Effect of Irradiation on the Growth and Germination of Okra(Abelmoschus esculentus).

1

Lennon Blaise dC. Davalos
A-6L

December 2, 2016

1A technical paper submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements
in Bio 30 (Genetics) Laboratory class under Mr. Jae Joseph Russell
Rodriguez, 1st sem., 2016-2017.

Mutations are often identified with abnormalities and thought of as a negative or potentially harming phenomenon. Laude. or at the gene level where it involves abnormalities in base pair substitution due to flawed DNA replication or through insertion and deletions of certain nucleotides (Mendioro. ABSTRACT The effect of irradiation on the growth of okra plants was determined through planting 40 seeds 10 of which served as control while the remaining 30 were subjected to varying durations of ultraviolet light. This indicates that a right amount of radiation is needed in order to achieve the maximum effect of mutation as too much or too little damages the plant. Phenylketonuria and others included among the vast menagerie of diseases associated with defective genes. They can be classified based on the level of change in which they occur be it either at the genomic level. INTRODUCTION Mutations are permanent changes in the genetic material of an individual and as such can be passed on to succeeding generations. Mendoza & Ramirez. Diaz. and 3 hours for treatments 1. 2 hours. mutation serves as a major player or functions as a raw material for the evolutionary process. 2013). In spite of this. 2016 by the end of the experiment results indicated that treatment 2 yielded the highest average plant height followed by treatment 3. Well it is true in a sense that diseases arise from abnormalities in the genetic make-up of an individual such as Down syndrome. The control showed the shortest average plant height and number of surviving plants while treatment 1 showed no signs of germination at all. A total of 10 seeds per treatment were subjected under UV rays for 1 hour. It suggests genotypes of a population and those which are considered unfit by the selective force are cut off from the gene pool while the . involving aberrations such us duplication or lack thereof of sets of chromosomes as well as changes in the chromosome structure. and 3 respectively. The plants were observed and measured every other day for around a month from October 10-November 18. 2.

which also form polyploidy callus tissue. Mendioro & Laude. is only limited with ionizing radiation as an agent of mutation (Ramirez et al. Mutagenic agents are responsible for inducing changes in the genetic material of an individual. In this study. Common mutagenic agents include chemical mutagens such as Colchicine which inhibits spindle fiber formation leading to the doubling of chromosome sets while others such as Nitrous acid. a previous Bio 30 student. Mardocheo Crispino (2013).rest are considered to be favored and are allowed to prevail and procreate (Ramirez. cell regeneration. affects base pair substitution. By the end of the observation period. 30 and 50 kilorads for treatments 1.. He subjected corn kernels (Zea mays) under varying doses of gamma radiation as treatments with 10. ultraviolet rays from are used to induce mutation in Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus). a member of the Malvaceaea family. Ramirez et al. he noted that 10 kr irradiated seeds grew up to be higher or longer than that of the control while the remaining treatments exhibited little to no growth . This study however. (2013) also notes that ionizing radiation is known to cause breaks within the DNA strand and thus are efficient in killing single stranded viruses (lecture). though mutations can and is also naturally occurring spontaneously. Okra. 2013). is a common vegetable and can germinate at a fast rate and are easy to grow making it an ideal test plant. Other agents would be. 2013). Exposure to extreme conditions has also been noted to cause a high frequency of polyploidy cells in plants. and hybridization. 2 and 3 respectively. had also performed a similar experiment that deals with irradiation and its effect on plant growth and germination albeit with few changes in the parameters that have been used in this study.

