# Binomial Theorem

“Obvious” is the most dangerous word in mathematics......... Bell, Eric Temple

Binomial expression :
Any algebraic expression which contains two dissimilar terms is called binomial expression.
1 1
For example : x + y, x 2y + , 3 – x, x2  1 + etc.
xy 2
( x  1)1/ 3
3

Terminology used in binomial theorem :
Factorial notation : or n! is pronounced as factorial n and is defined as
n(n  1)(n  2)........ 3 . 2 .1 ; if n  N
n! = 
 1 ; if n  0

Note : n! = n . (n – 1)! ; n N

Mathematical meaning of nC r : The term nCr denotes number of combinations of r things choosen
n!
from n distinct things mathematically, nCr = , n N, r  W, 0 r n
(n  r )! r!

n
Note : Other symbols of of nCr are   and C(n, r).
r 
n
Properties related to C r :
n
(i) Cr = nCn – r

Note : If nCx = nCy  Either x = y or x+y=n
n n n+1
(ii) Cr + Cr – 1 = Cr
n
Cr nr 1
(iii) n = r
Cr 1

n n(n  1) n(n  1)(n  2).........(n  (r  1))
n n–1 n–2
(iv) Cr = Cr–1 = Cr–2 = ............. = r (r  1)(r  2).......2 .1
r r(r  1)

(v) If n and r are relatively prime, then nCr is divisible by n. But converse is not necessarily true.

Statement of binomial theorem :
(a + b)n = nC0 anb0 + nC1 an–1 b1 + nC2 an–2 b2 +...+ nCr an–r br +...... + nCn a0 bn

where n  N
n
n
or (a + b) = n  C r a n r b r
r0

Note : If we put a = 1 and b = x in the above binomial expansion, then
or (1 + x)n = nC0 + nC1 x + nC2 x 2 +... + nCr x r +...+ nCn x n
n
n
or (1 + x) = n  Cr x r
r 0

ANCE JEE(MAIN) BINOMIAL THEOREM - 1

1000} Hence.. (b) Any entry in a row is the sum of two entries in the preceding row. 4... 1000 Solution : The general term in the expansion of 91/ 4  81/ 6   is 1000 r r  1  1 1000 r r  4 8 6  Tr+1 = 1000 Cr  9    = 1000 Cr 3 2 22     The above term will be rational if exponent of 3 and 2 are integers 1000  r r It means and must be integers 2 2 The possible set of values of r is {0. one on the immediate left and the other on the immediate right.. Example # 3 : The number of dissimilar terms in the expansion of (1 – 3x + 3x 2 – x 3)20 is (A) 21 (B) 31 (C) 41 (D) 61 Solution : (1 – 3x + 3x 2 – x 3)20 = [(1 – x)3]20 = (1 – x)60 Therefore number of dissimilar terms in the expansion of (1 – 3x + 3x 2 – x 3)20 is 61.... there are two middle terms.. i.. there is only one middle term..  2  th th  n  1 n 1  (b) If n is odd. T r+1 = nCr x n–r yr Note : The rth term from the end is equal to the (n – r + 2)th term from the begining...e.+ nCr x n–r yr + . Regarding Pascal’s Triangle... we note the following : (a) Each row of the triangle begins with 1 and ends with 1.  2   2  Example # 6 : Find the middle term(s) in the expansion of 14 9 2  3 1  x   3a  a    (i) (ii)    2    6   ANCE JEE(MAIN) BINOMIAL THEOREM . 2. (8y)27 3 ! 27 ! 9  4x 5  (ii) 7th term of     5 2x  96 6 3 6  4x   5  9!  4x   5  10500 9 T6 + 1 = C6     = 3!6!     =  5   2x   5   2x  x3 Example # 5 : Find the number of rational terms in the expansion of (91/4 + 81/6)1000. which is   term.. General term : (x + y)n = nC0 x n y0 + nC1 x n–1 y1 + .... number of rational terms is 501 Middle term(s) : th n 2 (a) If n is even.. which are   and   1 terms... n Cn – r + 1 x r – 1 yn – r + 1 9  4x 5  Example # 4 : Find (i) 28th term of (5x + 8y)30 (ii) 7th term of     5 2x  30 ! Solution : (i) T 27 + 1 = 30C27 (5x)30– 27 (8y)27 = (5x)3 ...+ nCn x 0 yn (r + 1)th term is called general term and denoted by T r+1...... ...3 ..

e... then T m and T m+1 will be numerically greatest terms (both terms are 1 b equal in magnitude) Case ....... m – 1) i. then a 1 b (i) T r+1 > T r when r < m (r = 1... m–1... . and proceed as discussed above........ .......... put a = b = 1. .e. the middle term(s) has greatest binomial coefficient. then 1 b n 1 (i) T r+1 > T r when r< (r = 1... T m+2 < T m+1 . In the expansion of (a + b)n If n No. n 1 When a is not an integer (Let its integral part be m).e. T 2 > T 1 . When is an integer (say m)..n ) i... m) a 1 b i. m + 2. T 2 > T 1. Note : (i) In any binomial expansion. m + 2. T m > T m–1 (ii) T r+1 = T r when r = m i. T 3 > T 2... then T m+1 will be the numerically greatest a 1 b term.... (16 – r) 3r 5 16 – r  3r 4r  16 r4 ANCE JEE(MAIN) BINOMIAL THEOREM ....... T m+1 > T m n 1 (ii) T r+1 < T r when r > (r = m + 1..e... T m+1 = Tm (iii) T r+1 < T r when r > m (r = m + 1.. 2.. 3 ... 15 )! |– 5x |  (15  r ) ! r ! (16  r ) ! (r  1) ! 1 5.... T m+2 < T m+1 .. T m+3 < T m+2 . 2. 1 Example # 8 : Find the numerically greatest term in the expansion of (3 – 5x)15 when x = .T n+1 < T n Conclusion : n 1 When a is an integer..... ....e.. n 1 Case ..... T m+3 < T m+2 .5 .. T n +1 < T n Conclusion : n 1 When is not an integer and its integral part is m.n) a 1 b i.. say m.... T 3 > T 2. 3. of greatest binomial coefficient Greatest binomial coefficient n Even 1 Cn/2 n Odd 2 C(n – 1)/2 and nC(n + 1)/2 (Values of both these coefficients are equal ) (ii) In order to obtain the term having numerically greatest coefficient. ...... 5 Solution : Let rth and (r + 1)th be two consecutive terms in the expansion of (3 – 5x)15 Tr + 1  Tr 15 Cr 315 – r (| – 5x|)r  15Cr – 1 315 – (r – 1) (|– 5x|)r – 1 15 )! 3... .

