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R ap i d Th erm al A n n eal i n g

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schematically shown in Figure 1. To achieve an accurate measurement. that is. oven enclosure lamp wafer quartz tube wafer sensor lamp sensor infrared filter photo-diode detector Figure 1: Diagram of a typical RTA (rapid thermal annealing) apparatus. A technical difficulty lies in how to properly measure the wafer’s temperature during the process.Introduction In the semiconductor industry. it is important that the temperature sensor not be subjected to direct radiation from the lamp. uses high-power IR lamps as heat sources (Ref. the sensor only receives secondary radiation. Desirable characteristics of the sensor are high accuracy and short response time. the sensor needs to be large enough to register a sufficient amount of radiation but light enough to minimize its own thermal inertia. Furthermore. An RTA apparatus. But first. Since COMSOL Multiphysics gives you control over the geometry. While a high-performance design requires superior electronics. it is held there for a few seconds and then finally quenched. In principle. the radiation reflected and emitted by the silicon wafer. 2 | RAPID THERMAL ANNEALING . As soon as the wafer reaches this temperature. In a nutshell. a parameter optimization of the sensor could be an exciting project. A rapid process step is crucial to avoid too much diffusion of the dopants. the operation involves rapid heating of a wafer from ambient to approximately 1000–1500 K. rapid thermal annealing (RTA) is a semiconductor process step used for the activation of dopants and the interfacial reaction of metal contacts. justify that an infrared sensor is indeed more appropriate than the inexpensive thermocouple. the sensor geometry plays a big role. it is also important to avoid overheating and nonuniform temperature distributions to occur. Ideally positioned. Two commonly used technical solutions are: thermocouples and IR sensors. 1).

+ ∇ ⋅ ( – k ∇T ) = Q ∂t 3 | RAPID THERMAL ANNEALING . This results in a closed cavity so you can omit the geometry of the chamber walls. In this example we are modeling a single-sided heating apparatus. RTA makes use of double-sided heating. the model assumes that this physical system is dominated by radiation and convection cooling. as shown in Figure 2. The convective cooling of the wafer and sensor to the gas (at 400 K) is modeled using a heat transfer coefficient. given below together with its boundary conditions: ∂T ρC p ------. The components in Figure 2 are contained in a chamber with temperature-controlled walls with a set point of 400 K.Model Definition Figure 1 illustrates a typical RTA configuration. The problem is governed by the heat equation. h (in this example set to 20 W/(m2·K)). Furthermore. In many applications. Silicon wafer Heater Sensor Figure 2: The model geometry. in which IR lamps are positioned both above and below the silicon wafer.

Q represents the volume heat source.5 Sensor 27 2000 500 0. Tinf equals the temperature of the convection cooling gas. which is subjected to both convection and radiation. heat leaves the lamp as radiation only. k denotes the thermal conductivity. The thermal material properties are set to those of alumina. The sensor is insulated at all surfaces except the top.( J 0 – σT ) 1–ε Here ρ is the density. 4 | RAPID THERMAL ANNEALING .99 Silicon wafer (silicon) 163 2330 703 0. n is the surface normal vector. J0 is the expression for surface radiosity (further described in the Heat Transfer Module User’s Guide).8 The model simulates the transient temperature field for 10 s of heating. In this case assume that the wafer dissipates energy via radiation and convection on all surfaces. At this surface. ε denotes the surface emissivity. which faces the silicon wafer. The lamp’s other thermal properties are identical to those of copper metal (the default value in the interface). It is insulated on all surfaces except the for the top. the model uses a low heat capacity. The following table summarizes the material properties used in the application: TABLE 1: MATERIAL PROPERTIES MATERIAL k (W/(m·K)) ρ (kg/m3) Cp (J/(kg·K)) ε IR lamp 400 8700 10 0. for the solid (10 J/(kg·K)). and σ is the Stefan-Boltzmann constant. The initial temperature is 400 K for all objects. ε 4 – n ⋅ ( – k∇T ) = h ( T inf – T ) + ----------. The model simulates the lamp as a solid object with a volume heat source of 25 kW. In order to capture the lamp’s transient startup time. Cp.

the temperatures of the wafer and sensor differ significantly: the wafer is at 1800 K. such a reconfiguration is not included in this application. together with the temperature at a point on the sensor top surface (Tsensor) (see Figure 4). After 10 seconds. Notice that the temperature distribution in the wafer with a delta of several hundred degrees is not very uniform. and sensor after 10 s of heating. To investigate how well the sensor’s temperature reflects that of the wafer surface. and that you probably can do much better by reconfiguring the heat source. it is useful to plot the temperature transient of the wafer surface’s centerpoint that faces the lamp (Twafer). However. whereas the sensor is at 1100 K. wafer.Results and Discussion Figure 3 displays the temperature distribution after 10 s of heating. 5 | RAPID THERMAL ANNEALING . Figure 3: Temperatures of the lamp.

