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**Stress-Strain Relationship
**

What is stress ?

If a applied force causes change in the dimension of the material then the material is in the state

of stress. If we divide the applied force, F by the cross sectional area , A then we will get the

stress.

**The symbol of stress is σ (Greek letter sigma). For tensile and compressive forces. The unit
**

of stress is the pascal, Pa, where 1 Pa = 1 N/m. For ease of use most of the time Mega pascal,

MPa is used as a units of stress.

σ = F/A

For tensile and compressive forces area taken is right angles to the applied force. For shear force

area is taken parallel to the applied force. And the symbol used is tau, τ for depicting the shear

stress.

What is strain ?

**Change in the dimension with respect to the original dimension due to stress is known as strain.
**

It is denoted by the symbol epsilon.

ε = x/ L

For a shear force, strain is expressed by γ (gamma)

Elasticity

It is the property of the material which enables the material to retain its original form after the

external force is removed.

Plasticity

**It is property which makes the material permanently deformed without breaking even after the
**

force is removed .

These definitions are important for understanding the Stress Strain relationship .

Stress – Strain Curve for Mild Steel

This is the elastic limit. If the force is considerably large the material will experience elastic deformation but the ratio of stress and strain will not be proportional. If the force is small the ratio of the stress and strain will remain proportional. And the graph will be a straight line ( up to point A) . This constant of proportionality is called Young’s modulus of elasticity and is given the symbol E. stress α strain. E = σ / ε Pa Another two terms are important in the stress strain graph of mild steel these are . (point A to B). Some more terms associated with the stress strain graph Hooke’s law: Within the proportional limit strain is proportionate to stress. The point where plastic deformations starts is the yield point which is show in the figure as point B. Resulting graph will not be straight line anymore. D is the maximum ultimate stress. E has the same unit as the unit of stress because strain is dimensionless. So the 0 to point A is the limit of proportionality. hence stress = E × strain E is a proportionality constant known as Modulus of elasticity or Young’s modulus of elasticity.If tensile force is applied to a steel bar it will have some extension. C is the lower yield point. Beyond that point the material will experience plastic deformation. Young’s modulus of elasticity Within the proportional limit. 0 B is the upper yield point. E is the breaking stress.

Modulus of Resilience: It is the area under the curve which is marked by the yellow area. modulus of resilience = 1/2 x σ x ε = 0. Energy absorbed at unit volume up to breaking point.5 x (FL/AE) Modulus of toughness: It is the area of the whole curve (point 0-E). . It is the energy absorbed at unit volume up to elastic limit.

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