CDB 3052

Chemical Engineering Laboratory II
Jan 2017

Experiment : 1 - CSTR DYNAMIC
Group : D1
Group Members : Suriaraj Krishnan A/L Raja Segaran 20994
Muhammad Najib Bin Nordin 21397
Nik Nurul Ain Nabilah Binti Nik Ab Razak 21039
Kelly Liew Chung Shi 21018
Neisha Zulfani 22311
Lab Instructor : Zeeshan Rashid
Date of Experiment : 16th February 2017

TABLE OF CONTENT

NO CONTENTS PAGES

1 INTRODUCTION 3

2 LITERATURE REVIEW & THEORY 4

3 OBJECTIVES 7

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES, POSSIBLE
4 8
ERRORS AND PREVENTION

5 RESULTS & DISCUSSION 12

7 CONCLUSION 16

8 APPENDICES 17

9 REFERENCES 29

INTRODUCTION

2

This experiment is “Continuous Stirred Tank React(CSTR) Dynamic”, which
relate to the the non-steady state or dynamic behavior of CSTRs. Three CSTRs are
connected in series complete with pumps, tanks and circulation pumps. The model
used is SOLTLEQ CSTR Dynamics (Model BP 107) that are designed to follow
dynamics of simplest classic case of well-mixed, multi-staged process operation.
Measurement of conductivity for each of the three reactors can be done by the
instrument provided and the result can be recorded automatically using software
related. Step change input and impulse are the manipulated variables which already
set within the model. The deionised water from the second tank will flow through to
fill up the three reactors. The flow rate of the deionised water is set to 218 ml/min to
prevent overflow. Readings are taken at time, t 0 afer the conductivity readings are
stable enough. Then, flow of sodium chloride solution, NaCl are allowed and the auto
record at a interval of 60s is started at the same time. The readings are taken until the
values of conductivity for all the reactors reach equilibrium (not fluctuating). Based
on the result obtained, two types of graph has been plotted, concentration, C NaCl

(mol/L) against time, t(min) and resident time, (1/min) against time, t(min).
The other part of this experiment is related to dead time coil. CSTR and dead
time coil are assemble in parallel. The pulse input are still introduces (only allow the
flow of NaCl for 2 minutes) in this case but the fraction of liquid passes through the
coil will be varies. Fully flow and partially flow of liquid through the dead coil are
adjusted through valve. Again, two types of graph are plotted to observe the effect of
the fraction of flow through dead time coil on the variables.

LITERATURE REVIEW & THEORY

3

CA0 CA1 CA2 T1 CA2 T2 T3 Figure 1: CSTRs in series which each tank have different concentration over time The transient response of tank in series to step change input and transient input will be different. The fundamental balances whose values provide the information about the dynamics of the CSTR system includes the total mass balance. This response of concentration over time is an indication of the ideality of the system. liquid phases. Below are the step change input and their responses. the study has been done on the CSTR system response to a change in concentration. Meanwhile the supply for solute of second case(pulse input) only happen for a certain period of time. each tank behaves as an ideal CSTR. The solute will be supply continuously for the first case(step change input). For equally sized tank-in-series.Reactor is the main equipment in most chemical process to turn raw materials into product. lead to a continuous increase in concentation in each tanks until it reach equilibrium state. CSTR can handle materials with different phases. This means the feed assumes a uniform composition throughout the reactor. non-steady state behavior of process equipment has to be investigate especially when an automatic control system is used for the process. However. gas-liquid reactions. causing diminishing of concentration after pulsing. Continuous stirred tank reactor(CSTR) that in series arrangement is actually having same function as plug flow reacor. It is also used when agitation is required while series configurations are for different concentration streams. Thus. exit stream has the same composition as in the tank. adn solid-liquid reactions. 4 . It is design for continuos process and run at steady state. Different process with different condition requires different type of reactors in order to reach certain specification. total energy balance and total momentum balance.

below are the pulse input and their responses. When different flow of liquid(fully or partial flow) through the dead time coil. Figure 2: Step change input Figure 3: Step change response Then. The cumulative distribution. F(t) is represented by an exit age distribution E (t). They are both continuous reactors. with raw materials fed in and product coming out continuously. The function E(t) has the units of time−1 and is defined as: C (t ) F (t )  C0 5 . it will affect the concentration of the product at certain period. Figure 4: Pulse change input Figure 5: Pulse change response Dead time coil is actually Plug Flow Reactor which is actually similar to CSTR connect in series.

The residence time distribution (RTD). The area under the graph represents the RTD of the reactor as indicated by the formula: t1 0 E (t )dt The average residence time is given by the first moment of the age distribution:  0 t. E(t) is defined as:  0 E (t )dt  1 In order to easily determine the RTD of reactor. the graph of E(t) against time.E (t )dt  t 6 .

