Components and Descriptions

CHAPTER-3

COMPONENTS AND DESCRIPTION

The major components involved in the fabrication of the manually

operated paper recycling machine are as follows.

 Solenoid valve

 Frame,

 Hopper,

 Pulley

 BLDC motor

 Heating chamber

 DC motor

SOLENOID VALVE

The directional valve is one of the important parts of a pneumatic

system. Commonly known as DCV, this valve is used to control the

direction of air flow in the pneumatic system. The directional valve does

this by changing the position of its internal movable parts.

This valve was selected for speedy operation and to reduce the

manual effort and also for the modification of the machine into automatic

Department of Mechanical Engineering
Components and Descriptions

machine by means of using a solenoid valve. A solenoid is an electrical

device that converts electrical energy into straight line motion and force.

These are also used to operate a mechanical operation which in turn

operates the valve mechanism. Solenoids may be push type or pull type.

The push type solenoid is one in which the plunger is pushed when the

solenoid is energized electrically. The pull type solenoid is one in which

the plunger is pulled when the solenoid is energized.

The name of the parts of the solenoid should be learned so that they

can be recognized when called upon to make repairs, to do service work

or to install them.

Figure 1SOLENOID VALVE

The solenoid valve has 5 openings. This ensure easy exhausting of

5/2 valve. The spool of the 5/2 valve slide inside the main bore according

Department of Mechanical Engineering
to spool position; the ports get connected and disconnected. The working

principle is as follows.

Position-1

When the spool is actuated towards outer direction port ‘P’ gets

connected to ‘B’ and ‘S’ remains closed while ‘A’ gets connected to ‘R’.

Poisition-2

When the spool is pushed in the inner direction port ‘P’ and ‘A’

gets connected to each other and ‘B’ to ‘S’ while port ‘R’ remains closed.

BLDC MOTOR

Brushless DC electric motor (BLDC motors, BL motors) also

known as electronically commutated motors (ECMs, EC motors) are

synchronous motors that are powered by a DC electric source via an

integrated inverter/switching power supply, which produces an AC

electric signal to drive the motor. In this context, AC, alternating current,

does not imply a sinusoidal waveform, but rather a bi-directional current

with no restriction on waveform. Additional sensors and electronics

control the inverter output amplitude and waveform (and therefore

percent of DC bus usage/efficiency) and frequency (i.e. rotor speed).
Figure 2BLDC MOTOR

The rotor part of a brushless motor is often a permanent

magnetsynchronous motor, but can also be aswitched

[citation needed]
reluctancemotor,orinduction motor .

Brushless motors may be described as stepper motors; however, the

term "stepper motor" tends to be used for motors that are designed

specifically to be operated in a mode where they are frequently stopped

with the rotor in a defined angular position. This page describes more

general brushless motor principles, though there is overlap.

VARIATIONS IN CONSTRUCTION

Brushless motors can be constructed in several different physical

configurations: In the 'conventional' (also known asinrunner)

configuration, the permanent magnets are part of the rotor. Three stator

windings surround the rotor. In theoutrunner (or external-rotor)

configuration, the radial-relationship between the coils and magnets is
reversed; the stator coils form the center (core) of the motor, while the

permanent magnets spin within an overhanging rotor which surrounds the

core. The flat or axial flux type, used where there are space or shape

limitations, uses stator and rotor plates, mounted face to face. Outrunners

typically have more poles, set up in triplets to maintain the three groups

of windings, and have a higher torque at low RPMs. In all brushless

motors, the coils are stationary.

There are two common electrical winding configurations; the delta

configuration connects three windings to each other (series circuits) in a

triangle-like circuit, and power is applied at each of the connections. The

Wye (Y-shaped) configuration, sometimes called a star winding, connects

all of the windings to a central point (parallel circuits) and power is

applied to the remaining end of each winding.

A motor with windings in delta configuration gives low torque at

low speed, but can give higher top speed. Wye configuration gives high

torque at low speed, but not as high top speed.