.(1) where Cr denotes nCr (1) The sum of the binomial coefficients in the expansion of (1 + x)n is 2n Putting x = 1 in (1) n C0 + nC1 + nC2 + ...... (11) Which number is larger (1...] Properties of binomial coefficients : (1 + x)n = C0 + C1x + C2x 2 + .. Self practice problems : (8) If n is a positive integer..+ nC x n–r yr + ............+ nC (– 1)n x 0 yn ....2)4000 or 800 Answers : (9) 18 (10) 1..+ nC (–1)r x n–r yr + ... we get (x + y)n + (x – y)n = 2[nC0 x n y0 + nC2 x n – 2 y2 +................ + (–1)n nCn = 0 .. = 2n–1 (4) Sum of two consecutive binomial coefficients n n! n! Cr + nCr–1 = n+1 Cr  L..... we get (x + y)n – (x – y)n = 2[nC1 x n – 1 y1 + nC3 x n – 3 y3 +..... 01..... we get n C0 – nC1 + nC2 – nC3 + ......2)4000..S... then show that 32n + 1 + 2n + 2 is divisible by 7.....H...] (iv) Subtracting (ii) from (i).. + Cnx n .(i) 0 1 r n r 0 (ii) Now replace y  – y we get n n n (x – y) =  Cr (– 1) r x n–r yr = nC x n y0 – nC x n–1 y1 + . = nCr + nCr–1 = + (n  r )! r! (n  r  1)! (r  1)! n! 1 1  n! (n  1) (n  1)! n+1 = (n  r )! (r  1)!    = (n  r )! (r  1)! r(n  r  1) = (n  r  1)! r! = Cr = R.... = nC1 + nC3 + nC5 + .. (10) Find the last digit.. from (2) and (3) n C0 + nC2 + nC4 + .........+ nC x 0 yn .  r n  r  1 ANCE JEE(MAIN) BINOMIAL THEOREM ...... (9) What is the remainder when 7103 is divided by 25 ....... Some standard expansions : (i) Consider the expansion n n n (x + y) =  Cr x n–r yr = nC x n y0 + nC x n–1 y1 + ..+ nCn = 2n ...S.. + Cr x r + ..7 ............. last two digits and last three digits of the number (81)25...... 001 (11) (1.....H......(ii) 0 1 r n r 0 (iii) Adding (i) & (ii)..(3) n r n or  (1) r0 Cr  0 (3) The sum of the binomial coefficients at odd position is equal to the sum of the binomial coefficients at even position and each is equal to 2n–1.(2) n n or  Cr  2n r 0 (2) Again putting x = –1 in (1).

...+ Cn x 2n Multiplying both sides by x x(1 + x 2)n = C0x + C1x 3 + C2x 5 + .. n n n n =  (2r  1) nC 2 =  2. + Cn2 = 2nCn (ii) From the product of (i) and (ii) comparing coefficients of x n – 2 or x n + 2 both sides...... Integrating both sides.... C22 + ....+ (2n + 1) Cn2 = 2n ..............  Cn   n  1  1  2 3 n  1 1 1  C1 C 2 C  – 0 = 0 –  C 0    ..... n ......  Method : By Differentiation (1 + x 2)n = C0 + C1x 2 + C2x 4 + C3x 6 + . 2n – 1Cn – 1 + 2nCn.. nCr = 2n – 1Cn r 0 Hence.......nCn x n ...... = 1.. + Cn x n... 2n – 1Cn + 2nCn = R......... C02 + 3....... + Cn .......... required summation is 2n.+n – 1Cn – 1x 0 .... + Cn – 2 Cn = 2nCn – 2 or 2nCn + 2 (iii) 1...... nC2 + ...S..... C12 + 5.... then prove that (i) C02 + C12 + C22 + ..(ii) Multiplying (i) & (ii) (C0 + 3C1x 2 + 5C2x 4 + ..... Solution : (i) (1 + x)n = C0 + C1x + C2x 2 + ........... + (2n + 1) .... C02 + 3C12 + 5C22 + . + Cnx n) (C0x n + C1x n – 1 + . Method : By Integration (1 + x)n = C0 + C1x + C2x 2 + ... = 2n.(ii) Multiplying (i) and (ii) (C0 + C1x + C2x 2 + .....  ( 1)n1 n  n 1  2 3 n  1 C1 C2 Cn 1 C0 – + – . nC1 + n – 1C1 ... r 1 n–1 Cr – 1 nCr + 2nCn (1 + x)n = nC0 + nC1 x + nC2 x 2 + ..+ (2n + 1) Cn x 2n.. C02 + 3 ... + (2n + 1) Cn x 2n) (C0 x 2n + C1x 2n – 2 + .. + Cn2 = 2nCn (ii) C0C2 + C1C3 + C2C4 + .. C02 + C12 + C22 + .. C0C2 + C1C3 + C2C4 + ..... (nCr)2 + ( Cr )2 r r0 r 0 r0 n =2 ... within the limits – 1 to 0.. nCn = 2n – 1Cn n n1  Cr 1 ................. 0 0  (1  x )n  1   x2 x3 x n1    = C 0 x  C1  C2  ...+ (2n + 1) Cn2 = 2n ................... + Cnx 2n + 1.(ii) Multiplying (i) and (ii) and comparing coeffcients of x n... + (– 1)n = Proved 2 3 n 1 n 1 Example # 14 : If (1 + x)n = C0 + C1x + C2x 2 + . C1x 2 + 5... + Cn x n...(i) (x + 1)n – 1 = n – 1C0 x n – 1 + n – 1C1 x n – 2 + .H. n (1 + x 2)n – 1 ... (iii)  Method : By Summation L.... C02 + 3C12 + 5C22 + .S...... 2x + (1 + x 2)n = C0 + 3.. n–1 C0 .. + (2n + 1) Cn2.... 2n–1Cn + 2nCn....... 2n – 1Cn + 2nCn.... ......... + Cn x 0 ... Proved ANCE JEE(MAIN) BINOMIAL THEOREM ... + Cn) = 2n x 2 (1 + x 2)2n – 1 + (1 + x 2)2n comparing coefficient of x2n...(i) (x + 1)n = C0x n + C1x n – 1+ C2x n – 2 + ...H....(i) (x 2 + 1)n = C0 x 2n + C1 x 2n – 2 + C2 x 2n – 4 + .. Differentiating both sides x .. C2 x 4 + .......r ... Cn2 ............9 ... + n – 1Cn – 1 . C22 + .. + Cnx 0) = (1 + x)2n Comparing coefficient of xn....... C12 + 5.. + Cn – 2 Cn = 2nCn – 2 or 2nCn + 2.+ Cnx n.

