Genius

Semiconductor Device Simulator
Version 1.7.4

Genius User's Guide

C genda Pte Ltd

Copyright (c) 2008-2009 Cogenda Pte Ltd, Singapore.

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Contents
1 Physics in Genius Device Simulator 1

1.1 Level 1 Drift-Diffusion Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

1.2 Level 2 Drift-Diffusion Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

1.3 Level 3 Energy Balance Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

1.4 Band Structure Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
1.4.1 Band structure of compound semiconductors . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
1.4.1.1 Band Structure of SiGe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
1.4.1.2 Band Structure of Tertiary Compound
Semiconductor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
1.4.2 Schenk's Bandgap Narrowing Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

1.5 Carrier Recombination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

1.6 Mobility Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
1.6.1 Bulk Mobility Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
1.6.1.1 Analytic Mobility Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
1.6.1.2 Masetti Analytic Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
1.6.1.3 Philips Mobility Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
1.6.1.4 Velocity Saturation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
1.6.2 Unified Mobility Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
1.6.2.1 Lombardi Surface Mobility Model . . . . . . . . . . . 19
1.6.2.2 Lucent High Field Mobility Model . . . . . . . . . . . 20
1.6.2.3 Hewlett-Packard High Field Mobility Model . . . 22
1.6.3 Mobility Models of Complex Compound Semiconductors 24
1.6.4 Carrier Temperature Based Mobility Model . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

1.7 Generation Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
1.7.1 Impact Ionization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
1.7.1.1 Selberherr Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
1.7.1.2 van Overstraeten - de Man model . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
1.7.1.3 Valdinoci Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
1.7.2 Band-to-band Tunneling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

1.8 High Energy Particles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

1.9 Fermi-Dirac Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

2 Genius Command Reference 35

2.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
2.1.1 Format of Input Card . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
2.1.2 Statement Description Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

Genius Device Simulator 3

. .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . .4.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8. .3. . . . . . .3. . . . .6. . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . .MESH and Z. . . .3. . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . .3.1. . . . . . .3 Example . . . . . . . . .5 SPREAD3D . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Description . .3 Example . . . . . . . .2 Example . . . . .3. . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . .3 Mesh Generation . . .4. . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 2. . . . . . . 58 2. . . . . . . . .3 Example . . .3. . . . . . . .2. . . . . .1. .7. . 41 2. . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . .1. .2. . . 43 2. .MESH . . . 56 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . 46 2. . . . . .3. . 45 2.3. . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 2. . .3. . . . . . 49 2. . . 38 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . .2 Global Specification . . . . . . . 52 2. . 41 2.2 Description . . . . . . . 48 2. . . . .3. . 38 2. . . . . . . . .2 Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 2. .2 X. . . . .4. . . . 50 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Description . . . . . . . . . . .1 VSOURCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5.1 Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 2. . . . . . 60 2. . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . 47 2. . . . . .6 REGION . . . . . . . . .1 Parameters . . . . . . 54 2. .3. . . . 47 2. .2 ISOURCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Parameters . .1 Parameters . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . 44 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 External Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . 57 2. . . .1 GLOBAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 2. . . . . . .3.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 FACE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Description .MESH Y. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . .1 Parameters . . . . . . . 52 2. .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 REFINE . . . 60 2. . . . . . . . 42 2. . 52 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 2. . . . . .1 MESH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 2. . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Example . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . .3. . . . . .4. . .1 Parameters . . . .3 Example . . . . 38 2.2 Description . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . 39 2. . . . .3. .1. . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . .3 ELIMINATE . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 SPREAD . . . . . .2 Description . . . . . . 44 2. . . . . . . . 53 2. . . . . . . . . . 40 2. . . . . . . . . .3 Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . 42 2. . . . . . . . . . . 46 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . .1 Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . .8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Parameters . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . 38 2.Contents 2.3. . . . . . . . .3 Example . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Example .8. . . . . 51 2. . .1 Parameters . . . 61 4 Genius Device Simulator . . . .1 Parameters . . . .3 Example . .2. . . . . . . . . .7. . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . 50 2. .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.2 Example . . 57 2. . . 47 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . 81 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5.2 Example . . . . . . . .2 Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. .6.2 Description . . .4.1 Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . 72 2. . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . 80 2. . . . . . .6. . . . .3 MOLE . . . . 62 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . 79 2. . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . .2 Analytic Profile Calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Examples . . . . . . . . .1 Parameters . . 68 2. . . . .2 Description . . . . . .7. .4 REGIONSET . . . . . .2 ATTACH . 79 2. . . 71 2. . . . . . . . . . 67 2.7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 2. . . . . . . . . . .1 Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 2. . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . .3 Example . . . . . .1. . . . . .4. .1 Parameters . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Example . . . . . . .6 Fabrication Process . . . . . . 88 2. . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . .1 Parameters . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Physical Models . . . .3. . . . . . .2.5. . . 90 Genius Device Simulator 5 . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . .5. . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 2. . . . . .1. . . . .3. .2 Description . . . . . . . . . .6.3 Examples . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . .4. . .5 ENVELOP . .1 Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . 85 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 2.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . 70 2. . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4.6. . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 2. 69 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . .5 Boundary Conditions . . . 62 2. .1 Parameters . . . . . .1. . . . . . .7. . . . . .1 Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Custom Doping Profile . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . 87 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. .4. . . . . .1. .6. . . . . . . . . .4. . . . 82 2. .2 Description . .6. . . .3. . . . . .3 external circuit . . . . . . . .2 Description . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 2. . . . . 86 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 2. . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . .2 Analytic PROFILE . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Boundary and Contact . . 83 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Contents 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Parameters . . . . . 74 2. . . 64 2. . . . . .5. .2. . . . . . . 64 2. 87 2. . . . . . . .3 Mobility Models . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 LIGHT .3. . . . . 63 2. 76 2. . 64 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. .3 Examples .2. .1 PMI . .6. . . . . . . . . . .4. . . .7. . . . . . . . . . . .1 DOPING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 2. . . . . . 75 2. . . . 76 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Parameters . .6. . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. .2. . . . . . . .3 Analytic2 Profile Calculation . . . . 67 2. . . . . . . . . . .4 Example .7 CIRCUIT . . . .4. . . . . . . .6 Apply Source to Device . .2.5. . .3 PARTICLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . 77 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. .1. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . 115 2. . . . . .8. . . . 95 2.Contents 2. . . 99 2. . . . . . . . 110 2. . . . . . . . .2 description . . . ... . . .7. 115 2. .. . . . . . . . . .9. . . . . . . . . . . . .3 EMFEM2D . . .9. . . . . . . . . . . . 110 2. . . . . . . . . 106 2. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .4. . . . 117 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 2. . . . .9 Example . . .1 METHOD . . . . . . . . . 118 6 Genius Device Simulator . . . . . . .8.2. . . . . . . . 102 2. . . . . . .2 Description . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .5 Probe Postprocessor . . .8. . . . . . . . . 115 2. . . . .9. .. . . . 117 2. . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 91 2. . . . . .7. . . . . 100 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . 116 2. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . ..7.2 SOLVE . .1 Parameters . . . .3 Device Transient Mode . . . . . . . 118 2. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . .1. . .2. . .7. . 100 2. . . . .. .5 Device Small-Signal AC Sweep Mode .2 Nonlinear Solver Algorithms . . . . . . . . . . . 117 2. . .8. . . . . . . . .8. . .3. . .. . .1. . . . . . .2 Description .2.2. . . . . .7. . . . . 116 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Parameters . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . 95 2. . 108 2. . .. . . . . . .4 Impact Ionization Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8. . . . . . . . . . ..4. . . . . . .9.1 IMPORT . . . . . 112 2. . . . 117 2. . .7 Device/Circuit Mixed DC Sweep Mode . . . . .3 Example . . . . . . 106 2. . . . . . 112 2. . . . .8. 103 2. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . 109 2. . . . .1 Parameters . . . . . . . . . .8. . .1 Parameters . .2 Description . . . 96 2. . . . . . .1. . . .4 CV Postprocessor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .2 Device DC Sweep Mode .3. . .9. ..2 Example . . . . .. . . . .. . . . ... . .1 Parameters . . . . 116 2. .1. .8. . .8. . . . .. . . . . . . .8. . . .4 Device Operation Point Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . .8. . .9 Input and Output .. 115 2. . . . . . . .8. . . . . . . .. .2 MODEL . . . . . . . . . . . 108 2.2. . . .. .2 description . . . 116 2. . . . . . . . . . . ..3 Nonlinear Convergence Criteria . . . . . 97 2..2. .9.1 Parameters . . . . . .9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8. . . . . . . 112 2. . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . .9. .9. . .3. . .8. . . .1.2. . . .. . . .2. .1. ..3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8. . .8. 97 2.8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Numerical Solution . . . . . . . 93 2. . .3 Example . . . . . . . . .6 Incomplete Ionization Model . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Trap Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9. . 105 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 2. . . . .3 Example . . . . . . . .3.8.1. . . . . . . . . . . 92 2.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8. . . . . . . .1 Parameters . . .6 Device/Circuit Mixed Operation Point Mode . .2 EXPORT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.8 Device/Circuit Mixed Transient Mode . . . . . . .1. . . . .2. . . . 114 2.8. .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.. . . 108 2. . . . . . . . . .. .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 HOOK . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Parameters . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . .7. . . . . . . . . . . .9. .4 RAYTRACE . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9. . . . . . . . . . . . .8.3 Default Hook Functions .9.4 Linear Solver Algorithms . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . .17 PMIC_Optical . . . . . 131 3. . . . . . . . . .1 Overview of PMI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 PMIS_Avalanche . . . . . . . . . 123 3. . 141 3. . .7 PMIS_Trap . . . . 125 3. . . . 142 3. . . . . .3. . . . .1 Custom Material Models . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . 124 3. .3. . . . .3 How a PMI Library is Loaded . . . . . 139 3. . . . . . . . . .1 Building the Example . . . . 130 3. . . . . . 121 3. . . . . . .3. . . . . . . .1. . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Create a New Material Library . . . . .1. . .3.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . .3. .1. . . . . . . 118 2.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.3. . . . . . . 141 3. . . . . . . . 140 3. 142 3. . . . .3. . . . 131 3. . . . .1.1. 141 3. . . . . . . . 138 3. . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . .6 Visualization and Animation Postprocessor . . . . 144 A References CXLV B Index CXLVII Genius Device Simulator 7 . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . .2 PMIS_Server Class . . . . . . . .12 PMII_Thermal .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Hooks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . 119 3 Extending Genius Simulator 121 3. . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . Contents 2. . . . . . . . . . . . 141 3. . . . . .14 PMIC . . . . .1. . . . . . 128 3. . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . 137 3. .1. . . . . . . . . . . .3. 130 3.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . .3. .1. .8 PMIS_Thermal .3. . . . .3. .4 PMIS_BandStructure Class . .3. . . . . .1.3 Class References . . 130 3. .3. . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . .1. . . .1. . . . .3 Python Interface . . . . . . .4 How a PMI Library is Used . . . . . 143 3. . . . . . . . . . .9.1. .3. . .9. . . . . . .15 PMIC_BasicParameter . . . .13 PMII_Optical . 121 3. . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . .1 HTTP Frontend . . . . . . . . .2 Procedure of Building a Custom Material Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . .2 Classes . . . . . 128 3. . . .9 PMIS_Optical . . . . . . . .1 PMI_Server Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 PMIS_Mobility .3. . .11 PMII_BasicParameter .1. . . . . . .10 PMII . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 3. . . . . . . .3 PMIS_BasicParameter Class . 144 3. 141 3. . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . .7 Interface to Visit visualizer .1. . . . . .3. .1. . . . . . . . . . . .1 Files . . . 121 3.16 PMIC_Thermal . . . . . . .

Contents 8 Genius Device Simulator .

namely Poisson's equation. Genius Device Simulator 1 . Level 1 Drift-Diffusion Equation Level 1 Drift-Diffusion (DDML1) is the fundamental solver of GENIUS code for lattice temperature keeps constant though out the solve procedure. • All the collision is elastic.1) where. • Bandgap does not change during collision. This chapter describes the DD model and its variations used by GENIUS code for describing semiconductor device behavior as well as physical based parameters such as mobility. • The gradient of driving force should keep small. It is now the de facto industry standard in this field. along with the hole and electron continuity equations: Poisson's Equation ? ⋅ ??? = −? (? − ? + ?? + − ?? − ) (1. but they can deal with real prob- lems. • Carrier temperature equals to lattice temperature and keeps equilibrium. CHAPTER 1 Physics in Genius Device Sim- ulator Since Gummel's original work. The original DD model can be achieved by following approximation from hydro- dynamic model: • Light speed is much faster than carrier speed. recombination rate and son on. Some improvements have been applied to DD model for extend its capability. the drift-diffusion model has been widely used in the semiconductor device simulation. This choice makes the description of metal-oxide-semiconductor contact and heterojunction easier. The primary function of DDML1 is to solve the following set of partial differential equations. • Carrier degenerate can be neglected. These "patches" of course make things complex. ? is the electrostatic potential of the vacuum level.

?? is the bandgap of semiconductor.a) ?? ? ?? 1 = − ? ⋅ ??⃗ − (? − ?) (1.5. (1. which Electrical Field related to local band diagram.5.6.a) ?? = ?? − ?? + Δ?? . Effective ??⃗ and ??⃗ are the effective driving electrical field to electrons and holes. Δ?? and Δ?? are the bandgap shift caused by heavy doping or mechanical strain.4.4. Furthermore.b) Here. ?? + and ?? − are the ionized impurity concentrations.a) ??⃗ = ??? ???⃗ − ??? ?? (1. ? is the electron affinity. according to Einstein relationship. Continuity The continuity equations for electrons and holes are defined as follows: Equations ?? 1 = ? ⋅ ??⃗ − (? − ?) (1. valence band ?? and vacuum level ? is: ?? = −?? − ? − Δ?? (1. Drift-Diffusion The current densities ??⃗ and ??⃗ are expressed in terms of the level 1 drift-diffusion Current Equations model here.a) ? ? 2 Genius Device Simulator . ? and ? are the recombination and generation rates for both electrons and holes. ? is the magnitude of the charge of an electron.2. ?? = ?? ?? and ?? = ? ?? are the electron and hole diffusivities. The relationship of conduct band ?? . ??⃗ = ??? ???⃗ + ??? ?? (1. The band structure of heterojunction has been taken into account here [1].b) ? ? ?? ? where ?? and ?? are the electron and hole mobilities. the relationship of vacuum level ? and intrinsic Fermi potential ?intrinsic is: ? ?? ?? ? ?? ? = ?intrinsic − − − ln (1.3) ? 2? 2? ( ?? ) The reference 0 eV of energy is set to intrinsic Fermi level of equilibrium state in GENIUS.b) ?? ? where ??⃗ and ??⃗ are the electron and hole current densities.2.Physics in Genius Device Simulator Level 1 Drift-Diffusion Equation ? and ? are the electron and hole concentration. 1 ?? ??⃗ = ??? − ? ? (ln(?? ) − ln(? 3/2 )) (1.

