Society for Music Theory

A Theory of Harmony and Voice Leading for the Music of Olivier Messiaen
Author(s): Christoph Neidhöfer
Source: Music Theory Spectrum, Vol. 27, No. 1 (Spring, 2005), pp. 1-34
Published by: University of California Press on behalf of the Society for Music Theory
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/4499823
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cAfTheoryof Harmony and VoiceLeadingfor the Music
of Olivier Messiaen
CHRISTOPH NEIDHOFER

This paper examines harmony and voice leading in the music of Olivier Messiaen that is based
on his modesof limited transpositions.The study develops a classification system for harmonic and
voice-leading vocabularies in modal systems of cardinalities other than 12, with particular empha-
sis on those cardinalities represented in Messiaen's modes. It then takes a closer look at the rela-
tionship between voice leading and harmony in selected passages from Messiaen's music, and cul-
minates in a discussion of harmony and voice leading in polymodal and modulating textures.

INTRODUCTION chordal structuresfamiliar from tonal music, and virtually all
of the contrapuntal techniques are modeled after features
MESSIAEN provides detailed descriptions of known from tonal and modal counterpoint. What distin-
OLIVIER
his musical language and aesthetics in his prefaces, guishes these techniques from those in the music of the past,
program notes, conversations, and published trea- however, is the unique pitch-class environment in which
tises.' In addition to the distinct elements of his composi- they occur, an environment that engages its own idiosyn-
tional style-modes of limitedtranspositions,birdsong,rhythms craticways of listening. Example 2 illustrates.
based on the Indian defi-tdlas, color-Messiaen frequently Messiaen describes the progression shown in Example
discusses salient techniques of harmonic and contrapuntal 2(a) as a "parallelsuccession of chords"in the second modeof
construction.Examples 1(a) and (b) itemize the most preva- limitedtranspositions,shown in Example 2(b).2 The counter-
lent harmonic materials and contrapuntal techniques sur- point is parallelin the sense that "eachvoice realizes the en-
veyed in his writings. As the two lists illustrate,most of the tire mode, starting on a different degree";that is, the four
harmonic materials Messiaen discusses are derived from registral parts first all ascend and then all descend through
an entire octave of the mode.3 Since consecutive pitch classes
Earlier versions of this paper were presented at the 2002 Annual of the mode-which is identical with the octatonic collection
Meeting of Music Theory Midwest in Minneapolis and the 2002 -are either a whole-tone or a semitone apart,and since the
AnnualMeeting of the Society for MusicTheoryin Columbus,Ohio. I chords do not represent set-class 4-28[0369] or any subset
wish to thank Allen Forte, Peter Schubert,Anton Vishio, Jonathan
classes thereof, the four parts are not parallelfrom a mod-12
Wild, as well as the anonymousreviewersand editorBrianAlegantfor
their invaluablecomments and suggestions on earlierdrafts of this
paper. 2 Messiaen 1944, 59.
Messiaen1936, 1944, 1952, 1979, and 1994-2002. 3 Ibid.

I

2 MUSIC THEORY SPECTRUM 27 (2005)

Perfectchord(majortriad) Chord infourths (superposed
Dominant seventhchord augmented and perfect fourths)
Ninth chord Added notes, particularly:
Dominant chordwith appoggiaturas Added sixth
Dominant thirteenth chord Added augmentedfourth
Chordon the dominant("containsall the notes Added second
of the major scale"Messiaen 1944, 50) Modes of limited transpositions
Chordof resonance(selected pitches from the
harmonic series)

(a) Prevalent harmonic materials discussed in Messiaen'swritings (Messiaens terms are italicized).

Contrary motion (melodic inversion) Diminution
Eventail (contrarymotion) Augmentation
Parallel successionof chords Embellishment, passing note,
(=parallelmodal voice leading) appoggiatura
Pedal Canon
Retrograde motion Stretto

(b) Prevalent contrapuntal techniquesdiscussed in Messiaen'swritings (Messiaen'sterms are italicized).

EXAMPLE I

pitch-class perspective. Instead, the "succession alternates Messiaen's discussion of parallel motion in the modal
the six-four chord with added augmented fourth and the context suggests that the progressionof Example 2(a) admits
dominant seventh chord with added sixth," or T -type set three listening perspectives. First, given our familiaritywith
classes 4-Z29B[0467] and 4-Z29A[0137] respectively.4 the underlying mode, we can perceive the melodic intervals
in each part in terms of the number of stepsthey span within
4 Messiaen 1944, 60. For reasons that will become clear this paper refers the mode, independent of the actual mod-12 pitch-class in-
to set classes of Tn-type (following Howe 1965, Regener 1974, Rahn
tervalstraversed.This means that the four parts of Example
1980, Clough 1979 and 1980, and others) rather than TnI-type. The
nomenclature used here follows Pople 1984, whereby suffixes "A"and 2(a) are heard as always moving exactly the same number of
"B" added to Forte's set class labels distinguish inversionally-related set steps in the same direction within mode 2. Second, we can
classes. The same labeling convention is also used in Cohn 1986 and, recognize that the progression projectstwo differenttypes of
with lower case suffixes, in Morris 2001. sonorities or Tn-type set classes. (A similar kind of experi-

perspectivesjust outlined. with set-class labels added)..0. where the seven triads dominant seventh chord with added sixth = dominant thir- built from the diatonic collection produce three differentTn. i. Ex. with particular (major triad with added augmented fourth.5} 6 •. 1st transposition.)Third.e. both chord types modal systems of cardinalitiesother than 12. As the example suggests. as described by Messiaen. 2(a) with interval normalform (INF) in mode 21. EXAMPLE 2 ence is familiar from diatonic music. This paper proposes a theory that integrates the three we can hear the resulting sonorities of Example 2(a) as dia. as chordswith a tem for harmonic vocabulariesand voice-leading patterns in mod-7 basis.3. and diminished triads.I••INF: [6. type set classes: major.1. 317. and incomplete emphasis on those cardinalities represented in Messiaen's . teenth chord) arecommon in Messiaen'smusic. Part I presents a classificationsys- tonic chords.4. 1 4 5 (6) (c) Step class intervals in thefirst two chordsofEx. 3 3 1 1 chord 1 f INF:(1133) S• [5. [0467] [0137] (a) Parallel successionof chordsin mode2 (from Messiaen 1944. A THEORY OF HARMONY AND VOICE LEADING FOR THE MUSIC OF OLIVIER MESSIAEN 3 4-Z29B 4-Z29A 4-Z29B 4-Z29A etc.minor. 21 o step classes: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 (b) Mode 2.4} 5 0 3 4 (5) 3 3 1 1 chord 2 (1133) • .

4 MUSIC THEORY SPECTRUM 27 (2005) Part II takes a closer look at the modesof limitedtranspositions. in mode yX. the notation designates transposition x of mode y as mode clusters give my writing an aspect of precious stones. The drawbackwith these artificialharmonics. yX. the sec- 5 Samuel 1976. The particular"fla- etc. Messiaen explains the aesthetic premises underlying therefore transpositionally symmetrical. and tive. 202.As Example 2(a) documents. On one hand. 74. broken symmetry resultsmore PART I. complete list of all transpositions of Messiaen's seven modes but the chords are all different.. where n "ridiculousparallelisms. is their symmetry. I shall since. i. of the symmetricaland non-symmetrical constituents. x = the first pitch class 6 Ibid.. the chord-clusterswould bring about the same result. quint and tierce. ."6 transpositions of a particular mode represent different colorations. I define stepclass Although Messiaen does not mention the means by as a numbered position in a given mode. while they are not so from a mod-12 set class perspec. for Messiaen different me to very precise colorings. the voice view... giving each note not only the like this one is the abilityto perceiveboth aspects-symmetry pitch played but its harmonics.7 On the other hand. the same quints and the same tierces. See Bernard 1986 and 1994 for a detailed examination of the correspon- dence between color and complexes of sound in Messiaen's music.so there is no symmetry and of limited transpositions and identifies each mode in the left- I've avoided an uninterruptedsuccession of quints and tierces most column with a shorthand notation to which I shall which would have producedridiculousparallelismsof fourths refer throughout this paper. the octave. etc. Assuming octave which his "chord-clusters"stay clear of "symmetry" and equivalence. Thus. 19. and broken symmetry-simultaneously. chords that suggest that Messiaen does not employ broken symmetry in participatein Messiaen's"parallel" voice-leading progressions opposition to symmetry. The two main modes are linked for 7 Although not specified in the previous quote. Passages such as the one in Example 2(a) Background. Part III discusses harmony and synaesthetic sense of color is intimately linked to the mode's voice leading in polymodal and modulating textures. which vor"of the progression stems precisely from the integration proceed in cascades with the note played. Thus. In my piano.. perforce. a stained-glass qualitywhich is rather characteristic. 8 The first transposition of each of the seven modes starts on 0. The numbers underneath hence color clearly links the technique to his modes: "I re- peat. specific pitch-class collection.Following Messiaen 1994-2002 and sixths or of perfect chords [= majortriads]. a shim.e. breaks the symmetry. Messiaen's music that uses his modes.These chord. the mode's specific trans- position.. +1.the same now addressthe specific properties more formally.one alwaysgets the same resonances. colors are complex and are linked to equally complex chords and sounds . DEFINITIONS AND A CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM generally from the non-equidistant arrangementof the scale degrees of a mode. leading from a modal perspective is stepwise parallel. Key to an understanding of passages prising several pipes per note. Appendix A provides a writing. Definitions and classification system. Color and broken symmetry thus arise from the unique relationshipbetween voice leading and harmonyin Messiaen's structuralpropertiesof each mode. whereas the voice this technique as follows: leading from a mod-12 perspective is not parallel and thus "You know that mixtures [on the organ] are stops com. ond transposition on 1. octaves."5 Example 2(b).."the referenceto "stained-glass"and equals the cardinalityof the mode.8 Following Santa 1999. but rather in conjunction with it: are all transpositions of each other from a modal point of with respect to the four registrally distinct parts. the first transposition of mode 2 is labeled "21"in mer. I number the step classes 0 to n-1.

