish unlikely to be democratic-<>r so I will argue. ducers and consumers--categories that ill fit narrowly cal ways to govern themselves democratically. Greenpeace. expanding markets would in time compel nation-based capitalist economies to push ag3inst national boundaries in search of an international economic imperium. I These two tendencies are sometimes visiblc in the Whatever else has happened to the scienristic predictions same countries at the same instant: thus Yugoslavia.Hions into one commercially homogeneous global net. The market . and an ecological impera- tive. If the conceived national or religious cultures. transnational lobbies like OPEC and unions with one another or with likeminded nationali. By shrinking the world and diminishing the salience behaviors of the kind bred by cosmopolitan city life everywhere. a resource imperative. and fast \ even a resurgent W:lles or Saxony. international bankers. an informa- tion-technology imperative. demogra- tion achieved a considerable victory Over factiousness phers. and not least of all over their most III civic muwality. the other making national borders chology attenuates the psychology of ideological and porous from without. in this domain they have proved farsighted. oil riggers. and the nationalist assassins. fast computers. In the coorext of common markets. world news services like CNN and the ties in neighboring states. every kind of artificial social cooperation and and particularism. inroads of larger. All national economics are now vulnt:r3ble to the II exploding inro fragments. ••• Common markers demand a common language. professors. and commercc. pressing cry for one world has yielded to the reality of McWorid. Shopping has global future is to pit Jihad's centrifugal whirlwind little tolerance for blue laws. perhaps I • the world with fast music. ecol. Marxist and Leninist theo- work: one Me-World tied wgether by tcchnology. • • of national borders. ecology experts. the one driven by for international peace and stability. n. and contracts are enforceable under law. They ha ve one thing in common: religious cleavages and assumes a concord among pro- neither offers much hope to citizens looking for practi. nor respect nationhood as an organizing or regulative The tendencies of what I am here calling the forces principle. The planet is tailing precipitanrly apart and coming reluctantly together at the vcry same moment. ries of impc::ri<llismassumed that the quest for ever- ogy. war. clamoring just recently to join the New Europe. are imperiling its hard-won unity. and multinational corporations that increasingly state based on territory and political sovereignty looks lack a meaningful national identity-that neither reflect to be a mere transitional development.mperatiz1e. the other by universalizing markets. along with Europe. or no-Sunday-liquor-sales Massachusetts puritanism. emertainment celebrities. Commercial pilots. access to bank- ing is open. its parts forming new associations. III denee. requisites of an effi- parochial hatreds. currencies are convertible.lp the dynamic of McWodd: a well as a common currency. Macintosh. Markets are enemies of the one re-creating ancient subnational and ethnic bor. Market psy- ders from within. is of Marxism. communications. and McDonald's. parochialism. the utopians who dream nos- talgically of a resurgent England or Germany. In II Hindu nationalist Bharatiya Janata Parry. Yesterday's wishful food-with MTV. arhleres-these compose • .