The experiment was divided into 3 parts: Experiment A: The Effect of Step Change Input In this experiment a step change input would be introduced and the progression of the tracer will be monitored via the conductivity measurements in all the three reactors and after the dead time coil. Experiment B: The Effect of Pulse Input In this experiment a pulse input would be introduced and the progression of the tracer will be monitored via the conductivity measurements in all the three reactors and after the dead time coil. Then the progression of the tracer will be monitored via the conductivity measurement at the exit. 7 . To determine the concentration response to a step change. 2. the modelling of non-ideal reactor can be accomplished by assembling the CSTR and dead time coil in parallel. A pulse input would be introduced in such a way that a fraction of it passes through the coil.OBJECTIVES 1. To determine the concentration response to a pulse. Experiment C: The investigation on Dead Time Coil In this experiment.

All liquids in each reactor need to be drained by opening valves V11.025M sodium chloride solution needs to be prepared in feed tank T2. 1. 11. In step 9. 10-L of 0. Then. valve V6 has to be closed 4. refer to the DAS operating procedure. Then. Note: For operations with SOLDAS Data Acquisition System. 10. A continuous pumping of the de-ionized water is needed until all conductivity readings (CT1. Stirrers 1. Note: It is important to maintain the liquid level in each reactor. Continues recording of the conductivity values needs to be done until all readings are almost constant. and V13. Each reactor volume is to be recorded. Needle valve V4 is to be adjusted to obtain a flowrate of approximately 150 ml/min on flowmeter FT1. Conductivity values will be recorded automatically and a table will be generated. Switching off pump P2 followed by valve V4 closing. pump P2 needs to be switched on while the timer is started simultaneously. 6. 7. Pump P1 is to be switched off followed by a quick setting of the 3-way valve V3 position towards pump P2. 8. The flowrate needs to be adjusted if necessary. The conductivity values are to be recorded at time t0. 2. All the conductivity values (CT1. CT3) are stable at low values.EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES. 3. 2 and 3 are to be switched on with the speed of approximately 200 rpm. The 3-way valve V3 position is set towards pump P1. 5. V12. SOLTEQ CSTR DYNAMICS (Model: BP 107) 17 8 . 13. click the START button. POSSIBLE ERRORS AND PREVENTION Experiment A: The Effect of Step Change Input In this experiment a step-change input would be introduced and the progression of the tracer will be monitored via the conductivity measurements in all the three reactors and after the dead time coil. 9. 12. valve V5 has to be opened followed by switching the Pump P1 on. CT2. The feed tank T1 is to be filled up with deionised water. CT2. It is important to make sure that there is no air bubbles trapped in the piping. CT3) need to be recorded at a suitable interval in an appropriate table. To initially fill up all three reactors with deionised water.

It is important to make sure that there is no air bubbles trapped in the piping. Then. V12 and V13. 5. All conductivity values (CT1. CT2. 7. 14. Process is continued by switching on pump P1 and letting it run till the end of experiment. valve V6 has to be closed 4. Then. The 3-way valve V3 position is set towards pump P1. P1 pump needs to be switched off followed by closing the valve V4. Pump P2 is let to operate for 2 minutes before switching off. Then. 6. 3. Needle valve V4 needs to be adjusted until a flowrate of approximately 150 ml/min on flowmeter FT1 is obtained. Valve V5 is to be opened followed by switching on Pump P1 to fill up all three reactors with deionised water.Experiment B: The Effect of Pulse Input In this experiment a pulse input would be introduced and the progression of the tracer will be monitored via the conductivity measurements in all the three reactors and after the dead time coil. Stirrers 1. 8. 11.CT3) are stable at low values. 13. the timer needs to be started simultaneously after switching on pump P2 10. Note: For operations with SOLDAS Data Acquisition System. Tank T1 is to be filled up with deionised water. Pump P1 is to be switched off. 1. Note: It is important to maintain the liquid level in each reactor. refer to the DAS operating procedure. 9. Conductivity values will 9 . 12. Then. 2. a quick switching is required to adjust the 3-way valve V3 position back towards pump P1. A continuous pumping of the deionised water is required until all conductivity readings (CT1. followed by a quick setting the 3-way valve V3 position towards pump P2. All liquids in reactors is to be drained by opening valves V11.025M sodium chloride solution needs to be prepared in feed tank T2. In step 9. A continuous recording the conductivity values is required until all readings are almost constant.CT3) are to be recorded at a suitable interval in an appropriate table. click the START button. About 10-L of 0. each reactor volume needs to be recorded. The flowrate needs to be adjusted if necessary. CT2. 2 and 3 are to be switched on and adjusted until the stirrers speed reach approximately 200 rpm. These conductivity values are to be recorded at time t0.