.... of a2 b3 c 4 d is 3 4 2! 3! 4! 1! (–1) (–1) = – 12600 11  7 Example # 18 : In the expansion of 1  x   . r3) are (11.e. 71 + 11C4 . y r2 r1  r2 r n 1 ! r2 ! Total number of terms in the expansion of (x + y)n is equal to number of non-negative integral solution of r1 + r2 = n i. 74 + 11C10 .. 6C3 .... 4). 2). 0). r = r2 n! therefore... (5. 73 + 11C8 . 5) Hence the required term is (11)! (11)! (11)! (11)! (11)! (11)! (70) + 9! 1 !1 ! 71 + 7! 2 ! 2 ! 72 + 5! 3 ! 3 ! 73 + 3! 4 ! 4 ! 74 + 1 ! 5 ! 5 ! 75 (11)! (11)! 2! (11)! 4! (11) ! 6! = 1 + 9 ! 2 ! . (x + y)n =  x r1 . 4C2 .. possible set of values of (r1. 2 ! 2 ! 72 + 5 ! 6 ! . (3. r2.e.. 0. n+2–1C2–1 = n+1C1 = n + 1 In the same fashion we can write the multinomial theorem n! (x 1 + x 2 + x 3 + .. 75 5 11 =1+  C 2r ... (1.. 3 ! 3 ! 73 (11) ! 8! (11) ! (10) ! + 3 ! 8 ! . + rk = n i. rk ! 1 Here total number of terms in the expansion of (x 1 + x 2 + . + x k)n is equal to number of non- negative integral solution of r1 + r2 + . 5 ! 5 ! 75 = 1 + 11C2 . 7r r 1 ANCE JEE(MAIN) BINOMIAL THEOREM . r4 = 1 (10 )!  coeff. 1 ! 1 ! 71 + 7 ! 4 ! .... 3).  x 11 (11)! r  7 73 Solution : 1  x   =  r ! r !r ! (1)r1 ( x )r2    x r1  r2 r3 11 1 2 3 x 7 The exponent 11 is to be divided among the base variables 1. x k)n =  x r1 . 2rCr ... find the term independent of x. 3. x r22 . 10C5 . 5... n+k–1Ck–1 Example # 17 : Find the coefficient of a2 b3 c 4 d in the expansion of (a – b – c + d)10 (10 )!  r1 r2 r3 r4 Solution : (a – b – c + d)10 = r ! r ! r ! r ! (a) ( b) ( c ) (d) r1 r2  r3  r4 10 1 2 3 4 we want to get a b c 4 d this implies that 2 3 r1 = 2.. r2 = 3. 2C1 . r3 = 4. (7. Therefore.. 1).. x and in such a way so that we x get x 0.. (9. 1. 4.rk r ! n 1 2 r !.x rkk r1  r2 . 72 + 11C6 .. Multinomial theorem : As we know the Binomial Theorem – n n n n! (x + y)n =  Cr x n–r yr =  (n  r )! r! x n–r yr r 0 r0 putting n – r = r1 .11 . 4 ! 4 ! 74 + 1 ! 10 ! . 8C4 .... 2..

..5  2  (17) If y = + 2!   +   + ..13 ....3.  (17) 4 (18) C  2 2 ANCE JEE(MAIN) BINOMIAL THEOREM . 2 3 2 1..... then find the value of y2 + 2y 5 5 3! 5 3  5x (18) The coefficient of x 100 in is (1  x )2 (A) 100 (B) –57 (C) –197 (D) 53  3 3 Answers : (16) x   .3  2  1.. then find the value of (1  3x )1/ 2  (1  x )5 / 3 ( 4  x )1/ 2 3 5x 1 x  1 1 / 2 (1  3x )1/ 2  (1  x )5 / 3 2 3 1  2  19 x   x Solution : = 1/ 2 =    1   ( 4  x )1/ 2  x 2  6   4 21    4 1  2  19 x  1  x  1  2  x  19 x  x 19 41 =     =   =1– – x =1– x 2  6   8 2  4 6  8 12 24 Self practice problems : (16) Find the possible set of values of x for which expansion of (3 – 2x)1/2 is valid in ascending powers of x.. Example-20 : If x is so small such that its square and higher powers may be neglected..

n  N. If the coefficients of three cosecutive terms in the expansion of (1 + x)n are in the ratio 1 : 7 : 42.. Then find the value of m. Using binomial theorem.P. 31. third and fourth terms in the expansion of (1 + x)n are in A. a and n. If 3rd. 22. Prove that (x2 – y2) + (x – y4) + (x – y6) + .  x   (2 x  1) 3(2x  1) 5(2x  1)  ANCE JEE(MAIN) BINOMIAL THEOREM . Find the value of  (1) r 0 Cr (1  loge 10n )r .. prove that 23n – 7n – 1 is divisible by 49 where n  N. If the coefficients of second. prove that 32n+2 – 8n – 9 is divisible by 64. 3rd and 4th terms in the expansion of (x + a)n are 240. then prove that ar–1 + a2n–r = 0 25....15 . find x. Using binomial theorem. 24. Find the sum of the infinite series 1 +   + .. 23. 10  x 1 x 1  20. 720 and 1080 respectively.2 2. Find n 33.  = loge   . whose nth term is 1 1 1 (i) (ii) (iii) (2n – 1) ! (n  1) ! (n  2) ! 37. 4th.. (r + 1)thand (r + 2)th terms in the expansion of (1 + x)14 are in A. If the coefficient of rth. then find the value of n. Prove that –  – + . Sum the series from n = 1 to n =  ... n mn 3mn 5mn   38... the coefficients of x and x2 are 3 and –6 respectively. Prove that m  m – n  1  m – n 3 1  m – n 5  loge   = 2         .5 e 1 1 1 28.. Find the number of terms in the expansion of (1 + 5 2 x)9 + (1 – 5 2 x)9.... c and d then prove that b 2  ac 5a = c 2  bd 3c 34. 2! 4! 6! 1 4 1 6 x2 y2 29.. If in the expansion of (1 + x)m (1 – x)n. 35. to  = e – e 2! 3! Type (IV) : Very Long Answer Type Questions: [06 Mark Each] n r n 1  r loge 10 30..P. Then find n. b.3 3. Find the coefficient of the term independent of x in the expansion of  2 / 3   x  x  1 x  x 1/ 2  1/ 3 21.. 32. Prove that  x  1  1 1 1  loge   = 2  3  5  . 5th and 6th terms in the expansion of (x + )n be respectively a. If coefficients of three consecutive terms in the expansion of (1 + x)n be 76.4 4.. then find the value of r.... 1. 26. If the 2nd. 36. If in the expansion of (1 – x)2n–1 the coefficient of xr is denoted by ar..95 and 76. 1 1 1 1 4 27.