Although efficiency is greatly affected by the motor's construction,

the Wye winding is normally more efficient. In delta-connected windings,

half voltage is applied across the windings adjacent to the driven lead

(compared to the winding directly between the driven leads), increasing

resistive losses. In addition, windings can allow high-frequency parasitic
electrical currents to circulate entirely within the motor. A Wye-connected

winding does not contain a closed loop in which parasitic currents can

flow, preventing such losses.

HEATING CHAMBER

Figure 3HEATING CHAMBER

A Heating chamber is a device used for high-temperature heating.

The name derives from Greek word fornax, which means oven.

In American English and Canadian English usage, the term furnace

on its own refers to the household heating systems based on a central

furnace (known either as a boiler, or a heater in British English), and

sometimes as a synonym for kiln, a device used in the production of

ceramics. In British English, a furnace is an industrial furnace used for

many things, such as the extraction of metal from ore (smelting) or in oil
refineries and other chemical plants, for example as the heat source for

fractional distillation columns.

The term furnace can also refer to a direct fired heater, used in

boiler applications in chemical industries or for providing heat to

chemical reactions for processes like cracking, and is part of the Standard

English names for many metallurgical furnaces worldwide.

The heat energy to fuel a furnace may be supplied directly by fuel

combustion, by electricity such as the electric arc furnace, or through

induction heating in induction furnaces.

FRAME

A frame is a structural system that supports other components of a

physical construction Frame. Stand is made up of mild steel material. The

whole above mentioned parts are fixed in to this frame stand with a

suitable arrangement.

PULLEY

A pulley is a wheel on an axle or shaft that is designed to support

movement and change of direction of a taut cable or belt along its

[1]
circumference. Pulleys are used in a variety of ways to lift loads, apply

forces, and to transmit power. In nautical contexts, the assembly of wheel,

axle, and supporting shell is referred to as a "block."
Figure 4 PULLEY

A pulley may also be called a sheave or drum and may have a

groove or grooves between two flanges around its circumference. The

drive element of a pulley system can be a rope, cable, belt, or chain that

runs over the pulley inside the groove or grooves.

Hero of Alexandriaidentified thepulleyas one of

[2]
sixsimplemachinesused to lift weights. Pulleys are assembled to form

ablockand tacklein order to providemechanical advantageto apply large

forces.Pulleys are also assembled as part of belt and chain drives in order

to transmit power from one rotating shaft to another
DC MOTOR

An electric motor is a machine which converts electrical energy to

mechanical energy. Its action is based on the principle that when a

current-carrying conductor is placed in a magnetic field, it experiences a

magnetic force whose direction is given by Fleming’s left hand rule.

When a motor is in operation, it develops torque. This torque can

produce mechanical rotation. DC motors are also like generators

classified into shunt wound or series wound or compound wound motors.

FLEMING’S LEFT HAND RULE

Keep the force finger, middle finger and thumb of the left hand

mutually perpendicular to one another. If the fore finger indicates the

direction of magnetic field and middle finger indicates direction of

current in the conductor, then the thumb indicates the direction of the

motion of conductor.

PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION OF DC MOTOR

Figure I show a uniform magnetic field in which a straight

conductor carrying no current is placed. The conductor is perpendicular to

the direction of the magnetic field.
In figure II the conductor is shown as carrying a current away from

the viewer, but the field due to the N and S poles has been removed.

There is no movement of the conductor during the above two conditions.

In figure III the current carrying conductor is placed in the magnetic field.

The field due to the current in the conductor supports the main field

above the conductor, but opposes the main field below the conductor.

Figure 5PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION OF DC MOTOR

The result is to increase the flux density in to the region directly

above the conductor and to reduce the flux density in the region directly

below the conductor. It is found that a force acts on the conductor, trying

to push the conductor downwards as shown by the arrow. If the current
in the conductor is reversed, the strengthening of flux lines occurs below

the conductor, and the conductor will be pushed upwards (figure-IV).

Now consider a single turn coil carrying a current as shown in the above

figure. in view of the reasons given above, the coil side A will be forced

to move downwards, whereas the coil side B will be forced to move

upwards. The forces acting on the coil sides A and B will be of same

magnitude. But their direction is opposite to one another. As the coil is

wound on the armature core which is supported by the bearings, the

armature will now rotate. A simplified model of such a motor is shown in

figure VI. The conductors are wound over a soft iron core. DC supply is

given to the field poles for producing flux. The conductors are connected

to the DC supply through brushes. Let's start by looking at the overall

plan of a simple 2-pole DC electric motor. A simple motor has 6 parts, as

shown in the diagram below.