Pump P1 is to be switched off. Pump P1 needs to be switched on in order to allow the liquid to flow slowly through the coil for few minutes to bleed off any air trapped. 9. Valve V10 is to be closed followed by opening the valve V15. be recorded automatically and a table will be generated. A pulse input would be introduced in such a way that a fraction of it passes through the coil. a quick switching is required to adjust the 3-way valve V3 position back towards pump P1. 1. 10. Then. Needle valve V4 is to be adjusted to obtain a flowrate of approximately 150 ml/min on flowmeter FT1. 2. SOLTEQ CSTR DYNAMICS (Model: BP 107) 18 Experiment C: The Investigation on Dead Time Coil In this experiment the modelling of real (non-ideal) reactor can be accomplished by assembling the CSTR and dead time coil in parallel. 7. About 10-L of 0. A continuous pumping the de-ionized water is required until conductivity reading (CT3) is stable at low values. The 3-way valve V3 position is set towards pump P1. 6. followed by a quick setting the 3-way valve V3 position towards pump P2. 8. 12. The experiment is started by filling the feed tank T1 with de-ionized water. 30 sec) in an appropriate table.025M sodium chloride solution needs to be prepared in feed tank T2. the progression of the tracer will be monitored via the conductivity measurements at the exit. Process is continued by switching on pump P1 and letting it run till the end of experiment. 5.g. 4. Then. Stirrers 1. Note: It is important to maintain the liquid level in each reactor. It is important to make sure that there is no air bubbles trapped in the piping. Pump P2 is let to operate for 2 minutes before switching off. The conductivity value is to be recorded at time t0. Conductivity value (CT3) is to be recorded at a suitable interval (e. The flowrate needs to be adjusted if necessary. 3. the timer needs to be started simultaneously after switching on pump P2 11. Valves V5 and V15 are to be closed after valves V6 and V10 are opened. Then. 2 and 3 are to be switched on and adjusted until the stirrers speed reach approximately 200 rpm. This is analogous to the existing of a stagnation zone in a real reactor. 10 .

This is done by adjusting valve V15 to get the right flow while valve V10 remains open. Reactors are not cleaned properly before starting the experiment. all liquids in reactors need to be drained by opening valves V11. 14. it is important to make sure that the reactors are cleaned from any residue from the previous experiment. Errors and Prevention While reading the values. the liquid is to be allowed to partially flow through the dead time coil. 13. Experiment is not done based on the procedures written 11 . a regularly maintenance is required in order to make sure all the equipment are in a good condition before it is being used. A continuous recording the conductivity values is required until all readings are almost constant. This can be possibly caused by: 1. Sensors placed in the reactors are in damaged. The experiment is done. Thus. 15. The experiment (steps 5 to 13) is to be repeated but this time. certain errors might occur. 3. V12 and V13. Thus. 2. Cables are improperly plugged 4.

00500 0.3 in Experiment A For experiment A we are investigating the effect of step change on CSTR.03000 0. Then the value become constant indicating it have achieve the steady state value.02000 Concentration of NaOH on Reactor 2 (mol/L) Concetration of NaOH (mol/L) 0.02500 Concentration of NaOH on Reactor 1 (mol/L) 0. 12 .2.RESULTS AND DISCUSSION EXPERIMENT A: The Effect of Step Change Input Experiment A: Concentration of NaOH (mol/L) vs Time (min) for Reactor 1.2 & 3 0. The concentration increase in all reactor for the 20 minutes.01500 Concentration of NaOH on Reactor 3 (mol/L) 0. the longer the time take to achieve steady state. This shows that reactor 1 took shortest time to achieve steady state. Some amount of sodium chloride were injected into the reactor and the reactor are arranged in series . the steady state were achieve at 20th minutes almost the same with the reactor 3.00000 Figure 1: Graph of NaOH Concentration (mol/L) against Time (min) for Reactor 1.01000 0. Therefore we can conclude that the further the location of the reactor. the pattern of the graph for the reactors are same. In reactor 2. Reactor 1 only take around 10 minutes to achieve the steady state. The first 10 minutes showed it increasing in value and the concentration keep conctant. This might be error as reactor 3 should have longest time to achieve steady state.

00000 -0. From the graph we can see the reactor 1 have smallest area compared to the reactor 2 and 3.02000 E(t) (1/min) 0. This indicating the residence time distribution in reactor 1 less than reactor 2 and 3.01000 0. 0.01000 Figure 2: Graph of Residence Time Distribution. EXPERIMENT B: The Effect of Pulse Input 13 .2 & 3 0. basically the residence time distribution are determine by each reactor as the behavior of the reactor are different with each other. E(t) (1/min) 0. Residence Time. The residence time are important to know the efficiency of the reactor which also helps in designing process. Area under the graph represent the residence time distribution for the reactor.09000 Residence Time 0. the longer the residence time distribution for the reactor.08000 Distribution in Reactor 1. E(t) (1/min) vs Time (min) for Reactor 1.2. We can also conclude that the further the reactor.03000 Residence Time Distribution in Reactor 3. While reactor 3 have the smallest area.05000 Distribution in Reactor 2 . Experiment A: Residence Time Distribution.04000 E(t) (1/min) 0.06000 Residence Time 0. E(t) (1/min) against Time (min) for Reactor 1. 0.3 in Experiment A The graph shows the residence time distribution with time for each reactor.07000 E(t) (1/min) 0.