BJT transistor and long gate MOSFET simulation. It is robust.b) ?? ( ? ) ? ⋅ ??? = −?(? − ? + ?? + − ?? − ) (1.7.c) DDML1 is suitable for PN diode.6.7. the following basic equations for DDML1 are obtained: ?? ?? = ? ⋅ ?? ???⃗ + ?? ? ?? − (? − ?) (1. Genius Device Simulator 3 . The detailed discretization scheme can be found at [[TODO]].7. the above temperature gradient item takes no effect in fact.Level 1 Drift-Diffusion Equation Physics in Genius Device Simulator 1 ?? ??⃗ = ??? + ? ? (ln(?? ) − ln(? 3/2 )) (1. By substituting drift-diffusion model into the current density expressions. and combining with Poisson's equation.b) ? ? The lattice temperature keeps uniform throughout DDML1.a) ?? ( ? ) ?? ?? = −? ⋅ ?? ???⃗ − ?? ? ?? − (? − ?) (1. and runs pretty fast for real work.

12. ? is the thermal conductivity of the material. the governing equations for DDML2 are as follows: ?? ?? ? ?? = ? ⋅ ?? ???⃗ + ?? ? ?? + ?? ? ? − (? − ?) (1. it seems no convergence degradation happens in most of the case.10) Heat Flow Equation The following heat flow equation is used: ?? ??? = ? ⋅ ??? + ? ⃗ ⋅ ? ⃗ + (?? + 3?? ? ) ⋅ (? − ?) (1.c) ?? ??? = ? ⋅ ??? + ? ⃗ ⋅ ? ⃗ + (?? + 3?? ? ) ⋅ (? − ?) (1.diff = ?? ?? (? ?? + ??? ) (1.b) ?? ( ? ? ) ? ⋅ ??? = −? (? − ? + ?? + − ?? − ) (1. it has the form of Gradient Correction ⃗ ??.diff = −?? ?? (? ?? + ??? ) (1. The discretization scheme can be found at [[TODO]]. ⃗ ??.diff = ? ??? = ?? ? ?? ?? (1. nearly all the physical parameters are related with temper- ature. Also.12. The electron diffusion current in DDML1 can be written as: ?? ? ⃗ ??.9) The hole diffusion current should be modified in the same manner.12. the formula of drift-diffusion equation should be modified according to [2]. ?? is the heat capacity. They should be considered during self consistent simulation. From above discussion. which greatly slows down the speed. (?? +3?? ? )⋅(? −?) is lattice heating due to carrier recombination and generation. However.Physics in Genius Device Simulator Level 2 Drift-Diffusion Equation Level 2 Drift-Diffusion Equation The Level 2 DD model considers the influence of lattice temperature by solving the extra thermal equation simultaneously with the electrical equations.d) ?? This model can be used as power transistor simulation as well as breakdown sim- ulation.8) ? ? Temperature But for DDML2. The DDML2 solver runs 50 − 70 % slower than DDML1. ? ⃗ ⋅ ? ⃗ is the joule heating of current.12. 4 Genius Device Simulator . Unfortunately.11) ?? where ? is the mass density of semiconductor material.a) ?? ( ? ? ) ?? ?? ? ?? = −? ⋅ ?? ???⃗ − ?? ? ?? − ?? ? ? − (? − ?) (1.

the energy balance model includes the following electron and hole Equations energy balance equations: ? (??? ) + ? ⋅ ??⃗ = ??⃗ ⋅ ??⃗ + ?? (1. $T_n$ and $T_p$ are electron and hole temperature. the carrier energy includes thermal and kinetic terms ?? = 32 ?? ?? + 12 ?* ?2? . respectively. The dif- ference between above equations and carrier density equations in DDML2 is lattice temperature replaced by carrier temperature. Current Equation The current density ??⃗ and ??⃗ are then expressed as: for EBM ??⃗ = ??? ???⃗ + ?? ?? (???? + ?? ??) (1.13.14. Energy Balance In addition. which derived from second order moment of Boltzmann Transport Equation.b) ? The heat conductivity parameter for carriers can be expressed as: Genius Device Simulator 5 .Level 3 Energy Balance Equation Physics in Genius Device Simulator Level 3 Energy Balance Equation Energy Balance Model [3] is introduced into GENIUS code for simulating short channel MOSFET. Also. ?0 = 32 ?? ? is the carrier equilibrium energy. For HD model. ??⃗ and ??⃗ are the flux of energy: ??⃗ ??⃗ = −?? ??? − (?? + ?? ?? ) (1.a) ? ??⃗ ??⃗ = −?? ??? + (?? + ?? ?? ) (1.13. for carrier temperature equals to lattice temperature.a) ??⃗ = ??? ???⃗ − ?? ?? (???? + ?? ??) (1.b) where. ?? and ?? are electron and hole energy. Here ? stands for ? or ?. but only thermal energy for EB model ?? = 32 ?? ?? .a) ?? ? (??? ) + ? ⋅ ??⃗ = ??⃗ ⋅ ??⃗ + ?? (1.b) ?? where. This is a simplification of full hydrodynamic (HD) model [4]. reduced carrier energy conservation equations. are solved consistently with drift-diffusion model.15. The current density expressions from the drift-diffusion model are modified to in- clude additional coupling to the carrier temperature.14.15. which ensures the stability. The sim- plification from HD to EB makes sophisticated Scharfetter-Gummel discretization still can be used in the numerical solution.

Physics in Genius Device Simulator Level 3 Energy Balance Equation

2
2 ?
?? = ( + ?) ? ?? ?? ? (1.16)
5 ?

where ? stands for ? and ?, respectively. The constant parameter ? equals −0.7 in
the GENIUS software.

The ?? and ?? are the rate of net loss of carrier kinetic energy:

3?? ?? 3?? ??
?? = (?Aug − ?) ⋅ ?? + − ? + ?dir − ?)
( 2 ) 2 ( SHR
? (?? − ?0 )
− (1.17.a)
??
3?? ?? 3?? ??
?? = (?Aug − ?) ⋅ ?? + − ? + ?dir − ?)
( 2 ) 2 ( SHR
? (?? − ?0 )
− (1.17.b)
??

Lattice Heat At last, the lattice heat flow equation should be rewritten as:
Equation for EBM
??
??? = ? ⋅ ??? + ? (1.18)
??

where

3?? ?? 3?? ?? ? (?? − ?0 ) ? (?? − ?0 )
? = ?SHR ⋅ ?? + + + + (1.19)
( 2 2 ) ?? ??

The carrier energy is mainly contributed by joule heating term ??⃗ ⋅ ??⃗ , and heating
(cooling) due to carrier generation (recombination) term. The carriers exchange
energy with lattice by collision, which described by energy relaxation term ??? .
This model is suitable for sub-micron MOS (channel length 1 ∼ 0.1 μm) and
advanced BJT simulation. However, the computation burden of EB method is
much higher than DD. And the convergence of EB solver is difficult to achieve,
which requires more strict initial value and more powerful inner linear solver. The
discretization scheme can be found at [[TODO]].

From above discussion, all the governing equations of DD/EB method is elliptical
or parabolic. From mathematic point of view, does not like hyperbolic system 1, the
solution of elliptical or parabolic system is always smooth. The required numerical
technique is simple and mature for these systems. As a result, the DD and EB
method is preferred against full hydrodynamic method.

1
One have to face discontinuous problem, i.e. shock wave.

6 Genius Device Simulator

Band Structure Model Physics in Genius Device Simulator

Band Structure Model
The band structure parameters, including bandgap ?? , effective density of states in
the conduction band ?? and valence band ?? , and intrinsic carrier concentration
??? , are the most important and fundamental physical parameters for semiconduc-
tor material [5].

Effective Density Effective density of states in the conduction and valence band are defined as fol-
of States lows:
3/2
?? * ?? ?
?? ≡ 2 (1.20.a)
( 2?ħ2 )
3/2
?? * ?? ?
?? ≡ 2 (1.20.b)
( 2?ħ2 )

The temperature dependencies of effective density of states is fairly simple:

? 1.5
?? (? ) = ?? (300 K) ( ) (1.21.a)
300 K
? 1.5
?? (? ) = ?? (300 K) ( (1.21.b)
300 K )

Bandgap The bandgap in GENIUS is expressed as follows:

?? 2
?? (? ) = ?? (0) −
? +?
3002 ?2
= ?? (300) + ? − (1.22.a)
[ 300 + ? ? + ? ]

Bandgap When bandgap narrowing effects due to heavy doping takes place [6], the band
Narrowing due edge shifts:
to Heavy Doping
?bgn ⎡ ?total ? 2 ⎤
Δ?? = ⎢ln + ln total + ?bgn ⎥ . (1.23)
2?? ? ⎢ ?ref √( ?ref ) ⎥
⎣ ⎦

The intrinsic concentration should be modified:
??
??? = √?? ?? exp − ⋅ exp(Δ?? ) (1.24)
( 2?? ? )

Since the carrier current Equation (1.6), p. 2 involves the energy level of conduc-
tion band ?? and valence band ?? , the bandgap shift should be attributed to them.

Genius Device Simulator 7

Physics in Genius Device Simulator Band Structure Model

The bandgap narrowing is attributed half to the conduction band and another half
to the valence band as default:
1
??′ = ?? − Δ?? (1.25.a)
2
1
??′ = ?? + Δ?? (1.25.b)
2

The parameters used in the default band structure model is listed in Table 1.1,
p. 8.

Symbol Parameter Unit Silicon GaAs
?? (300) EG300 eV 1.1241 1.424
? EGALPH eV/K 2.73 × 10−4 5.405 × 10−4
? EGBETA K 0 204
?bgn V0.BGN eV 6.92 × 10−3 0
?ref N0.BGN cm3 1.30 × 1017 1 × 1017
?bgn CON.BGN - 0.5 0.5
?? ELECMASS ?0 1.0903 0.067
?? HOLEMASS ?0 1.1525 0.6415
?? (300) NC300 cm3 2.86 × 1019 4.7 × 1017
?? (300) NV300 cm3 3.10 × 1019 7.0 × 1018

Table 1.1 Parameters of the Default band structure model

Band structure of compound semiconductors
[[TODO]]

Band Structure of SiGe

[[TODO]]

Band Structure of Tertiary Compound Semiconductor

[[TODO]]

Bandgap [[TODO]]

Electron Affinity [[TODO]]

Effective Mass [[TODO]]

Density of States [[TODO]]

8 Genius Device Simulator

Genius Device Simulator 9 .Band Structure Model Physics in Genius Device Simulator Schenk's Bandgap Narrowing Model [[TODO]] Equations of Schenk's model The Schenk's bandgap narrowing model is available for silicon. and can be loaded with the option Schenk in the PMI command.

????? ?? = (1. Auger. ?Auger = ???? (??2 − ???? 2 ) + ????(??2 − ???? 2 ) (1.27) where ?? and ?? are carrier life time.28. involving ei- ther two electrons and one hole or two holes and one electron. and direct (or radiative) recombination.28. Direct Recombination The direct recombination model expresses the recombination rate as a function of the carrier concentrations ? and ?. which dependent on impurity concentration [7].b) 1 + ?total /????? Auger Recombination The Auger recombination is a three-carrier recombination process. The value of Auger recombination ?Auger can be negative some times.30) The default value of the recombination parameters are listed in Table 1.Physics in Genius Device Simulator Carrier Recombination Carrier Recombination Three recombination mechanisms are considered in GENIUS at present. ?dir and ?Auger are SRH recombination. and the effective intrinsic density ??? : ?dir = ??????(?? − ??? 2 ) (1.a) 1 + ?total /????? ????? ?? = (1.29) where AUGN and AUGP are Auger coefficient for electrons and holes. including Shockley-Read-Hall.2. This mechanism becomes important when carrier concentration is large.26) where ?SRH . The total recombination is considered as the sum of all: ? = ?? = ?? = ?SRH + ?dir + ?Auger (1. p. which refers to Auger generation. 11: 10 Genius Device Simulator . direct recombination and Auger recombination. respectively. SRH Recombination Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH) recombination rate is determined by the following for- mula: ?? − ??? 2 ?SRH = ????? −????? ?? ? + ??? exp + ?? ? + ??? exp [ ( ??? )] [ ( ??? )] (1.

2 Default values of recombination parameters Surface At semiconductor-insulator interfaces. STAUN and STAUP. and the default value of 0.Carrier Recombination Physics in Genius Device Simulator Parameter Unit Silicon GaAs Ge ETRAP eV 0 0 0 DIRECT cm3 s−1 1.3e-30 1e-29 1e-30 TAUN0 s 1e-7 5e-9 1e-7 TAUP0 s 1e-7 3e-6 1e-7 NSRHN cm−3 5e16 5e17 5e16 NSRHP cm−3 5e16 5e17 5e16 Table 1.1e-30 1e-30 1e-30 AUGP cm6 s−1 0. and is calculated with ?? − ??? 2 ?Surf = . The surface recombination rate has the unit cm−2 s−1 .41e-14 AUGN cm6 s−1 1. have the unit of cm/s. additional SRH recombination can be in- Recombination troduced. Genius Device Simulator 11 .1e-14 7.2e-10 6.31) 1 1 ? + ??? ) + ? + ??? ) ????? ( ????? ( The surface recombination velocities. (1.

The low-field mobility is commonly denoted by the symbol ??0 . The transverse electric field is often used as a parameter that indi- cates the strength of inversion layer phenomena. when the EB method (which ac- counts for velocity overshoot) and QDD method (including quantum effect) are used. Bulk Mobility Models The first family of mobility models were designed to model the carrier transport at low electric fields. and so ???? is primarily a function of the lattice temperature. However. developed at early 1980s. can be taken into account by comprehensive mobility model. Both of which act to decrease the low field mobility. the velocity doesn't increase any more with increasing field but saturates at a constant velocity. is still being used today due to advanced mobility model enlarged its ability to sub-micron device. The comprehensive mobility model extends the application range of DD method. This constant velocity is commonly denoted by the symbol ???? . high field behav- ior and mobility in the (MOS) inversion layer. Carriers in inversion layers are subject to surface scattering. velocity overshoot and quantum mechanical size quantization effects.Physics in Genius Device Simulator Mobility Models Mobility Models Carrier mobility is one of the most important parameters in the carrier transport model. more calibrations are needed to existing mobility models. ??0 . carrier-carrier scattering. It can be seen that some physical mechanisms such as velocity overshoot and quan- tum effect which can't be described by DD method at all. The high electric field behavior shows that the carrier mobility declines with elec- tric field because the carriers that gain energy can take part in a wider range of scattering processes. 12 Genius Device Simulator . On the other hand. Modeling carrier mobilities in inversion layers introduces additional complica- tions. The mean drift velocity no longer increases linearly with increasing electric field. but rises more slowly. The value of this mobility is dependent upon phonon and impurity scattering. The low electric field behavior has carriers almost in equilibrium with the lattice. Since scattering mechanism is depended on lattice temperature. The surface-related or transverse E-field effects are not included in these models. Mobility modeling is normally divided into: low field behavior. They usually focus on the temperature and doping con- centration dependence of the carrier mobilities. The DD model itself. Impurity scattering is relatively insignificant for energetic carriers. the low-field mobility is also a function of lattice temperature. Eventually. These effects must be accounted for in order to perform accurate simulation of MOS devices. in GENIUS.