The precise amplification factor is system-dependent and subject to a calibration requirement. the IR signal is very sensitive to geometry changes. A scalar amplification allows for a high accuracy measurement of the wafer temperature. Furthermore. The IR signal depends on the emissivity of the wafer. which varies with temperature making the response nonlinear. However.Figure 4: The temperature transients of the lamp. is of little use for regulating this process. positioned anywhere in the sensor domain of Figure 2. This means that the signal of a thermocouple. together with the irradiation power at the sensor surface. 6 | RAPID THERMAL ANNEALING . The sensor temperature reflects that of the silicon wafer poorly. IR-sensor methodology also has drawbacks. The IR-detector transient (Sensirrad) matches the wafer temperature characteristic quite well. the silicon wafer. The bright side is that COMSOL Multiphysics does not set any limits with respect to these phenomena and allows you to study them fully. and the sensor.

choose New. click 3D. 8th Int’l Conf.Reference 1. 4 Click Study. wall T_gas 400[K] 400 K Temperature. 5 In the Select Study tree. click Model Wizard. GLOBAL DEFINITIONS Parameters 1 On the Home toolbar. enter the following settings: Name Expression Value Description T_wall 400[K] 400 K Temperature. 3 Click Add. Application Library path: Heat_Transfer_Module/Thermal_Radiation/ thermal_annealing Modeling Instructions From the File menu. gas h_gas 20[W/(m^2*K)] 20 W/(m²·K) Heat transfer coefficient 7 | RAPID THERMAL ANNEALING . Advanced Thermal Processing of Semiconductors (RTP 2000). NEW In the New window. select Preset Studies>Time Dependent. 6 Click Done.T. locate the Parameters section.” Proc. click Parameters. 2 In the Select Physics tree. MODEL WIZARD 1 In the Model Wizard window. A. 2 In the Settings window for Parameters. 3 In the table. “Methods in Rapid Thermal Annealing. Fiory. select Heat Transfer>Radiation>Heat Transfer with Surface-to-Surface Radiation (ht).

click Cylinder. click Cylinder. lamp rho_lamp 8700[kg/m^3] 8700 kg/m³ Density.5 Surface emissivity. type 0. 2 On the Geometry toolbar. lamp P_lamp 25[kW] 25000 W Total power. 2 In the Settings window for Cylinder. wafer ampl 50 50 Amplification factor.05.8 0.Name Expression Value Description k_sens 27[W/(m*K)] 27 W/(m·K) Thermal conductivity.05. 6 Locate the Position section. lamp e_wafer 0. Cylinder 2 (cyl2) 1 Right-click Cylinder 1 (cyl1) and choose Build Selected. locate the Size and Shape section. sonsor rho_sens 2000[kg/m^3] 2000 kg/m³ Density. lamp Cp_lamp 10[J/(kg*K)] 10 J/(kg·K) Heat capacity. type 1e-3. 3 In the Radius text field. sensor e_sens 0. type 5e-4. sensor Cp_sens 500[J/(kg*K)] 500 J/(kg·K) Heat capacity. 3 In the Settings window for Cylinder. 4 In the Height text field.99 Surface emissivity. type 0.8 Surface emissivity. In the z text field. IR sensor GEOMETRY 1 Cylinder 1 (cyl1) 1 On the Geometry toolbar. click Cylinder. type -5e-2. 4 In the Radius text field. 2 On the Geometry toolbar. locate the Size and Shape section.99 0. 8 | RAPID THERMAL ANNEALING . 5 In the Height text field. Cylinder 3 (cyl3) 1 Right-click Cylinder 2 (cyl2) and choose Build Selected.5 0. sensor k_lamp 400[W/(m*K)] 400 W/(m·K) Thermal conductivity. lamp e_lamp 0.

07. click Add Material to open the Add Material window. select Built-In>Silicon. 9 Click the Zoom Extents button on the Graphics toolbar. 3 Select Domain 2 only. 2 Go to the Add Material window. 3 In the tree. Material 1 (mat1) 1 In the Settings window for Material. MATERIALS In the Model Builder window. 8 Click Build All Objects. In the x text field. 7 In the z text field. 4 Click Add to Component in the window toolbar.01. enter the following settings: Property Name Value Unit Property group Thermal conductivity k k_lamp W/(m·K) Basic Density rho rho_lamp kg/m³ Basic Heat capacity at constant Cp Cp_lamp J/(kg·K) Basic pressure ADD MATERIAL 1 On the Home toolbar. type 0. 5 In the Height text field. MATERIALS Silicon (mat2) 1 On the Home toolbar. 6 Locate the Position section. type IR Lamp in the Label text field. 2 In the Model Builder window. 2 Select Domain 1 only.3 In the Settings window for Cylinder. click Add Material to close the Add Material window. 3 Locate the Material Contents section. under Component 1 (comp1)>Materials click Silicon (mat2). type 0. 4 In the Radius text field. type 1e-3. 9 | RAPID THERMAL ANNEALING . locate the Size and Shape section. type -5e-2. In the table. under Component 1 (comp1) right-click Materials and choose Blank Material.