for the underpopulated. and an easy and regular flow and ·jife will no doubt conrinue to distinguish a Japanese exchange of information. telephone wires America as well. end. and they may be narurethroughout the world. plenty powerful. even as it appeared to English. Democr:lts once dreamed munications and information network rh~lf Cnn poten- of societies whose political autonomy rested firmly on tially give every person on earth access to every other economic independence. But the rapid depletion and science are enernies_ resources even in a country like ours. it turns out. cable. rends to be sysremic and integrated--compurer. and tried for a while to create a way every set of eyes.~ It is not identical with the democratic sion. it turned out. By the time of per second-which makes for a very small planet in a Pericles." then electronic telecommunicarion and were able to achieve autarky. and com- in by two great seas led many to believe that America puter modems having multiplied like rabbits in could be a world unto itself. information How and are bcilirated by new communi- market imper::Jtive is. asks for. glasnost harder for Americans than for most to accept the could not be far behind. it turns out. and many other nations in permanenrIy desperare straits. denceand auta. some nations have almost nothing they need. and the maldistriburion of arable globalizing than its hardware. American films dominated rhe awards ceremonies. Throughout the nation has. banking. If the auromobile was~ as George Ball life simple and austere enough to make the polis gen. laser. Enlighten. . Exhibitors at the inherently universalizing. They enraij a quest for descrip. 1980s one of the most-watched television programs in The information-technology imperative. cation technologies. satellite. Not even the four wheels. capitalism. however: information systems are an ideology at 186. shopping has a common sig. unswerving embrace of objectivity and impaniality. but they are someof rhe reccnr revolmions in E::Jsrcrn Europe have entailed by rhe very idea of science and rhey make sci- . Although sociologists of everyday ity. The hardware of these technologies some of rhC'claims made for ~democra. even compels. is dependency. then. 1991 Cannes film festival expressed growing anxiety tive principles of general application. the whole world speaks logarithms and binary enhance Athenian might. fiber-optic. every byte. Such ideals can be hypocritical froman American mode.and nationality can seem only marginal elements in commUOlcanon. In rheir social requisites. and microchip technologies combining to create a vast interacrive com- TlJe resource imperative. and make every datum. burwell-paying jobs . Master and slave. gives rhem a common face chiseJed in HoUywood. televi. where they once The new technology's software is perhaps even more seemed inexhaustible. Given this past. Athenian politics was inextricably bound up very big hurry. a·nd commerce all depend on is proving easier to al:quire rhan conslUncr goods). over the "homogenization" and "'Americanization" of versal solutions to particul::Jr problems. With photocopying lessly bountiful land. ate away ar Athenian indepen. The demise of ment science and the technologies· derived from it are apartheid was already in production. Individual cultures speak parricular lan- with a flowering empire held together by naval power guages. but. the cornucopia of natural and then fax machines having infiltrated Soviet universi- and the natural barriers of a continent walled ties and samizdat literary circles in the eighties.md rhe right to shop (although the Business. Satellite foor- The dream of autarky briefly engrossed nineteenth. leave even the inremational commerce's sprawling body reaches out wealthiest societies ever more resource-dependent and and touches distincr nations and parochial culrures. a common discourse rooted in rational- 3 working idenrity.rky. The Athenians idealized what person. South Africa was The Cosby Show. open societies. penetrate the most dosed societies. To be free meant to be independent the Soviet Union during the Cold War). available to called autarky.had as rheir true goal nor liberty anJ rhe eighr ro vote ence and globalization pracriC<11aJlies. Scie~tifi~ progress embo~ies and depends on open ture. The infotmarion arm of and mineral resources on the planet. "an ideology on of any other community or polis. Cynics might even say that shown to be wanting in many other ways. and an the global film industry where for the third year eunning. collaboration.000 miles hwnan nature. cul. commerce and science increasingly speak and commerce-an empire that. were Moreover. and in Silicon Valley. needs something another Madison Avenue. once said (when he gave his blessing to a Fiat factory in self-sufficient. covers for power-mongering by elites. on Every nation. the pursuit of science and technology bound rogether by mutual insufficiency. a search for uni. prinrs do not respect national borders. secrecy inevitability of interdependence. 3 new breed of men and women for whom religion. it has been communism's bureaucratic warrens thereafter. mathematics.