E(t) (1/min) vs Time (min) Residence Time Dsitribution in Reactor 1. They will increase the concentration and after reach to maximum point the concentration decrease until it reach back to normal. E(t) (1/min) Residence Time Distribution in Reactor 2. The pattern of each graph is slightly the same. For reactor 1 took shortest time for the atom to leave the reactor. E(t) (1/min) Figure 4: Graph of Residence Time Distribution.2. Experiment B: Residence Time Distribution. then we observe the behavior and how long it will take to return back to normal. E(t) (1/min) against Time (min) in Experiment B 14 . longer time needed for it to go back to its normal condition. the sodium chloride is injected into the reactor.3 Concentration of NaOH in Reactor 1 (mol/L) Concentration of NaOH in Reactor 2 (mol/L) Concentration of NaOH in Reactor 3 (mol/L) Time (min) Figure 3: Graph of Concentration of NaOH (mol/L) against Time (min) for Reactor 1. Hence we can conclude the further the tank location.2. In this experiment.3 in Experiment B This experiment is to investigate the effect of pulse input for the CSTR. Followed by reactor 2 and 3 where reactor 3 took longer time to dispense the solution from the reactor tank. E(t) (1/min) Residence Time Distribution in Reactor 3. Experiment B: Concentration of NaOH (mol/L) vs Time (min) for Reactor 1.

Hence. Based on the graph. According to the graph. The dead time zone is defined as the area with a low or no mixing as the effective volume of reactor is decreasing. 15 . Hence. This indicates that reactor 1 and 2 has almost the same RTD. as the reactor located further in the series arrangement. the concentration will decrease faster. The higher the RTD the longer the time taken of fluid to carry out reaction inside the reactor. the lower the time taken of fluid inside the reactor. we investigate the effect of dead time coil on the reactor by using the pulse input and using only one reactor. Figure 4 shows the relationship between the residence time distribution. the concentration was first increase until it reach the maximum point and then it decrease back to its original value. the concentration of fully flow in dead time coil increase slightly more than the concentration of partially flow dead time coil. In reactor 3. therefore. According to the graph. as the fluid fully pass through the dead time coil. thus the higher the concentration of the desired product. The area under the graph indicates residence time distribution (RTD) for each reactor. the lower the residence time distribution.2 and 3 arranged in series. the area under the graph is larger compared to reactor 1 and 2. Theoretically. the longer the residence time distribution and this will correspond to higher concentration of desired product. The fluid being short circuited. the decrease in concentration is more compared with partially flow in dead time coil. the area under the graph for reactor 1 and 2 are almost the same. EXPERIMENT C: Investigation on Dead Time Coil Experiment C: Concentration of NaOH (mol/L) vs Time (min) with and without Dead Time Coil Concentration of NaOH without Dead Time Coil (mol/L) Concentration of NaOH without Dead Time Coil (mol/L) Figure 5: Graph of Concentration of NaOH (mol/L) with and without Dead Time Coil against Time (min) In the third part of the experiment. Experiment C. E(t) against time for reactor 1. Since there is no reaction take place in the dead zone. thus the sodium chloride is flowing in and out without mixing with the deionized water. the RTD value is higher.

The result for residence time of fully flow tracer in the dead time coil is almost constant because the tracer enter the dead zone where there is no mixing of tracer with deionized water occur. E(t) (1/min) Figure 6: Residence Time Distribution. All the three reactors have different residence time distribution (RTD).Experiment C: Residence Time Distribution. E(t) (1/min) Residence Time Dsitribution with Dead Time Coil 1. Therefore the RTD increase first and after reach the maximum point it decrease and it constant after some minutes. the step change input has been propose in the system and the tracer which is sodium chloride was injected continuously as the process run in the tank. E(t) against Time (min) with and without Dead Time Coil Figure 6 shows the relationship between Residence time distribution and time taken with and without dead time coil. CONCLUSION For this experiment. E(t) vs Time (min) with and without Dead Time Coil Residence Time Dsitribution without Dead Time Coil 1. thus there is no increment in residence time. 16 . Three different experiment were conducted with three different objective. Experiment B. The pattern almost the same as we apply impulse method. to investigate the effect of pulse input and Experiment C. In the experiment A. The reactor 3 has highest RTD which relative to the highest concentration of desired product. Hence. the conductivity which is the concentration of the tracer increase as the time increase until the reaction achieved equilibrium state which the small change of concentration is equal to zero. Experiment A. Therefore. the further the position of reactors in series arrangement will slow the feedback towards the step input. to investigate the effect of dead time coil. to investigate the effect of step change input. the aim is to study the dynamic in the Continue Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) with different type of interference in the system. Based on the result achieved. the fully flow racer has more stable residence time compared to partially flow.