Heat Flux 1 1 On the Physics toolbar. enter the following settings: Property Name Value Unit Property group Thermal conductivity k k_sens W/(m·K) Basic Density rho rho_sens kg/m³ Basic Heat capacity at constant Cp Cp_sens J/(kg·K) Basic pressure H E A T TR A N S F E R W I T H S U R F A C E . 2 In the Settings window for Initial Values. locate the Heat Flux section. Initial Values 1 1 In the Model Builder window. 5 In the h text field. 5 In the P0 text field. In the table. 3 In the Settings window for Heat Flux. 4 Locate the Material Contents section.S U R F A C E R A D I A T I O N ( H T ) Heat Source 1 1 On the Physics toolbar. 3 Select Domain 3 only. 12. 10 | RAPID THERMAL ANNEALING . 4 Click the Convective heat flux button. locate the Heat Source section.Material 3 (mat3) 1 In the Model Builder window. under Component 1 (comp1)>Heat Transfer with Surface-to-Surface Radiation (ht) click Initial Values 1. click Domains and choose Heat Source. and 16 only. type h_gas. 4 Click the Heat rate button. 2 In the Settings window for Material. type P_lamp. type Sensor in the Label text field. type T_wall in the T text field. 10. 2 Select Domain 1 only.T O . 6 In the Text text field. 3 In the Settings window for Heat Source. type T_gas. click Boundaries and choose Heat Flux. 2 Select Boundaries 5–8. under Component 1 (comp1) right-click Materials and choose Blank Material.

5 Locate the Surface Emissivity section. 5 Locate the Ambient section. choose User defined. click Boundaries and choose Diffuse Surface. You can change this setting by modifying the Opacity subnode under the Solid feature. locate the Ambient section. and 12 only. click Boundaries and choose Diffuse Surface. 10. By default the radiation direction is controlled by the opacity of the domains. 3 In the Settings window for Diffuse Surface. From the ε list. 3 In the Settings window for Diffuse Surface. locate the Surface Emissivity section. In the associated text field. The solid parts are automatically defined as opaque. 4 In the Tamb text field. 5 Locate the Surface Emissivity section. 4 In the Tamb text field. In the associated text field. From the ε list. locate the Ambient section. click Boundaries and choose Diffuse Surface. 4 In the Tamb text field. 2 Select Boundary 4 only. In the Tamb text field. choose User defined. In the associated text field. 8.Diffuse Surface 1 1 On the Physics toolbar. click Boundaries and choose Diffuse Surface. 2 Select Boundary 7 only. Diffuse Surface 4 1 On the Physics toolbar. Diffuse Surface 3 1 On the Physics toolbar. locate the Ambient section. From the ε list. type T_wall. type e_lamp. type T_wall. choose User defined. type e_wafer. type T_wall. type e_sens. choose User defined. 3 In the Settings window for Diffuse Surface. Diffuse Surface 2 1 On the Physics toolbar. In the associated text field. type e_wafer. 6. 5 Locate the Surface Emissivity section. 4 From the ε list. type T_wall. 2 Select Boundary 16 only. 3 In the Settings window for Diffuse Surface. 2 Select Boundaries 5. 11 | RAPID THERMAL ANNEALING .

click to expand the Scale geometry section. Variables 1 1 On the Definitions toolbar. 3 In the table.G_rad is a predefined physics interface variable representing inward radiation. under Component 1 (comp1)>Mesh 1 click Size. 2 Locate the Scale Geometry section. locate the Element Size section. define an integration coupling operator. 12 | RAPID THERMAL ANNEALING . 2 In the Settings window for Variables. 3 From the Geometric entity level list. Free Tetrahedral 1 1 In the Settings window for Free Tetrahedral.MESH 1 In the Model Builder window. under Component 1 (comp1) right-click Mesh 1 and choose Free Tetrahedral. click More Primitives and choose Polygon. Size 1 In the Model Builder window. GEOMETRY 1 Polygon 1 (pol1) 1 On the Geometry toolbar. locate the Variables section. In the z-direction scale text field. sensor ht. 2 In the Settings window for Size. DEFINITIONS In preparation for analyzing and visualizing the results.G_rad) W Irradiated heat effect. a line intersecting the lamp and wafer surfaces will also be useful. click Component Couplings and choose Integration. 4 Select Boundary 16 only. choose Boundary. 4 Click Build All. which includes both surface-to-surface and surface-to-ambient contributions. type 5. 3 From the Predefined list. locate the Source Selection section. enter the following settings: Name Expression Unit Description I_sens intop1(ht. 2 In the Settings window for Integration. In addition. click Local Variables. Integration 1a (intop1) 1 On the Definitions toolbar. choose Extra coarse.