Since the sum of all Io I use "interval"in the sense of Lewin 1977. indicated on the left of Example 2(c). 12 The spectra of the step class intervals in each of Messiaen's modes can 16 Following Regener 1974. In the diatonic world. 196.The spectrumof step class in." The succession of these four step classes apart always form interval-class3. 200). 1. 195.1. the term "step class" was coined by Stephen Dembski in "Steps and Skips from more than one result.1. corresponds to what Eric A step classset is. step classes smallest second interval. for easier referenceI list their step classes tween two step classes of a mode. has termed the interval nota- that occur in a particular situation. by each "scale-degree difference class" (i.4}.10 For instance.e. the bottom up. in order to distin- list the mod-12 intervals rather than interval classes. interval notation and interval normal form easily be determined by locating the set classes of cardinality 2 under will both be shown in parenthesis.0. Clough (1979. third interval.13 (Although the two ister.15. The example further illustrates the transpositional class interval 1 is 1. mod-x interval class) in dif. notated as (3311). interval notation is in interval normal form. since T." Hence.5}. For example. can be inferred from all the others. any one of them the "directed distance from one pitch class to another. terval 2 is 3 because two members of the mode that are two plus 1 if "wrapped around. etc. the unordered collection of step classes Regener. November 1988. tom up. 95. 1997-98 for a discussion of the set of mod-12 interval classes projected as discussed below).16 ers have called note classes. the INF is that rotation that also has the held in Baltimore. as pitch classes. Further. both chords consist of step class intervals 3. A THEORY OF HARMONY AND VOICE LEADING FOR THE MUSIC OF OLIVIER MESSIAEN 5 the pitches shown in Example 2(b) designate the step classes chord in Example 2(a) uses the step class set [5.3. ferent scale types. the first tion of a chord. and Clough 1979.) A stepclassset classis the collection of all step Following Clough/Douthett 1991.they are not associatedwith any particularreg. unique result. 47. INFs contain redundant information. ii My definition departs from Clough/Douthett 1991 in that their spectra 13 I shall use curly brackets to indicate step class sets. The two chords in Example 2(c) are that correspond to that particular step class interval.4. 202. If this still does not produce a paper presented at the annual meeting of the Society for Music Theory. two chords in Example 2(c) is (1133).0 = 6. 15 Ibid.4} = instance. I define step class interval as the difference be. 46) and Clough/Douthett (1991. in Messiaen's second mode the spectrum of step [6. guish the notation from that for mod-12 pitch-class sets (in square tonic length) is the equivalent of my step class interval."1For members of the same step class set class. in a mod-12 context. I define the spectrum class sets that are identical under T within the step class of a step class interval as the set of mod-12 interval classes context of the mode.4. the step in the order in which they appearif the chords are read from class interval between C and A in Example 2(b) is 6 . .12 numbers. the INF is that rotation that also has Content and Order: Aspects of a Generalized Step-Class System. This means that adjacentpitches in relationship of the two chords by labeling the step class in- the mode-which form step class interval 1-are either a tervals between adjacent chord factors. 196-97.9 Note that step classes are defined in analogy to whereas the second chord uses the step class set [6.3. a step class interval is the directed distance from one step class to another.14Adopting Regener's term as redefined by John Clough for diatonic sets. According to Santa 1999. One can easily recognize whether an the corresponding mode in Appendix B (to be discussed below). 14 Regener 1974. Read from the bot- semitone or whole-tone apart. 46). I keep this redundancy. 3.0. Clough (1979." a the smallest first interval. 95) use the term "in- terval"in the same sense. of mode 21. The INF of the correspond to what Regener (1974.15 If this produces as listed in Appendix A.51. Their dlen (dia. 2.. sets are unordered. and oth. where it is defined as numbers equals the cardinalityof the mode. I define the interval normal form (INF) of each chord as that rotation of the interval no- 9 I assign step class number 0 to the first pc of each of Messiaen's modes tation that lists the largest interval last. See also Mead brackets) and for the interval notation of step class sets (in parenthesis.

valuablein analysesof polymodal passages. Joseph Straus (1997. INF (233). Each pair of follows: INFs in which at least s-1 numbers (where s is the chord membersthus associated constitutes a voice. work. 59. registral. 23. we can easily recognize chords that are heard as either polyphonic or homophonic structures. Example 3(a) shows mode 2 with Messiaen'sbracketsde- The INF allows us to classify all possible chords in all of marcating the "four symmetrical groups" comprised of a Messiaen's modes from a step class perspective. such textures may be realization). it is easy to produce the (step class) inversion of a set terval'sintervalclass. with INF (2133). and Cohn 1988. the periodicity of mode 2 by reading the numbers in the INF (or any interval notation) is <2/3>. The following analyses examine voice-leading patterns Any member of set class (1133). Third. and the second number showing that step class in- Second. For instance. 6 MUSIC THEORY SPECTRUM 27 (2005) however. I consider voice leading from one united into two or more transpositionally-relatedsubsets in chord into another as a function that maps each member of the step class context. As we shall see. This feature is particularly mod-12 context. the pattern (semitone + whole-tone) repeats every backwards. 2003). Adopting for the present context the definition pro- ity (TC).Finally. 1. a step class set has the TC-property if it can be dis.As David cardinalityof the set) form a periodic structureare transposi. de- transpositionallycombinatorialwithina given mode. Robert Morris tionally combinatorial. wise) in a particularcompositional realization.in some rotation.Thus.'8 I define the periodicityof modal sets to INFs rather than converting them to step class a mode as a pair of numbers with the first indicating the normal forms (in analogy to mod-12 normal forms) has a smallest step class interval one needs to traversein the scalar number of advantages. we can quickly determine through (g) illustrate the periodicities of the remaining from the INF whether a set is inversionally symmetrical modes. since all numbers are needed in the process of rota. I shall distinguish step class voicesfrom step 17 Cohn 1986. Adapting pending on how one understands the "voice leading" at Richard Cohn's definition for transpositional combinatorial. Example 3 markthe periods of Messiaen'smodes. repeats.For instance. adopt- property. as we shall see in tion and since all may surface in a particularcompositional Part III. Examples 3(b) (3321). and others have discussed. the inversion of set class (1233) is two scale degrees.or other- for two of its three numbers and hence does have the TC. First. The brackets in The INF (or any interval notation) of an inversionally. INF (1223) is periodic (1998). vided in Lewin 1998. Reducing semitone and a whole-tone each. I8 Messiaen 1944. is inversionally and harmonic materials commonly found in Messiaen's symmetrical in its abstract step class description (whether music. the INF informs us ing the differentiationused in Straus 1997 and 2003 in the of the cardinalityn of the mode. determining the INF is less representationof the mode before the interval class pattern cumbersome than deriving the step class normal form.17We can identify the TC-property as the first chord into some member in the second.vocal. . or every minor third. realization. Fourth. the voice leading defined for only two of its four numbers and hence does not have by a particularfunction may or may not correspondto the the TC-property.For instance. We shall refer to the series of interval classes that is in abstractstep class space (analogous to abstractpc space). 15. symmetrical set reads the same backwards. is periodic counterpointof parts (instrumental. paying particular attention to multi-voiced note- or not that symmetry is articulated in a particularmusical against-note textures. as already mentioned. repeated within a mode as its period. Lewin (1998). for instance. on the other hand.

mode 4 A o <4/6> d. . 350. 354). mode 2 <2/3> b. Periodicity ofMessiaen's modes. 347. mode 5 o <3/6> -0-IU) TI e. 329. mode 7 N <5/6> . c. 312. . •. g. g. 345. Exx. mode 3 o <3/4> Ho k o.md <1/2> e-. mode 6 A o <4/6 > I " I f. TI EXAMPLE 3. A THEORY OF HARMONY AND VOICE LEADING FOR THE MUSIC OF OLIVIER MESSIAEN 7 Mode: Mode in staff notation with Messiaen's brackets for modes 2-7 shown Periodicity: (Messiaen 1944. all modes shown in their first transposition. model r'k <1/2> -0. a.

and first half of the example. In this gested by Messiaen's registrallines. whereby the highest highest member in chord 2. calls all the possible voice neverthelesstranspositionsof each other in the step class context. in analogy to the distinction between voice and 1 maps onto the lowest member in chord 2. the second highest member in chord voice-leading patterns akin to those familiarfrom modal and tonal music.21 in chord 2.Thus.e. when Messiaen says of est member in chord 1 maps onto the second lowest member Example 2(a) that "eachvoice realizes the entire mode. leadings between two pcsets A and B the total voice leading from A to indicatesthat from a step classperspectivehe may indeed have thought B. In other words. tion.22The classification system presented thus far allows us to examine Messiaen's contrapuntaland harmonic 19 Messiaen 1944.each line follows upshiftvoice leading. given the parallelmotion of the lines we tral lines. 59. In this reading. we define a transformationalvoice second lowest member in chord 2. 21 Messiaen'sexplanationthat the "voices"move in parallelmotion within the mode.Conversely. . the second highest member in member in chord 1 moves to the second highest member in chord 1 maps onto the second highest member in chord 2. the highest member in chord 1 maps onto the high.with F# The following analyses consider mainly the readings sug- and G understood as step classes in a mod-8 context." he means that the progression second highest member in chord 2. chord 1 inverts onto chord 2 via IG/F#. we take into account that each chord of sharedby the two chords is sounded by the same voice (one Messiaen's progression is inversionally symmetrical in itself voice repeatsthe step class in the same octave. As shown in two voices leap down two steps each (T-2)' Example 4(a). alternatingtwo differentmod-12 Tn chord types-that are 22 In the mod-12 domain. reading. can say that any two chords in the progression are transposi. One could imagine further possible voice leadings be- tions of each other in the step class context. 311-14. For instance.or registrallines. however. whereas the remaining 1 into chord 2 as well. the second low- part in tonal theory. another inter- we imply that the highest member in chord 1 maps onto the pretation is shown in Example 4(b). we can define another mapping of chord the same step class an octave higher). namely. in each line everystep class is led to the next step class in an "upward"di. not defined by traditional transposi- in Example 2(c) that chord 2 is a transposition of chord 1.19 the other two cross. 18. and the lowest member in chord 1 maps onto the ing on a different degree.each dimensions that contribute to the characteristic sound of step class is led to the next step class in a "downward" direction. enables us to understand intersections among the various rection. Morris 1998. Following Lewin 1998. i. Hence. start. I begin with an examination of followingdownshiftvoice leading. the other voice in a mod-8 context.. tonal.from whom I borrow considertheir effect on his harmoniclanguage. class sets see Straus 2003. Only the highest and consists of four registrally distinct lines that move parallel second lowest voices move parallelwithin the mode. and mod-12 contexts. chord 2. 178. 8 MUSIC THEORY SPECTRUM 27 (2005) class lines. the second highest member in chord 1 moves to the an so forth. For instance. As will become evident.thus Messiaen's modal music.20 The four voices of this interpretation the lowest member in chord 1 moves to the highest member correspondto the four registrallines. by saying tween chords 1 and 2. and step class context). in chord 2. three contrapuntalpatterns typically found in his music. only two voicescorrespondto regis- As we have seen. whereas within the step class context of the mode. inversion. we can say that in the structuresin their modal. Messiaen'scounterpoint of registrallines frequently projects est member in chord 2. and 20 I am indebtedto Straus1997 for this discussion. the second lowest mem- leading from chord 1 into chord 2 via the function T1 (in a ber in chord 1 moves to the lowest member in chord 2.I shall expand the term transformational voiceleading.in each line of the second half of the example. each of the two step classes If. For a discussion of all the possible voice leadings between two pitch- of the fourregistrallinesas voicesin a transformational sense. via inversion.