In collation between the flow without dead time coil and without dead time coil. the CSTR will experience transient behaviour which the concentration of the tracer will increase in a period of time until it has reached a constant concentration. The function of dead time coil is to stimulate the dead time zone within the reactor. From the result obtained. The reactor 3 has highest RTD which relative to the highest concentration of desired product. E(t) (mol/L) on NaOH. In the experiment B.1 0. the pulse input was introduced in the system and the tracer was injected for the first two minutes and the conductivity measurement was monitored.06107 4 622.07793 3 503. residence time and flow rate. Thus the further the position of reactors in series arrangement will slow the feedback towards the pulse input.00628 0.05087 2 352. In the experiment C.25126 0.3 0. Therefore the dead time coil help to decrease the disturbance of the system.06418 0.00508 0. All the three reactors have different residence time distribution (RTD).20318 0.04808 17 . the flow with dead time coil has more steady reading in concentration.0 0. APPENDIX 1) Tabulation of Data Experiment A: The Effect of Step Change Input Reactor 1 Time Conductivit Concentration of Cumulative Residence Time (Minute y of Reactor NaOH on Distribution of Distribution in ) 1 (uS) Reactor 1 Concentration Reactor 1. The dead time zone is interpret as the area with low mixing as the effective volume of reactor is decreasing.14211 0.00355 0.9 0. it introduced to investigate the effect of dead time coil towards the CSTR dynamic behaviour.7 0.00160 0.01331 1 159.00033 0. F(t) (1/min) 0 33.

01124 0.2 0.01111 0.2 0.6 0.03780 1 102.00996 0.8 0.01128 0.0 0.42572 0.07620 0.01132 0.45505 0.01079 0.00601 15 1083.9 0.1 0.58401 0.01140 0.1 0.34706 0. Cumulative Distribution of Concentration on NaOH.00190 0.0 0.4 0.01023 0.38434 0.29015 0.06337 4 527.3 0.4 0.36804 0.00165 22 1125.43686 0.01069 12 1037.00230 20 1118.01143 0.03889 6 798.44714 0.00722 14 1070.6 0.00920 0.00186 21 1122.02098 9 952.3 0.00512 16 1093.02501 8 912.00349 0.00355 2 188.00133 26 1134.00868 0.06022 18 .0 0. F(t) (1/min) 0 93.44396 0.5 0.00726 0.4 0.01138 0.45295 0.06563 10 1597.01103 0.41850 0.01630 10 987.44436 0. 5 719.8 0.3 0.29035 0.21282 0.01296 0.51838 0.00805 0.01110 0.44944 0.45130 0.39850 0.4 0.4 0.45743 0.07325 5 719. Residence Time Distribution in Reactor 1 Reactor 2 Time Conductivity of Concentration of Cumulative Residence Time (Minute Reactor 2 (uS) NaOH on Distribution of Distribution in ) Reactor 2 Concentration Reactor 2 .45388 0.9 0.07830 7 1100.36865 0.64423 0. E(t) (mol/L) on NaOH.01092 0.00922 0.07753 6 913.01064 0.0 0.00725 0.01416 11 1014.45715 0.13957 0.44105 0.00028 Table 1: Conductivity.4 0.7 0.1 0.00932 13 1055.03191 7 860.00532 0.01135 0.01046 0.00420 17 1101.32206 0.01611 0.03485 3 346.00077 25 1133.00094 0.00961 0.6 0.01144 0.07442 9 1447.45582 0.40918 0.00093 23 1128.00103 0.5 0.01460 0.8 0.43173 0.5 0.9 0.9 0.04135 0.00117 24 1130. Concentration of NaOH.8 0.00331 18 1108.00278 19 1114.07531 8 1285.01118 0.

91587 0.7 0.1 0.00388 0.01791 21 2449.04312 14 2054.7 0.00152 0.05308 10 888.82853 0.05425 19 .97395 0.02547 1.03062 6 384.2 0.2 0.02588 1.01880 20 2414.08624 0.06059 -0.99977 0.35828 0.7 0.01174 23 2506.02390 0.02527 1.06095 1 150. Concentration of NaOH.78965 0.00161 3 168.02343 0.01889 0.02499 0.04929 13 1957.11686 0.01974 0.00151 0.01819 5 289.05300 12 1850.03142 16 2204.00666 Table 2: Conductivity.1 0.02223 0.01408 22 2478.00896 0.00960 26 2566.8 0.01090 0.7 0. E(t) (mol/L) NaOH.01866 0.00170 0.02138 19 2370.98803 0.5 0.02849 0.02435 0.02941 17 2270.8 0.4 0.6 0.03832 7 496. Residence Time Distribution in Reactor 2 Reactor 3 Time Conductivity of Concentration of Cumulative Residence Time (Minute Reactor 3 (uS) NaOH on Distribution of Distribution in ) Reactor 3 Concentration on Reactor 3.00156 0.01743 0. F(t) (1/min) 0 151.5 0.02071 0.00216 0.06220 0.7 0.88936 0.74653 0.9 0.15518 0.93724 0.06805 0.1 0. 11 1728.7 0.05058 9 753.00799 25 2549.00627 0.00501 0.1 0.00760 0.20036 0.03514 0.5 0.85996 0.00036 2 154.69724 0.00292 0.02650 18 2323.25094 0.0 0.7 0.02571 1.5 0.01113 24 2525.03889 15 2131.30402 0.2 0.02470 0.02150 0.2 0.04518 8 622.00585 4 213.02290 0.9 0. Cumulative Distribution of Concentration on NaOH.5 0.95604 0.