(1 + x + x 2 +.then m= (1) 1100 (2) 1010 (3) 1001 (4) none 4 3  1  1 A-15. Let the co-efficients of x n in (1 + x)2n & (1 + x)2n  1 be P & Q respectively. then   =  Q  (1) 9 (2) 27 (3) 81 (4) none of these A-18. + x 100) when written in the ascending power of x then the highest exponent of x is (1) 5000 (2) 5030 (3) 5050 (4) 5040 Section (B) : Numerically greatest term. If (1 + by) n = (1+ 8y + 24 y2 +. 4 100 100 A-19.. + (1 + x)30 is : (1) 51C5 (2) 9C5 (3) 31C6  21C6 (4) 30C5 + 20C5 n  1 A-21. 2m is : m 0 (1) 100C47 (2) 100C48 (3) –100C52 (4) –100C100 A-20. 29. (1 + x) (1 + x + x 2) (1 + x + x 2 + x 3). Remainder and Divisibility problems B-1. Given that the term of the expansion (x1/3  x 1/2)15 which does not contain x is 5 m. (3/2)6 (3) 9C5. 29. 29....17 .. The numerically greatest term in the expansion of (2x + 5y)34..... when x = 3/2 is (1) 9C6.. The coefficient of x 52 in the expansion  Cm (x – 3)100–m. 4 (4) – 2... The remainder when 22003 is divided by 17 is : (1) 1 (2) 2 (3) 8 (4) none of these ANCE JEE(MAIN) BINOMIAL THEOREM . The co-efficient of x 5 in the expansion of (1 + x)21 + (1 + x)22 +. (3/2)8 B-2. (3/2)12 (2) 9C3.. 2 (2) 2. 29. 8  1 A-12. when x = 3 & y = 2 is : (1) T21 (2) T22 (3) T23 (4) T24 B-3. The term independent of x in (1 + x)m 1   is  x (1) m – nCn (2) m + nCn (3) m + 1Cn (4) m + nCn+1 A-22.... The term independent of x in the expansion of  x    x   is:  x   x (1)  3 (2) 0 (3) 1 (4) 3 10  x 3  A-16. The term independent of x in the expansion of   2 is-  3 2x   (1) 3/2 (2) 5/4 (3) 5/2 (4) None of these 5 P  Q A-17. – 4 (3) 2. (3/2)10 (4) 9C4. The co-efficient of x in the expansion of (1  2 x 3 + 3 x 5)  1   is :  x (1) 56 (2) 65 (3) 154 (4) 62 5  2 1 A-13. where m N.) where nN then the value of b and n are respectively- (1) 4.. The term containing x in the expansion of  x   is -  x (1) 2nd (2) 3rd (3) 4th (4) 5th A-14.. The numerically greatest term in the expansion of (2 + 3 x)9..

r 1 n Cr 1 is equal to (1) 5 (2n – 9) (2) 10 n (3) 9 (n – 4) (4) none of these  10 10   10 10 CK  C-11.....+ Cn2 (4) None of these C-13. then the co-efficient of x n in the expansion of (1 + x + x 2 + x 3 +.. the value of  r 0 n Cr is : n 1 (1) a (2) a (3) nan (4) 0 2 n 4 n Section (D) : Multinomial Theorem. In the expansion of (1 + x)n 1   .. If (1 + x)n = C0 + C1x + C2x2 +..  50   50   50   50   50   50  n C-9. If an = r 0 n Cr .)2 is (1) n (2) n  1 (3) n + 2 (4) n + 1 D-3 The coefficient of x4 in the expression (1 + 2x + 3x2 + 4x3 + ... The value of r . Sum of the infinite series 1 1 2 1 2  3   + ....+ (n + 1) Cn2 (2) (C0 + C1 +.+     is. If x < 1.. The coefficient of x 6 in series e2x is 4 3 2 (1) (2) (3) (4) none of these 45 45 45 ANCE JEE(MAIN) BINOMIAL THEOREM ..xn then for n odd.... The coefficient of a5 b4 c 7 in the expansion of (bc + ca  ab)8 is (1) 280 (2) 240 (3) 180 (4) 32 D-2. The value of the expression  Cr     ( 1)K is :   r 0     K 0 2K  10 20 (1) 2 (2) 2 (3) 1 (4) 25 n  1 C-12....... the term independent of x is-  x (1) C20 + 2 C12 +....+ Cn2 is equal to (2n)! (2n)! (1) 22n – 2 (2) 2n (3) 2 (4) 2(n! ) (n! )2 n n 1 n  2r C-14..+Cn..... C12 + C32 + C52 +. to  2! 3! 4! e e (1) (2) e (3) (4) none of these 3 2 E-2_.. Binomial Theorem for negative and fractional index D-1.... where nCr =   0  1  1 2    49  50   r  2  100   100   50   50  (1)   (2)   (3)   (4)    50   51   25   25  10 n Cr C-10.. The value of     +     +......19 ..+ Cn)2 (3) C20 + C12 +.up to )1/2 (where | x | < 1) is (1) 1 (2) 3 (3) 2 (4) 5 Section (E) : Exponential and Logarithmic series E-1_...