This indicates that small doses of irradiation give the highest survival rate and germination of seed while higher doses would inhibit growth and decrease germination. Plastic spoons were used as markers for the seeds. aimed to analyze and observe the effect of induced mutation on okra plant growth and germination. 2016. 2 and 3 respectively. MATERIALS AND METHODS In gauging the effects of irradiation on plant growth a total of 40 seeds were used 30 of which were used to for varying treatments whilst the remaining 10 served as the control. The seeds were then planted in a plot of land and were observed and measured through the use of a ruler every other day from October 10 – November 18. To describe the effect of irradiation on the average height of okra plant.at all. This experiment conducted from October 10 – November 18. University of the Philippines Los Banos. 2016 at the Institute of Biological Sciences. 2 hours and 3 hours for treatments 1. The specific objectives of this study were: 1. 2. Data from previous experiments lead to the formulation of the hypothesis. Measurements were recorded on provided data sheets. Of the 30 experimental seeds 10 of each were exposed to UV light at different durations. Smaller doses of irradiation would positively affect plant growth while prolonged exposure damages the plant. at 1 hour. To explain the possible mechanisms behind the observed effect of the irradiation on plant growth and germination. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION .

It took 4 days for the seeds to grow.4cm and the most plants to survive or persist after around a month of observation with 4 plants.36cm and a total of 3 remaining plants. This was followed by treatment 3 with an average plant height of 7. The control exhibited the shortest plant height with 3. results show that seeds exposed to 1 hour of sunlight did not germinate at all but the remaining treatments show a superior or longer growth than that of the control. . As seen in Table 1.98cm and the lowest number of surviving plants with 2. treatment 2 yielded the highest average plant height with 8. By the end of the experiment.

2013) .. Insert table* These results are explained through mutation induced by the sunlight’s UV rays. become mutations (Ramirez et al. These rays cause the production of thymine dimers that when not repaired by the excision repair system.

it could mean that very small doses would also have a negative effect on plant growth assuming that no human error has been done such as failure to retrieve the seeds after basking it for an hour or if other factors were not in play like type of soil and herbivore damage. The end measurement of treatment 3 however. showed a shorter plant height than treatment 2 meaning that prolonged exposure to radiation does more damage to the plant while very small doses of it could also have the same effect as seen in the results of . and 3 hours for treatments 1. a decrease in average plant height was observe in treatment 3 compared to treatment 2 but still is superior to the results exhibited by the control. results show that treatments 2 and 3 exhibited longer plant height compared with the control while seeds in treatment 1 did not grow at all. Treatment 1 is an anomaly. A total of 40 seeds were utilized. The seeds were then planted in a plot and were observed every other day for around a month from October 10 – November 18. 10 for the control while 30 seeds served as treatments. However. 2 hours. utilization of mutagenic agents follow the Goldilocks’ principle wherein to achieve the desired phenotypic effect the amount or dosage of irradiation should be “just right”. To summarize. This could mean that beyond 2 hours of irradiation is unhealthy for the plant. Each treatment used 10 seeds which were exposed to different durations of UV light with 1 hour. Lower doses would incur abnormalities such as unusual growth patterns like gigantism which was shown by treatments 2 and 3’s excessive plant height and rapid growth. By the end of the experiment. 2 and 3 respectively. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION The effect of irradiation on okra plant growth was determined.

if we accept that no human error has been done or any other factor was included to affect the experiment. 2016 from . It is recommended that further studies be performed under more controlled environments to minimize errors. It is also suggested that a longer observation time is needed to note and compare other morphological characteristics of the plants such as differences in untreated and treated flowers. Effect of Irradiation on the Growth and Germination of the Corn (Zea mays) Essays. More treatments going beyond 3 hours of exposure is also recommended to observe at what point or amount of irradiation would severely damage plant growth. fruits and even seeds. Therefore. LITERATURE CITED Crispino. the hypothesis is accepted in that although mutation causes positive growth on okra. to utilize it at its full potential the right amount of irradiation is required to achieve the desired results.Y. (2013).treatment 1. M. Retrieved November 26.

. Laude. (2013). Laude. Genetics a Laboratory Manual. J. Mendioro.S. M.... Lectures in Genetics.. 10th ed. Diaz.Q.C. Mendoza. (2013).P. Ramirez. D. M.. . Laguna: 7 Lakes Printing press. R. 13th revision.G.A. D. Ramirez. San Pablo City.A.P.Mendioro. Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology. R.S. Laguna: 7 Lakes Printing press. San Pablo City. M.