2 2 366.4 0.02323 339.80732 0.03743 341 7 209. Cumulative Distribution of Concentration on NaOH.04901 14 1390.04324 16 1605.05135 12 1152.2 0.03155 341. Residence Time Distribution in Reactor 3 Experiment B: The Effect of Pulse Change Input Reactor 1 Time Conductivity Concentration of Cumulative Residence of NaOH in NaOH in Concentration Time FT1 Reactor 1 Reactor 1 on NaOH.00502 0.00134 0.40963 0.75339 0.00592 0.8 0.01024 0.2 0.9 0.0 0.00180 0.05253 343.02018 0.00033 0.00269 0.6 0.00103 0.0 0.00294 0. 11 1015.9 0.2 0.03300 20 1932.5 20 .00250 0.00705 0.2 0.80655 -0.8 5 291.60426 0.80639 0.02016 0.80683 0.1 0.03820 18 1785.01714 0.04395 343.00211 0.9 0.05510 13 1273.6 0.00690 0.6 0.01801 0.05537 360.5 0.1 0.3 8 178.5 3 413.01949 0.2 0.80671 0.4 0.00367 0.72039 0.02614 362.00048 26 1999.02001 338.00501 388.01284 0.80659 -0.00796 0.03469 19 1867.01403 0.3 6 248. Concentration of NaOH.01162 0.00028 25 2001.56102 0.00016 24 2000.00155 0.02696 339 9 153.46473 0.00362 0.1 4 348.01511 0.51374 0. E(t) (1/min) 0 33.02602 21 1999.64750 0.06240 346.04728 15 1498.00370 0.00032 23 1999.01619 0.00424 0.04324 17 1699.5 0.0 0.00073 Table 3: Conductivity.7 0.00351 0.9 0.00312 0.6 0.02017 0.77940 0.01883 0.02699 22 1999.9 1 173.02016 0.00417 0.0 0.02016 0.02017 0.68570 0.5 10 132.00175 0. ʃ Dsitribution in (ml/min) (uS) (mol/L) C(t) Reactor 1.2 0.8 0.

00803 0.9 17 59.9 15 71.0 0.03119 338.8 19 50.00144 0.00516 0.03563 341 7 526.00130 0.5 3 348. Concentration of NaOH.00402 0.01052 0.00926 0.00821 335.06681 Table 4: Conductivity of NaOH.6 0.00055 0.00432 0.6 18 54.01075 335.5 0.00506 0.00969 334.5 0. ʃ Distribution (ml/min (uS) (mol/L) C(t) in Reactor ) 2.00530 0.00094 0.01525 337.2 0.00116 0.3 8 512.00102 0.00982 0.03572 341.5 0.02703 337.00161 0.4 0.03404 343.7 21 45.6 12 101. Cumulative Concentration on NaOH.4 0.0 0.3 6 525.03474 339 9 487.2 0.6 12 398.02907 337.03307 339.00245 0.01029 0.0 0.5 16 64.00531 0.00688 0.8 5 501.00065 0.00072 0.00090 0.5 11 428.2 0. E(t) (1/min) 0 92.7 21 .1 4 448.00181 0.00688 332.9 0.00120 0.00161 0.8 ∑ ʃ C(t) 0.00051 0.01195 336.00464 0.00080 0.01351 336.1 0.00888 0.7 0.0 0.5 0.00865 0.9 1 108.00492 0.01391 360.8 0.00898 334.00725 332.3 14 79.00060 0.01002 0.0 0.00733 362.03039 343.00048 0.00630 388.00097 0.00109 0.00077 0.2 2 205.00046 0.1 0.00233 0.00429 0.00110 0.7 13 89.01734 337.00102 0.5 10 459.4 0.7 0.7 0.00207 0.00205 0.00761 334 20 48.00452 0. 11 114.00352 0.01057 0.02366 346.4 0. Residence Time Distribution for Reactor 1 Reactor 2 Time Conductivity Concentration Cumulative Residence of NaOH in of NaOH in Concentration Time FT1 Reactor 2 Reactor 2 on NaOH.