24 For easier reference. with the periods marked.. EXAMPLE the theoretical apparatus as needed in the course of the Appendix B lists for each of Messiaen's modes 1 through analyses. The fourth set class duplicates the periodicity of mode 2. For instance. a succession of different mod-12 set classes arises un. chord 1 chord2 b. i. Hence. the spectrum of a step class set class corresponds properties to Messiaen's concept of interversion: "In most cases . Note that repeated occurrences of particular "parallelsuccession of chords"producesthe same INF for all mod-12 set classes within one period are also listed. the to what Clough/Myerson 1985 identify as the "species" (set of mod-12 device of parallel chord series adds to Messiaen's repertory of modes a set classes) that belong to a particular "genus"(diatonic set class). Example 6(b) builds INF less the INF reproduces symmetricalpropertiesof the mode (1124) on the first four pitch classes of the mode. Thus. and (26) all replicatethe first number of mines the mod-12 set classes.26 mode. 41..23 26 Cheong 2002. Extending the notion of the spectrum of a step class interval to step class set classes in general. As the INF runs through the entire ample 6 illustrates the procedure. permutation of notes on the one hand and a permutation of chords on . as shown in Examples 5(a) through (c). ANALYTICAL APPLICATIONS: CONTRAPUNTAL in which they appear if the particularINF is built on the PATTERNS AND THEIR HARMONIC IMPLICATIONS successive pitch classes of the mode as tabulated in Appen- dix A. positions. all numbers in these INFs the first. the INF on the fifth through eighth pitch classes (the second ber from the periodicity of a mode (as listed in Example 3) period) would show these four chords in their tritone trans- will always project the same mod-12 set class. (224). I define the spectrum of a step class set 24 In order to keep Appendix B to a moderate size I omit the mod-12 set classin a particular mode as the set of mod-12 set classes classes of the step class set classes in mode 7. through the entire mode. 70-75. analyzes the succession of pc sets in Messiaen's "parallel chord series" in terms of permutations and links the specific 23 In the diatonic context. sets with an INF that replicatesthe first num. Further voice leadings between chords1 and 2from Example 2(a).e. 6 the mod-12 set classes of its step class set classes. Building itself.25 Ex- harmonies involved. As we have seen in Example 2. In Appendix B each INF is grouped together with the INF of its produced when the INF of the step class set class runs 25 (modal) complement. each of these INFs mine the succession of pitch-class sets in any parallel voice- producesonly one mod-12 set class if run through the entire leading pattern in any of Messiaen's modes 1 through 6.the mod-12 set classes are listed in the order PART II.Example 6(a) shows mode mode. which are thus not listed. The mod-12 set classes are shown for one period of Parallel voice leading. Example 6(c) deter- INFs (2222). chord 1 chord 2 IG 4. A THEORY OF HARMONY AND VOICE LEADING FOR THE MUSIC OF OLIVIER MESSIAEN 9 a. a the mode only. With the help of Appendix B we can swiftly deter- are of size 2 or multiples thereof..

allsets4-28[0369] b.INF(1124) L point formed by the distinct registrallines.Example 7(c) determinesthe INFs and Canonic voice leading and harmonic sequence. etc.).the one at C in 30 In this voice-leadinginterpretation. the voice-leading procedures at work. Mod-12 set classesoflNF (1124) in mode4.the verticalin- terversionof notes convergeswith the linear interversionof chords" even numberedones all representset class 4-26[0358].Cheong also mentions a numberof "parallelchord series"found in Messiaen's 29 He defines "effectsof resonance"broadly as "effectsof pure fantasy. the resulting succession of mod-12 set classes will form a 12 set classperspective. The progressionat B is in mode 61. allsets2-3[03] etc. INF (26). the mode. etc. 1944. IO MUSICTHEORYSPECTRUM 27 (2005) a. line 2 descends stepwise through EXAMPLE 6. The melodic step built on the first four pcs class intervalsin each of the four lines are labeled. more general obser- music see Forte2002. as "superior in the course of two chords (down 2 step classes or interval- resonance"of the chord at A. INF (2222).29Example 7(b) analyzes the voice leading in the progressionat C (in mode 22) in terms of the counter- b. mod-12set 4-5A[0126] 4-Z15A[0146] 4-12B[0346] 4-5A[0126] kinds of contrapuntalpatterns:lines 3 and 4 move in parallel classes: (but non-scalar) motion.30 Since the vertical alignment of the voice-leading intervals in the four lines repeats every two chords (as indicated by the Messiaen actually uses only a small number of the available bracketsat the bottom of the example). (72). Threecasesof lNFs that replicatetheperiodicityof mode2. In other words. INF (224). then chordseries"mentionedin Messiaen1936. as contrapuntal lines)and abstract(understoodas pitch-classmappings). mode 41 stantial length. 77-79) pro- vide usefullists of worksthat engage these chordprogressions. vation: if the model of a harmonic sequence in its step class 27 Cheong 2002 addressesthis issue in her discussionof the seven"parallel descriptiondoes not reflect the periodicity of the mode. the progressionforms patterns. 1928-29. "clusterof chords"can refer to any chord progressionof sub- a. .The interestedreadermay similarby a very distant analogyto the phenomenonof naturalreso- want to reviewthese progressionsfrom a step classperspective.28 Messiaen's term the progression as a whole alternates the two mod-12 set classes shown.the canons are both real (realized mode 22. As the overall distance traversedby each line 7(a). lines 1 and 3 form a canon. the odd-numbered chords at C in Example 7(a) all project set class 4-18B[0367]. the cluster of chords combines three c.27 a harmonicsequence. however. from the sixth piano Prdlude.allsets3-10[036] c. he does not specify class 3) correspondsto the periodicity of the mode (<2/3>). 51. and the the other.Messiaen mod-12 set classes of the first two chords (chord 1 is shown designates the "clustersof chords" at B and C of Example above chord 2). nance"(ibid. and 1952 froma mod. as do lines 1 and 4. 28 Messiaen 1944. music that are not discussedin his writings. EXAMPLE 5.To borrowMessiaen'sterm for permutation. For a discussion of interversionin Messiaen'sserially-oriented The example prompts the following.As the ex- ample demonstrates.Appendices1-6 of the article(pp.

1M CP 0 4. 5). Piano 6 f f. ------------------------- Tres lent b h. (b) Voice-leading EXAMPLE 7 . pp A 1 1: . 217 (Prelude VI. Bypermission ofEditions Costallat-Editions Musicales du Marais 0 -2 0 -2 0 -2 Line 1: -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 Line 2: ocanon I -2 0 -2 0 -2 0canon Line 3: AN parallel -2 0 -2 0 -2 0 Line4: - model of sequence intervalsin thefour registrallines of theprogressionat C (mode22). with chordsnumbered at C. A THEORY OF HARMONY AND VOICE LEADING FOR THE MUSIC OF OLIVIER MESSIAEN II B I 8-va.44. "Clochesd'angoisseet larmes d'adieu." m. Ex.4" ICP -• Lk_• f (a) Messiaen 1944.

and 3 and 4 Example 7(b) were realized in mode 31 (with the INF of the form canons. they form a sequence with a one-chord model from using the diatonic triads. The differing superimposed modal and mod-12 sequence types-whose lengths of the step class voice-leading model and the model voice-leading models differ in length-that bring about the of successive mod-12 set classes result from the fact that the characteristicsound of the progression. Lines 1 and 2. 1 and 4. the sequence has a two-chord model: the mod-12 progressionfrom chords would sound as shown in Example 8. [continued] cycle whose length differs from that of the step class model and lines 2 and 4 move parallel (see the labeled melodic in- of the sequence. Since the four 32 The same property-leading to a different sonorous quality-is famil- iar from diatonic sequences. But the chord progression length of the step class voice-leading model and the length could be interpretedin terms of other voice-leading patterns of the cycle of mod-12 set classes is at work in Messiaen's as well. 2 and 3. T INF: (2123) 'o" .31As a result. etc. for instance. It is precisely the interferencebetween the for six chords (see the bracketed set classes). the mod-12 voice-leading pattern first chord randomly being chosen as (2214)). . peared. voice leading in the chords at C with respect to the four Incidentally. and similarly the mod-12 progression between long (as indicated by the bracketed INFs). whereas the step class voice. EXAMPLE 7.. For instance.however. the step class voice-leading pat- tern repeats more often than the resulting succession of mod-12 set a modal perspective:the parallelstep class voice-leading pat. To return briefly to Example 7(a). etc. For instance. The latter repeats only after all seven diatonic triads have ap- tern between chords 1 and 2 repeatsbetween chords 2 and 3. With respect to modal 1 to 3 is repeated three semitones higher between chords 3 voice leading the model of the sequence remains two chords and 5. In a descending circle-of-fifths sequence lines (understood as voice-leading voices)move parallelwithin mode 21. and lists the abstract (understood as pitch-class mappings). 1 2 3 2 Chord 2: . labels all melodic mod-12 ics.32 periodicity of mode 3 is <3/4>. set class: 4-18B[0367] . the model now lasts chords 4 to 6. For a general discussion of interval cycles in the diatonic system etc. if the voice-leading pattern of terval classes). however.12 MUSIC THEORY SPECTRUM 27 (2005) 3 2 2 1 Chord 1: lC I INF: (2213) A .S set class: 4-26[0358] (c) INFs and mod-12 set classesofthefirst two chordsat C. the same kind of incongruity between the registrallines (see Example 7(b)). From a mod-12 perspective. classes. In terms of the chords 2 and 4 is repeated three semitones higher from resulting mod-12 set classes. INFs and mod-12 set classes of the chords. moving our attention away from the "parallelsuccessions of chords. only lines 1 and 3. I have analyzed the leading model descends a total of 2 scale degrees. see Clough 1980." Example 9 reproduces the first half of the four registrallines of the parallel progression 31 Here again. the canons are both real (realized as contrapuntal lines) and in Example 2(a).

I I I i I Set classes: 4-Z29B 4-Z29A 4-Z29B etc. [0367] [0248] [0256] [0348] [0357] [0348] [0367] 1 1 1 EXAMPLE 8. the voice lead. Melodic mod-12 ics in thefour registrallines of theprogressionof Example2(a) (first half). 10 is notated as "*TI" and "*T_1"respectively.33The deviation sets. INFs: (2214) (2133) (2214) etc. The situation whereby ing correspondsto Straus'snotion (in the mod-12 domain) of one of the voices moves by a different interval is also called "near- "most uniform":three of the four voices in chord 1 move to transposition" in Straus 1997 and "pseudo-transposition"in Lewin 1998. 314-18. with INF and set classesof the chordsidentified. [0467] [0137] [0467] I ~ I t EXAMPLE 9. I I I Set classes: 4-18B 4-24 4-Z15B 4-19B 4-22B 4-19B 4-18B etc. thus. the "most uniform"voice leading in Example 33 fourth voice does not move at all. o 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 Line2: o 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 Line3: AN o 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 Line4: o Chord #: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 INF: (1133) (1133) etc. chord 2 is almost in Example 10. three of the four voices move by step within the mode while the After Straus 2003. registrallines. Proceeding from one step class set to the next. 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 Line 1: . A THEORY OF HARMONY AND VOICE LEADING FOR THE MUSIC OF OLIVIER MESSIAEN 13 S I etc. the chords are reduced to step class an exact step class transposition of chord 1. In this view. Same voice-leadingpattern realized in mode 31. we could consider the voice leading as shown the next higher step class in chord 2. Here. .