in military-governed Taiwan and Korea.1 book. Kurile Islander Japanese. It is essence of what I call Jihad. and. and because Indonesians make a much longer. sects. and Prince's Diamonds I. the Zulus The ecological imperatiz e_ The impact of globaliza- l of Inkatha. rebel- values and beliefs on compe(ing political candidates and lious factions and dissenting minorities at war not just programs. But they often appear as ineffective reactors to greater productivity. Muslims. Bur . chere are scores of institutions that reflect global- ticipation. earlier. parts. but it is something less lion against uniformity and integration-even the kind than a marriage. upsetting tht: delicate lists featuring TeT11lil1utor 2 as the No. Abkhasians. the to surveillance as well as liberty. Yet this ecological consciousness has me:lOtnoc the No. borders that will seal them off from modernity.J1rlett oxygen b~llance and in effect puncruring our global as the No. nor competing goods. Basques. International Red Cross. and. for they convey life-style images that alter perception and challenge behavior. working in the opposite direction. "The world cannot afford of software supremacy may in the long term be far more your modernization. The consumer society and the open the world's real actors: national states and. less the goods than the brand names that do the work.America has dominated the world's popular culture for a little land to plough. and rury and are burning down tropical rain forests to dear cultural fr:Jgmenrsunder new. to skewed. Puerto Ricans. Ossetians. for the movement toward McWorld is in competition with forces of global break- Can the Six"thFleet keep up with CNN? McDonald's in down. subna(ional factions in permanent rebel- democracy have a relationship. nor religions. tribes. seeking smaller worlds wirhin can be destroyed by Swiss and Italians driving gas-guz. culture has become more potent ration. the Catholics of Northern colonial possessions. and transwlrural. to an ever society are not quite synonymous. nized. zlers fueled by leaded gas. inhabiting ignore it. of course. the World Bank. We also know that the planet A powerful irony is at work here. They make up the seductive JIHAD. This kind saying to developing nacions. In November of 1991 living out of converting their lush jungle into toothpicks Switzerland's once insular culture boasted best-seller for fastidious Japanese diners.Ind more decisively. of course. Catalonians. the multinational corpora- ulation and covert control as well as new kinds of par. The free market tloucished in junta-run Chile. SC. not (hat citizens be free to vore their countries. 1 record album. OF THE WORLD Yet in aU this high-tech commercial world there is • •• nothing that looks particularly democratic. as buying Hollywood film studios even f::lsrcr than modernized nations try to slam the door behind them. to democrats and totalitarians.1 movie. not wholes. depoliticized. Capitalism and greater degree. in Kurds.. and Buddhists. and centrifugal corruption. because culture Each of tht: four imperatives just cited is transna- has beCOffil" more potent than armaments_ Wh:lt is the tional. An efficient free market after all represented bY'universal law and justice. to capitalists and socialists. East a variety of autocratic European empires as well as their Timoreans. The headlines requires that consumers be free to vote their dollars on feature these players regularly: they are cultures. aimed at bringing together disparate clans. tion . . a movement Brazilian farmers want to be part of the twentieth cen. ours has wrung it dry!" important th:Jn hardw:uc superiority. Tamils. the United Nations.)l society has to a remark:Jble degree been real- ized-but in a form that is commercialized. and. Each applies POWl'C oj the I'l"ntagon compan:d with Disneyland's? impartially to Catholics. bureaucratized. OR THE LEBANONIZATION software of McWorld's common (at times much too common) soul. homoge- than armaments. assimilarionist tlags. transideolo~ical. Americans are huying Japanese television sets. Quebecois.. Hindus. to new forms of manip.1nd Pearls as lungs. No wonder the Japanese are only greater awareness but also greacer inequality. Moscow and Coke in China will do more to create a These forces. We know well enough that the German forests narions not their own. ti~n on ecology is a cliche even to world leaders who Palestinians-people without countries. national dissolution. are the global culture than military colonization ever could. It lends itself OPEC. unjust market outcomes as wellas ization. Ireland.. radically incomplete.. Jt:ws. The Enlightenment dream of a universal . with globalism but with the traditional nation-state. Nationalism was can be asphyxiated by greenhouse gases because once a force of integration and unificacion.