MIN / MUP.0 -2. It is an concentration and temperature dependent empirical mobility model expressed as: ? ? ?max ( ) − ?min ?0 = ?min + 300 (1. and is available for a wide range of materials.[9] is an alternative to the default analytic model.606e17 1.37 8500.0 400. the analytic model is the simplest mobility model.072e17 1. then a velocity satura- tion formula is applied to yield the corrected mobility value.0 0.32) ? ? ? ?total 1+( 300 ) ( ?ref ) where ?total = ?? + ?? is the total impurity concentration. the Analytic Mobility model [8] is the default low field mo- bility model for all the material. Analytic Mobility Model In the GENIUS code.75e17 Table 1. each described in one of the fol- lowing sub-sections.24 49.0 ? NUN / NUP . The choices of velocity saturation is described in the last sub-section.73 0. some more advanced mobility models are available.2 -1. 0. -2.0 ? ALPHAN / ALPHAP . such as silicon.3 -2.70 0. Masetti Analytic Model The doping-dependent low-field mobility model proposed by Masetti et al. In brief.0 0.3 Default parameter values of the analytic mobility model In GENIUS. such as bipolar transistors.MAX cm2 V−1 s−1 1429. The general expression for the low-field mobility is Genius Device Simulator 13 .23 479. For some materials.69e17 2.8 -3.1 ? XIN / XIP .0 ?max MUN.MIN cm2 V−1 s−1 55.70 0. -3. Three choices are available for the low-field mobility calculation. the low field carrier mobility is first computed. GaAs and Ge are listed below: Symbol Parameter Unit Si:n Si:p GaAs:n GaAs:p ?min MUN.395 ?ref NREFN / NREFP cm−3 1. Default parameters for Si.MAX / MUP.7 0.Mobility Models Physics in Genius Device Simulator these low-field mobilities models are coupled to a velocity saturation model to account for the carrier velocity saturation effect.436 0. This family of mobility models are suitable for bulk device.

0.962 1. 0 0 Table 1.0 124.? is the total low field electron mobilities.ALPHA .? −1 = ?Lattice. The electron mobility is described by the following expressions: ?0.61 0. ?Lattice.? −1 + ??+?+? −1 (1.ZETA / MUP.76 × 1019 ?? CSN / CSP cm−3 0 0 ? MUN. 14. 14 Genius Device Simulator .94 × 1017 1. Symbol Parameter Unit 4H-SiC:n 4H-SiC:p ?max MUN.ALPHA / MUP.MIN2 cm2 V−1 s−1 0 15. phonon-limited mobility ? ? ?const = ?max ( (1.BETA . The Masetti model is the default mobility model for the 4H-SiC material.ZETA .MIN2 / MUP. This model takes into account the distinct acceptor and donor scattering.0 ? MUN. 1. acceptor (A).MIN1 cm2 V−1 s−1 0 15.? is the electron mo- bilities due to lattice scattering.MIN1 / MUP.34 ? MUN.33) ( ?tot ) 1 + (? /? ) ? 1 + (?? /?tot )? tot ? where ?tot is the total doping concentration.4.[11]. The term ?const is the temperature-de- pendent.9 ?1 MUN1 / MUP1 cm2 V−1 s−1 0 0 ?? PCN / PCP cm−3 0 0 ?? CRN / CRP cm−3 1. p. The parameters of the Masetti model is listed in Table 1.34) 300 ) where ? is the lattice temperature.424 ?min1 MUN. ??+?+? is the electron and hole mobilities due to donor (D).4 Parameters of the Masetti mobility model Philips Mobility Model Another low field mobility model implemented into GENIUS is the Philips Uni- fied Mobility model [10].35) where ?0. which is rec- ommended for bipolar devices simulation.BETA / MUP.MAX cm2 V−1 s−1 947.MAX / MUP.9 ?min2 MUN. carrier-carrier scattering and carrier screening. screening (P) and carrier-carrier scattering.Physics in Genius Device Simulator Mobility Models ? ? − ?min2 ?1 ?dop = ?min1 exp − ? + const − (1.

? is the impurity-carrier scattering concentration and effect impurity-carrier scattering concentration given by: ?sc.41372 + ?? ( ?0 300 ) ? [ ? ] [ ? ( ?0 300 ) ] (1.39.38.? = ( 300 ) (1.5 ?2.5 ?1.8552 ? ? ℎ The ?? parameter that takes screening effects into account is given by: Genius Device Simulator 15 .36) 300 ) ?sc.? ) ( ?sc.eff.? and ?sc.72169 1.eff.? and ?2.? (1.2999 + 6.a) ?max − ?min ?max ⋅ ?min 300 1.28227 0.? ?ref ? ?+? ??+?+? = ?1.? are given as: 2 ?max ? 3?−1.b) ?max − ?min ( ? ) where ?sc.? = ?? * + ??* + ? (1.? ) The parameters ?1.5502 ? ? ℎ ? (?? ) = ? (1.37) ( ?sc.42) ?? 0.eff.89233 0.40.80618 0.b) ? (?? ) * where ?? and ??* take ultra-high doping effects into account and are defined by: ⎛ ⎞ ⎜ 1 ⎟ ?? * = ?? ⎜1 + ⎟ (1.7643?? 0.? = ?max ( (1.ref 2 ⎟ ⎜ ?? + ⎟ ⎝ ( ?? ) ⎠ The screening factor functions ? (?? ) and ? (?? ) take the repulsive potential for acceptors and the finite mass of scattering holes into account.39.b) ⎜ ??.? + ?2.? = ? ? * + ? ? * ? ( ?? ) + (1.a) ⎜ ??.38.a) ? ?sc.40.19778 ?? ? 0.eff.? ) ( ?sc. 0.ref 2 ⎟ ⎜ ?? + ⎟ ⎝ ( ?? ) ⎠ ⎛ ⎞ ⎜ 1 ⎟ ?? * = ?? ⎜1 + ⎟ (1.6478 + 2.005978 ? (?? ) = 1− + ? ? 0.? = (1.Mobility Models Physics in Genius Device Simulator ? −2.285 ?Lattice.41) ? 0.6478 + 2.3670 − 0.

UM cm−3 4. 16: Symbol Parameter Unit Si:n Si:p ?min MMNN.UM cm−3 7.68e16 2.719 ?ref NRFN.828 ?sc. 1.97e13 ?c.44) ?0 ?∥ ? 1+ [ ( ?sat ) ] where ?∥ is the electric field parallel to current flow.70 ?max MMXN.5 ? ALPN.ref NSC.24 49.UM / NRFP.ref CAR.36e20 Table 1.0e20 4.0 470.5 0.5 ?D. ?sat is the saturation velocities for electrons or holes.2e20 ?? me_over_m0 ?0 1. The default parameters for Philips model are listed in Table 1. 0.258 ??? .UM .ref NRFA.ref ?? ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ? + ? ( ?0 ) ⎦ Similar expressions hold for holes.459 2.UM cm2 V−1 s−1 1417.459 ??? .UM cm2 V−1 s−1 55.5 Default values of Philips mobility model parameters In the actual code.36e20 1.REF cm−2 3.UM .828 3. They are computed by default from the expression: 16 Genius Device Simulator .23e17 ?? CRFD.UM cm−3 9.21 0. This model can be loaded by Philips keyword in the PMI statements.UM . 3.0e20 ?A. Velocity Saturation Silicon-like For silicon-like materials.ref NRFD.68 0. 0.REF cm−3 1.? −2/3 ?c.2e20 7.ref ⋅ ?sc.5.UM / MMNP. the Caughey-Thomas expression [12]. p.UM / ALPP.43) ⎢ ?sc.0 - ?ℎ mh_over_m0 ?0 .UM / MMXP. 0.Physics in Genius Device Simulator Mobility Models −1 ⎡ ⎤ ⎢ ??? ??? ⎥ ? 2 ?? = ⎢ + ⎥ ( 300 ) (1. Philips model is corrected by Caughey-Thomas expression for taking high field velocity saturation effects into account.97e13 3. is used: materials ?0 ?= 1/? (1.21 ?? CRFA. 2.

another expression due to [13] is used to describe the negative differential resistance: ???? ?∥ 4 ?0 + ?∥ ( ?0 ) ?= 4 (1.4 × 107 2. 17.6.47) The negative differential property of carrier mobility is described in this model. The parameters are listed in Table 1. 17.8 0. p.Mobility Models Physics in Genius Device Simulator ?sat0 ?sat (? ) = (1. Symbol Parameter Unit GaAs:n GaAs:p ?vsat VSATN.7 Velocity saturation parameters of GaAs-like materials GaAs-specific When using this model for GaAs MESFET device simulation.B cm/s 1.7.A / VSATP.0 1. 2.6 Velocity saturation parameters of silicon-like materials GaAs-like materials For GaAs-like materials.0 ? VSATN.2 × 104 1.4 × 107 ? BETAN / BETAP .13 × 107 1.45) ? 1 + ? ⋅ exp ( 600 ) The parameters and the default values for silicon is listed in Table 1. Symbol Parameter Unit Si:n Si:p ?sat0 VSATN0 / VSATP0 cm/s 2.A / VSATP.A / VSATP. p. voltage) exhibit an unrealistic oscillation behavior. ?sat ?0 ?∥ ?= tanh (1.13 × 107 ?vsat VSATN.A . the negative dif- model ferential property may cause the drain output characteristics (current vs.2 × 104 Table 1. the carrier drift velocity (??∥ ) reaches a peak and then begins to decrease at high fields due to the transferred electron effect.B cm/s/K 1. When electric field increases in this model.46) ?∥ 1+ ( ?0 ) where ?0 is the reference field.8 Table 1. 0. and the saturation velocity ???? (? ) = ?vsat − ?vsat ? (1. Another model to describe high field effects developed by Yeager [14] can be used.48) ?∥ ( ?sat ) Genius Device Simulator 17 .

A / VSATP.A / VSATP.37 × 106 ?vsat VSATN.B cm/s 0 0 Table 1. the saturation velocity is calculated with the following formula model ? ???? (? ) = ?vsat − ?vsat ( (1.Physics in Genius Device Simulator Mobility Models This GaAs-specific model can be loaded by Hypertang keyword in PMI state- ment.49) 300 ) where the parameters are listed in Symbol Parameter Unit 4H-SiC:n 4H-SiC:p 7 ?vsat VSATN.8 Velocity saturation parameters of 4H-SiC 18 Genius Device Simulator . 4H-SiC-specific For 4H-SiC.B cm/s 1.07 × 10 8.

the mobility degradation due to the surface roughness scattering. • ?sr . the doping-dependent bulk mobility. (1. the availability of the unified models is limited to a few materials. the three components are combined using the Matthiessen's rule: ?s −1 = ?? −1 + ?ac −1 + ?sr −1 .51) ( ?tot ) 1 + (? /? ) ? 1 + (?? /?tot )? tot ? ? ? ?max = ?2 ( (1. the mobility degradation due to acoustic phonon scattering in the inversion layer. Due to the quantum confinement in the potential well at the interface. such as silicon and silicon-germanium. which reads ? ?max − ?0 ?1 ?? = ?0 exp − ? + − (1. On the other hand.53) ?⊥ 3 ? √?⊥ Genius Device Simulator 19 .Mobility Models Physics in Genius Device Simulator Unified Mobility Models The other family of mobility models are the unified mobility models. this mobility degradation is a strong function of the transverse electric field. The effect of high transverse and parallel E-field is an integral part in the design of these mobility models. This component mainly accounts for the ionized impurity scattering. Lombardi Surface Mobility Model Along an insulator-semiconductor interface. If no surface degradation is considered. To obtain the final value of carrier mobility. the drain-source current may exceed about 30 % for MOS simulation.50) Bulk Component The bulk mobility component in Lombardi's model is similar to that of Masetti's model. The Lombardi mobility model [15] is an empirical model that is able to describe the carrier mobility in the MOSFET inversion layer. these models are recommended for silicon MOSFET simulation. This component is also a strong function of the transverse electric field. As a result.52) 300 ) Acoustic Phonon The acoustic phonon limited mobility component is Component ? ? ⋅ ?total ? ?ac = + (1. the carrier mobilities can be substan- tially lower than in the bulk of the semiconductor due to surface-related scattering. The Lombardi model consists of three components • ?? . • ?ac .

2.84 × 105 ? DN.LSM cm−3 9. 1.LSM / BP. Symbol Parameter Unit Si:n Si:p ? EXN1.9.0317 ? EXN8.8 Table 1.LSM / MUP1.4 29.LSM / CP.719 ? EXN2.LSM .LSM / EXP4. 2. the carrier mobility is given by Matthiessen's rule: 20 Genius Device Simulator .74 × 105 8.LSM cm/s 4.LSM cm2 V−1 s−1 43.68 × 1016 2. For low longitudinal field.LSM / MUP2. p.LSM .4 × 107 2.LSM .LSM cm−3 0 (fixed) 9.LSM / EXP3.93 × 106 ? CN. (1. p. as well as accounting for high field effects. 5.43 × 1020 6.Physics in Genius Device Simulator Mobility Models where ?⊥ is the transverse component of the electric field. Lucent High Field Mobility Model The Lucent Mobility model [16] is an all-inclusive model which suitable for MOS simulation.75 × 107 9.0 470.LSM / EXP8. The parameters used in the Lombardi model is summarized in Table 1.0 ? EXN3.05 × 1014 ?sat0 VSATN0 / VSATP0 cm/s 2.5 2.0 ?0 MUN0. 2. Surface Roughness Finally. the surface roughness limited mobility is expressed as Component ? ?sr = ?.LSM .LSM / MUP0.LSM / DP.9 ?1 MUN1.LSM / EXP1.5 ?? PC. see “Velocity Saturation”.125 0.LSM cm−3 3.0 2.82 × 1014 2.23 × 1017 ?? CSN.LSM cm2 V−1 s−1 1417.9 Parameters of Lombardi mobility model Hewlett-Packard mobility model can be loaded by Lombardi keyword in the PMI statement.A .A / VSATP. This model incorporates Philips Unified Mobility model and the Lom- bardi Surface Mobility model.4 × 107 ? BETAN / BETAP .54) ?⊥ The Lombardi model is uses the Caughey-Thomas model for velocity saturation calculation.0 ?2 MUN2.10 × 1020 ? BN.680 0.LSM .LSM . 16 for details.2 44. 0.0 2.8 0.0 ? VSATN. 0.LSM . 0. 20.LSM / EXP2.0 1. 2.23 × 1016 ?? CRN.2 ? EXN4.LSM cm2 V−1 s−1 52.LSM / CRP.LSM / CSP.