 An armature or rotor

 A commutator

 Brushes

 An axle

 A field magnet

 A DC power supply of some sort
Figure 6 simple motor

An electric motor is all about magnets and magnetism: a motor

uses magnets to create motion. If you have ever played with magnets you

know about the fundamental law of all magnets: Opposites attract and

likes repel. So if you have 2 bar magnets with their ends marked north

and south, then the North end of one magnet will attract the South end of

the other. On the other hand, the North end of one magnet will repel the

North end of the other (and similarly south will repel south). Inside an

electric motor these attracting and repelling forces create rotational

motion.

In the diagram above and below you can see two magnets in the

motor, the armature (or rotor) is an electromagnet, while the field magnet

is a permanent magnet (the field magnet could be an electromagnet as

well, but in most small motors it is not to save power).
ELECTROMAGNETS AND MOTORS

To understand how an electric motor works, the key is to

understand how the electromagnet works. An electromagnet is the basis

of an electric motor. You can understand how things work in the motor by

imagining the following scenario. Say that you created a simple

electromagnet by wrapping 100 loops of wire around a nail and

connecting it to a battery. The nail would become a magnet and have a

North and South Pole while the battery is connected.

Now say that you take your nail electromagnet, run an axle through

the middle of it, and you suspended it in the middle of a horseshoe

magnet as shown in the figure below. If you were to attach a battery to the

electromagnet so that the North end of the nail appeared as shown, the

basic law of magnetism tells you what would happen: The North end of

the electromagnet would be repelled from the north end of the horseshoe

magnet and attracted to the south end of the horseshoe magnet.

The South end of the electromagnet would be repelled in a similar

way. The nail would move about half a turn and then stop in the position

shown.
Figure 7 SIMPLE ELECTROMAGNETIC MOTORS

You can see that this half-turn of motion is simple and obvious

because of the way magnets naturally attract and repel one another. The

key to an electric motor is to then go one step further so that, at the

moment that this half-turn of motion completes, the field of the

electromagnet flips. The flip causes the electromagnet to complete

another half-turn of motion.

You flip the magnetic field simply by changing the direction of the

electrons flowing in the wire (you do that by flipping the battery over). If

the field of the electromagnet flipped at just the right moment at the end

of each half-turn of motion, the electric motor would spin freely.
THE ARMATURE

Figure 8 ARMATURE

The armature takes the place of the nail in an electric motor. The

armature is an electromagnet made by coiling thin wire around two or

more poles of a metal core. The armature has an axle, and the commutator

is attached to the axle. In the diagram above you can see three different

views of the same armature: front, side and end-on. In the end-on view

the winding is eliminated to make the commutator more obvious. You can

see that the commutator is simply a pair of plates attached to the axle.

These plates provide the two connections for the coil of the

electromagnet.
THE COMMUTATOR AND BRUSHES

Figure 9 THE COMMUTATOR AND BRUSHES

The "flipping the electric field" part of an electric motor is

accomplished by two parts: the commutator and the brushes. The

diagram at the right shows how the commutator and brushes work

together to let current flow to the electromagnet, and also to flip the

direction that the electrons are flowing at just the right moment. The

contacts of the commutator are attached to the axle of the electromagnet,

so they spin with the magnet. The brushes are just two pieces of springy

metal or carbon that make contact with the contacts of the commutator.
PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER

When you put all of these parts together, what you have is a

complete electric motor,

In this figure, the armature winding has been left out so that it is

easier to see the commutator in action. The key thing to notice is that as

the armature passes through the horizontal position, the poles of the

electromagnet flip. Because of the flip, the North pole of the

electromagnet is always above the axle so it can repel the field magnet's

North pole and attract the field magnet's South pole.