then : (1) a1 = 20 (2) a2 = 210 (3) a4 = 8085 (4) All of these 6. is equal to : 1 ! ( n  1) ! 2 ! ( n  2) ! 1 ! ( n  1) ! 1 2 2 n1 (1) (2n  1  1) (2) (2n  1) (3) (2  1) (4) none n! n! n! ANCE JEE(MAIN) BINOMIAL THEOREM . 39 C3r 1 39C = 39 Cr 2 1 39 C 3r is : r2 (1) 1 (2) 2 (3) 3 (4) 4 1 1 1 18..... The remainder when 798 is divided by 5 is (1) 4 (2) 0 (3) 2 (4) 3 11.. 79 + 97 is divisible by : (1) 7 (2) 24 (3) 64 (4) 72 13...4n +2 + 5.... Number of elements in set of value of r for which.... The sum   . 18Cr  2 + 2.. + a15x 15.. T 6 (4) T 6 .... The last three digits of the number (27)27 is (1) 805 (2) 301 (3) 503 (4) 803 12... The term in the expansion of (2x – 5)6 which has greatest binomial coefficient is (1) T3 (2) T4 (3) T5 (4) T6 10. + (x + 2)n is : (1) n+1C2(3) (2) n1C2(5) (3) n+1C2(5) (4) nC2(5) 15.... 20 3 1  4.21 . + a20x 20.. if the sum of the coefficients of x 5 and x 10 is 0.T4 (2) T4 (3) T 5 .... n  N. n  N. then n is :  x  (1) 25 (2) 20 (3) 15 (4) None of these 10    x 1 x 1  8. T 7 16.. Let f(n) = 10n + 3. then a10 equals to : (1) 99 (2) 101 (3) 100 (4) 110 n  3 1 7. (x + 3)n + (x + 3)n  1 (x + 2) + (x + 3)n  2 (x + 2)2 +.. The number of values of ' r ' satisfying the equation.. If (1 + 2x + 3x 2)10 = a0 + a1x + a2x 2 +... The term in the expansion of (2x – 5)6 which has greatest numerical coefficient is (1) T3 . In the expansion of  x  2  . 18Cr  1 + 18Cr  20C13 is satisfied : (1) 4 elements (2) 5 elements (3) 7 elements (4) 10 elements 17. Coefficient of x n  1 in the expansion of. The greatest value of the integer which divides f(n) for all n is : (1) 27 (2) 9 (3) 3 (4) None of these 14. (1 + x + x 2 + x 3)5 = a0 + a1x + a2x 2 +... In the expansion of  4  4   6 (1) the number of irrational terms is 19 (2) middle term is irrational (3) the number of rational terms is 2 (4) All of these 5. The coefficient of the term independent of x in the expansion of  2 1  1  is :  3   x  x3 1 x  x2  (1) 70 (2) 112 (3) 105 (4) 210 9.

.. The coefficient of x98 in the expression of (x – 1) (x – 2) . nC1. The coefficient of x19 in the expression (x – 1) (x – 22) (x – 32) .... S i 1 i 2 =  a ...............II : COMPREHENSION Comprehension # 1 Let P be a product given by P = (x + a1) (x + a2) ... i. Various relations among binomial coefficients can be derived by putting  1 i 3  x = 1...... . i j i jk then it can be shown that P = xn + S1 xn – 1 + S2 xn – 2 + ....I : AIEEE PROBLEMS (LAST 10 YEARS) n 1...... The value of nC0 – nC2 + nC4 – nC6 + ........)2 + (nC1 – nC3 + nC5 . (x – 100) must be (1) 12 + 22 + 32 + . + 1002)] 2 (4) None of these Comprehension # 2 We know that if nC0........ If Cr denotes the number of combinations of n things taken r at a time.. + 1002) 1 (3) [(1 + 2 + 3 + .......... ANCE JEE(MAIN) BINOMIAL THEOREM .   2 2  4... + Sn.. + 1002 (2) (1 + 2 + 3 + .. + an = a .. (x – 202) must be (1) 2870 (2) 2800 (3) –2870 (4) – 4100 3...a . PART . S i j 3 =   a . + 100)2 – (12 + 22 + 32 + . (x + an) n and Let S1 = a1 + a2 + ....)2 must be 2 (1) 22n (2) 2n (3) 2 n (4) None of these PART ... must be (1) 2i (2) (1 – i)n – (1 + i)n 1 1 (3) [(1 – i)n + (1 + i)n] (4) [(2 – i)n + (1 – i)n] 2 2 5..... The coefficient of x8 in the expression (2 + x)2 (3 + x)3 (4 + x)4 must be (1) 26 (2) 27 (3) 28 (4) 29 2... then the expression n Cr 1  nCr 1  2  nCr equals [AIEEE 2003] n2 n 2 n 1 n 1 (1) Cr (2) Cr 1 (3) Cr (4) Cr 1 256 2. The number of integral terms in the expansion of  3  5 8 is : [AIEEE 2003] (1) 32 (2) 33 (3) 34 (4) 35... nC2... + 100)2 – (12 + 22 + 32 + ..a .   where i   1.+ C n x n ..a i j k and so on. then (1 + x)n = C0 + C1 x + C2 x2 + C3x3 + ...     .23 ... 1.. – 1.. The value of expression (nC0 – nC2 + nC4 – nC6 + ...... nCn be binomial coefficients...........

–1).. n  5. 105] n Statement-2 :  (r + 1) nCr xr = (1 + x)n + nx (1 + x)n – 1 r 0 (1) Statement-1 is True. S2 =  j 10Cj and S3 = j C. –1). Statement-2 is False (4) Statement-1 is False. –1).. (4.j [AIEEE 2009 (4. – ¼) 120 ] x  x  1 x  x 1/ 2  1/ 3 (1) 4 (2) 120 (3) 210 (4) 310 ANCE JEE(MAIN) BINOMIAL THEOREM . Statement -2 : S1 = 90 × 28 and S2 = 10 × 28. Statement-2 is True 10 10 10 2 10 16.. Statement-2 is a correct explanation for Statement-1. The coefficient of x7 in the expansion of (1 – x – x2 + x3)6 is : [AIEEE 2011 (4. –1). 105] n4 5 6 n5 (1) (2) (3) (4) 5 n4 n5 6 n 15. Statement-2 is false. Statement-2 is a correct explanation for Statement-1. Statement-1 :  (r  1) nCr = (n + 2) 2n–1 r 0 [AIEEE 2008 (3. –1). Statement-2 is True.2013. (1) Statement -1 is true. + 20C10 is [AIEEE 2007 (3. Let S1 =  j ( j – 1) 10 Cj .. –1)/120] (1) an irrational number (2) an odd positive integer (3) an even positive integer (4) a rational number other than positive integers 10  x 1 x 1  19. Statement -2 is true. (2) Statement-1 is True. Statement-2 is true . (3) Statement -1 is false. 120] 1 (1) –20C10 (2) 20 C10 (3) 0 (4) 20C10 2 a 14. 120] (1) 144 (2) – 132 (3) – 144 (4) 132 2n 2n 18. the sum of 5th and 6th term is zero. 144] j 1 j 1 j 1 Statement -1 : S3 = 55 × 29 . (2) Statement-1 is true. (4. 17. The sum of the series 20C0 – 20C1 + 20C2 – 20 C3 + . 13. Statement-2 is True. The term independent of x in expansion of  2 / 3   is : [AIEEE .25 . then equals b [AIEEE 2008 (3. Statement -2 is not a correct explanation for Statement -1. Statement -2 is true. then  3  1 –  3  1 is : [AIEEE-2012. If n is a positive integer. Statement-2 is NOT a correct explanation for Statement-1 (3) Statement-1 is True. In the binomial expansion of (a – b)n . (4) Statement -1 is true.