Symbol Parameter Unit Si:n Si:p 2 −1 −1 ?min MMNN. p. 1.23e17 ?? CRFD.Mobility Models Physics in Genius Device Simulator −1 1 1 1 ?0 = + + (1.54).LUC . 2.24 49.LUC / CP. The constant exponent ? is replaced by the following function ? ⋅ (? + ?) ?=?+ ? .55) [ ?b ?ac ?sr ] where ?? is the bulk mobility comes from the Philips model. and will not be repeated here.2e20 ?? me_over_m0 ?0 1.21 ?? CRFA.4 × 107 2. see “Velocity Saturation”.5 ? ALPN.0 - ?ℎ mh_over_m0 ?0 .UM cm−3 4.70 × 104 4. 0. p. The details of these models are described in “Philips Mobility Model”.36e20 ?sat0 VSATN0 / VSATP0 cm/s 2.5 0. p.97e13 ?c.REF cm−2 3.68 0. The parameters of the Lucent model is listed in Table 1.UM / NRFP. 1.58 2.68e16 2.UM cm−3 9.459 2. 0. p.21 0. 2.LUC .ref NSC.ref NRFD.0119 ? EXN9. p.828 ?sc.LUC / BP.61 × 107 1. 16 for details. 21.UM .18 ? BN.UM / MMNP.56) ?tot The Lucent model uses the Caughey-Thomas model for velocity saturation calcu- lation. 0.LUC .828 3.UM .5 ?D. 0.ref CAR.LUC .UM .0233 0.LUC cm/s 3.459 ??? .123 ? AN.97e13 3.REF cm−3 1.47 ? EXN4.LUC / AP. 19.719 ?ref NRFN.UM / ALPP.LUC / EXP4.ref NRFA.LUC / EXP9.10. and ?ac and ?sr come from the Lombardi model.70 ?max MMXN.0e20 ?A.10 Default values of Lucent mobility model parameters Genius Device Simulator 21 .0 470. 20.18 × 103 Table 1. 3. 0. (1.0e20 4. There is however a modification to the surface roughness formula Equation (1.51 × 107 ? CN.2e20 7. 14 and “Lombardi Surface Mobility Model”.UM cm−3 7.UM cm V s 55.UM cm2 V−1 s−1 1417.258 ??? .0767 0.UM / MMXP.36e20 1.

22 Genius Device Simulator . as described in “Analytic Mobility Model”.0 1.A / VSATP. 0. 6.LUC / DP.A . 23.4 × 107 2. 1.12.90 ?sat0 VSATN0 / VSATP0 cm/s 2. This model also takes into account dependence on electric fields both parallel (?∥ ) and perpendicular (?⊥ ) to the direction of current flow. 3. 2. However.70 0.11 Default values of Lucent mobility model parameters The Lucent model can be loaded by Lucent keyword in the PMI statements.0 ? VSATN. 13.LUC .58 × 1018 3. p.58 × 1018 ? FN.8 Table 1.LUC / FP.LUC .85 × 10−21 7.LUC .LUC / KP. Hewlett-Packard High Field Mobility Model It is reported that Hewlett-Packard mobility model [17] achieves the same ac- curacy as Lucent model with relatively small computational burden in the MOS simulation. This is an accurate model recommended for MOS devices.57) √ ?⊥ ?∥ 2 √ √ √ √1 + ( ?? ) + ?⊥ ?∥ √ ?⊥ ?∥ √ ?? +? √ ?? where the tranverse field dependent component ?⊥ is given as: ?0 if ?total > ?ref ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ?0 ?⊥ = ⎨ ⎪ 1 + ?⊥ ⎪ ⎩ ?ref The low field mobility ?0 is calculated from the Analytic model.8 0. The parameters of the Hewlett-Packard mobility model and its default values for silicon is listed in Table 1. p.4 × 107 ? BETAN / BETAP .82 × 10−21 ? KN. it is also less numer- ically stable. The mobility is calculated from ?⊥ ?= (1. its computation cost is higher than other mobility models.Physics in Genius Device Simulator Mobility Models Symbol Parameter Unit Si:n Si:p ? DN. At the same time.

HP .9 × 106 2.37 ? NUN / NUP .70 ?max MUN.12 Default values of HP mobility model parameters The Hewlett-Packard mobility model can be loaded by HP keyword in the PMI statement.606 × 1017 ?0 MUN0.3 -2.NP / VCP.Mobility Models Physics in Genius Device Simulator Symbol Parameter Unit Si:n Si:p ?min MUN.5 × 105 2.6 ?ref NREFN / NREFP cm−3 5 × 1017 5 × 1017 ?ref ECN.70 ?ref NREFN / NREFP cm−3 1.8 -3.HP cm ⋅ s−1 4. -3.HP / ECP.73 0. Genius Device Simulator 23 .2 × 107 ? GN.2 ? XIN / XIP .8 1.MAX cm2 V−1 s−1 1429. 0. 8.HP V ⋅ cm−1 5.HP / MUP0.78 × 105 Table 1.0 250 ?? VCN.MAX / MUP.MIN cm2 V−1 s−1 55.23 479.NP / VSP.7 ? ALPHAN / ALPHAP .24 49.HP / GP. -2.HP cm ⋅ s−1 1.HP cm2 V−1 s−1 774.072 × 1017 1.036 × 107 1.928 × 106 ?? VSN.MIN / MUP.

Physics in Genius Device Simulator Mobility Models Mobility Models of Complex Compound Semiconductors [[TODO]] 24 Genius Device Simulator .

For example.Mobility Models Physics in Genius Device Simulator Carrier Temperature Based Mobility Model We should notice here. but also contains the effect caused by carrier concen- tration decrease due to quantum well in inverse layer. There are some mobility models developed special for energy balance model [3]. they are yet to be implemented in GENIUS. When the physical model is more accurate. However. all the above mobility models are developed under the framework of DD method. These corrections extended the application range of DD model. Genius Device Simulator 25 . the high field correction has already contains the effect of hot car- riers. the difference between DD model and real device is corrected by mobility models! These mobility model contains some physical model that DD does not consider. the mobility models suitable for DD model may NOT be suitable for energy balance model. The surface mobility for MOSFET not only considers the mobility degrade due to surface roughness. the carrier mobility model can be less complicated. also make the mobility model rather complex. Thus. Since DD is an approximate model for semiconductor.

for which ??.b) | | Crit ?? where ??.58) ? ? where ?? and ?? are electron and hole ionization coefficients. related with electri- cal field.61.61. Three models are implemented in Genius to calculate the ionization coefficient. ??.? ) ] where ??. Selberherr Model Selberherr gives an empirical formula [2].? ??.a) |? ⃗ | | ?| ? ⃗ ⋅ ??⃗ ?? = (1.60.? = .? are the optical-phonon mean free paths for ???.60.? electrons and holes given by: 26 Genius Device Simulator .59) [ ( ??. material and temperature.a) | | ?? = |???? | (1. based on the expression derived by Chynoweth[18]: Crit ??.? ∞ ??.Physics in Genius Device Simulator Generation Model Generation Model Impact Ionization The generation rate of electron-hole pairs due to the carrier impact ionization (II) is generally modeled as [5]: |? ⃗ | |? ⃗ | ?? | ?| | ?| ? = ?? + ?? (1.b) |? ⃗ | | ?| and for GradQf model: ?? = ||???? || (1.? is the magnitude of driving fields.? (? ) exp − (1.? can be given by: ? ⃗ ⋅ ??⃗ ?? = (1.? = ??. When EdotJ model is used.

0 ??. 1. Symbol Parameter Unit Silicon GaAs Ge ??. One can also explicitly load it with the option Selberherr in the PMI statements.0 N.0 ⋅ tanh (1.0 ?? EXP.63.2 ⋅ ? 2 (1.IONIZA cm−1 1.32079e-7 3.2 ⋅ ? 2 (1.0 and ??. ??.0 ⋅ tanh (1.ION. (1.994e5 1.1 N.63.39505e-7 ?? EXN.a) ( 2?? ? ) ?op ?? (? ) = ??.0 0.6 1. 27.55e7 ??.b) The Selberherr model is the default avalanche model for many materials in Ge- nius.0 0.II .ION.04542e-6 3.II .0 + ??.030e5 2.b) ( 2?? ? ) in the above expressions.215e5 1e7 ??.0 ??. 1.0 LAN300 cm 1.0 1.0 ?op OP.67649e-6 8.ION.EN eV 6.a) ??∞ = ??.13 Default values of Impact Ionization model parameters van Overstraeten .0 0.75 1.62.PH.0 0.0 ??. p.62.1 ⋅ ? + ??.The parameters used for Selberherr model are listed in Table 1.1 cm−1 0.0 0.0 Table 1.2 P.1 cm−1 0.0 + ??.88825e-7 ??.0 1.1 ⋅ ? + ??.528e6 2.2 N.52724e-6 6.0 are the phonon mean free paths for electrons and holes at 300 K.de Man model The model also uses the ionization coefficient derived by Chynoweth [18] ?? ? = ?? exp − .3e-2 3. ??? is the optical-phonon energy.Generation Model Physics in Genius Device Simulator ?op ?? (? ) = ??.0 0.5e-2 3.0 P.ION. The temperature dependent factors ??∞ and ??∞ are expressed as: ??∞ = ??.1 P.2 cm−1 0.0 LAP300 cm 6.IONIZA cm−1 7.7e-2 ??.0 0.2 cm−1 0.64) ( ?) where Genius Device Simulator 27 .13.0 0.

2 × 105 ? BN.2 × 105 4. The threshold for the switch is ?0 .2 × 105 4.67. It can be loaded with the Valdinoci option in the PMI statements.b) ?? (? ) = ??? + ??? ⋅ ? ??? + ??? ⋅ ? 2 (1. InAs and InSb materials. 28. The van Overstraeten . InN.II.66) ?? (? ) ?? (? ) + ?? (? ) exp ( ?∥ + ?? (? ) ) where ?? (? ) = ??? + ??? ⋅ ? ??? (1. The electron impact ionization rate for Valdinoci model reads: ?∥ ?? = (1. (1.Physics in Genius Device Simulator Generation Model ħ?op tanh ( 2??0 ) ?= .II.II / EOP.II.a) ?? (? ) = ??? ⋅ exp (??? ⋅ ? ) (1.II.OP.II.0 1.14 van Overstraeten . It is the default model for 4H-SiC.de Man Impact Ionization model parameters Valdinoci Model GENIUS has another Valdinoci model for silicon device which has been reported to produce correct temperature dependence of breakdown voltage of junction diodes as high as 400∘ C [19]. The parameters are listed in Table 1.PH / EP.LO V/cm 1.67.OP.67.67 × 107 ? BN.HI / AP.LO / BP.67 × 107 ?0 E0N.HI / BP.0 Table 1.de Man model uses two sets of values for parameter ? and ? at high and low electric field.c) 28 Genius Device Simulator .2 × 105 ? AN.LO cm−1 4. Parameter Parameter Unit 4H-SiC:n 4H-SiC:p ? AN.II V/cm 4 × 105 4 × 105 ħ?op EN.II.HI V/cm 1.II.65) ħ?op tanh ( 2?? ) The van Overstraeten .14.II.67 × 107 1.PH eV 1.de Man model is can be selected with the vanOverstraetendeMan option in the PMI command. p.HI cm−1 4.LO / AP.67 × 107 1.

42 × 10−12 A1P 0.4924 - C3N 0.67.4043 × 106 V ⋅ cm−1 D1N 1.0 B1P −2.2039 × 103 D1P 2.01033 V ⋅ K??? A2N 4.17714 V B1N 0.d) Similar expressions hold for holes. p.0 V ⋅ cm−1 C1N 4.1233 A2P 1.376 V A1N −2.13005 C3P 0.235 B0P 0. Parameter Silicon:n Parameter Silicon:p Unit A0N 4.Generation Model Physics in Genius Device Simulator ?? (? ) = ??? + ??? ⋅ ? + ??? ⋅ ? 2 (1.178 × 10−3 K−1 C0N 1.47 × 10−3 V ⋅ cm−1 K−??? C2N 1.3796 C1P 9.15 Default values of Valdinoci Impact Ionization model parameters Genius Device Simulator 29 . The parameters for Valdinoci model are listed in Table 1.4829 V ⋅ cm−1 K−2 Table 1.0 - B0N 0.15.56703 D2P 1.6831 × 104 C0P 0.3383 A0P 2.233735 × 106 D0P 1. 29.9744 × 103 V ⋅ cm−1 K−1 D2N 0.0 V ⋅ cm−1 K−2 D0N 1.0 C2P 2.

30 Genius Device Simulator .BTBT ⋅ ⋅ exp −B.BTBT ⋅ (1. which can be expressed as [20][21]: ?2 ?? 3/2 ??? = A.68) √?? ( ? ) where ? is the magnitude of electrical field.Physics in Genius Device Simulator Generation Model Band-to-band Tunneling Kane's model The carrier generation by band-band tunneling ??? is also considered by Genius.

(1. The simulation of high-energy particle and the energy deposition in semiconductor can be simulated with the Geant4 or other Monte Carlo simulation tool. the Monte Carlo simulators such as Geant4 provides the total energy deposition data.71) ?? √? Genius Device Simulator 31 . which relate to ? by ∞ (? − ?max )2 ?=? ?0 exp − d?.69) [ 2? 2 ] On the other hand. which generates electron-hole pairs along it trajectory. and a characteristic time ?.70) ∫ [ 2? 2 ] 0 where ? is the average energy loss for each generated electron-hole pair. (1. it will interact with some silicon atoms and transfer energy to the semiconductor lattice. Assuming the proton hit the diode at ? = 0 s.High Energy Particles Physics in Genius Device Simulator High Energy Particles As a heavy ion passes through the device. and the electron-hole generation rate follows a Gaussian time dependence. with a maximum at ?max . the generation of electron-hole pairs and the effects to the device behavior must be simulated in a 3D device simulator. the carrier generation rate can be calculated by (? − ?max )2 ? = ?0 exp − . On the other hand. (1. We there- fore have the normalization factor 2? ?0 = .