If you ever take apart an electric motor you will find that it contains

the same pieces described above: two small permanent magnets, a

commutator, two brushes and an electromagnet made by winding wire

around a piece of metal. Almost always, however, the rotor will have
three poles rather than the two poles as shown in this article. There are

two good reasons for a motor to have three poles:

 It causes the motor to have better dynamics. In a two-pole motor, if

the electromagnet is at the balance point, perfectly horizontal

between the two poles of the field magnet when the motor starts;

you can imagine the armature getting "stuck" there. That never

happens in a three-pole motor.

 Each time the commutator hits the point where it flips the field in a

two-pole motor, the commutator shorts out the battery (directly

connects the positive and negative terminals) for a moment. This

shorting wastes energy and drains the battery needlessly. A three-

pole motor solves this problem as well.

 It is possible to have any number of poles, depending on the size of

the motor and the specific application it is being used in.
HOPPER

Figure 10 HOPPER'

Hopper is a storage container used to dispense granular materials

through the use of a chute to restrict flow, sometimes assisted by

mechanical agitation. A hopper may also used as a storage container that

is used to collect granular materials designed to easily dispense these

materials through the use of gravity. In other words, a hopper is a large,

pyramidal shaped container used in industrial processes to dispense

particulate matter that is usually fed manually. Most hoppers are made of

steel and can be of any size as per the requirement. The purpose of the

hopper in our project is to dispense the waste papers to the sieve drum.

The hopper delivers the materials fed into it at a slower rate. This is

because of its pyramidal shape.A hopper can be used as a container, as a
crafting ingredient, and as a Redstone component.A hopper has an

"output" tube at its bottom that can face down or sideways and provides

visual feedback of which direction the hopper will output items to if a

container is present.

STIRRER

A stirrer or a mixer is a device that is used as astir bar (also called

"flea") immersed in a liquid to spin very quickly, thus stirring it. It is

simply a rod with a flat bottom usually made of glass material used to mix

up two different materials when they are liquefied. Magnetic stirrers are

also available at the market. Magnetic stirrers are often used in chemistry

and biology laboratories, where they can be used inside hermetically

closed vessels or systems, without the need for complicated rotary seals.
Figure 11 STIRRER

They are preferred over gear-driven motorized stirrersbecause they

are quieter, more efficient, and have no moving external parts to break or

wear out (other than the simple bar magnet itself). Magnetic stir bars

work well in glass vessels commonly used for chemical reactions, as glass

does not appreciably affect a magnetic field. The limited size of the bar

means that magnetic stirrers can only be used for relatively small

experiments, of 4 liters or less. Stir bars also have difficulty in dealing

withviscous liquids or thick suspensions. For larger volumes or more

viscous liquids, some sort of mechanical stirring is typically needed.

Because of its small size, a stirring bar is more easily cleaned and

sterilized than other stirring devices. They do not require lubricants which

could contaminate the reaction vessel and the product.
PULPER

Figure 12. PULPER

In agriculture, a pulper is a machine designed to remove pulp (I.e.

the soft flesh from agriculturalproduce). For example, in coffee growing

the ripe, red cherries are picked from the coffee bushes and prior to

fermentation and later drying the soft pulp needs to be removed

(otherwise a potentially uncontrollable fermentation/rot will occur). In the

case of coffee the pulping is normally done in a pulper that is either hand-

cranked or engine-driven; the beans are emptied into an elevated

hopperand then dropped through a narrow slot within which they come

into contact with a rotating spiked drum that removes the pulp or flesh.

Again in the case of coffee, the sticky beans that result from this process

then have to be washed, fermented, washed again and dried prior to

further processing (milling to remove the parchment) and then roasting.
In the paper industry, a pulper is a machine that is used for crushing

virgin pulp (slabs or sheets), wastepaper processing, and machine broke,

deinking and pulp purification. It disintegrates the fiber by the action of

mechanical operation.Post-consumer waste is re-pulped, in one of the

processes involved in recycling it.

We use pulper in our project in order to recycle the waste papers. In

the waste paper processing technique, the waste papers must be crushed first

in order to make them into granule particles and to crush the virgin pulp and

then the other processing techniques are carried out. The pulper is located

inside a drum it rotated with the help of a rotating handle. This can be made

automated by replacing the handle with that of the motor, but it increases the

cost of the project.