click Add Plot Group and choose 1D Plot Group. 2 In the Model Builder window. locate the Coordinates section. under Study 1 click Step 1: Time Dependent. click Plot. type 0 0. Two other default plots show isothermal contours and radiosity.2 In the Settings window for Polygon. The first default 3D plot shows the temperature at the final time step (Figure 3). 3 In the Settings window for Time-Dependent Solver. 4 From the Times to store list. 6 On the Geometry toolbar. locate the Study Settings section. Reproduce the plots in Figure 4 with the following steps: 1D Plot Group 4 1 On the Home toolbar. 2 In the Settings window for Time Dependent. under Results click Temperature (ht). type 0 0. 4 In the y text field. click Show Default Solver. 3 Click the Zoom Extents button on the Graphics toolbar. 2 On the Temperature (ht) toolbar. 3 In the Times text field. 3 In the x text field. choose Steps taken by solver. expand the Solution 1 (sol1) node. type -5e-2 1e-3. type 0 10. 5 In the z text field. type 0. 13 | RAPID THERMAL ANNEALING . RESULTS Temperature (ht) 1 In the Model Builder window. Solution 1 (sol1) 1 On the Study toolbar. click Compute. then click Time-Dependent Solver 1.001. STUDY 1 Step 1: Time Dependent 1 In the Model Builder window. click Build All. click to expand the Output section. 5 In the associated text field. 5 On the Study toolbar. 4 Select the Relative tolerance check box.

type Temperature (K) / IR-sensor signal. 6 Locate the Legends section. Select the Show legends check box. click Point Graph. From the Color list. 8 In the table. 5 Find the Line markers subsection. under Results click Temperature and Signal Transients. 4 In the Title text area. 14 | RAPID THERMAL ANNEALING . From the Marker list. choose Manual. 3 In the Settings window for Point Graph. choose Blue. 4 From the Color list. Select the x-axis label check box. 4 Locate the Coloring and Style section. type t (s). 2 Select Point 11 only. choose Manual. type Temperature and Signal Transients in the Label text field. click Point Graph. Point Graph 1 1 On the Temperature and Signal Transients toolbar. choose Cycle. choose Manual. Point Graph 2 1 On the Temperature and Signal Transients toolbar. enter the following settings: Legends T_lamp Temperature and Signal Transients In the Model Builder window. 5 Locate the Plot Settings section. locate the Coloring and Style section. From the Title type list. choose Blue. 5 Find the Line markers subsection. choose Square. 3 Click to expand the Title section. 2 Select Point 10 only. From the Marker list. 6 In the associated text field. click to expand the Coloring and style section. 7 From the Legends list. 7 From the Legends list. 7 Select the y-axis label check box.2 In the Settings window for 1D Plot Group. Select the Show legends check box. 8 In the associated text field. 3 In the Settings window for Point Graph. 6 Click to expand the Legends section. type Temperature and signal transients.

choose Red. enter the following settings: Legends T_sensor Temperature and Signal Transients In the Model Builder window. locate the y-Axis Data section. choose Dashed. 5 Find the Line style subsection. choose Manual. 2 In the Settings window for Global. 3 In the Settings window for Point Graph. Point Graph 3 1 On the Temperature and Signal Transients toolbar. choose Circle. 6 Click to expand the Legends section. From the Marker list. 7 From the Legends list. 15 | RAPID THERMAL ANNEALING . From the Line list. 5 Find the Line markers subsection. under Results click Temperature and Signal Transients. From the Color list. under Results click Temperature and Signal Transients. click Point Graph. From the Legends list. 2 Select Point 23 only. choose Manual. Select the Show legends check box. 3 In the table. Locate the Coloring and Style section.8 In the table. locate the Coloring and Style section. 6 Locate the Legends section. enter the following settings: Expression Unit Description I_sens*ampl W 4 Click to expand the Coloring and style section. Global 1 1 On the Temperature and Signal Transients toolbar. choose Blue. 8 In the table. enter the following settings: Legends T_wafer Temperature and Signal Transients In the Model Builder window. click Global. 4 From the Color list.

7 In the table. click Plot. enter the following settings: Legends I_sensor 8 On the Temperature and Signal Transients toolbar. 16 | RAPID THERMAL ANNEALING .