In double counterpoint the index is determined means that in all chords the vertical step class intervals be. Chantsde Terreet de Ciel). Example 11(b) analyzes the four chords and the "originalcombination"). this reading shows-by moving our attention away 3 and 4 invert the combination of lines 1 and 2 at step class from the voice leading articulatedby the registrallines ana. The practice follows the conven- position of its parts. serves as the index for the contrapuntalinversion. B B6 Voice 4: F G ------------G *T. 'Most uniformAvoice leading in the progression at (a) Messiaen 1944. *T_ etc.The repeated chord pro. 34-40." follow- of lines 3-4 inverts the combination of lines 1-2.35The latter (directed) step class in- voice leading.e. three step classes larger than the correspondinginterval be- Invertedand doublecounterpoint. I call the latter "double counterpoint. The move tween lines 1-2 and 3-4 produce the same sum. The four chords project three different tion. In other words. Finally. and 3 forms double counterpoint at step class interval minus en-ciel d'innocence"of Chantsde Terreet de Ciel (1938). tween lines 1 and 2. As is evi. Listed are the vertical step class intervals between non-parallel lines. This is because line 4 is a step dent from the labeled melodic step class intervals. tion established in Taneiev 1962. as articulated by the registral lines. 35 In order to distinguish vertical shifts by which two contrapuntal lines The bottom half of Example 11(b) examines the contra. upper line becomes the lower line and vice versa) from shifts by which the two lines do not switch places (the upper line remains above the leading patterns. as do lines 2 and 3. every interval between lines 1 and 3 is are almost exact step class transpositions of each other.since line 3 moves parallelto line 2. L II offset: (1) (1) (mode 2) EXAMPLE IO. the combination lower line after the shift). two of which are inversions of each other. interval5. where the puntal combinations that arise from these particularvoice. 272 (?4rc-en-ciel d'innocence"from C ofExample 7(a). from a terval serves as the index for the contrapuntal transforma- modal perspective. As illustrated. exchange their relative positions (invertible counterpoint. if the two lines move towards each other (i.lines 1 and 4 move parallelwithin the mode. as voice 1 moves 0 instead of 1 step. Ex. 14 MUSIC THEORY SPECTRUM 27 (2005) Step class sets: 1 2 3 (mode3) Voice 1: E -------------- E D 0 D :t19P 6t~t"~b19"~~bt Voice 2: C# C# e Hmod"2) i F Voice 3: B6. the combination of lines 1 gression in the right hand of Example 11(a). 315)-from an exact trans- position is 1. the index is positive. By permissionofAlphonseLeduc& Cie EXAMPLE II -or "offset"(after Straus 2003. closer together). by the size of the shift measured in numbers of steps in an inwards direction. 13. and 2 at step class interval 8.Thus lines Thus. uses 3 of the combination of lines 1 and 2 (designated as the mode 31. This value from set 2 to set 3 produces *T_1 also with an offset of 1.34 This ing Schubert 1995. Further. Therefore. from "Arc. three lyzed earlier-that the sets in Messiaen's cluster of chords step classes below. the index number is negative.possiblyfollowedby transposition. 5. . if they move away from each 34 A contrapuntalcombinationis "inverted"by exchangingthe relative other.lines 2 and 4 invert the combination of lines 1 INFs.

[continued] . EXAMPLE II.2: 3 2 3 4 originalcombination step class intervals inverts orig.) (b) Voice-leadingpatterns in the right hand. A THEORY OF HARMONY AND VOICE LEADING FOR THE MUSIC OF OLIVIER MESSIAEN 15 +1 -4 +2 Line 1: +2 -5 +1 Line 2: +2 -5 +1 parallel parallel +1 -4 +2 Line 4: INFs: (1233) (1233) (1134) (2133)_ I I step class intervals betweenlines 1.comb. 4: 2 3 2 1 step class interval 5 sum: 5 5 5 5 stepclassintervals doublecounterpointat -3 betweenlines 1.) stepclassintervals invertedcounterpointat 8 betweenlines2. at between lines 3. comb. 4: 5 6 5 4 (in relationto orig. 3: 6 5 6 7 (in relationto orig.comb.

Messiaen uses the term "superposition"in the same sense. 16 MUSIC THEORY SPECTRUM 27 (2005) class transposition of line 1-which lies aboveline 2-down As the foregoing analyses demonstrate. The music of Messiaen frequentlycombines severalmodes sponding intervals of the original and derived combinations of limited transpositions. the pedal point serves as a stabilizing factor in an otherwise intricately con- trapuntaltexture. For a thorough ample). In other words. juxtaposition. inversions of each other from a modal perspective. the monic and contrapuntalstructurescan be shown to intersect correspondingvertical intervals in the original and inverted in complex and rigorously systematic ways. in succession. Different modes arejuxtaposedif they appear and 8 respectively): 0 + 5 = . above.38 Different modes are superposed if they sound (2) The sum of the index numbers of the original combi. without sounding simultaneously. ending up belowline 2. contrapuntal devices known from traditional modal and tonal counterpoint. 38 I borrow these two terms from Stravinsky scholarship. investigation of the two techniques in Stravinsky's music see van den Hence lines 1 and 3 form double counterpoint (at step class interval Toorn 1987. 68-70. . and also same symmetrical INF (1133). lines 2 tion) are discussed in Edward T. relate to each other via double counterpoint (not shown here in the ex.37Let us now turn to harmonic and contrapuntal context of Messiaen's chord progression that correspond to texturesthat combine severaldifferent modes.with each mode governing a distinct struc- nation of lines 1-2 and that of lines 3-4 (index numbers 0 tural layer in what Messiaen calls a "polymodal"texture. Since both chords have the and contrapuntalpatterns within a particularmode. they are transpositions and enablesus to comparesuch structuresacross different modes. Lines 2 and 3 move parallel to each other within the mode. They are identical with the chords principlesintersect in interestingways..39 and 5 respectively) equals the sum of the index numbers of We have already encountered such textures in Examples 7 the combinations of lines 1-3 and 2-4 (index numbers -3 and 11. Messiaen's har- eight step classes. arranged I shall now address the pertinent properties in more detail as to start on the same bass note. 271. tal in a conventional sense. where they des- ignate the horizontal layering of materials (superposition) and the suc- 36 Some pairs of registral lines in the chord progression of the left hand cession of different blocks of material (juxtaposition) respectively. At the same time. combination in lines 3 and 4. simultaneously. Cone's groundbreaking 1962 article. Overall.36 37 Benjamin 1994. The theoretical appa- from Example 2 above both from a step class perspective and ratusintroducedin this paper allows us to account for chords under mod-12 transposition. 97-100.40In both The two distinct chords in the left hand of Example 11(a) types of modal combination harmonic and contrapuntal are derived from mode 22.either by means of superpositionor that is constant.3 + 8. AND MODULATING TEXTURES tervals in the original and inverted combinations is constant. 64-66). Stravinsky'sjuxtapositions (also termed stratifica- minus 3) of the combination of lines 1 and 2. In double counterpoint it is the diferencebetween the corre. 40 They "modulate"from one to another (ibid. and 4 form double counterpoint (at step class interval minus 3) of the 39 Messiaen 1944. Although much combinations (vertical intervals between lines 1 and 2 and of Messiaen'smusic does not appearto be overtlycontrapun- lines 2 and 4) always add up to 8. B. The transformations of invertible and PART III. FURTHER ANALYTICAL APPLICATIONS: double counterpoint correlatein the following way: HARMONY AND VOICE LEADING IN POLYMODAL (1) In invertible counterpoint the sum of the vertical in. the examples discussed here show Invertible and double counterpoint are understood here the composer'sacute sensibility for a variety of voice-leading in an abstract sense as transformationswithin the step class patterns.

) The opening of "Amendu enth chord. Step 1: Notate the G major scale in mod-12 integer nota- D serves again as pivot between the two modes alreadyused tion. 9). 1-6. 4. and iv with added sixth (m. First. . setting the tonic scale degree equal to 0. 8). IV with added sixth (m. beyond their individual mem. The passage changes mode in every measure. Second. These added pitch modes. These are all chord types specificallymentioned except for measure 9. None of the chords in tension of this sort is generally released at the end of every measure Example 11 is available in both modes. however. suggest prolongational function. above). Examples 13(a) and (b) determine these principles. 4. It is a second to the same dominant harmony. 7-8. Step 3: Determine the pitch-class numbers shared by the single tonal pitch-class collection. A THEORY OF HARMONY AND VOICE LEADING FOR THE MUSIC OF OLIVIER MESSIAEN 17 and examine how Messiaen responds to the specific oppor. The succession of these chords-V7 step 2. 2. Harmonic of both modes of the passage (chord 4 at B).42 In polymodal textures Messiaen characteristicallyempha. the chordsjust mentioned and all the the second piano (printed above the first piano) is available chords used in the left hand of the second piano represent a in the respective mode(s) of the preceding or following selection from a larger pool of pitch-class sets that lie at the measure. ii06/5 chord.and D in the first reproducedin Example 12 with the modes and INFs of the and last chord of m. 8). 10). the left hand of m. and 6. The polymodal passages in Examples 7 and 11 illus. 1 and the first and sizes the distinctive features of each mode by limiting the use last chords in the right hand of mm.While some of the chords between the G major collection (with ?6) and the three that appear in the right hand of the second piano are also modes in all their transpositions. Except for in Messiaen'sown writings (see Example 1(a). The last chord in the right hand of m. 3 and 5 add Ddsir. 8 contributes an added second to the chords labeled. which changes modes twice. the ostinato figure in the first pc sets and their set classes with the help of the following piano provides pivot notes that link most of the successive three-step algorithm: modes: D is a member of all the modes used in mm. forms a syntacticalprogression in the majorkey. pitch-class sets. 9-10. 3.41(The same principle generally obtains chord of m. generally follow and/or precede the tonal chords and thus tunities affordedby particularcombinationsof modes. Determine the set class of each of the resulting (mm. 9.E in the first and last chords of mm. many of them belong uniquely to the respectivemodes of limited transpositions. in mm. and 8 each add one of chords that belong to more than one of the superposed pitch class to the chords of the left hand. 1 adds a sixth (thirteenth) to the dominant sev- for Messiaen'sjuxtaposed modes. their presence produces the effect of harmonic tension. I with added sixth (mm. 7). 9). 6. Step 2: Notate each transposition of Messiaen's mode in mod-12 integer notation. (except for m. in relation to the tonic scale berships in the various modes of limited transpositions. The tension arises between the pitch classes in the right hand that do not 41 In Example 7 only one of the fourteen chords at B and C is a member belong to G major and the tonal harmonies in the left hand. none of the chords in each measureof Generally speaking. 1.the chords in the left hand of the second piano also belong to a degree of the G major scale. 8."from Visionsde l'Amen (1943). 1-2. classes also belong to the G major collection: B in the last trate this strategy.unifying the Example 13(a) lists the intersecting pc sets and set classes passage from a tonal perspective. intersection of G major and the various transpositions of The modes used in this passage are linked via two other modes 2. 5. G is a pivot between the two modes of mm. earlier in mm. is a case in point. 3. namely G major (with series obtained in step 1 and each of the series obtained in modal mixture in m. 5.These harmonies 42 Locally. Example 13(b) does the availablein G major.

express fet tendre (23_ -_4 .. __ . with modes and INFs identified.. Visions de l'Amen. Amen du Desir..- 2e Piano chante. . ... 1-10... Visions de l'Amen IV.- lent.avecamour ---(233).. Amen du D6sir (233)---------------i Trs ( = 72) (233)--. ? 1950 by Editions Durand . avec unegrande tendresse 2e (2123)(2 (2213) (2123) 2ew EXAMPLE I2." mm. (233) S (233). Musique: Olivier Messiaen..18 MUSIC THEORY SPECTRUM 27 (2005) IV..