6 0.00567 0.1 0.5 0.00392 0.7 0.03038 337.3 6 313.00217 0. 13 365.00518 0.00369 0.00620 0.00310 0.00182 0.4 0.1 4 220.5 0.2 2 160.14864 Table 5: Conductivity of NaOH.00780 0. Concentration of NaOH.00259 0.9 15 307.02921 339.3 14 335.5 0. E(t) (1/min) 0 166.5 10 422.00428 0.6 0.00199 0.00360 0.00338 0.03043 337.7 0.00837 0.00857 0.5 0.3 0.02781 339 9 408.01148 360.01906 343.00159 0.00222 0.00419 0.3 22 .00283 0.00677 0.9 1 157.00738 0.02968 336.02553 341.00854 0.01740 334.0 0.00371 0.3 0.02273 336.02480 336.5 0. Residence Time Distribution for Reactor 2 Reactor 3 Time Conductivit Concentration Cumulative Residence y of NaOH of NaOH in Concentration Time FT1 in Reactor 3 Reactor 3 on NaOH.00316 0.5 3 180.2 0.9 0.5 0.02085 335.00310 0.00412 0.1 0.01462 334 20 197. ʃ Distribution (ml/min) (uS) (mol/L) C(t) in Reactor 3.01902 334.01230 332.5 0.8 5 266.00398 0.00168 0.01595 335.01128 362.00183 0.3 8 388.0 0.00277 0.8 ∑ ʃ C(t) 0.00822 0.00269 0.01337 332.5 11 425.0 0.8 0.5 16 280. Cumulative Concentration on NaOH.03019 338.00446 0.02242 341 7 357.00848 0.6 18 235.00716 0.6 12 424.8 19 215.00435 0.01292 346.00538 0.00475 0.00162 0.7 13 415.00237 0.7 21 181.00426 0.1 0.00330 0.01191 388.9 17 256.00429 0.01575 343.00322 0.00631 0.

02281 334 20 297.9 11 241.00558 0.00791 0.01627 0.0 0.2 6 553.01472 361.00810 0.4 0.7 21 284.00465 0.02393 335.03218 365.00213 0.8 0.8 ∑ ʃ C(t) 0.01822 0.00391 0.00936 0.01299 361.00603 351.00331 0.3 0.5 16 372.5 4 803.9 0.00785 0.00087 0.00642 0.8 0.02706 366.00283 0. Residence Time Distribution for Reactor 3 Experiment C: The Investigation on Dead Time Coil Flow without Dead Time Coil Time Conductivity Concentration Cumulative Residence Time FT1 (min) of NaOH of NaOH Concentratio Distribution (ml/min) without Dead without Dead n on NaOH.01963 366.6 18 334.2 0.00723 0.8 9 328.6 0.00409 0.00337 0.00188 0. E(t) (uS) (mol/L) (1/min) 0 86.00483 0.02236 326. Cumulative Concentration on NaOH.2 10 281.02035 332.00490 0.06688 374.00377 0.4 0.00224 0.00393 0.9 0.02295 363. ʃ without Dead Time Coil Time Coil C(t) Time Coil 1.00816 0.1 0.00787 0.9 0.05611 374.9 17 355.00427 0.2 8 387.00244 0.02903 336.2 2 784.02786 335.9 15 389.6 0. 14 405.00323 0.00376 0.00716 0.04667 371.00667 0. Concentration of NaOH.9 1 320.02664 334.6 0.8 3 957.8 0.01484 0.00322 0.9 5 668.00300 0.00603 0.00677 0.5 0.00674 0.3 0.5 0.00287 0.5 0.02130 332.2 13 186.01124 0.6 0.14101 Table 6: Conductivity of NaOH.00966 0.01355 0.1 0.03867 366 7 460.2 12 210.00570 0.01687 364.00358 0.02542 334.8 19 319.05477 250.6 23 .5 0.00751 0.

00126 0.00135 0.00139 0.9 18 118.5 6 136.00137 0.01723 413.00218 0.02534 415.00406 0.3 0.14442 Table 7: Conductivity of NaOH.00128 0.00152 0.01466 417.0 0.2 0.00288 0.01622 423.4 ∑ ʃ C(t) 0.5 5 178.01485 418.00131 0.4 16 138.01055 365.02096 420.00168 0.00182 0. Residence Time Distribution without Dead Time Coil Flow with Dead Time Coil Time Conductivity Concentration Cumulative Residence FT1 (min) of NaOH with of NaOH Concentration Time (ml/min Dead Time without Dead on NaOH.00228 0.00436 0.8 0.00279 0.15257 417.04725 244. Concentration of NaOH.5 0.00238 0.01438 418.9 0.00108 0.00139 0.00257 0.2 0. E(t) (1/min) 0 402.01957 0.00148 0.0 0.0 0.00830 365.00273 0.00979 0.5 19 113.2 24 . 14 166.00964 365.3 0.9 0.00282 0.00124 0. ʃ Dsitribution ) Coil (uS) Time Coil C(t) with Dead (mol/L) Time Coil 1.9 4 138.6 0.00305 0.0 0.7 0.00282 0.1 0.5 13 143.00268 0.00748 365.7 15 151.01572 421.9 0.9 1 1300.6 2 216.00257 0.01715 420.3 9 146.0 0.6 14 126.3 7 134.00120 0.01599 416.3 0.00325 0.00276 0.1 0.00333 0.00147 0.7 10 130.01160 362.6 12 122.02767 418.1 0.1 0.00888 361.01311 0.8 8 125.00791 364.00180 0.6 0.6 11 146.7 17 127.01679 414.7 20 107.00128 0.00241 0.00262 0.00337 0.01525 421.00144 0.6 3 235.00262 0.00807 0.00114 0.