Evaluate Inverse ℱ1/2 −1 is the inverse Fermi integral of order one-half.75. Joyce and Dixon gives its Fermi Integral approximation analytic expression in the year of 1977 [22].72. which can be given by: ⎧ log(?) + ?? + ??2 + ??3 + ??4 ? < 8.a) ?? ? ( ?? ) ?? − ? ?? ? ?? = = ℱ1/2 −1 (1.b) The ?? and ?? are defined as follows: ??? − ?? ? ?? = = ℱ1/2 −1 (1.4838577128872821 × 10−4 (1.c) ? = 4.73.4256301190009895 × 10−6 (1.d) In the GENIUS code.74.74.a) ? = 0.a) exp (?? ) ℱ1/2 (?? ) ?? = (1.74.73. the ?? and ?? are derived from carrier concentration by Joyce-Dixon expression. For convenience.b) exp (?? ) 32 Genius Device Simulator . the electron and hole concentrations in semiconductors are defined by Fermi-Dirac distributions and density of states: ? = ?? ℱ1/2 (?? ) (1.74.a) ? = ?? ℱ1/2 (?? ) (1. The relationship of Fermi energy and Fermi potential is ??? = −??? .72.75. ??? = −??? .b) ? = 1. we introduce floowing two parameters as referred by [23]: ℱ1/2 (?? ) ?? = (1.463 ⎪ ⎪ ℱ1/2 −1 (?) = ⎨ 3√? 3/4 2 1/2 ⎪ ? ? − otherwise ⎩ [( 4 ) ⎪ 6] ? = 0.b) ?? ? ( ?? ) where ??? and ??? are the electron and hole Fermi energies.Physics in Genius Device Simulator Fermi-Dirac Statistics Fermi-Dirac Statistics In general.0049500897298752622 (1.35355339059327379 (1.

77.82.a) ? = ?? ?? exp (?? ) (1.81) d? ? From the above property. and less than 1. one can derive two useful derivatives: ? ?? ? (?) = (1. one can get the modified current equation.a) ?? ? ? ? ?? ? (?) = 1 − ?? ) (1. The corresponding current equation for electrons is ??⃗ = ?? (????⃗ + ?? ? ?? ??) (1.76.0 for Fermi statistics. DD Equation with Consider the drift-diffusion current Equation (1.78.76.b) where ?? = ?? = 1 for Boltzmann statistics.b) ?? ? ? ( Genius Device Simulator 33 . p.79) where ℱ1/2 (?? ) ?? = (1.78.Fermi-Dirac Statistics Physics in Genius Device Simulator The carrier concentration for Fermi statistics and Boltzmann statistics can be de- scribed uniformly by: ? = ?? ?? exp (?? ) (1.b) ? where ℱ−1/2 is the Fermi integral of order minus one-half.80) ℱ−1/2 (?? ) The Fermi integral has an useful property: d ℱ (?) = ℱ?−1 (?) (1.a) ? ? ?? ?? = ? ?? (1.5).a) ? ? 1/2 ( ? ) −1/2 ( ? ) ?? ?? = ? ?? ℱ1/2 (?? ) /ℱ−1/2 (?? ) (1.82.b) ? should be replaced by: ?? ? ?? = ? ℱ ? /ℱ ? (1. 2 when the carrier satisfies Fermi Statistics Fermi statistics and forces zero net current in equilibrium state.77. for which the Einstein relationship: ?? ? ?? = ? (1.

85) ? ? ? As a conclusion. which can be combinated into potential term. the formula of DD method keeps unchanged.Physics in Genius Device Simulator Fermi-Dirac Statistics With the two derivatives.79). Equation (1. Fermi statistics also effect the implement of Ohmic boundary condition. but the effective driving force should be modified as: 1 ?? ?? ??⃗ = ??? − ? ? (ln(?? ) − ln(? 3/2 )) − ? ? (ln ?? ) (1.84) ? ? ? The same formula exists for holes: 1 ?? ?? ??⃗ = ??? + ? ? (ln(?? ) − ln(? 3/2 )) + ? ? (ln ?? ) (1. the current Equation (1.83) The last term is the modification to Einstein relationship. p. 2 keeps unchanged.5). p. However. 33 can be rewritten into the follow- ing equivalent formula: ??⃗ = ?? (????⃗ + ?? ? ?? − ??? ? ? (ln ?? )) (1. please refer to [[TODO]] 34 Genius Device Simulator . As a result. when Fermi statistics is considered. only an extra potential term should be considered.

enumerate strings are not case sensitive. the grammar of user provide file is matched by this pattern. The string should not begin with number. It first read the pattern file located at $GENIUS_DIR/lib/genius. only enough char- acters to ensure unique identification is necessary. it may be continued on subsequent lines by placing a backslash sign \ as the last non-blank character on the current line. CHAPTER 2 Genius Command Reference Introduction Format of Input Card GENIUS code takes its input from a user specified card file. At last. identified by the first keyword on the card. If more than one line of input is necessary for a particular statement. With this flexible mechanism. blank. All the parameter specification has the same format as parameter_name = [number|integer|bool|string|enumeration] In the card descriptions.key which provides the keyword names and parameter attributes before the parse work. keywords. adding new statement to GENIUS is fairly easy. integer. string or enumeration. False and Off. String value is made up of lower line. GENIUS code parses the input file by GNU flex and bison. The remaining parts of the line are the parameters of that statement. Each line of the card file is a particular statement. number and alpha characters. dot. parameters. quotation marks are only needed when string contains blank. On. The bool value can be True. After that. However user input strings is Genius Device Simulator 35 . the length of string (including enumerate string) is limited to 80 characters. bool. The float point number supports C style double precision real number. The enumerate value is a string with its value in a limited range which is predefined in the pattern file. And their names does not need to be typed in full. The integer value also supports C style integer. The statement has the format as follow: KEYWORD [parameters] The words on a line should be separated by blanks or tabs. Parameters may be one of five types: float.

So the placement order of 'driven' cards will affect simulation result. And GENIUS will execute the 'driven' cards sequentially. Comments must begin with '#' and can be either an separated line or locate at the end of current statement. The mesh generation cards must have the right order.Genius Command Reference Introduction case sensitive. The order of occurrence of input deck of cards is significant in only two cases. or it can't work properly. 36 Genius Device Simulator . The sequence Most of the cards GENIUS used are sequence insensitive. because file name may be specified by the string.

Introduction Genius Command Reference Statement Description Format Syntax of The following special characters are used in the formatted parameter list: Parameter Lists slanted shape num .array of values Genius Device Simulator 37 . enumeration value a-prex .group hierarchy Braces { } . The following types of values are represented: num . integer value bool . A lower case letter in angle brackets represents a value of a given type. boolean value str .group hierarchy with high level Value Types Besides some string parameters which have fixed values.alternate choice Parentheses ( ) .optional group Vertical bar | .value of parameter in the indicated type Square brackets [ ] . string value enum . double precision numerical value int . most of the parameters need a user defined value.

a good choice of this value is the highest doping concentration in the device. although in some cases lower values are more desirable. Z. The electrical current output is integrated along the angular direction thus in the unit of Amperes.Width=num ] | [ CylindricalMesh=bool ] } [ ResistiveMetal=bool ] Parameters Parameter Type Description Default Unit Global Simulation Parameters TExternal numerical Ambient temperature external to the simulated device.0 μm calculated current densities are multiplied by this width to produce the terminal currents. ResistiveMetal bool Flag to enable resistive metal in device structure. CylindricalMesh bool For a 2D mesh. Internally 1. Orientation integer The crystalline orientation of the silicon substrate. the width of the device in the z-direction. and a parameter is 38 Genius Device Simulator .Genius Command Reference Global Specification Global Specification GLOBAL The GLOBAL command defines some global simulation parameters such as unit scale and ambient temperature. false none This parameter only affect 2D mesh.0 Description When several GLOBAL commands are present in the input file. Only 100. Physical quantities are 1e18 cm−3 normalized based on this factor to reduce numerical errors. 100 none and 111 are recognized.7. Usually. This parameter only affect 2D mesh. Genius will consider it as cylindrically symmetric. 110. which is introduced false none from version 1.Width numerical For a 2D mesh. GLOBAL [ TExternal=num ] [ DopingScale=num ] [ Orientation=int ] { [ Z. Synonym: 300 K LatticeTemp DopingScale numerical Doping concentration normalization factor.

Global Specification Genius Command Reference

set multiple times, only the last value takes effect.

Example

# device width in Z dimension. Unit:um
GLOBAL Z.Width = 2

# specify initial temperature of device. Unit:K
GLOBAL LatticeTemp = 3e2

# set carrier scale reference value
GLOBAL DopingScale = 1e16

# enable resistive metal
GLOBAL ResistiveMetal = true

Genius Device Simulator 39

Genius Command Reference Mesh Generation

Mesh Generation
GENIUS code has flexible mesh data structure which support various shapes of
2D and 3D elements. The only limit is the element should have circum-circle
for 2D or circum-sphere for 3D to meet finite volume method used by GENIUS.
The supported element shapes can be triangle and quadrangle for 2D, tetrahedron,
prism and hexahedron for 3D. Please note that the triangle and tetrahedron can
be any shape; however, quadrangle, prism and hexahedron should meet the in
circuit or in sphere requirement. The GENIUS solver is designed as element shape
independent, which means using mixed shapes of elements in mesh is possible.

Figure 2.1 2D elements

Figure 2.2 3D elements

GENIUS offers several build-in mesh generators to build both 2D and 3D mesh for
semiconductor device. At present, they can only generate simulation mesh with
unique mesh element. However, it is possible to import device model girded with
hyper-mesh from third party mesh generator.

Coordinate System All the mesh generators use Cartesian coordinate system, in which the top horizon-
tal line has the minimal y coordinate, left vertical line has the minimal x coordinate
and the front vertical line has the minimal z coordinate. In general, y coordinate
is the direction vertical to silicon wafer.

Mesh Statements The device mesh is specified by a series of mesh statements. They are listed as
required input order:

40 Genius Device Simulator

Mesh Generation Genius Command Reference

• MESH
• X.MESH
• Y.MESH
• Z.MESH
• ELIMATE (optional)
• SPREAD or SPREAD3D (optional)
• REGEION
• FACE (optional)

Please note that the order in which statements appear is important. Changing the
order changes the results. Generally, a mesh is specified by the following steps:

• Tell GENIUS which mesh generator will be used. (MESH)
• The mesh begins as a set of (nonuniformly) spaced x-, y- and z- lines compris-
ing a simple hexahedron (X.MESH, Y.MESH and Z.MESH).
• Mesh lines may be terminated inside the device, and redundant nodes removed
from the grid (ELIMINATE).
• The hexahedron can be distorted to track non-planar geometry or match the
doping profile, although strongly non-planar structures are difficult to treat in
this way (SPREAD, SPREAD3D).
• Material regions can be specified as a union of hexahedrons, completing the
mesh specification (REGION).
• Boundary faces can be specified as surface rectangles when necessary (FACE).

MESH
This statement indicates the beginning of the mesh generation behavior.

MESH
Type=(S_Tet4|S_Prism6|S_Hex8|S_Tri3|S_Quad4)
[ Triangle=str ] [ Tetgen=str ]

Parameters

Parameter Type Description Default Unit
Type enum Indicates which mesh generator is to be used. It can be one of none none
S_Tet4, S_Prism6, S_Hex8, S_Tri3 and S_Quad4.
Triangle string The parameters passed to triangular mesh generator for S_Prism6 pzADq30Q none
and S_Tri3 meshes. The triangular mesher recognizes the same
set of parameters as the Triangle program. The detailed descrip-
tion of the available options can be found at Triangle's home page
http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~quake/triangle.html.

Genius Device Simulator 41

Genius Command Reference Mesh Generation

Parameter Type Description Default Unit
TetGen string The parameters passed to the tetrahedral mesh generator Tetgen pzAYq1.5 none
code, which is used for S_Tet4 meshes. The detailed descrip-
tion of this string can be found at Tetgen's home page http://tet-
gen.berlios.de.
File.Prefix string File name prefix of the mesh files to be loaded in the simulator. Cur- none none
rently only works with S_Tet4 meshes generated by Tetgen. For a
file prefix foo, the files foo.node, foo.face and foo.ele will
be read for node, face, and element data of the mesh, respectively.

Description

All simulations in Genius are performed in a discrete mesh. The available types of
meshes are enumerated above, and illustrated in Figure 2.1, p. 40 and Figure 2.2,
p. 40.

There are two alternative ways to generate the mesh structures. The user can use
the X.MESH, Y.MESH and Z.MESH commands to specify the position of mesh
lines, and have Genius to call the appropriate mesh generator programs behind
the scene.

Alternatively, the user can define the device geometry with external tools, pro-
duce the mesh with an external mesh generator, and commands Genius to import
from files containing the mesh structure. Currently Genius can import mesh files
generated by Tetgen for tetrahedral S_Tet4 meshes.

Example

MESH Type=S_Tri3
MESH Type=S_Tet4 Tetgen="pzAq1.5"
MESH Type=S_Tet4 File.Prefix="foo"

42 Genius Device Simulator

Left.Min numerical The y location of the top edge of the grid section. Genius Device Simulator 43 .MESH and Z.Min=num Z.Min=num X.Mesh statements exist.MESH The X. This direction is none μm parallel to silicon wafer. synonym: none μm X.Max numerical The x location of the right edge of the grid section.Bottom.MESH { Width=num | ( X.MESH.Space=num] Y.Spaces=int [Ratio=num] | H1=num [H2=num] } [Min.MESH Y. The original mesh can be modified by following mesh cards like ELIMINATE and SPREAD or SPREAD3D. the Z.Max=num ) } { N.Mesh statements exist. synonym: none μm X.Min location of next mesh edge will follow most right of previous grid section automatically.Min location of next mesh edge will follow most back of previous grid section automatically.Min=num Y.Max=num ) } { N. X.Spaces=int [Ratio=num] | H1=num [H2=num] } [Min.Right. none μm When more than one Y. Y.Top.MESH { Depth=num | ( Y. Depth numerical The distance of the grid section in y direction. When more than one X.Front. X.Space=num] Z.MESH and Z.Mesh statements exist. When more than one Z. the X. synonym: none μm Z.Min numerical The z location of the front edge of the grid section.Space=num] Parameters Parameter Type Description Default Unit Width numerical The distance of the grid section in x or z direction.Max numerical The y location of the bottom edge of the grid section.MESH cards specify the location of lines of nodes in a hexahedral mesh (rectangular mesh for 2D) .Min numerical The x location of the left edge of the grid section. X.Min location of next mesh edge will follow most bottom of previous grid section automatically.Mesh Generation Genius Command Reference X. Y.MESH { Width=num | ( Z. synonym: none μm Y.Max=num ) } { N. This direction is none μm vertical to silicon wafer. Z. synonym: Y. the Y.Spaces=int [Ratio=num] | H1=num [H2=num] } [Min. Y.