As the INFs of the Messiaen's music. More specifically. Thus.43 amples indicate which of the intersecting pitch-class sets can But not only is the entire passage from "Amen du Ddsir" be analyzed as chord types from the list of Example 1(a). While in other modal works Messiaen 13(a) and (b) illustrate-the passage from "Amendu Ddsir" may easily expand his harmonic materials beyond those listed in does not combine the G major collection (with ?6) with Example 1(a).. [continued] same for G major with L6 and mode 4 (with reference to those transpositions of his modes whose intersecting pitch modal mixture in m. he limits himself in the present example to the chords mode 4: Messiaen combines the major key generally with discussed in his writings.1 ~ 1' ~ (233) Rail. EXAMPLE I2. 'l i i|.. It (Example 12) unified through steady harmonic reference to is interesting to note that the majority of the intersecting the tonality of G major. _ ~~3 p p (2123) pp(2213) (2123) (2213) (2123) court cour 64 i &4i 64 14•• 64 40 •= •• • • . all chords in the right hand the major collection and the three transpositionsof mode 2 representthe same step class set class with INF (233). However. classes form the tonally most focused chords.both ex. 1 (233)------------. C Smf 2 e mf 3 . . and five of the six sets in common between the added 6th in the left hand belong to only two different major collection and the six transpositions of mode 6 create step class set classes. A THEORY OF HARMONY AND VOICE LEADING FOR THE MUSIC OF OLIVIER MESSIAEN 19 21(233) -------. In addition.all sets shared between chords in the second piano show. F2 F2 2 (2(233).d. except produce such chords. The dominant between the major collection and the six transpositionsof seventh chord and the tonic and subdominant triads with mode 4. As the highlighted entries in Examples types listed in Example 1(a). only half of the six intersecting associates itself with just a handful of chord types. Op' "V- I -I I r F l Ir~l r I P"I I Ofi I P C- I " do-• Ir" r" I ~ l ' l / w I w / wI w wi i i4pi i w i Lw n *~~b '~~. [ " i/ I v • i i II • I -• • I 4 I .(1223)-----. Four of the six pitch-class sets shared for m. which uses a single tetrachord type. 8 of Example 12). ? 8 ' " ? • " -1 ' ? | /-I ? • " .66 m. 8. chords commonly availablein Messiaen'smusic (as shown in from a modal perspective the harmonic vocabularystrongly Example 13(a)).it also incorporates strong structural pitch-class sets indeed produce chords frequently found in consistencies from a modal perspective. Here sets between the major collection with L6 and the various 43 Note also that the passage does not use any of the pitch-class sets from transpositions of mode 4 create such chords (as shown in Examples 13(a) and (b) that do not correspond to any of the chord Example 13(b)). . I . with INFs (2213) and (2123).-I >- 33)-"f Mf lf .

10. 4-16A G major (66) / mode 44 [2478]. and major2nd (subset of iv with added 6th and added 2nd used at the beginning and end of m. 5-24A: iii with added 4th and added minor 2nd G major/ mode 62 [0245e]. 4-22B: vi with added 4th (a) Intersections between the G major collection and all transpositions of modes2. 7) G major/ mode 22 [0479]. 6-Z29: V69with added 4th or iv with added major 6th. 4-23 G major/ mode 45 [2459e]. 4-22A: I with added 2nd G major/ mode 65 [2579e]. 9) G major/ mode 23 [2457e]. augmented 4th. EXAMPLE 13 . 5-25A: IV with added 6th and added augmented 4th (used without added augmented 4th in the left hand of m. 5-29B: ii with added major6th and added major2nd G major/ mode 46 [0459e]. and 6 with tonal chordtypes identified. 5-20A: 17 with added 4th or iii with added minor 6th and added minor 2nd G major (66) / mode 42 [02578e]. 4-26: I with added 6th (left hand of mm. 5-20A: 17 with added 4th or iii with added minor 6th and added minor 2nd G major/ mode 42 [0257e]. 4-Z15B G major (b6) / mode 45 [2458e]. 5-20B: IV7 with added augmented4th or vi with added minor 6th and added major2nd G major/ mode 61 [4579e]. (Sets used in the secondpiano ofExample 12 are highlighted.) intersecting collections sharedpc sets / set classes G major (b6) / mode 41 [0457e]. 5-29A: V7 with added 4th G major/ mode 43 [0279]. 4-23 G major/ mode 44 [2479]. 5-31B: Vb9/vi(enharmonicallyrespelled) G major (k6) / mode 46 [045e]. 3 and 5) G major/ mode 66 [0249]. 6. 5-25B: V7 with added 6th/13th (last chord in both hands of m. 9. 5-34A: V9 (first and last chordsin mm. 2. first two chords in the left hand of m. 1) G major/ mode 41 [0457e].20 MUSIC THEORY SPECTRUM 27 (2005) intersecting collections shared pc sets / set classes G major/ mode 21 [0259e]. 5-Z12 G major/ mode 63 [0579e]. 4-8 (b) Samefor intersections between G major with flat-6th scale degree and all transpositions of mode 4. 4. 4. 5-24B: IV with added augmented4th and added 2nd G major/ mode 64 [0247]. 8) G major (66) / mode 43 [0278].

) three measures from the coda of "Amen du Ddsir. You will remember the chords from the previ. From a both a modal and tonal perspectiveendows the passagewith generative point of view. as experienced in the pre- major key and their mod-8 INFs in the respectivemodes." In his (3) Play the right hand part of the second piano in own analysisof the passage. Gs5-Ab4-E5-B4 Messiaen derives the motive from the melody of Susanna's aria (no. and mod-12 intervals (5) Play the left hand part of the second piano in Incidentally. perspectives (i. 1. vol. In a highly restricted repertory of chord types. mod-12 set class). 15 demonstrates how Messiaen uses this idea at the large- (You may omit mode 42 since INF (233) is not used in this scale formal level. -3). This property provides Messiaen with an opportunity to ferent inversions. with or without reference to G major.45 mode 23. Shift your atten- to tonal music which. 3.also uses tion back and forth between the tonal and modal layers.e. ing exercise. . Example (2) Do the same in the other modes used in the excerpt. 27.I recommend the following listen. All trichords in Example 14(a) have the same mod-8 INF Let us bear in mind that in addition to the modal and and produce two different mod-7 INFs. 2nd. with different intervals and chords. 8). with and without modal mixture. they are derived from various modular sources. It is mod-7 INFs. 11-12) in Mozart's Figaro. the right hand of the second piano in Example 15 transforms (4) Play a parallel seventh chord progressionin G major. See Messiaen 1994-2002. has its unique attributes of multiple meanings (mod-8 INF. try to experience the tonal and modal layers in and (b) list the chords in each hand of the second piano that isolation as well as in conjunction. one based on mod-12 harmonic classification."46More specifically. Examples 14(a) other words. +5. the combination of these three levels of perception that turns Messiaen's use of a limited number of chord types from listening to the passage into such a rich experience. (1222).. mod-7 INF. D5-F#5-G#4-Eb5-B4 in mode 23 translates into D5- syntacticaltonal progression. 249.Messiaen identifies the modes as Example 12. Try to hear these modes 12]). 2. of the modular attributes while preserving others. from a step class perspective. in mode 22 (melodic step class intervals +3.In order to focus at. there is a sense that each (1) Play a parallel succession of chordswith INF (233) in chord exists for more than one reason. the melodic contours in the outer voices of the right hand Example 12. see Clough 1979. Then play the same chords in any order and in dif.keeping in mind that in the top line is altered with respect to all three modular they all have the same mod-7 INF. skipping over measure 8. 46 Messiaen 1994-2002. Remember that Messiaen belong to G major and indicate their mod-7 INFs in the uses only a small number of INFs. 3. -7. The tetrachordsin tonal aspects we might also perceive a third harmonic di- Examples 14(a) and (b) project three mod-8 INFs and two mension. all chords have multiple origins as a high degree of structuralconsistency. keeping in mind that they all representthe produce varied versions of a given passage by changing some same mod-8 set class. each chord tention on this property. 5th measure [of Example same INF in the juxtaposed modes. A THEORY OF HARMONY AND VOICE LEADING FOR THE MUSIC OF OLIVIER MESSIAEN 21 Messiaen's modal harmonic practice draws a direct parallel (6) Play both hands of the second piano. 48. the diatonic. the right hand of the second piano in Example 12 (mm. 254. vol.44 vious steps.Then play the same chords and 5) in two ways. They now appearin a spective modes. mod-8. They all represent the states the first theme (1st. 1 and 2 use the same succession of step class intervals in the re- ous step (with modal mixture in m. the succession of melodic intervals in any order and in different inversions. 44 For a list of the mod-7 INFs of the diatonic chords (cardinalities 2-5) mm. First. The annotated excerpt shows the first mode in measure 8. You will remember marked in Example 15 and states that "the second piano re- the chords from steps (1) and (2). 45 in mm.