proselytizing rather than ecumenical. "Tn perioJs of consolidation. forms of monotheism as Judaism. or battles ered from Russia. racial. Kurdish independence might once have come to grace such historically related would threaten the territorial incegriry of four Mid. Hyperdisimegration in the former Soviet Among the tribes. angry rather than Union. ened to replace Europeans' racism with an ind.·oe '. Christianity.. pulverizing the very narions it is now playing with the idea of linguistic multicultural_ once helped cement together. or religious in char:lCter. Yugoslavia makes even the disured. The passing of communism has torn away [he thin dering with hot wars. tribal. down of civility in the name of identiry. and again mday. of comiry in the . sectarian rather then deistic. but does follow both journal- Soviet Union look integrated. cols is in danger. anti-Semitism. in to reveal ethnic prejudices that are not only ugly and Ortega's own rime. positive value. hav. It appears all too easy Spain. Even where rhere is a shooring war. After thlrry years of attempted integration rhe 1920s. There were more than rhirty wars in progress lasr year. Jurassian and Basque separatists still argue the to throw the historical gears into reverse and pass fcom virtues of ancient identities. " Iraqi nationhood thar he nearly destroyed. with Francophone Quebec again never integrating. is back with a vengeance. in many of their modem incarnations they are Georgia made a claim for autonomy from rhe Soviet parochial rather than cosmopolitan.000 in a loving. Even the good wiU estab. just Strictly applied to religious war. friction between Inkatha's Zulus and the African The atmospherics of Jihad have resulted in a break- National Congress's tribally identified members threat. sometimes in the language a Communist dictatorship back into a tribal state. zealous republic of 5. and Eastern nations. Some new world order! The aim of many of rhese small-scale wars is to knew it: a battle to the death redraw boundaries. rhe international scene is lirtle veneer of internarionalism (workers of the world unire!) more unified than ir was at rhe end of rhe Gn:ar War. In South Africa knew it: a battle to the death for souls that if not saved the emergence from apartheid was hardly achieved when will be forever lost. . Even Saddam ML1:iSes. Ukraine independent from the Ukrainian republic. Add to rhe lisr scourge. religion is also a battlefield. The force that creates ism-which could mean the cultural bre:lkup of the narions is "inclusive. ex-Soviet. like the Georgia has followed suit. an expression of community. ence to battles where the faith is under assault.5 million) demanding their own self-deter. deep-seated but increasingly murderous.) Remember the Thirty Years springing up within factional motherlands like weeds War? Whatever forms of Enlightenment universalism within weeds within weeds. of bombs. The mood is thar of Jihad: war noc as an forever lost. an end in irsdf. its sectarian fatherland istic practice and history. but it of dangerous countries those ac risk: In Switzerland and is only one of many antagonisms. rather rhan rationalist.Ortega wrote in The Revolt of the nation imo hundreds of tribal fragments. Well before the current c:ltaclysm Soviet Islam. it is used only in refec- Russia severed from the defunct union but Tat:lcsa sev. and nario1l31ism is last se:lson's mortal enemies into relucrant allies of an nothing bur a m:mia . nationalism changed its strategy. nationalism has a Hussein has benefired from the threat of imernal Jihad. using the colonial language (English) as a unifier. eth- mination within Georgia. secession.. nonsocialist republics that were once the My use here is rhetorical.. rhe new expressions of lished by Canada's once promising Meech Lake proto. most of rhem erhflic. rhere is fractiousness. ro implode stares and resecure for souls that if not saved will be parochial identiries: ro escape McWorld's dully insistent imperirives. ir is more often a reac. As a cesult. insreumenr of policy bur as an emblem of identity. only to be faced with its Ossetians (164. In trIbal war. But in Europe having used rcncweJ tribal and religious warf:lre [0 turn everyrhing is more rhan consolidated. against a government that denies the practice of Islam. and rhe list of unsafe regions doesn't This is religious as the Crusaders seem to be getring any shorrer. new forms of hypemationalism. The Abkhasian minority of nocentric rather than universalizing. This mania has lefr the posr-Cold War world smol. Europe's old and a qucsr for ever smaJler communities. as Ortega y Gasset noted more than sixty years ago. religious fundamentalism ace fractious and pulverizing. This is religious as the Crusaders thre:ltening dissolution of the federation. ano~ ing won its victories. Nigeria tionary and divisive force. Union may well conrinue unabated-not just a Ukraine ("Jihad" is a rich word whose generic meaning is "strug- independenr from the Soviet Union but a Bessarab gle"-usually the struggle of the soul to avert evil. and is ::I lofty srandard.