Ratio should usually lie between 0.8 Y.Back.Max numerical The z location of the bottom edge of the grid section.SPACES=5 44 Genius Device Simulator . 1.Spaces integer The number of grid spaces in the grid section.0 X. synonym: none μm Z.0 N.MESH DEPTH=0.1 N.MESH X.5. none μm Min.50 N.SPACES=20 Y.667 and 1.MIN=0.MESH WIDTH=1. 1e-4 μm Description [give pictures here] Example X.6 H1=0.SPACES=8 RATIO=0. H1 numerical The size of the grid space at the begin edge of the grid section.Genius Command Reference Mesh Generation Parameter Type Description Default Unit Z.1 N. N. 1 none Ratio numerical The ratio between the sizes of adjacent grid spaces in the grid sec.MESH DEPTH=0.MAX=0.050 Z.Space numerical The size of the minimum allowed grid spacing in this grid section.SPACES=8 Y.0 none tion.MESH DEPTH=0.005 H2=0. none μm H2 numerical The size of the grid space at the end edge of the grid section.

Bottom. except the first and last line. IY.Min=num | IY.Min=int} ] [ {Y.Max=int} ] Parameters Parameter Type Description Default Unit Direction enum Specifies that lines of nodes in direction of X. synonym: IY. synonym: X. Successive eliminations of the same range remove points along every fourth line. synonym: Z. Z.Min numerical The minimum y location of the hexahedron volume in which nodes YMin μm are eliminated.Min=num | IZ.Top. The default value is the minimum y-coordinates in the device. This statement is useful for eliminating nodes in re- gions of the device structure where the grid is more dense than necessary. synonym: X. IX.Mesh Generation Genius Command Reference ELIMINATE The ELIMINATE statement eliminates mesh points along planes in a hexahedral grid over a specified volume. Z.Max=int} ] [ {Y. eighth line.Min=int} ] [ {X. Y.Max numerical The maximum z location of the hexahedron volume in which nodes ZMax μm are eliminated. none none X. X.Max=int} ] [ {Z.Min integer The minimum x node index of the hexahedron volume in which 0 none nodes are eliminated. IY.Left. The default value is the minimum x-coordinates in the device. The default value is the maximum z-coordinates in the device. synonym: IX.Min=num | IX.Max integer The maximum x node index of the hexahedron volume in which IXMax-1 none nodes are eliminated.Max=num | IX.Bottom.Min=int} ] [ {Z.Max numerical The maximum x location of the hexahedron volume in which nodes XMax μm are eliminated.Max numerical The maximum y location of the hexahedron volume in which nodes YMax μm are eliminated. synonym: IX.Min integer The minimum y node index of the hexahedron volume in which 0 none nodes are eliminated.Back. synonym: Y.Max=num | IY. synonym: IY. The default value is the minimum Z-coordinates in the device. The default value is the maximum y-coordinates in the device.Top. ELIMINATE { Direction = (XNorm | YNorm | ZNorm) } [ {X.Max=num | IZ. synonym: Y. Y. IX. Points along every second line in the chosen direction within the chosen range are re- moved.Left. Genius Device Simulator 45 . Y or Z are eliminated.Front.Min numerical The minimum Z location of the hexahedron volume in which nodes ZMin μm are eliminated. and so on.Right.Right.Max integer The maximum y node index of the hexahedron volume in which IYMax-1 none nodes are eliminated. The default value is the maximum x-coordinates in the device. synonym: Z.Min numerical The minimum x location of the hexahedron volume in which nodes XMin μm are eliminated.

Back.Front. User should take care of the elimination process.Min integer The minimum z node index of the hexahedron volume in which 0 none nodes are eliminated. The S_QUAD4 and S_HEX8 mesh generator can not do mesh line eliminate. synonym: IZ. Description Not all the mesh generator support ELIMINATE.Genius Command Reference Mesh Generation Parameter Type Description Default Unit IZ.0 ELIMINATE Direction=XNORM IX.MAX=8 46 Genius Device Simulator .TOP=-1. IZ. Example ELIMINATE Direction=YNORM Y.Max integer The maximum x node index of the hexahedron volume in which IZMax-1 none nodes are eliminated. The excessively elimination may cause bad element quality. synonym: IZ.

The transition region becomes more abrupt with smaller Encroach factors. none none Width numerical The width of the distorted region measured from the left or right 0 μm edge of the structure.1. none μm ally causes the positions of both the Upper and Lower grid lines to move. The statement is only supported by S_Tri3. the upper grid line does not move.5.625 Upper=0 Lower=2 \ Thickness=0. Vol.Mesh Generation Genius Command Reference SPREAD The SPREAD statements provide a way to adjust the y position of nodes along grid lines parallel to the x-plan (the disturb is uniform in Z dimension) in a hexahedral mesh to follow surface and junction contours. Specifying Thickness usu.1 SPREAD Location=Right Width=0. If Vol.0 none y-grid lines specified with Upper and Lower.Rat is 0. Y. The minimum allowed value is 0.1 Genius Device Simulator 47 .0 none distorted and undistorted grid.Rat is 1.625 Upper=0 Lower=2 \ Thickness=0. 0 none Encroach integer The factor which defines the abruptness of the transition between 1.667 and 1. Grading should usually lie between 0. Example SPREAD Location=Left Width=0. Thickness numerical The thickness of the distorted region. S_Tet4 and S_Prism6 mesh generator. Upper integer The index of the upper y-grid line of the distorted region.Rat numerical The ratio of the displacement of the lower grid line to the net change 0. The spacing grows or shrinks by Grading in each interval between lines. Grading numerical The vertical grid spacing ratio in the distorted region between the 1.Rat=num]) } [ Grading=num ] Parameters Parameter Type Description Default Unit Location enum Specifies which side of the grid is distorted. the location of the lower grid line does not move.Lower numerical The vertical location in the distorted region where the line specified none μm by Lower is moved.44 none in thickness. SPREAD Location = (Left|Right) Width=num Upper=int Lower=int [ Enchroach=num] { Y. 0 none Lower integer The index of the lower y-grid line of the distorted region. If Vol.Lower=num | (Thickness=num [Vol. The grid line specified by Upper does not move if this parameter is specified.

Back.Front. 48 Genius Device Simulator .Front. The grid line specified by Upper does not move if this parameter is specified. Z.Min=num | IX. ZMIN μm synonym: Z. XMIN μm synonym: X.Min=int} ] [ {X. The minimum allowed value is 0.Max integer The maximum x node index of the area in which nodes are disturbed. The transition region becomes more abrupt with smaller Encroach factors.Lower=num | (Thickness=num [Vol.Lower numerical The vertical location in the distorted region where the line specified none μm by Lower is moved.Rat=num]) } [Grading=num] Parameters Parameter Type Description Default Unit X. Y.Right. IZMAX-1 none synonym: IZ.0 none distorted and undistorted grid. IX. none μm ally causes the positions of both the Upper and Lower grid lines to move. The statement is only supported by S_Tet4 mesh generator. Upper integer The index of the upper y-grid line of the distorted region.Max numerical The maximum z location of the area in which nodes are disturbed.Max=num | IZ.Min numerical The minimum z location of the area in which nodes are disturbed. ZMAX μm synonym: Z.Max=int} ] [ {Z.Min integer The minimum z node index of the area in which nodes are disturbed. 0 none Lower integer The index of the lower y-grid line of the distorted region.Min=num | IZ.Max=int} ] Upper=int Lower=int [ Enchroach=num] { Y.1.Min integer The minimum x node index of the area in which nodes are disturbed.Max=num | IX. 0 none synonym: IX.Max integer The maximum z node index of the area in which nodes are disturbed. Specifying Thickness usu. IX.Right. X.Min=int} ] [ {Z.Back. 0 none synonym: IZ.Min numerical The minimum x location of the area in which nodes are disturbed. SPREAD3D [ {X.Max numerical The maximum x location of the area in which nodes are disturbed. Thickness numerical The thickness of the distorted region.Left. IZ.Left. IZ.Genius Command Reference Mesh Generation SPREAD3D The SPREAD3D statements also provide a way to adjust the y position of nodes along grid lines parallel to the xz-plan in a hexahedral mesh to follow surface and junction contours. 0 none Encroach integer The factor which defines the abruptness of the transition between 1. XMAX μm synonym: X. Z. IXMAX-1 none synonym: IX.

44 none in thickness. If Vol.MAX=1.Mesh Generation Genius Command Reference Parameter Type Description Default Unit Vol.MIN=1.Rat numerical The ratio of the displacement of the lower grid line to the net change 0.Rat is 1.MIN=0.5.MAX=2.667 and 1. the location of the lower grid line does not move. Grading numerical The vertical grid spacing ratio in the distorted region between the 1. If Vol.0 none y-grid lines specified with Upper and Lower.0 Z.0 \ Upper=0 Lower=2 Thickness=0.1 Genius Device Simulator 49 . Grading should usually lie between 0. The spacing grows or shrinks by Grading in each interval between lines. the upper grid line does not move. Example SPREAD3D X.0 X.0 Z.Rat is 0.

SiO 2.Min numerical The minimum x location of the region. Si 3N 4 and electrode region including Elec.Max=int} ] [ {Y. The situations showed in Figure 2. 3C-SiC.Min integer The minimum z node index of the region. synonym: X. none none Material string Specifies the material of the region. IYMAX-1 none Z. 50 Genius Device Simulator .Bottom. 0 none IX. XMIN μm X. REGION Shape=(Rectangle|Ellipse) Label=str Material=str [ {X.Front. Ge.Genius Command Reference Mesh Generation REGION The REGION statement defines the location of materials in the mesh. XMAX μm IX. Si 1-xGe x. insulator material including Air. Can be Rectangle or Ellipse.Max=num | IZ.Min=int} ] [ {X. 0 none IY.3.Min integer The minimum y node index of the region. InN.Back.Max numerical The maximum z location of the region.Min numerical The minimum z location of the region.Right.Min integer The minimum x node index of the region.Left.Min=int} ] [ {Z.Max=int} ] [ {Z. Au. synonym: X. IZMAX-1 none Description Several regions can be defined one by one. limited to 12 chars.Max=num | IY. But users should be careful that regions can't get cross each other. Currently. Rectangle none Label string Specifies the identifier of this region.Max integer The maximum x node index of the region. InP. semiconductor material includ- ing Si. IXMAX-1 none Y. YMIN μm Y.Top. Al xGa 1-xAs.Min numerical The minimum y location of the region. p. 0 none IZ. Ag and PolySi. In xGa 1-xAs.Max integer The maximum z node index of the region. Hg (1-x)Cd (x)Te. synonym: Z. synonym: IY. synonym: Y. YMAX μm IY. synonym: Y.Left. synonym: IZ. 51(A) and (B) are allowed.Min=num | IY.Bottom.Max numerical The maximum x location of the region.Min=num | IZ. synonym: IX. synonym: IX.Min=num | IX.Top. ZMIN μm Z. synonym: IY.Min=int} ] [ {Y.Right. ZMAX μm IZ.Max=int} ] Parameters Parameter Type Description Default Unit Shape enum Specifies the shape of the region. GENIUS supports following materials: Vacuum. Cu.Front. but (C) will break the mesh generator of genius. synonym: Z. InSb. GaAs.Max integer The maximum y node index of the region.Max=num | IX.Back. Al. InAs. none none X. synonym: IZ.Max numerical The maximum y location of the region.

it is something difficult for specifying region bounding with grid line location. One can use grid line index instead of grid line location here.TOP=-0.3 Multi-Region definition. When the background grid line is disturbed by SPREAD statement.BOTTOM=-0. Example REGION Label=Si1 Material=Si Y.125 Genius Device Simulator 51 .Mesh Generation Genius Command Reference Figure 2.BOTTOM=-0.100 REGION Label=SiGe1 Material=SiGe Y.TOP= 0.0 Y.1 Y.

synonym: Y.Max=num | IX.Genius Command Reference Mesh Generation FACE Face is a group of facet elements (triangle and quadrangle for 3D. 0. 0 none IX.Max=int} ] Parameters Parameter Type Description Default Unit Label string Specifies the identifier of this face. synonym: IZ.Left.Max=int} ] [ {Z.Min=num | IZ. synonym: Y.Max numerical The maximum y location of the face. but also inside the mesh. Here gives the rules about how GENIUS dealing with of faces. 0 none IZ.Min=int} ] [ {Z.Right.Max numerical The maximum z location of the face.Left. synonym: IY.0 μm Y numerical Specifies the Y coordinate of the face parallel to XZ plane.Top. YMAX μm IY.Min=int} ] [ {Y.Max=num | IY. synonym: IX.Min numerical The minimum z location of the face.Bottom.0 μm X.0 μm Z numerical Specifies the Z coordinate of the face parallel to XY plane. and edge for 2D) which have the same attribute.Min integer The minimum x node index of the face.Back.Max=int} ] [ {Y. The faces specified by FACE 52 Genius Device Simulator . IXMAX-1 none Y. synonym: Z.Min=num | IY.Min=int} ] [ {X. 0. none none X numerical Specifies the X coordinate of the face parallel to YZ plane.Min numerical The minimum x location of the face. FACE Label=str { Location = (Top|Bottom|Left|Right|Front|Back) | ( Direction=(XNorm|YNorm|ZNorm) ( X=num|Y=num|Z=num ) ) } [ {X. This statement specifies the label of a special face.Max numerical The maximum x location of the face. XMIN μm X.Min numerical The minimum y location of the face.e. i.Min integer The minimum z node index of the face.Max integer The maximum z node index of the face.Top. XMAX μm IX. IYMAX-1 none Z.Min integer The minimum y node index of the face.Max=num | IZ. synonym: IY. 0 none IY. ZMAX μm IZ.Max integer The maximum x node index of the face.Front. at the interface of two regions. limited to 80 chars.Right. synonym: IZ. synonym: X.Bottom. IZMAX-1 none Description The FACE statement can specify facet elements not only on the boundary of the mesh.Back. YMIN μm Y.Min=num | IX. synonym: IX. User can assign the face with a special boundary condition type by BOUNDARY statement. synonym: X. ZMIN μm Z. 0. none none Location enum Specifies which side the face lies along. synonym: Z.Front. none none Direction enum Specifies the dimensional orientation of the face.Max integer The maximum y node index of the face.