65 (133) 7 C. B (233). mode number Mod-7 INF in G major 1 D. . Mode 22 is already present on the first chord of the right hand on the third beat of m. C. F#. 4. G. The effect is particularlystriking in m. measurenumber pcs of the chord Mod-8 INF. 6. 9. E. And Example 15 thus arisesfrom a projection of the contours and second. 22 MUSIC THEORY SPECTRUM 27 (2005) measure number pcs of the chord Mod-8 INF. 21 (223) 6 G. 23 (223) B. A (2123). D. A. B. 9 D. 5 D. B. E (2123).modenumber Mod-7 INF in G major 1. The point is that this two beats of m. A (233). E?.22 (1222) 3. 42 (1213) (a) Chords in the right hand ofpiano 2 shared by the G major collection (with modal mixture) and the respective modes. E (233). but preserve one property mod-8 INF used in the right hand of Example 12 onto a throughout: they all have INF (233) in their respective new set of modes.21 (1222) 8 C. 22 (223) 3.47 The variation of the theme in the right hand of of Example 15. 3 modes. F#. 5 of Example 12 (in mode 65) produced mod-12 set class 47 The chord on the third beat of m. rather than in mode 31 as Messiaen suggests. F#. G. 10 G. E). G. 22 (1222) 7 C. E. D. G. 4. A (2123). G. 5 D. Whereas INF (233) in the right hand of m. 9. F# (233). G (233). 6. E (2123).65 (1222) 7 C. A (233). E. 23 (223) 2 G. 3 and could thus be heard as extending back into the chord is available in both modes. E. the chords are altered. 2. C (2213). 2' (1222) 8 D. 21 (223) A. A. EXAMPLE 14 are changed) while preserving the melodic contours. 22 (223) 2.23 (1222) 2. D (233). 2 of Example 15 is analyzed in mode 21. D. 10 E. 42 (1222) (b) Chordsin the left hand ofpiano 2 sharedby the G majorcollection(with modalmixture)and the respectivemodes. B. A (2213). C (2213). A (1223).

----------------------------- 6 6 -1 * (23 )- s (smile) . -(2213) EXAMPLE15. . . . . Visions de l'Amen. ----------------- (233)-----------------------------------------------. . . . . A THEORY OF HARMONY AND VOICE LEADING FOR THE MUSIC OF OLIVIER MESSIAEN 23 Tres lent.. -. . -------------. . . . . -. . .------------------ ------------------- 13 11F(2223) 2 .. . . Visions de l'Amen IV. . . .. . . - Iallwe M i Him" INJI17 I IPVIN 4r- p 6 6 r (233). . . . .. . . detendu. C 1950 by Editions Durand .---- 3--(2123)---. . . . tmen du Disir. .." beginning of coda with modes and INFs in the second piano identified.... . -----------------------(23-------------------------------------- 221 (2 (233)--------.alangui(. . Musique: Olivier Messiaen.----.-. . -. des sextolets= 104) 8 -------------------------------------.

but the passage can be heard in mode added sixth" (= mod-7 tonal harmonies with unambiguous mod-12 set 7 (73 in m. for instance. the various modular perspectives. Finally. pp.Please direct all requestsfor permissionto photo- on his modes of limited transpositions. The theory and analytical method pre- MusicTheorySpectrum. 1. they mod-12 perspective. Since and harmonictextureson examples by other composers.whereas in m.Cheong describes spacing consistencies are connected in Example 15 through a tonic pedal on G. Messiaen 1944. Throughout his writings. ample 2(a) above. INFs (2213) and (2123) occur in mm. exact nature of Messiaen's modal transformations.ucpress. ISSN 0195-6167. All rights reserved. and tive] harmonized with diminished and perfect fifths. In ion and without the help of any formal analyticalmethod. Example 15 thus not only alters the modes. oriented classificationsystem for harmonic and contrapuntal melodic intervals." played "three 2 (= mod-8 step class voice leading) as alternating "the six-four chord times. One area of inquiry would focus on the composer's two INFs in reverseorder. and chords-while preserving the con. among others. tonal. the analytical methodology aims at consolidating in m. 74 in m.edu/ journals/rights. the descent is more rapid in Example 15. Messiaen with added augmented fourth and the dominant seventh chord with does not identify any modes here. 245 and 254). 2. Bernard 1986 and a new prism of modes. 27. Note also that in both peatedly documents his technique of modeling contrapuntal examples these chords gradually descend in register. CONCLUSION.Example 15 takes the melodic contours and prominent aspect of Messiaen's music that deserves further most of the INFs from Example 12 and sends them through attention is the spacing of his harmonies.e. he could probably not have referred 49 The first piano in Example 15 adds a "melodic pedal [i. 24 MUSIC THEORY SPECTRUM27 (2005) 3-9[027] throughout. 48 Example 15 sounds a tonic pedal below these chords. 3). 3 of Example 15 (in modes 22 and 21). class affiliations). Messiaen re- only uses one of them. more specifically to the three levels of perception-modal. 1-34. in Messiaen's parallel chord series. 2 uses mode 31. 1 and A number of avenues for future research present them- 2 respectively. -the tonic pedal sounds for the remaining six measures Reevaluating these issues from a step class perspective-a (which are not shown here)-the presence of diatonic chords topic that would warranta separatestudy-may well provide belonging to G major is sharplyreduced when compared to new insights into Messiaen'spractices. augmented and mod-12-than by describing a "parallel succession of chords" in mode perfect fourths. Issue 1. Whereas in Example 12 the modes Cheong 2002. the chords in the left hand of the suggested in Messiaen's own writings-albeit in veiled fash- second piano are similarly related in the two excerpts.49 variouskinds. sented in this paper addressthe structuralintricacies of Mes- siaen's contrapuntal and harmonic materials that are based electronicISSN 1533-8339. repeated mo.. at http://www.Vol. and 75 in m. adding a new INF (2223) in the left hand (above 50 As is evident from Messiaen's description of the progression in Ex- the pedal). The third beat of m.. have addressedspacing from a are linked through a dominant pedal on D (first piano). each time a semitone higher" (ibid. 3 of Example 15 Messiaen uses the selves. an approach repeatedly With two exceptions. the step class Example 12. or [major] sixth and six-four chords.htm. vocabularies could serve as a creative tool for present day tours and most of the INFs-but also changes the balance composers whose musical languages incorporate modes of between the modal and tonal harmonies. copy or reproducearticlecontent throughthe Universityof California tizing one particularaspect of the modal pitch language over Press'sRights and Permissions website. 59-60. whereas Bernard shows While the tonic of the key is strongly articulatedin the Coda how the spacing of Messiaen's harmonies relates to color.This the speed by which the chords descend depends on the rate analytical method provides a powerful tool in assessing the of modal change. . INF (2213). it now projects major and minor triads another. Rather than priori.48In m.Another In summary. ? 2005 by The Societyfor Music Theory. 5 of Example 12 he modeling practices.50 both examples.

56: F F# Bb B C E 61: C D E F F# G# A# B 62: D.: pcs of the mode: 11: C D E F# G# A# 12: Db Eb F G A B 21: C Db Eb E F# G A Bb 22: C# D E F G G# A# B 23: D Eb F F# G# A B C 31: C D Eb E F# G Ab Bb B 32: Db Eb E F G Ab A B C 33: D E F F# G# A B. E F G# A Bb B D 45: E F F# A Bb B C Eb 46: F F# G Bb B C C# E 51: C Db F F# G B 52: Db D F# G G# C 53: D Eb G G# A C# 54: Eb E G# A Bb D 55: E F A Bt B Et. C D Eb 66: F G A Bb B C# D# E 7': C Db D Eb F F# G Ab A B 72: Db D Eb E F# G G# A Bb C 73: D Eb E F G G# A Bb B C# 74: Eb E F F# G# A Bb B C D 7': E F F# G A Bb B C C# Eb 76: F F# G G# Bb B C C# D E . C C# 34: Eb F F# G A Bb B C# D 41: C Db D F F# G Ab B 42: Db D Eb F# G G# A C 43: D Eb E G G# A Bb C# 44: E6. Et F Gb G A B C 63: D E F# G Ab Bb C Db 64: Eb F G Ab A B C# D 65: E F# G# A B. A THEORY OF HARMONY AND VOICE LEADING FOR THE MUSIC OF OLIVIER MESSIAEN 25 APPENDIX A: LIST OF MESSIAEN'S MODES OF LIMITED TRANSPOSITIONS Mode no.

6] 1212 4-25 [0.8.9] [0.4. 4.5] 111212 6-Z49A 6-Z50B [0.2.1.2] 111113 6-Z13 6-Z23 [0.3.7.2.4.6.3.4] 1122 4-24 [0.1.3.8] 26 2-3 2-3 [0.2.2.5.4] [0.9] 44 2-6 2-6 [0. For instance.2.8] 33 2-6 [0.6] 213 3-8B [0.1.3. Mode 7 contains modes 2.4.5.6] .26 MUSIC THEORY SPECTRUM 27 (2005) APPENDIX B: Mod-12 set classes of the step class set classesof Messiaen's modes NB: All Tn-type set classes are shown in the order in which they occur if the INFs are constructed on the pcs of the mode in the order listed in Appendix A.6.3] 111122 6-27A 6-27B [0. To save space. Mode 1: Whole-Tone Collection (6-35 [02468A]) INF: set classes: normal forms: 6 1-1 [0] 11112 5-33 [0.3.6.9] [0. and 6 (see Pople 1994.3.7] [0.8.1. and Benitez 2001.6.4.6.6] [0.2.4] (INF is its own complement) 123 3-8A [0.5. 114-15).9] [0.2] 1113 4-21 [0.8] (INF is its own complement) Mode 2: Octatonic Collection (8-28 [0134679A]) INF: set classes: normal forms: 8 1-1 [0] 1111112 7-31A 7-31B [0.4.7.3.4. Each INF is grouped together with the INF of its (modal) complement.2.3] [0. mode 7 is omitted here.4.6] 24 2-4 [0.2.6.6] 222 3-12 [0.3.5.8] 15 2-2 [0.4.4. Set classes are shown for the first period of the mode only.6.2.6.9] 17 2-1 2-2 [0.8] 114 3-6 [0.1] [0. 20-21.9] 35 2-4 2-5 [0.2. in mode 1 INF (6)-a single pc-is the complement of INF (11112)-the whole-tone collection minus one of its members.