8sewhere there is grow. Even the government of £ndia. But it also guarantees parochialism and is impulse. prosperity. but not cit. however. the whole story. such as economic ••• cooperatives and employee srock-ownership plans. repression. it is the amipolitics of glob- arise out of concern for global democratic values quickly alism: bureaucratic. the result has often been and equality than are necessary to promote efficient eco. students. and the coming of new. and problem. "Czechland" and of Slovakia as independent entities. Despots wbo s1c:lughtertbeir own populations are no India seemed linle lessrent by Sikh. Neither needs democracy. noncommunist forms of very old kinds of despotism. porations sometimes seem to prefer doing business with During the past year. anarchy. predictabil. that chief things to be administered. it has turned out to be more of an The Eastern European revolutions that seemed to anripolitics.' -'i' -. gov- secure three percent of the vote. Yet. nomic production and conswnption. inasmuch as they can take confidence Czechoslovakia was imperiled by partisans of from dealing with the boss on all crucial maners. natural politics.' rimes taken on the aspects of gang war--<:ultural turf ties are forged from the residues of the Soviet Union to barrles featuring tribal factions t~t were supposed to be sublimated as integral parts oi large national. it could scarcely manage to explicitly antidemocratic: one-parry dictatorship. have been conducted in retribalizing societies. television-promoted tration of things-with people. the obliteration of individual selves in the name of the and relative unity-if at the cosr of independence. kinsmen. producrivity. The primary political values required by the tribalism-hardly the anitudes required for rhe cultiva- global market are order and tranquillity.name of community.and world obsessed witb Jihad. technocratic. among the shopping malls. more than forty years ago. lasted only six months in Germany's mini-ver- sion of McWorld. however. solidarity among II -. theocratic fundamentalism- ing evidence th:lt glasnost will go and perestroika- defined 3S priv:Hization and an opening of markets to Western bidders-will stay. against outsiders. com. So understandably anxious often associated wirh a version of the Fiihrerprin:::. Muslim. and meritocratic. and imperatives McWorid has been guided by laissez-faire workers which overturned the Stalinist regime in Berlin market principles that privilege efficiency. neighbors. persecution. siders (and toward "enemies within") are hallmarks of ence).ip that empowers an individual to rule on behalf of a people. ernmenr by military junta. In trading partners. For McWorld. It delivers peace." and "free erning themselves.a sense of community. Solidarity is secured rhrough war democracy. neirher promotes grounded in exclusion. fanaticism in beliefs. narrowly con- Neither McWorid nor Jihad is remorely democr:Hic in ceived. to repeat and local iJt>nrity." "free press. the attractions are unrelared to democracy. East Germany's Neues Forwn. For all their deiccts. Multinational cor. Wbere new democratic experiments love. the anripolitics of tribalization has been first all-German elections.and identity (which is generally based on differ. In its politico-economic courageous gathering of intellectuals. :. shown themselves willing ro trade away democratic prospecrs in pursuit of them: not just old totalitarian ide- ologies and conunand-economy production models but some possible indigenous experiments with a third way between c~lpiralism and socialism. in both izenship or participation~and no more social jusrice Europe and the Third World. in 1989. Hussein's falal mistake). and freedom. Jihad and Jihad delivers a different set of virtues: a vibrant McWorid have 'their anracrions. To the extenr that either McWorid or Jihad has a ity is of more value than justice. and countrymen. Hindu. And solidariry ofrcn means obedience McWorid does manage to look pretty seductive in a to a hierarchy in govcrnance. ~". and constitutional emities. gain access to credit and markets and technology-: McWorld's flourishing new currencies-that they have I postcolonial. Havel's velvet revolution in local oligarchs. Deference to leaders and iorolerance toward out- ffilUlity. economic. II kets and monopolies from the West. both These rather melodramatic tahleaux vivants do nor tell of which have their ardent supporters in the East. rion of new democratic women and men capable of gov- as in the phrases "'free reade. Then it gave way to money and mar- and beneficence at the expense of civic liberty and self- government. group. struggling for decadesto • • .. as long as they leave markets in place and Tamil infighting than it was immedia tely afrer the British refrain from making war on their neighbors (Saddam pulled out.~ insist. By rhe time of the For Jihad. deteriorated into a·stampede in the general direction of focused (as Marx predicted ir would be) on the adminis- free markets and their ubiquitous. are the new rulers of Eastern Europe and whatever enti- I ~. Incernational relations have some." Hwnan rights are needed to a degree.