There are some limitations about S_Prism6 mesh generator.0 FACE Label=Cathode Direction=Horizontal X.MIN=0.Mesh Generation Genius Command Reference statement always has the highest priority. Example FACE Label=Anode Direction=Horizontal X.0 FACE Label=Anode Location=TOP X.e. Face can not be defined along Z direction. They will have the label as FACE state- ment declared.0 Y=0.0 Z.0 X.MAX=3.0 Y=3.0 X. on front or back plane.MIN=0.0 Z.MIN=0.MIN=0. the interface faces between two regions will be assigned by name1_to_name2 in which the name1 and name2 are the la- bels of the two regions in alphabetic order. For the remaining faces.MAX=3.MAX=1. The remain faces of a region will be assigned by name_Neumann and the name is the label of the region.0 FACE Label=Cathode Location=BOTTOM Genius Device Simulator 53 .MIN=0.0 X.0 \ Z.MAX=3.0 \ Z.MAX=1. i.

Thus user should ensure that there are DOPING and probably MOLE statements exist in the same input file so that device doping profile and mole distribution can be rebuild on the new mesh. GENIUS supports three types of mesh refinement: uniform.Charge ) Evaluation = ( Gradient | Quantity ) Measure=( Linear| SignedLog ) [ Region=str ] { error.Gen | Particle. the solution is destroyed after the mesh refinement. none none General Mesh Refinement Parameters 54 Genius Device Simulator .Carrier | Net.fraction=num | error.Carrier | Net.Field | Net. REFINE.fraction=num | cell.threshold=num } REFINE.coarsen.Temp | H.threshold=num ] Parameters Parameter Type Description Default Unit Uniform Mesh Refine Step integer how many steps should the uniform refinement repeats.refine.Gen ) Evaluation = ( Gradient | Quantity ) Measure=( Linear| SignedLog ) [ Region=str ] { error.fraction=num | error.coarsen.Conform Variable = ( Doping | Potential | Electron | Hole | Temperature | E.Field | Net.fraction=num | error.fraction=num | cell. conform and hierarchical mesh refine- ment.Genius Command Reference Mesh Generation REFINE The REFINE statement allows refinement of a coarse mesh.Hierarchical Variable = ( Doping | Potential | Electron | Hole | Temperature | E.Temp | QFN | QFP | E.Uniform [Step=int] REFINE.refine.fraction=num | cell.coarsen.Temp | QFN | QFP | E.refine.Temp | H.threshold=num } [ error. At present.Charge | Optical.

Carrier and Net. synonym: Error.Back. Evaluation enum Specifies whether the variable quantity or its gradient should be used Gradient none in refinement critiria. Conformal Mesh Refinement Error. Measure enum Specifies that refinement is based on the original value or logarithm Linear none of the specified quantity.Fraction Error. E. Hole.Refine.Threshold Error. synonym: X. Net.0 . synonym: Error.Max numerical The maximum z coordinate of the region that will be considered for 0 μm refinement.Min numerical The minimum y coordinate of the region that will be considered for 0 μm refinement. none it will be coarsened. Temperature.Refine. synonym: Error.Refine.Threshold Cell. synonym: Z.Th numerical When the cell's error exceeds error. synonym: Y.Temp.Min numerical The minimum x coordinate of the region that will be considered for 0 μm refinement.Bottom. synonym: Y.Mesh Generation Genius Command Reference Parameter Type Description Default Unit Variable enum the mesh refinement criteria variable. User can specify several regions by multi Region parame- ters. Cell.Fr numerical The cell.Field.Coarsen.threshold. synonym: Z.Coarsen. Y. QFN. Can be one of: Doping.Coarsen. Error.Threshold numerical When the cell's error exceeds error.Fraction Error.fraction*max_error. synonym: X. it 0.Max numerical The maximum x coordinate of the region that will be considered for 0 μm refinement. synonym: Cell.fraction*max_error.1 none fined.Fraction Genius Device Simulator 55 .Fraction numerical When the cell's error exceeds error.Fr numerical When the cell's error exceeds error.coarsen.threshold. X.3 none will be refined. H.1 none will be coarsened.refine. Z. it will 0.Refine.Right.Fr numerical When the cell's error is less than error.Fraction numerical The cell.threshold.3 none with most error will be refined. it 0. E.Refine. Z. 0.3 none it will be refined.Th numerical When the cell's error is less than error.refine.Min numerical The minimum z coordinate of the region that will be considered for 0 μm refinement. 0.. none none Potential.Top. Region string The name of the region over which refinement takes place.Refine.fraction*max_error0.Left. X.fraction*(total cell number) of cells with most 0.Max numerical The maximum y coordinate of the region that will be considered for 0 μm refinement. Elements none none in other regions may be refined for mesh conform or well-shaped el- ements.3 none error will be refined. Hierarchical Mesh Refinement/Coarsening Error.Charge.refine. it will be re.Front.Coarsen. synonym: Error.coarsen.fraction*(total cell number) of cells 0.1 none be refined. QFP. Electron.Temp. Y.

3 REFINE. And the conform refine process requires the mesh should be generated by corresponding mesh generator which is defined in the same input file.coarsen. Generally.Coarsen.fraction=0.Fr numerical The cell.3 none with least error will be coarsened. The REFINE.1 56 Genius Device Simulator .Genius Command Reference Mesh Generation Parameter Type Description Default Unit Cell. refine by potential has the best effect.Coarsen.Conform. User should ensure that the hanging node be far away from pn junction of the device.U Step=1 REFINE.coarsen.fraction*(total cell number) of cells 0.refine.Hierarchical is the new mesh refine and coarsen mechanism intro- duced into GENIUS.fraction=0. This method will generate hanging node on the side of elements with different refinement level. It supports all the elements and regardless mesh generators.fraction=0. synonym: Cell. Example REFINE. However. Or convergence problem may occur.C Variable=potential cell.Fraction Description REFINE.H Variable=potential cell. Only TRI3 and TET4 mesh can do REFINE.Uniform is only intended for debugging.3 \ cell. this is the most stable mesh refinement procedure.

a famous circuit simulation program. And the placement of these definitions are not critical. VSOURCE ID=str [ TDelay = num ] [ Type = (VDC|VSin|VExp|VPulse|VShell) ] DC Source { VConst=num } | Sinusoidal Source { VAmp=num VFreq=num } | Exponential Source { VHi=num VLo=num TRC=num TFD=num TFC=num } | Pulse Source { VHi=num VLo=num Tr=num Tf=num Pw=num Pr=num } | User-defined Source { DLL=str Function=str } Parameters Parameter Type Description Default Unit General Parameters Type enum Selects the type of voltage source. Several sources may be defined in one disk file.External Sources Genius Command Reference External Sources For simulation the transient response of device. The sources can be assigned to electrode by ATTACH statement when needed. The following types are available: VDC none DC source. GENIUS supports several types of voltage and current source. exponential source. sinusoidal source. VSOURCE The VSOURCE command defines a voltage source. pulse source and user-defined source. none none Genius Device Simulator 57 . The original models of these sources come from SPICE. ID string Declares the name of the source.

none none Description GENIUS supports user defined voltage and current source by loading shared ob- ject (. 0.0 V Tr numerical Rising edge time constant. Function string Function name of the source in the DLL file. The file which contains a user defined voltage source should have the function as follow. 0. 0. 0.Genius Command Reference External Sources Parameter Type Description Default Unit TDelay numerical Delay time before the source voltage is applied. 1e-12 s Pw numerical Pulse width. 0.0 V TRC numerical Rising edge time constant.0 s User-defined Source Parameters DLL string Name of the dynamically loadable library file that contains the none none user-defined source. 0. none s TFD numerical Delay time before the falling phase starts. 0. GENIUS will pass the argument time in the unit of second to the function vsrc_name and get voltage value in the unit of volt. 1e-12 s Tf numerical Falling edge time constant.0 V VFreq numerical Frequency of the sinusoidal source none Hz Exponential Source Parameters VHi numerical Upper bound of exponential voltage waveform. The current source function is almost the same except the unit of current is A. 58 Genius Device Simulator . TFC numerical Falling edge time constant. none s Pulse Source Parameters VHi numerical High-voltage level of the pulses. 0.0 V VLo numerical Lower bound of exponential voltage waveform. The length of the rising none s phase is thus TFD-TDelay.0 s Pr numerical Repeating period of the pulse train.so) file.0 V Sinusoidal Source Parameters VAmp numerical Amplitude of the sinusoidal source.0 V VLo numerical Lower-voltage level of the pulses. none none DC Source Parameters VConst numerical Constant voltage.

External Sources Genius Command Reference

double vsrc_name(double time)
{
/* calculate the voltage amplitude */
return vsrc_amplitude;
}
double isrc_name(double time)
{
/* calculate the current amplitude */
return isrc_amplitude;
}

The c code should be linked with -shared and -fPIC option as:

gcc -shared -fPIC -o foo.so foo.c -lm

The foo.so file should be put in the same directory as input file.

Example

vsource Type=VDC ID=GND Tdelay=0 Vconst=0

vsource Type=VDC ID=VCC Tdelay=0 Vconst=5

vsource Type=VSIN ID=Vs Tdelay=1e-6 Vamp=0.1 Freq=1e6

vsource Type=VEXP ID=V1 Tdelay=0 TRC=1e-6 TFD=1e-6 \
TFC=1e-6 Vlo=0 Vhi=1

vsource Type=VPULSE ID=V2 Tdelay=0 Tr=1e-9 Tf=1e-9 \
Pw=5e-6 Pr=1e-5 Vlo=0 Vhi=1

vsource Type=VSHELL ID=VGauss DLL=foo.so Func=vsrc_gauss

Genius Device Simulator 59

Genius Command Reference External Sources

ISOURCE
The ISOURCE command defines a voltage source.

ISOURCE
ID=str [ Type = (IDC|ISin|IExp|IPulse|IShell) ]
[ TDelay = num ]

DC Source
{ IConst=num } |

Sinusoidal Source
{ IAmp=num IFreq=num } |

Exponential Source
{ IHi=num ILo=num TRC=num TFD=num TFC=num } |

Pulse Source
{ IHi=num ILo=num Tr=num Tf=num Pw=num Pr=num } |

User-defined Source
{ DLL=str Function=str }

Parameters

Parameter Type Description Default Unit

General Parameters

Type enum Selects the type of current source. The following types are available: VDC none
DC source, sinusoidal source, exponential source, pulse source and
user-defined source.
ID string Declares the name of the source. none none
TDelay numerical Delay time before the source is applied. none none

DC Source Parameters

IConst numerical Constant current. 0.0 V

Sinusoidal Source Parameters

IAmp numerical Amplitude of the sinusoidal source. 0.0 V
IFreq numerical Frequency of the sinusoidal source none Hz

60 Genius Device Simulator

External Sources Genius Command Reference

Parameter Type Description Default Unit

Exponential Source Parameters

IHi numerical Upper bound of exponential current waveform. 0.0 V
ILo numerical Lower bound of exponential current waveform. 0.0 V
TRC numerical Rising edge time constant. none s
TFD numerical Delay time before the falling phase starts. The length of the rising none s
phase is thus TFD-TDelay.
TFC numerical Falling edge time constant. none s

Pulse Source Parameters

IHi numerical High-current level of the pulses. 0.0 V
ILo numerical Lower-current level of the pulses. 0.0 V
Tr numerical Rising edge time constant. 1e-12 s
Tf numerical Falling edge time constant. 1e-12 s
Pw numerical Pulse width. 0.0 s
Pr numerical Repeating period of the pulse train. 0.0 s

User-defined Source Parameters

DLL string Name of the dynamically loadable library file that contains the none none
user-defined source.
Function string Function name of the source in the DLL file. none none

Example

ISource Type=IDC ID=I1 Tdelay=0 Iconst=5

Isource Type=ISIN ID=I2 Tdelay=0 Iamp=0.1 Freq=1e6

Isource Type=IEXP ID=I3 Tdelay=0 TRC=1E-6 TFD=3E-6 \
TFC=1E-6 Ilo=0 Ihi=1

Isource Type=IPULSE ID=I4 Tdelay=0 Tr=1E-9 Tf=1E-9 \
Pw=5E-6 Pr=1E-5 Ilo=0 Ihi=1

Genius Device Simulator 61

For 2D profile. each line has 4 62 Genius Device Simulator . 0 none Energy.zz=num] [Translate.x=num] [Translate. 1e-12 s Description There are several ways to specify the energy deposit of a particle: by scatter data file.y=num] [Translate.Char=num ] Parameters Parameter Type Description Default Unit Profile enum Type of particle profile input.File=str [Transform.Char numerical The variance (?) of the Gaussian decay of carrier generation rate.yx=num] [Transform. none none Transform numerical The transformation matrix applied to the coordinates imported I none from the input file.zx=num] [Transform.0 s maximum. 3.6 eV t0 numerical The starting time when high-energy particles penetrates the device. t. by analytic express and by particle track. 0.Eff=num] [t0=num ] [tmax=num] [ t. with numerical values separated by white spaces.0 s tmax numerical The time instant when electron-hole pair generation rate reaches its 0. The final coordinates are obtained from Transform*location + Translate.Eff numerical The energy loss for each generated electron-hole pair. each line has 3 values. Translate enum The translation vector applied to the input coordinates. The input data file must be in plain text.Genius Command Reference External Sources PARTICLE PARTICLE From scatter data file Profile = ( FromFile2D | FromFile3D ) Profile.yz=num] [Transform.yy=num] [Transform.z=num] From analytic expression Profile = Expression LET=num From particle track Profile = Track Profile.xy=num] [Transform.xz=num] [Transform. Each line contains the coordinates and the energy deposition at that posi- tion. while for 3D profile.File=str [Energy.zy=num] [Transform.xx=num] [Transform.

while the energy deposition is in the unit of eVμm−3 .External Sources Genius Command Reference values. Examples PARTICLE Profile=FromFile3D Profile.dat" \ tmax=2e-12 t.char=2e-12 Genius Device Simulator 63 .File="particle. The coordinates are in the unit of μm.