. 4 3 4 4  e2 = 1 + 2 + 2 + 1·333 + 0.088 + 0. 4 C0 x    4x  3 4 + 4 4 C1( x 3 )3   + 4 4 C 2 ( x 3 )2   e2 = 1 + 2 22 23 2 4 25 26 27   x x       1! 2 ! 3 ! 4 ! 5 ! 6 ! 7 ! +.  x  x =  – 2 3 4   2 3  b  b 1 2 1 3 1 4 + 6C2 (ax)4  –  + 6C3 (ax)3  –     x  x +  x – ( x )  ( x ) – ( x )  .27 . x4 6.e = e 1  2x 3  3  .666 + 0.... We have.  C0 (1 + x)5 (–x2)0 + 5 C1 (1 + x)4 (–x2)1 = a6x6 – 6a5bx4 + 15a4b2x2 – 20a3b3 + 5 C 2 (1 + x)3 (–x2)2 15a 2b 4 6ab 5 b6 5 + – + + C3 (1 + x)2 (–x2)3 + 5 C 4 (1 + x)1 (–x2)4 x2 x4 x6 + 5 C5 (1 + x)0 (–x2)5 4 0 3 1  x    a  +  x    a  4  4   (1 + 5x + 10x2 + 10x3 + 5x4 + x5) 3.. BOARD LEVEL SOLUTIONS x x2 x3 x 4 5.   x  x 2 4 6 Type (II) 6  b 6 + C6 (ax)  –  5  x 7. we get º 1 2 1..  e2x+3  1  1 + C 2 (x + 2)    + 3 C3 (x + 2)0    3 1  x   x  ( 2 x ) ( 2 x ) 2 ( 2 x )3  = e ..  1  1! 2! 3!   [x3 + 8 + 12x + 6x2] + 3. C0 (ax)    + 6C1 (ax)5  –  6 2 x  (2x )3 – (2x )4  . º 1 x2 4x a a2  1  1 = – +6–4 + 2 Ans. loge(1 + 3x + 2x2) = loge[(1 + 2x) (1 + x)] = loge(1 + 2x) + loge(1 + x) º 1 6  b  b  ( 2 x )2 1 1  2.266 4 + C 3 ( x 3 )1   + 4 C4 (x )   3 0 + 0.     x Thus the coefficient of x2 in the expansion of 22  1  1 e2x+3 is e3 = 2e3 + 3(x + 2).... 8. C0  C1   a     x   a     x  + 5[1 + 4x + 6x2 + 4x3 + x4](–x2) + 10[1 + 3x + 3x2 + x3] (x4) 2 2 1 3 + 10[1 + x2 + 2x] (–x6) + 5(1 + x) (x8) + (–x10)  x    a  +  x    a    + 4 C2  4 C3   (1 + 5x + 10x2 + 10x3 + 5x4 + x5)  a  x   a  x  + [–5x2 – 20x3 – 30 x4 – 20x5 – 5x6]       + (10x4 + 30x5 + 30x6 + 10x7)  x  0 4 + [–10 x6 – 10x8 – 20x7] + 5x8 + 5x9 – x10   a  4  + C4   –x + 5x9 – 5x8 – 10x7 + 15x6 + 11x5 10  a  x     – 15x4 – 10x3 + 5x2 + 5x + 1 Ans.025 x x  e2 = 7·378 256 e2 = 7·4 (correct to one decimal place)  x12 + 16 x8 + 96 x4 + 256 + Ans.  2  – 3 2! x  x ANCE JEE(MAIN) BINOMIAL THEOREM ..  C0 (x + 2)    + 3 C1 (x + 2)2    3 3 a2 a x x  x   x 2 3 4..[x2 + 4x + 4]. ex = 1 +    + . to  1! 2! 3 ! 4 ! Type (I) Putting x = 2..   2 3 4  4 5  b  b 5 2 17 4 + C4 (ax)  –  + 6C5 ax  –  6 2 = 3x – x + 3x3 – x + .