5.7] [0.3.2.2.4] [0.6.8.2.5.3.4.1.3.6.5.8.1.3.5.4.2.7] [0.3.3.9] .3.4.1.6] [0.9] [0.3.6] [0.1.2.6] [0. A THEORY OF HARMONY AND VOICE LEADING FOR THE MUSIC OF OLIVIER MESSIAEN 27 APPENDIX B [continued] 112112 6-30A 6-30B [0.6] [0.5.3.5.7] [0.3.4.6] 125 3-3A 3-7A [0.4.2.9] [0.6.3.6.6] 11222 5-31A 5-31B [0.5.6.3.6.3.3.1.3.3.2.5.4] [0.6] 12113 5-19B 5-28B [0.5] 11123 5-16A 5-25A [0.2.6.2.3.7] [0.3.A] [0.9] [0.3.5.6.8] (INF is its own complement) 1313 4-9 4-25 [0.3.1.4.1.2.1.1.7] [0.6.6] 1223 4-18A 4-27A [0.7] [0.6] [0.1.6.1.7] [0.6.3.5] 21113 5-16B 5-25B [0.1.9] 1115 4-3 4-10 [0.6] 1133 4-Z29A4-Z29B [0.3.6.1.8] 2213 4-18B 4-27B [0.9] 116 3-2A 3-2B [0.6.2.8] 2123 4-17 4-26 [0.7] [0.3.1.1.3.6] [0.2.1.3.4.6.4.3] [0.8] 215 3-3B 3-7B [0.4.4.5.7] [0.5] (INF is its own complement) 1124 4-13A 4-12A [0.4.6] 2114 4-12B 4-13B [0.4.9] (INF is its own complement) Mode 3: Octave divided into three periods of whole-tone + semitone + semitone (9-12 [01245689A]) INF: set classes: normal forms: 9 1-1 [0] 11111112 8-24 8-19A 8-19B [0.9] [0.3.7] 12122 5-32A 5-32B [0.2.2.8.3.6.8] 314 3-8B 3-5B [0.3.8] (INF is its own complement) 2222 4-28 4-28 [0.9] 233 3-11A 3-11B [0.6] [0.8] 224 3-10 3-10 [0.3.6.7.2.4.7.7] 1214 4-Z15A4-Z15B [0.1.3] 11114 5-10A 5-10B [0.4] [0.6.1.5.2.7] [0.9] [0.4.1.8.6.4.3.6.5.6.1.6] 11213 5-19A 5-28A [0.4.3.8] 134 3-5A 3-8A [0.7.

9] [0.3.2.4] [0.4.2.9] [0.2.8] 144 3-9 3-5A 3-5B [0.6.8.4.1.1.5.4.3.6.9] [0.8] [0.8.7.1.9] 234 3-11A 3-8A 3-11A [0.4.4.3.6] [0.4.8.7.2] [0.7] [0.5.8.7.7.4.2.2.4] 211113 6-15B 6-21B 6-14B [0.3.1.3.6] 112113 6-Z43B 6-Z43A 6-Z26 [0.4.8] [0.7.4] [0.2.8.2.9] [0.7] 112212 6-34B 6-Z44B 6-31A [0.8] 225 3-10 3-7A 3-7B [0.2] [0.4.9] [0.4.1.3.1.4.3] [0.4.5.6.5] 1112112 7-30B 7-30A 7-22 [0.5] [0.3.7] [0.8] 216 3-3B 3-6 3-3B [0.6] [0.4.7] [0.6.3.5.8] [0.5.4] [0.5.6.4.5] [0.4 [0.4.3.7.5] 111213 6-16B 6-22A 6-Z19A [0.3.1.2.8.4.1] [0.4.4] 111123 6-21A 6-15A 6-14A [0.3.6.28 MUSIC THEORY SPECTRUM 27 (2005) APPENDIX B [continued] 18 2-2 2-1 2-1 [0.1.2.7.2.1.2.3.A] [0.8] 27 2-3 2-2 2-3 [0.5.4] 1111212 7-33 7-21A 7-21B [0.2.5] [0.7.5.1.2.6.4.4.5.5.4.1.3.3] 1111122 7-26B 7-Z17 7-26A [0.7.2.5.2.6] [0.4.3.1.1.1.9] .3.1.5.5.5.1.2.7.7.6.8] [0.5] [0.3.1.4] [0.4.1.6.5.4.1] 1111113 7-13B 7-13A 7-Z37 [0.5] 111222 6-Z46B 6-Z46A 6-Z49 [0.8] [0.8] [0.6.2.6.5.5] 121113 6-22B 6-16A 6-Z19B [0.8] [0.3] 111114 6-Z10B 6-Z4 6-Z10A [0.2.1.6.2.2.4.8] [0.3] [0.9] 117 3-2B 3-1 3-2A [0.1.1.2.4] [0.5.4.9] [0.1.6.2.6] [0.2.4.3.8] 135 3-8A 3-4A 3-4A [0.3.1.4.2.6.1.1.1.4.8] [0.5.1.9] [0.8.6.2.1.4.8.6.2.8] 315 3-8B 3-4B 3-4B [0.4.8] [0.2.9] 45 2-6 2-5 2-5 [0.5.1.7.6.3.6.8] [0.5.1.5.7] 126 3-6 3-3A 3-3A [0.5.8.3.3.1.9] [0.6] [0.3.2] [0.5.8] [0.6.2.2.9] [0.7.3.8.4.6] [0.6] [0.4.9] 36 2-4 2-4 2-4 [0.

5.5] [0.7.8] [0.4.6.1.2.5.7.6.3.5] [0.4.8.7] [0.7] 11223 5-28A 5-Z38A5-27A [0.6] [0.6] [0.5.1.7] 112122 6-31B 6-Z44A6-34A [0. A THEORY OF HARMONY AND VOICE LEADING FOR THE MUSIC OF OLIVIER MESSIAEN 29 APPENDIX B [continued] 324 3-11B 3-8B 3-11B [0.3.4.4.6.6.5] 11124 5-11A 5-9A 5-16A [0.6] [0.2.7.5.3.4.7] 12114 5-24B 5-6B 5-Z18A [0.4.6.6] [0.1.3.6.6.7.7.4.5.4.9] 1116 4-2B 4-2A 4-3 [0.7] [0.8] 2214 4-18B 4-Z15B 4-22B [0.2.3.7] [0.2.6.4.6] [0.4.4.6] [0.5.9] [0.1.2.2.8] [0.7] 21123 5-26B 5-26A 5-Z37 [0.8] [0.6] [0.3.6] [0.5.7] 11313 5-20B 5-15 5-20A [0.4.3.1.1.2.7] [0.7] [0.2.7] [0.6.4.8] [0.4.8] 1323 4-25 4-20 4-20 [0.1.6] [0.7] [0.5.1.7] 2115 4-12B 4-11B 4-4B [0.7.8] [0.8] [0.7] [0.2.4.1.5.3.2.4.6.4.6.2.4.4.8] 121212 6-35 6-20 6-20 [0.3.4.4.6] [0.2.8] [0.8] 12123 5-33 5-21A 5-21A [0.8] 12213 5-30B 5-30A 5-22 [0.1.3.3.3.4.1.8] [0.2.4.4.4.6.2.1.3.4.7] 22113 5-Z38B 5-28B 5-27B [0.4.1.2.8] [0.6.8] 1314 4-16B 4-8 4-16A [0.4.1.2.1.2.8] [0.8] [0.2.5.1.2.2.4] [0.9] [0.5.3.8] [0.3.6.4.8.1.3.4.5.3.8.8] 2124 4-17 4-21 4-17 [0.2.A] [0.1.4.8] [0.4.1.4.8] [0.1.5] [0.6.1.1.1.5.6.8] [0.9] [0.1.3.7.3.2.5.8] [0.4] [0.2.4.2.5] 21114 5-16B 5-9B 5-11B [0.3.4.4.8] 1224 4-22A 4-Z15A4-18A [0.7.4.1.1.2.5.9] [0.3.6] [0.5.4.4.1.2.4.4.1.8] [0.5.2.8] 21213 5-21B 5-33 5-21B [0.4.4.6.4.8] [0.5.3.2.5.3.4.5.5.1.3.3.4.9] 333 3-12 3-12 3-12 [0.6.8.6.1.5.4.7] 11214 5-Z18B 5-6A 5-24A [0.7] 3114 4-Z29B 4-5B 4-14B [0.2.4.7] [0.5.3.1.3.6] [0.3.8] 2223 4-27B 4-27A 4-26 [0.9] .6] [0.4.1.4] 11115 5-8 5-3A 5-3B [0.2.1.4.8] [0.4.1.5.8] 1233 4-24 4-19A 4-19A [0.2.4.6] [0.4.7] [0.8] [0.4.2.3.5] [0.1.6] [0.4.4.8] [0.7.5.4.8] [0.3.7] [0.4.8] 2133 4-19B 4-24 4-19B [0.8] [0.1.6.3.6.2.9] [0.5] 11133 5-13B 5-13A 5-Z17 [0.7] 1215 4-21 4-7 4-7 [0.4.2.5] 1125 4-12A 4-4A 4-11A [0.3.5.2.5.3.3.4.3.8] 12222 5-34 5-32A 5-32B [0.3.2.3.8] [0.1.1.7.2.1.1.8] [0.5.2.8] [0.7] 1134 4-14A 4-5A 4-Z29A [0.4.1.

7.2.9] [0.5.1.6] [0.2.6] [0.1.6.6] 112112 6-7 6-30B 6-30A 6-7 [0.3.1.7] [0.7] 224 3-8A 3-8B 3-8B 3-8A [0.5.9] [0.2.3.9] [0.5.3.2.2.6] 11213 5-7A 5-19B 5-31A 5-7A [0.1.3.2.2.9] [0.8] [0.1.7] [0.7] [0.2.5.1.4] [0.7.2.1.2.2.7.1.7.4] [0.2.7] 134 3-5A 3-5A 3-10 3-5A [0.2.7.5.3.5] [0.8] 35 2-5 2-5 2-5 2-3 [0.2.6] [0.1.4.3.6.9] [0.5.7] [0.1.3.1.5.7.1.7.5] [0.1.1.4.8.8] [0.7] [0.7.1.1.7] [0.7] 215 3-7A 3-4B 3-4B 3-2B [0.1.6.8] [0.1.7.5] [0.1.3.7.2.4.3] 111212 6-18A 6-Z29 6-18B 6-Z38B [0.4.6.2.1.7] [0.5] [0.6.5.6] [0.4.2.3.5] [0.1.1.1.6.2] 11114 5-6A 5-6B 5-4B 5-4A [0.1.6] [0.2.6.8] .3.3.1.7] [0.5.7.6] [0.3.3.2.5.4] [0.6.4.3.6] 125 3-4A 3-4A 3-7B 3-2A [0.4.6.5.8] [0.6.1.1.3.1.1.6.5.1.2.2] [0.4] [0.5.8] [0.5.6.3.4.6.30 MUSIC THEORY SPECTRUM 27 (2005) APPENDIX B [continued] Mode 4: Octave divided into two periods of semitone + semitone + minor third + semitone (8-9 [01236789]) INF: set classes: normalforms: 8 1-1 [0] 1111112 7-7B 7-19B 7-19A 7-7A [0.9] [0.6] [0.6.9] [0.3] 11123 5-14A 5-Z18A5-Z38B 5-5A [0.6.6] [0.2] [0.2.3.8] [0.3.3.3.8] [0.1.7] 26 2-2 2-4 2-4 2-2 [0.6.2.6.3.4.3.6] [0.3.7] 314 3-5B 3-5B 3-5B 3-10 [0.2.1.1] 111113 6-Z6 6-5B 6-Z42 6-5A [0.6.1] [0.1.6.6.6] 12113 5-7B 5-7B 5-31B 5-19A [0.8] [0.6] [0.2] 111122 6-Z43A 6-Z43B 6-Z41B 6-Z41A [0.8] [0.1.6.1] [0.6.5] [0.6] [0.5.6.6.9] [0.5.8] [0.6.6.2.6.5] [0.3.6] 11222 5-15 5-28A 5-28B 5-15 [0.1.8] 44 2-6 2-6 2-6 2-6 [0.1.2.1.8] [0.2.7] [0.6] [0.6.1.5] [0.6] [0.8] 116 3-1 3-3A 3-3B 3-1 [0.6.2.5.7.6.2.2.8] [0.2.6.6] [0.6.3.6.8] 17 2-1 2-1 2-3 2-1 [0.5.1.7] [0.5.8.3] 21113 5-14B 5-5B 5-Z38A 5-Z18B [0.6] [0.5] [0.2.6.3] [0.2.8.4.5.2.1.2.1.1.