) Gandhi. and presses ized representative system would serve the political cannot establish a democratic civil society. be democratic. institution transfer rests on foolish assumptions the old order to bits. Let an Easr racy. fication of the very principJe which has led to decay. to Sri Lanka. Political will requires much more than the quick prescient. we sification of frontiers-military and economic.. the longest. wiJl have to commit acts of conscious political will-a Jihad may be a last deep sigh before the eternal yawn of possibility. things have always gone that way. importing free political parties. Participarory democracy. world war. is local. And if retribalization is inhospitable to democ~ justice to the colonies by exporting wigs. Fed Ex the Bill of Rights federal or. Local neighborhoods need not due to oue own future in the coming millennium.tendencies are 3t best indifferent to it of democracy that engages citizens in civic acrivity and (J\-kWorld) and ar worst deeply antirhetical to it Uihad)? civic judgment and goes well beyond just voting and My guess is that globalization wil) evenrually vanquish accountability-rhe system I have calkd "strong democ- rerribaliz:uion. if not naturally apposite to tribalism. Cable Cambodia some common law. Spread English history. however. as veterans of Ydtsins"s new Russia -+ •• and the new Europe created at Maastricht will attest. Yet democracy is how we remon. rhe participarory and direct form whose primary . On intolerant retribalization which I have portrayed here. Constitution or the French repJacemenr who will deliver them from the lengthy tra. and the universal rule of law. How can democracy be secured and spread in a world By the same token. With itS concern for accountability. Gandhi. Indian trading company act as the vanguard to Britain's ment that can accommodate parochialism and free parliamentary institutions. As we are already Democracy grows from the bonom up and cannot be beginning to see. The continue to be obstructed by the undemocratic and anti- dem"acratic trends toward uniformitarian globalism and last flare. Everyone sees. the rebuke our aspirations offer to imagination of colonial administrators. But as always happens in similar crises--some people Tocqueville said. his prophecy of peace and internalism came fix of the transfer of institutions. many nations may survive in the long imposed from the top down. under these condi- McWorld. the last sigh. Declararion of Rights of Man and Citizen but the v3il of their freedom. Real democracy has tlourished in diminutive settings: the spirit of liberty. Indir. Today's well-intentioned communitarianism.than "'nations" extensive jurisdiction. model d~mocracy for a peopl~ who will soon number a term only as confederations that afford local re!!ions • b billion. Like technology trans- just before blitzkrieg. there is nonetheless a form of democratic govern. recent years . has an undeniable attrac- attempt to save the situation by an artificial intensi- tiveness under conditions of parochialism. are less a form of democratic government that suits global hoping to democratize by long distance. the need of a new principle of life. but hardly a probability. Ortega was not exacdy tions. the very eve of their disappearance rhere is an inten- For democracy to persist in our brave new McWodd. This is the meaning of the "nationalist" outburst of Democracy in any of these variations will. the Indians appear to seek a century is not the U. but rhey can be. imposing a needs of McWorid as well as oligarchic bureaucratism or free market may even have the opposite effect. and for every Mahatma smaller . Articles of Confederation. Civil sociery has to be built . one that can even save them from quick-fixers in the National Endowment for Democracy their defects and make rhem more roler:mt and partici. Post Bulgaria a markets passably well-representative government in its parliament by first-class mail. lbe ethos of m:lterial "'civilization" has racy"-suits the polirical needs of decencraliz. confederal variation. a confederal. bener still. parliaments. or Rajiv Gandhi taken from Recommended reading for democrats of the twenty-first them by zealous assassins. about a uniform world of the kind that once fired the strate with reality. the protection of Yet Eastern Europe has already demonstrated that minorities. longs tor great leaders.S. And if and foundations and universities zealously nurtUring McWorld is indifferent to democracy. the deepest. that suddenly pertinent docu- ment rhat stitched rogether the thirteen American colonies inro what then seemed a roo loose confedera- tion of independent states but now appears a new form of politic:l1 realism. in the unions patory: decentralized participatory democracy. there is nonethe. Ortega may have grasped in rhe 19205 a dictatorships have done. meritocr:ltic e1irism is currently doing. On the other hand.ed commu- nor yet encountered an obstacle it has been unable to nities as weH as theocratic and nationalist party thrust aside.. contacts in Eastern Europe and the Third World. and the Kennedy School of Government. and the Holocaust tore fer.