. Consider 171995 + 111995 – 71995  (7 + 10)1995 + (1 + 10)1995 – 71995 1 7 7 = 4 x  1 [ C1 + C3 (4x + 1) 1995 1995 1995 1994 1 26  C0 (7) + C1 (7) (10) 1995 1995 1995 + 7 C5 (4x + 1)2 + (4x + 1)3] + . Let = x = t6 C1995 (10)1994 + C1 +.. Consider 2  [ (x + y) = C 0 x +  2  10 n  t 5  t 3  t 3  1 C1 xn–1 y1 + n C 2 xn–2 y2 +..... 7 + C 3 .. 7 .. 7 6   4x  1  +  1  1   7 7 = C 0   + C1   2 2   2  Type (III) 5 2 7 17.....(i) 7 2   2     2   [on comparing n = 17. (4x + 1)2 + ] 27 27 18.. 16..... C1995 (10)1995 + C0 + C1 (10)1 1995  7 7 +..... 7 1 ( 4 x  1)3 + C5 .. C1995 (10)1994] 10 = N(natural number as it is the sum of binomial  t6  1 t6  1     coefficients)  t 4  t2  1 t6  t3   Units place is 1 Ans. + n Cn yn]     t3  ANCE JEE(MAIN) BINOMIAL THEOREM . 1995  1 + 10N [ C1 (7)1994 +..... As Tr+1 = n Cr x nr y r in (x + y)n  1  1 7 6 7 7 4x  1 = C 0   + C1   + 17 2   2 2  7 Now consider  x    x 5 2 7 7  1  4x  1  7  4x  1  C2     +...... + 10196 is a natural number by the 1 1 7 7 virtue of its being the binomial coefficients. 1995 1995 1995 20.. + 100 C100 (100)100 2 2 2   2   Now (1+ 100)100 – 1 = 1 + 104 + 100 C2 104 +. C1995 (10)1995 – 71995 1  1  4 x  1   1  4 x  1        2   2    Now 1995 C0 + 10 4 x  1      [ 1995 C1(7)1994 +........ 2 2   x x10   17  T11 = 710 C10 x 3 Ans... r = 10........ 1995 C1995 (10)1994 1 = [ 7 C1 + 7 C3 (4x + 1) + 7 C5 (4x + 1)2 + (4x + 1)3] + 1995 C1 +..(ii) [(1 + x)n = n C 0 + n C1 x + n C 2 x 2 +........ = 2 4 x  1 [ C1 ... y = ] x 7 10 1 4 x  1   7 17 ( 7 )10 Now   T11 = 17 C10 (x)17–10   = C10 x 7 .... 10196] 2   2    2   2   100  1+ C2 +....+ n Cn x n ] 2   2     2   Using Binomial theorem (i) – (ii) 100 100 4 3 (1 + 100)100 = C0 + C1 (100)1  1 6  1  4x  1  7 4x  1 7 = 2[ C1   + C3     + 100 C2 (100)2 +.... 1995 C1995 (10) 1994 ] 26  It is a polynomial of degree 3.   10  ( t 2  1) ( t 4  t 2  1) ( t 3  1) ( t 3  1)  7  1 4 x  1       n n n  t 4  t2  1 t 3 ( t 3  1)  19.. (4x + 1) 2 2 = 104 N  (101)100 – 1 is divisible by 10.000. x = x .+ C7   .29 .. (101)100 = (1 + 100)100 7  1   4 x  1  +...+ 7 C 7      4 x  1  C2   ... Ans..10200 – 1 2 5 º 7 7 1  4x  1   + 7 C 7  1   4 x  1  ]   = 104 [1 + 100 + C5    C2 +..

 1! 2! 3! = (1 + 7)n – 7n – 1 add both equation. + 1  nx  (1) r 1 r n 1 Cr 1 (1  nx )r 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 n 1 1 1 1  [using n Cr = n 1 Cr 1 ] = 1 – 2  –  – ... we get [ (1 + x)n = n C 0 + n C1x + .............to   r 2 3 4 5  ANCE JEE(MAIN) BINOMIAL THEOREM ..  8  8n  9 = 1 + 8n + 8 + n+1C2 (8)2 + ..  2 2 3 3 4 4 5 n x r n r =1– 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 –   – –   ....    2! 4 ! 6 !  = 1  7n  nC 2 (7)2  nC3 (7)3  ......  nCn (7)n  7n  1 1 1 1 1 Hence 1    + ..... Put x = 1....+ 8n+1 – 8n – 9 Type (IV) = n+1C2 (8)2 + n+1C3 (8)3 + ........  Cn (7) n n 2! 4 ! 6 ! 2 = 7 2 [ nC 2  nC 3 7  .  2! 3 ! 4 !  = 49[ n C 2  nC 3 7  .  nCn 7n2 ]  2 x 4 x6 x8  29......S...to   – 1  2 3 4 5  (2n  1)! 4 = (2n  r )! (r  1)! [(–1)r–1 + (–1)2n–r] = 2 loge 2 – 1 = loge4 – logee = loge  e  = R..2 2....... Consider 32n+2 – 8n – 9 = (32)n+1 – 8n – 9 = (9)n+1 – 8n – 9  2 ( y 2 ) 2 ( y 2 )3  – 1  y  2!  3!  ....  32n+2 – 8n – 9 = 64N n n 1 rx  32n+2 – 8n – 9 is divisible by 64   ( 1)r nCr +  (1) r n Cr r 0 (1  xn)r r 0 (1  nx )r 1 1 1 1 27..... L...5 n r r n  1  1 1  1 1  1 1   (1) r 0 Cr (1  nx )r =  1 –  –  –    –  –  –  + ...    = (1 + 8)n+1 – 8n – 9 ....... We have e = 1 +   +. we get e=1+   + .  = (e + e–1) n 2 n 3 = C 2 (7)  C3 (7)  ..7  ..  n1Cn1(8)n1  8n  9 2 2 n 1 2 n1 = ex – ey = 1 + (n + 1) 8 + C 2 (8)  . to   ( 1)r  1! 2! 3 ! (2n  1)! 1 1 1 = (2n  r )! (r  1)! [0] = 0 proved... to  1......  It is a natural number by the virtue of being a sum of  2! 3 !   binomial coefficients.4 4. =  x     .   23n – 7n – 1 is divisible by 49.. Let loge 10 = x = (8)2 [n+1C2 + n+1C3 (8) + .. (2n  1)! (2n  1)!  1 1 1 1  = (2n  1)! (n  1)! (–1)r –1 + (r  1)! (2n  r )! (–1)2n–r = 2 1 –  –  ........  nCn 7n2 = N  2 y4 y6  –  y    .  Cn (7)  7n  1 n n e + e–1 = 2 1     . + 8n+1 30... same   n 1 = C0  n1C1(8)1  n1C2 (8)2  ... we get e–1 = 1 –  – +......... + n Cn x n ]  1 1 1  n n 1 n 2 = C 0  C1(7)  C 2 (7)  ........S..... + 8n–1 = N r n 1 r x It is a natural number by the virtue of being a sum of Now  (1) r 0 Cr (1  xn)r [ log am = m log a] binomial coefficients. + 8n–1 ] n n+1 C2 + n+1C3 (8) + .  1! 2! 3! 1 1 1 25. Consider 23n – 7n – 1 = (8)n – 7n – 1 Put x = – 1...H... = –  – + .S..H...     26....3 3...   (2n  1)!   1r 1  x x2 x3 x = (2n  r )! (r  1)!   1   28.  nCn 7n2 ]   n C 2  nC 3 .... Proved. 23n – 7n – 1 = 49 N  ( x  ) 2 ( x 2 )3  2 = 1  x  2!  3!  .31 . L....H.....