2.6] 213 3-5B 3-5B 3-8A [0.3.8] [0.7] 33 2-6 2-6 2-6 [0.2.3.6] [0.5.5.7.7.5.7] [0.6] [0.5.2.2.4.1.6.8] [0.2.7] [0.7] [0.3.3.1.7] [0.6] 2114 4-Z15B 4-5B 4-5B 4-12A [0.3.8] [0.7] [0.1.1.2.1.6.5.6.6] [0.1.3.1.5.1.4] [0.4.6] [0.8] [0.2.7] [0.7.5] [0.5.6] [0.6.6.2] (INF is its own complement) 123 3-5A 3-8B 3-5A [0.5.7] [0.3.4.7] [0.4.7] (INF is its own complement) 1313 4-9 4-9 4-28 4-9 [0.4.4.1.3.1.7] [0.7] (INF is its own complement) 2222 4-25 4-25 4-25 4-25 [0.8] [0.6] 1133 4-6 4-18A 4-18B 4-6 [0.5][0.7] (INF is its own complement) .3.4.5.1.5.6] [0.1.8][0.2.2.1.2.5] [0.6.6] [0.7] [0.3.6] [0.6] [0.1] [0.6.5.1.7] [0.4.4.6.6] [0.5.2.2.6] [0.2.1.6.2.3] (INF is its own complement) 1124 4-5A 4-Z15A4-12B 4-5A [0.6] [0.1.6.7] 12122 5-20A 5-20B 5-29B 5-29A [0.1.4.7] [0.7] [0.1.2.1.7][0.5] [0.4.5.5] [0.2.6. A THEORY OF HARMONY AND VOICE LEADING FOR THE MUSIC OF OLIVIER MESSIAEN 31 APPENDIX B [continued] 233 3-9 3-11B 3-11A 3-9 [0.7] 15 2-1 2-4 2-1 [0.6] 24 2-5 2-5 2-2 [0.5.6] [0.7] [0.5.6] [0.6.4.5] [0.6.67] [0.2.4.2.1.8] [0.6] 1212 4-9 4-25 4-9 [0.2.2.8] [0.1] 1113 4-8 4-5B 4-5A [0.6.1.6.6] 222 3-9 3-9 3-9 [0.1.2.6] [0.8] 1115 4-4A 4-7 4-4B 4-1 [0.3.3.1.1.1.2.2.8] [0.3.6] 1223 4-16A 4-16A 4-27B 4-Z29A [0.7] [0.1.7] [0.8] [0.1.5.1.7] 1214 4-8 4-8 4-13B 4-13A [0.9] [0.5.6.1.1.5.5.1.7] [0.6][0.6.6.1.2.8] (INF is its own complement) Mode 5: Octave divided into two periods of semitone + major third + semitone (6-7 [0126781) INF: set classes: normal forms: 6 1-1 [0] 11112 5-7B 5-15 5-7A [0.1.5] [0.6.7] 114 3-4A 3-4B 3-1 [0.1.2.6] [0.5.7] 2123 4-23 4-14B 4-20 4-14A [0.2.2.2.7] [0.1.2.6.2.7] 2213 4-16B 4-Z29B 4-27A 4-16B [0.8] [0.2] 1122 4-16A 4-16B 4-6 [0.

3.8.2] [0.2.3.1.7] [0.1.1.6.5.8] [0.3.2.5.4.8] [0.6.2.4.4] [0.2.1.4.7.8] [0.2] [0.2.6] [0.3.3.4.1.6] 112112 6-35 6-30B 6-7 6-30A [0.7.3.2.4.9] 17 2-2 2-2 2-1 2-1 [0.4.3.3.4] [0.1.6] [0.8] [0.6.4.8] [0.2.6] [0.7.2.2.4] [0.5] 11123 5-26A 5-13B 5-Z36A 5-24A [0.6.2.5.4.3.4.2.6.2.6.4.7] [0.9] [0.6] [0.7.6] 11213 5-33 5-28A 5-7A 5-19A [0.4.6.1.7.2] [0.8.A] [0.7] 26 2-4 2-3 2-2 2-3 [0.2] [0.4.6.6] 11222 5-33 5-31B 5-15 5-31A [0.3] [0.1.8] [0.1.4.6] [0.3.9] 116 3-6 3-2B 3-1 3-2A [0.7] [0.9] 35 2-5 2-4 2-4 2-5 [0.4.4.6] [0.2.2.4.1.5] [0.6.6] [0.6.A] [0.1.8] [0.2.4.2.7] 314 3-5B 3-8B 3-8B 3-5B [0.5] [0.3.4.6] [0.8.5.5.8][0.8] [0.2.7] 224 3-8B 3-10 3-8A 3-10 [0.8] [0.4.2.6] [0.6.6.6.1.5.7] [0.9] [0.8] [0.2.5] 111212 6-34B 6-Z17B 6-Z17A 6-34A [0.2.2.1] 111113 6-21B 6-21A 6-Z12A 6-Z12B [0.5] [0.1.7.9] [0.4.2.6] 12113 5-28B 5-33 5-19B 5-7B [0.4.32 MUSIC THEORY SPECTRUM 27 (2005) APPENDIX B [continued] Mode 6: Octave divided into two periods of whole-tone + whole-tone + semitone + semitone (8-25 [0124678A]) INF: set classes: normalforms: 8 1-1 [0] 1111112 7-33 7-28B 7-15 7-28A [0.2.7.1] [0.4.6.6] 125 3-7A 3-6 3-3A 3-4A [0.1.1.2.4.6.1.8] [0.6.3.5] 21113 5-13A 5-26B 5-24B 5-Z36B [0.3.2.4] [0.6] [0.4] [0.2.2.7.3] 111122 6-22B 6-Z45 6-22A 6-Z28 [0.6.5.2.9] 44 2-6 2-6 2-6 2-6 [0.4] [0.1.4.6] [0.7] [0.5.1.6] [0.1.5.1.6.4.3.4.2.3] 11114 5-9B 5-8 5-9A 5-Z12 [0.6] [0.1.6.3] [0.3.1.2.4.1.8] [0.6.7] 215 3-4B 3-3B 3-6 3-7B [0.3.1.3.6.6.4.6.5.2.5.1.9] [0.3.2.8.6.8] [0.2.2.6.3.4] [0.3.2.1.1.5.1.8.6.6.4.8] [0.1.3.6.5.6] [0.8] [0.6] [0.7] 134 3-8A 3-8A 3-5A 3-5A [0.6.2.6.8] [0.2.2.5.3.8] [0.9] [0.9] .6.4.3.6.6.4] [0.

1.8] [0.1.4. "Messiaen as Teacher.8] [0.Jonathan W.2.8] [0. Richard. 2001.2. Messiaen Companion.3.1.3.8] [0." Perspectives ofNew Music 18/2: 461-82.6] [0.4. in Perspectives on Schoenberg and Stravinsky. University .4.7.9] [0." Method.6][0.7] 2123 4-19A 4-19B 4-22A 4-22B [0.4.3. "Colour.6] [0.8] [0. .5.6.7] [0.4.6] [0.5. "Variety and Amadeus Press."Journal ofMusic Theory Bernard. Correspondence between Color and Sound Structure in Cohn. Cone. Edited by Peter Hill.4."MusicAnalysis21/1: 53-84.4. Twentieth-Century Music. 1962.4.7][0.5.6] [0.2. Ph.1.2. John. Vincent. Ph.2.3. A THEORY OF HARMONY AND VOICE LEADING FOR THE MUSIC OF OLIVIER MESSIAEN 33 APPENDIX B [continued] 233 3-12 3-11B 3-9 3-11A [0.8] [0. dissertation.6.1. "Diatonic Interval Sets and Transformational Design in "Saint Franfois d'Assise"of Olivier Messiaen.4.6. "Messiaen'sSynaesthesia:The 29: 249-70.7][0.1.6.D. Multiplicity in Diatonic Systems.3. Structures." In The Sets.8] [0.4.2.7] (INF is its own complement) 2222 4-25 4-28 4-25 4-28 [0.2.7] [0."MusicTheorySpectrum10: 19-42.8] [0.6] [0. edited by . Pitch Organization and Dramatic -~ .2.3.2.2.3. 1986.6] 2114 4-5B 4-12B 4-21 4-13B [0.5] (INF is its own complement) 1124 4-21 4-12A 4-5A 4-13A [0."Journal of Music Theory 35: 93-173." Perspectives ofNew Music 1/1: 18-26.6.9] [0.2.6] [0.2.8] 1115 4-11B 4-2B 4-2A 4-11A [0.8] [0.6] 1223 4-27A 4-24 4-18A 4-16A [0.8] [0. John. George.D.6] [0.1.1.6] [0. 1980.7] [0.2.2. and Jack Douthett.6. "Messiaen'sTriadic Colouration: Combination in Bart6k.8] [0.5] [0. dissertation. 268-73. "Maximally Even Benjamin. Modes As Interversion. John.1.1. Reprinted ActaMusicologica75/1: 85-105.6.2.4.3. Portland:Amadeus Press.5. 1994.4. by Peter Hill.8] [0. Clough.6.1. 2002.8] [0. and Gerald Myerson. "RediscoveringMessiaen'sInvented Chords.Edited of Rochester.7] 1214 4-Z15B 4-21 4-Z15A4-8 [0. Indiana University.1.3.2.4.2.3.2.4. "Aspects of Diatonic Sets.3.6.2. 1985.3. Transpositional Combination in His Music.4. Edward T.6] 1133 4-24 4-Z29B 4-6 4-Z29A [0.4.6.203-19.2." Journal of Music Theory 23: 45-61.7] (INF is its own complement) 1313 4-25 4-25 4-9 4-9 [0. 1979.7.1. "Stravinsky: The Progress of a --.8] [0.4.2.3.4.5.7] 12122 5-30B 5-34 5-30A 5-22 [0. Wai-Ling. 2003. Portland: Clough.5.6.2.7] [0.6.4. Benitez.4. "Inversional Symmetry and Transpositional Cheong.2.1.6.3.6.4] [0. 1988.7] 2213 4-24 4-27B 4-16B 4-18B [0. 1986. 1991.4] [0."In TheMessiaenCompanion.1.7] [0.5. 1994.7][0." Music Perception4/1: 41-68.4.9] (INF is its own complement) REFERENCES Clough.

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