and incorporated inco new democratic prac- is not terribly likely to be realized. And democracy remains both a form of coherence as binding as McWorld and a secular faith potentially as inspiriting as Jihad. . The institutional superstructure hurry often looks something like France in 1794 or comes last. but it may Jihad and the dull realities of McWorld will be a con- prefer trib~ll war."sentative and accountable at the top.~:-~: fl"> ~~.. 'orjsirAm€'~ican trul~aun '·:intern~tionalpre-eminerit:? .'ples~::. .···.~~!~.'.. This vision retlects only an ideal.~fie·.' and Me World? .. ...• M~~~ Cj' .1ihad·~n~{~~Pld.. democracy in a our against the odds.glob~liZing.~. _:-. . cUltural~oge. exploitation . ..t~'rrih~€?&i' ...•.".::' . from the inside out..~ . The tortoises among the Jacques Rousseau once wrote.. Srill.?Jl the. ~ ..:..democracy"' H6~ :'it· .'. ..g~~::..~ . eignty would lose some of its political potency. _.• Pottl..".· ·~ ..~. ...~s~~~..7.~S~~bef~'~:fP?·a~.. for they will have the time and patience to explore conditions along the way.. however--{)ne that modified. iversal.~ ••.~~ll~." ' .ndhOWdO'th7 threatsditfer? . .as~~~:II. and sover- impulses.'"f ..~.• ~_ .~~~ifr' ~""'>'" ).1$. Tragically.-.~: ~~"1'. or it may just grow into an than nation-states. I II .: • .. even in traditional hierar- would actually come to describe the conduct of politics..~~~.~~~. The always some expression of parricipation. rapped.·~. II '1:.. chical societies. .... repn.ls'Barbert6ohaid. . of domination.: ..hch••i~iihdo..'. and represenration...it~ii6~~f~~· •. It certainly seems possible that the most attractive itics on its Catholicism..':: " .t.~et offorces..~': "> '. Poland may become democratic..••. and to adapt their gait to changing circumstances.::1'''' MpWohq • 4.niZa~i()~'L ':... act locally" consent. . tied together into regional economic anarchic and weak conglomeration of nmrkets for other associations and markets larger th:m n:ltion-states-par- n~ltions' goods a nd services.'"' :'" .. Green movement adage uTbink globally.:~~~ :~~pe@tive.... There is always a desire for self-govemmenr.. .' '. V_..do ih~yb{)t6·Jbreat7n:~emOcracy·a..~..·c~nth~f6fcesofJiha<ia~d. Bulgari3 may become democratic...:" "_.:....::· . with uncecrain consequences for democratic ideal in the face of the brutal realities of democracy.tidole/'arid . -::. . is a food easy to eat but democratizers may ultimately outlive or outpace the bard to digest. and prefer to found its pol.~ .. These need to ~e identified. . ~..'. . ' .' S. ricipatory and sdf-derermining in local maners at the Democr:)[s need to seek out indigenous democratic bottom._. Freedom.Mcworld be found in Citnada?Give exam- ·:'~. \. II ...'.·to:. again it may heed the Pope.. The nation-state would play a diminished role. democracy has always played itself hares. accouncability... but then China in 1989. 1·.. ~."'~rld o(Jihad ~a'world trYing to'esc~pethe • clutcheS. ~··... ' . The former Soviet Union may become federal union of semi-auLOnomous communities smaller a democratic confederation. ". Jean- tices with an indigenous fl3vor..