33 .... 2 = = ii  n C2 x a 720 2 x 2 4 ! (n  5)!  4n  8  3n  9 5(n  3) (n  4 )   ..    a 9  2 ! (n  3 ) !  12.  n (n  1) (n  2)..(ii) 3x Now a = =3 n Cr 1 = 76 .(n  3) 5n  15  4n  16    3 6n (n  1) = x 2 x 2 4 ! (n  5)!  (n  1) 4.( n  2 ) (n  1)  (n – 2) = . (n  5)! 5 !  ii n C 2 x n2 a 2    n ..x4.. =6 = a=  Tr = Cr 1 x n r 1 n  Tr+1 = Cr x r x x 2 2 3x Tr+2 = n Cr 1 x r 1 Put a = in (i)  n C1 xn–1 a1 = 240 2 Now it is given that coefficients of Tr .(v) = 1  1!  2 !  3 ! . =3 i C1 x n1 a1 1 n! n!  1 1  n (n  1) a a    2 x 2! 3 ! (n  3)! (n  4)!  (n  3)3 4(n  2)  = .. i Cr 1 r 76   76n – 76r + 76 = 95 r (i) Sum = t n 1 n = t1 + t2 + t3 + . to   76(n + 1) = 101 r . x = 2 Ans. As Tr+1 = n Cr xn–r yr in (x + y)n & consider (x + a)n v Now = 2 = 2n  8 8 n 2 n n vi c  bd x  [( C 4 )  C 3 .. C 4 ] 35. n2 .. (ii) We have.2 a  2 2 ! (n  3) !  3. Tr+1 and Tr+2 be the three consecutive terms in n=5 the expansion of (1 + x)n From (iv) As Tr+1 = n Cr x r in [1 + x]n a a 3 3x 4.(i) x5 = 32  x = 2 n Cr = 95 ... n ii Cr nr 1 95 Now = n = = 36.  – 2 = e – 2 From (iv) 95n – 76 = 76n + 76    19n = 152 1 n=8 Ans.. b 2  ac n 2 n n x 2n  6  6 [( C 3 )  C 2 . tn = (n  2) !  1 Sum =  (n  2 ) ! n 1 ANCE JEE(MAIN) BINOMIAL THEOREM . Tr+1 and Tr+2 are 76... C 5 ] T2 = n C1 xn–1 a1 = 240 (given) .(iv) 2n x x  2 n! n!  1 1  1   n (n  4 )! (n  5)!  (n  4 )4 5(n  3)  3 ! 4 ! iii C 3 x n 3 a 3 1080 3 . 76 repsectively. 95.... to  = n = = n 1 2! 3! 4! ii Cr r 1 95 95n – 95r = 76r + 76  1 1 1   95n – 76 = 101r ..... Let Tr . 3x 5..(iii)  2  n! n! n! n!   (n  4 )! (n  4)! 4 ! 4 !  (n  3 )! 3 ! .(iv)  n Cr 1 1 1 1 1 iii nr 76 =  (n  1) ! =   + .4 (n  2)...2 =  v  n2 9 3 3n – 3 = 4n – 8 34. = 3  (n – 1).5(n  4)   2 .(v) x 2 x2 (n  4 ) ! iv  n 1 6 4 = 2 20 (n  2)! = ..(i)  n ! n! n! n!  T3 = n C 2 xn–2 a2 = 720 . = 6 ...(iii) 2  n = 5..(ii) 2    x  (n  3)! (n  3)!3 ! 3 ! (n  2)! 2! (n  4)! 4 !  T4 = n C 3 xn–3 a3 = 1080 .. = 240 n 2 Cr 1 = 76 .. a = 3..

(x + 2n+1Cn) is - (1) 2n + 1 (2) 22n+1 – 1 (3) 22n (4) none of these n  r 1  n r 7.... then the greatest term in the expansion for x = 1/2 is : (1) 4th (2) 5th (3) 6th (4) none of these 6 6  2x 2  1  2x 2  1    2   2.      2 2  is a polynomial of degree  2x  1  2x  1  (1) 5 (2) 6 (3) 7 (4) 8 3. then – 1 x (1) r  n / 2 (2) r  (n  2) / 2 (3) r  (n  2) / 2 (4) r  n 6. Co-efficient of x15 in (1 + x +x3 + x4)n is : 5 5 5 3 n n n n n n (1)  C15 3r Cr (2)  C 5r (3)  C 3r (4) C 3  r C 5r r 0 r 0 r 0  r 0 5. (|x| < 1). –2 (4) –1.. 2 (3) 1.35 . Co-efficient of x5 in the expansion of (1 + x2)5 (1 + x)4 is : (1) 40 (2) 50 (3) 30 (4) 60 4..... then c equals to (1) –1. OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS * Marked Questions may have more than one correct option. The coefficient of xn in polynomial (x + 2n+1C0) (x + 2n+1C1).. 1. If the sum of the coefficients in the expansion of (2 + 3cx + c2x2)12 vanishes. Let an  for n  N..3 nC1 + 3.32 nC2 – 4..    Cr Cp 2p  is equal to - r 1   p 0  (1) 4n – 3n + 1 (2) 4n – 3n – 1 (3) 4n – 3n + 2 (4) 4n – 3n n 8. The term independent of x in the expansion of ( 1 + x + 2x2)  3 x  2  is  3x  (1) 10 (2) 2 (3) 0 (4) 6 1000n 11*. If n is even natural and coefficient of xr in the expansion of 1  x n is 2n. The expression.... C0 – 2. + (– 1)k  k    = 0 k   1  k  1 2 k  2    0  (1) nCk (2) n+1Ck (3) n–1Ck (4) n+2Ck ANCE JEE(MAIN) BINOMIAL THEOREM .. If the sum of the co-efficients in the expansion of (1 + 2x)n is 6561....33 nC3 +.. when n! (1) n = 997 (2) n = 998 (3) n = 999 (4) n = 1000 n n n  n  1 n n  2 n n  k  12.+ (–1)n (n +1) nCn 3n is equal to n n  3n  n 3 (1)  1 2   1 (2) 2  n   (3) 2n + 5n 2n (4) (–2)n. –2 4  2 1  10. 2k     – 2k 1     + 2k 2     –.  2   2 9... then an is greatest. 2 (2) 1.