01316 412. Concentration of NaOH.2 0.00224 0.3 0.01329 410.62x R² = 1 Figure 6: Conductivity Value against Molarity of NaOH Solution as a Calibration Curve 25 .00114 0.1 18 101. Residence Time Distribution with Dead Time Coil SAMPLE CALCULATION Conductivity Value (uS) vs Molarity (mol/L) of NaOH Solution f(x) = 99162.00102 0.5 19 113.2 0.1 20 109.9 17 113.01350 414.00223 0. 15 115.01187 417.1 0.00113 0.4 0.01283 417 ∑ ʃ C(t) 0.00110 0.00185 0.01329 413.00228 0.00114 0.00235 0.00116 0.3 0.3 16 112.00212 0.08596 Table 8: Conductivity of NaOH.

sodium chloride solution b.025M NaOH. Using the graph of Concentration (mol/L) Vs Conductivity (uS) as shown above.00160 mol/ L 2. Then we determine the Residence Time Distribution.1uS x= 99163 ¿ 0. we calculated the residence time. an equation is obtained which is �=99163x. 1. F(t) value by using the following formula: C(t ) F ( t )= CO where C(t) = Concentration of NaCl at time.06418 c. E(t) for experiment A. NaOH (mol/L) y= Conductivity (uS) Example in Experiment A at t=1 min. Experiment A: The Effect of Step Change Input a. E(t) from the formula: dF(t) E(t)= dt where dF(t) = Difference in cumulative difference 26 .025 mol L ¿ 0. The equation can be further modified to determine the concentration: y x= 99163 where x= Concentration of sodium chloride.*Note: We set the intercept of calibration curve on intercept C=0 so that the value of NACI concentration can be positive and more accurate data can be obtained.00160 mol L F ( t )= −1 0. t (mol/L) Co = Initial concentration of NaCl (mol/L) = 0. B. i.025 mol/L Example in Experiment A. Then. We calculated the cumulative distribution. at time = 1 min. 159. We set CO =¿ 0. −1 0. and C.

Then. We carried out numerical evaluation of ʃ C(t) dt by using Simpson’s one-third rule: h ∫ C (t)= 3 (C t−∆ t +4 C t +C t +∆ t ) Example in Experiment B: At time = 2 min. b−a h= n 2−0 ¿ 2 ¿1 2 ∫ C ( t )= 13 (0. dt = Difference in time (/min) Example in Experiment A. Experiment B & C : The Effect of Pulse Input & The investigation on Dead Time coil a.05087 min-1 ii.01331 E (t)= 1−0 ¿ 0.00690 ) +0.00769) 1 ¿ 0.06418−0. we calculated the residence time. F (1 ) −F ( 0 ) E (t)= t (1 ) −t ( 0 ) 0.05537 min-1 b.00367+ 4 ( 0. at time = 1 min. E(t) from the formula: C (t) C(t ) E (t)= ∞ = ∫ C ( t ) dt ∑∫ C ( t ) dt 0 where E(t): residence time distribution (min-1) C(t): concentration of sodium chloride (mol/L) 27 .

at time = 2 min.min/L) Example in Experiment B.05537 THE ARRANGEMENT OF APPARATUS 28 . 0.00690 E(t)= 0.06681 ¿ 0. ∞ ∫ C ( t ) dt=∑∫ C ( t ) dt = summation of all ∫ C ( t ) dt 0 (mol.

Figure 7: Apparatus set up of three CSTR reactors in series arrangement 29 .

d. Nevers. 3rd Edition. (1995). Mccabe.ac.d. (2005). Fluid Mechanics For Chemical Engineers. Prentice Hall. 5th Edition. New York: Mc Graw-Hill.). Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering. http://www.REFERENCES Geankoplis. (2005). Warren Lee McCabe. (n. Unit Operation of Chemical Engineering. (1993). C. N.chem. W. J. S.uk/surfaces/scc/scat2_3. McGraw-Hill Education. Prentice Hall. 30 .qmul. Transport Process and Unit Operation.htm.