SpectrumFile string Filename of the spectrum file. 0. Genius will try to load the field data from the file diode1. The voltage unit is always Volt.0 W/cm2 Eta numerical Quantum efficiency of carrier generation for the monochromatic auto none light. none none Lambda numerical Wavelength of the monochromatic light. The final coordinates are obtained from Transform*location + Translate. • The wavelength in the unit of micro-meter.3290.yy=num] [Transform.xx=num] [Transform.Genius Command Reference External Sources LIGHT LIGHT { SpectrumFile=str | ( Lambda=num Intensity=num [Eta=num] ) } Profile = ( FromFile2D | FromFile3D ) [ Profile. 0 none Description Spectrum file With the spectrum file we can load the field data at multiple wavelengths in the same LIGHT command.xy=num] [Transform. 64 Genius Device Simulator . When a spectrum file is none none provided. 0. um none FUnit enum Length unit used in E-field value.File enum Filename of the field solution data file. none none length and intensity at each frequency in the spectrum.z=num] Parameters Parameter Type Description Default Unit Profile enum Type of field profile input. Translate enum The translation vector applied to the input coordinates.zx=num] [Transform. Each line in the spectrum file should contain the following columns • A filename extension for the field data file.532 μm Intensity numerical Intensity of the monochromatic light.File=str ] [ SkipLine=num ] [ LUnit = (m|cm|um|nm) ] [ FUnit = (m|cm|um|nm) ] [Transform.zy=num] [Transform. the provided filename extension is appended to the field solution filename. SkipLine integer Skip the first SkipLine number of lines in the field data file. Suppose Profile.yx=num] [Transform.xz=num] [Transform. Profile.y=num] [Translate. Genius will automatically calcu- late the quantum efficiency using the bandgap of the material. If not explicitly specified. This file should describe the wave.zz=num] [Translate. and the extension is 3290. um none Transform numerical The transformation matrix applied to the coordinates imported I none from the input file. 0 none LUnit enum Length unit used for node coordinates in the field data file.x=num] [Translate.File is diode1.yz=num] [Transform.

3) ℎ HFSS places a descriptive heading in each spectrum file.1 Optical Carrier HFSS assumes by default that the incident wave has E-field strength of ?0 = Generation 1 V/m. If not explicitly spec- ified. The carrier generation is finally calculated with ??0 (−??′′ ) ?=? ? 2. If the user does not supply the quantum efficiency value.1) 2 We need to scale the E-field in the solution according to the user-specified incident intensity. with numerical values separated by white spaces.2 2420 1. and the unit Genius Device Simulator 65 .4 2855 1.00 0. (2. each line has 3 values. which corresponds to the incident intensity of 1 ?0 = ?0 ?0 ?0 2 . Each line contains the coordinates and the E-field strength of the EM wave at that position.05 0.11 0.954 0. Note that this differs from the intensity parameter for monochromatic light. • (Optional) quantum efficiency for carrier generation. Field Data File The input data file must be in plain text. For 2D profile.912 0. The unit is W/cm2/μm. (2. we shall skip that line.5 3000 1.2) ℎ? where the floor function round to largest integral value not greater than the argu- ment. each line has 4 values.17 0.3 2710 1.24 0.2 2565 1. Genius will calculate with the following assumption ?? ? = floor( ).2 3145 0.External Sources Genius Command Reference • Intensity density (per unit wavelength) at this wavelength. The unit of the coordinates is specified by LUnit. A sample spectrum file is listed below. (2. while for 3D profile. Genius will automatically calculate the quantum efficiency using the bandgap of the material. # ext lambda intensity 3290 0.

Genius Command Reference External Sources of the E-field is specified by FUnit. Examples LIGHT SpectrumFile=diode1 Profile.File=diode1 \ Profile=fromfile3d LUnit=m FUnit=m SkipLine=1 66 Genius Device Simulator .

The following types are available: Uni. none none TDelay numerical Delay time before the envelop is applied. none none Uniform Envelop Parameters Amplitude numerical Constant amplitude. which is used to modulate light source.low=num Tr=num Tf=num Pw=num Pr=num } | User-defined envelop by expression { Expression=str } User-defined envelop by dynamic loadable library { DLL=str Function=str } Parameters Parameter Type Description Default Unit General Parameters Type enum Selects the type of envelop. Gaussian. 1.high=num Amplitude. ENVELOP ID = str [ Type = (Uniform|Gaussian|Pulse|Expression|Shell) ] [ TDelay = num ] Uniform envelop { Amplitude=num } | Gaussian envelop { Amplitude=num T0=num Tao=num} | Pulse envelop { Amplitude. ID string Declares the name of the envelop.0 none Gaussian Envelop Parameters Genius Device Simulator 67 . The light source can be introduced by LIGHT command and RAYTRACE command. Pulse and user-defined envelop. User can specify the envelop of light source at the SOLVE command.External Sources Genius Command Reference ENVELOP The ENVELOP command defines an envelop in time. Uniform none form.

Genius Command Reference External Sources Parameter Type Description Default Unit Amplitude numerical Amplitude of Gaussian waveform.high numerical High level of the pulses. Function string Function name of the source in the DLL file.0 none T0 numerical The time when Gaussian waveform reaches its max.low numerical Lower level of the pulses. 1e-12 s Pulse Envelop Parameters Amplitude. 0. 1e-12 s Pw numerical Pulse width. none none Examples ENVELOP ID=gaussian_pulse Type=Gaussian amplitude=1e3 tdelay=0 t0=5e-12 tao=1e-12 68 Genius Device Simulator .0 V Amplitude.0 s Pr numerical Repeating period of the pulse train. 0. 0.0 s Tao numerical The characteristic time of Gaussian waveform. 0. 1e-12 s Tf numerical Falling edge time constant.0 s User-defined Envelop Parameters DLL string Name of the dynamically loadable library file that contains the none none user-defined source. 1.0 V Tr numerical Rising edge time constant. 1.

gen and/or opt.gen to true. By default. mixed type DDM solver and Half Implicit solver support the simulation including the effects of field source by set parameter pat. Genius will do the cal- culation of carrier generation only with pat. However.gen and/or opt. Genius Device Simulator 69 . the SOURCEAPPLY command without any parameter force to calculate the carrier generation even if not be used later. The DDM solver.External Sources Genius Command Reference Apply Source to Device Field source including particle and light.gen. both generate electron and hole pairs in the semiconductor device.

Genius Command Reference External Sources CIRCUIT The CIRCUIT command defines a circuit netlist (in SPICE syntax) for mixed-mode simulation. The netlist should be in SPICE format. none none 70 Genius Device Simulator . CIRCUIT Netlist = str Parameters Parameter Type Description Default Unit Netlist string Path to the netlist file.

Temp=num ] Gate Contact [ WorkFunction=num ] [ external circuit ] [ Heat. GENIUS now fully support electrode region (the material of this region should be metal or poly-Si). One should use CONTACT statement to specify the electrode type of this region(s).Transfer=num ] [ Ext.Boundary Conditions Genius Command Reference Boundary Conditions Boundary and Contact The BOUNDARY statement sets boundary information to representing faces of the device mesh.Transfer=num ] [ Ext.Transfer=num ] [ Ext. BOUNDARY ID=str Type = ( OhmicContact | SchottkyContact | SolderPadContact | GateContact | SimpleGateContact | InsulatorInterface| HeteroJunction | NeumannBoundary ) Ohmic Contact [ external circuit ] [ Heat.Temp=num ] Simple Gate Contact [ WorkFunction=num ] [ QF=num ] [ external circuit ] [ Thickness=num ] [ eps=num ] [ Heat.Temp=num ] Schottky Contact [ WorkFunction=num ] [ external circuit ] [ Heat.Transfer=num ] [ Ext.Temp=num ] SolderPad Contact [ external circuit ] [ Heat.Temp=num ] Insulator Interface [ QF=num ] Genius Device Simulator 71 .Transfer=num ] [ Ext.

Temp=num ] SchottkyContact [ WorkFunction=num ] [ external circuit ] [ Heat. see below W ⋅ cm−2 K−1 Ext.Ele see below K 72 Genius Device Simulator .0 C ⋅ μm−1 Thickness numerical The thickness of SiO 2 layer. 2e-7 cm eps numerical The relative permittivity of SiO 2 layer.Temp=num ] Gate Contact [ WorkFunction=num ] [ external circuit ] [ Heat.Transfer=num ] [ Ext.Temp=num ] Contact ID=str Type = (OhmicContact|SchottkyContact| GateContact|FloatMetal) Ohmic Contact [ external circuit ] [ Heat. 0.Temp=num ] Floating Metal [ QF=num ] Parameters Parameter Type Description Default Unit Type enum This parameter declares which type of boundary condition is defined none none here. ID string A unique string which identifies the corresponding face.0 cm−2 density of semiconductor-insulator interface.0 cm−2 QF numerical For FloatMetal bc: The free charge per micron in Z dimension. QF numerical For Heterojunction bc: The surface charge density of heterojunction. 0. 0.Transfer=num ] [ Ext.Transfer=num ] [ Ext.Transfer numerical The thermal conductance of the surface. 3.9 none Heat.Temp numerical The external temperature at the surface. none none WorkFunction numerical The workfunction of the Schottky contact or gate material. Genius Command Reference Boundary Conditions HeteroJunction [ QF=num ] NeumannBoudary [ Heat.Transfer=num ] [ Ext.0 eV QF numerical For InsulatorContact and InsulatorInterface bc: The surface charge 0.

SolderPadContact also has current flow in steady state and transient situations. one can simply specify a segment as Ohmic bc or build an electrode region as Ohmic electrode. The NeumannBoundary. The default external temperature at the boundary is the external temper- ature set in the GLOBAL command. While GateContact and SimpleGateContact(a simplified MOSFET Gate boundary condition) only have displacement current in transient situation. Schottky. GENIUS sup- port electrode with the type of Ohmic. semiconductor-electrode interface(set to OhmicContract as default). As a result. The OhmicContact and SchottkyContact electrodes have current flow in both steady state and transient situations. All the electrode should be specified explicitly and GENIUS will set corresponding boundaries automatically. Which means. GateContact should be the surface of insulator region and SolderPadContact is the surface of a metal region. the electrode-insulator interface. The thermal boundary conditions at outer surfaces of the device and the interface with electrode regions are specified by the Heat. Gate and Floating-Metal. The default value for heat conductance varies with the types of boundary conditions.45. GENIUS can build region with metal or poly-Si material to form an electrode. may have several situations: Gate to Oxide interface. this interface can only be set correctly when electrode type is known. which is the default boundary type for all the non-inter- face segments. SchottkyContact and Gatecontact. semiconductor region and insula- tor region during calculation. The names are ended with Contact. For OhmicContact.e. GENIUS added CONTACT statement for fast boundaries specification of electrode region. SchottkyContact and SimpleGateContact are boundaries on surface of semiconductor region. The OhmicContact. GENIUS considers electrode region. At present. FloatMetal to Oxide interface or Source/Drain electrode to Oxide interface. As a result.Temp pa- rameters. for OhmicContact bc. the default heat conductance is 103 W ⋅cm−2 K−1 .Boundary Conditions Genius Command Reference Description Five "electrode" boundary conditions are supported by GENIUS. The ID parameter of BOUNDARY statement is limited to face label. Since Version 0. However.Transfer and Ext. i. Please refer to the following CONTACT statement.03. And The ID parameter of CONTACT statement is limited to region name. interface between different semiconductor ma- terial (Heterojunction) and interface between same semiconductor material (Homojunction). These boundaries can be set automatically by Genius if user didn't set them explicitly. are set automatically at the outer surface of a region. Genius supports five interfaces which can be set automatically: semiconductor-in- sulator interface (InsulatorInterface). For NeumannBoundary Genius Device Simulator 73 .

0 Fμm−1 res.load numerical The terminal resistance.um=num ] [ res.Genius Command Reference Boundary Conditions the heat resistance is default to zero.0 H PI model res numerical The resistance of PI model 1e-6 Ω cap1 numerical The capacitance 1 of PI model 0.load=num ] RC transmission line [ res.0 F res. Genius offers some commonly used circuit type for convenient. external circuit Electrode boundaries can own its external circuit. 1e-6 Ω tl.length numerical The length of RC transmission line none μm 74 Genius Device Simulator .0 Ω cap numerical The lumped capacitance for the electrode.0 F cap2 numerical The capacitance 2 of PI model 0.load=num ] [ tl.um numerical Capacitance per micron for the RC transmission line.0 F ind numerical The lumped inductance for the electrode. PI model and RC trans- mission line mode are supported.load numerical The terminal resistance.um=num ] [ cap. 0.length=num ] [tl. External circuit ext.circuit = ( RCL | Pi | Tline ) RCL external circuit [ res=num ] [ cap=num ] [ ind=num ] Pi type external circuit [ res=num ] [ cap1=num ] [ cap2=num ] [ res. For complex external circuit support.um numerical Resistance per micron for the RC transmission line. 1e-12 Ωμm−1 cap. 0. RCL model. 0.div=int ] Parameter Type Description Default Unit RCL model res numerical The lumped resistance for the electrode. user should consider to use mixed model simulation. 1e-6 Ω RC transmission line mode res. 0. At present.

Boundary Conditions Genius Command Reference Parameter Type Description Default Unit tl.9 WorkFunction=4.7 QF=0 BOUNDARY Type=InsulatorInterface ID=IFACE QF=0 BOUNDARY Type=GateContract ID=GATE ext.div integer The discretization of the transmission line. 100 none Example BOUNDARY Type=SimpleGateContract ID=GATE Res=0 Cap=0 Ind=0 \ Thickness=1e-6 Eps=3.circuit=RCL \ Res=0 Cap=0 Ind=0 WorkFunction=4.Transfer=0 \ EXT.8 BOUNDARY Type=OhmicContract ID=OMANODE BOUNDARY Type=SolderPad ID=CATHODE Res=10 Cap=0 Ind=0 Genius Device Simulator 75 .7 BOUNDARY Type=NeumannBoundary ID=WALL Heat.Temp=300 BOUNDARY Type=SchottkyContract ID=sgate Res=10 Cap=0 \ VBarrier=0.

4. the external circuit defined in BOUNDARY or CONTACT statement will affect later simulation. 77. Only Ohmic.Iapp parameter. However.. Must be a valid none none ID of a electrical contact specified by the BOUNDARY or CONTACT commands. Several voltage sources or current sources can be attached to the same electrode by multi. But solver will ignore R and L when the electrode stimulated by current source(s). The statement first clears all the sources connected to the specified electrode and then adds source(s) defined by VApp or IApp parameter. However. both the voltage source and current source attach to the same electrode is invalid. Please refer to Figure 2. ] Parameters Parameter Type Description Default Unit Setup Loadable Physical Models Electrode string Electrode where the external source is attached. none none Description If electrode is attached with voltage source(s). VApp string ID of the voltage source.Genius Command Reference Boundary Conditions ATTACH The ATTACH command is used to add voltage or current sources to the electrode boundary. 76 Genius Device Simulator . And the positive di- rection of current is flow into the electrode.. p. If no source attached explicitly. the sources attached to one electrode must have the same type. Schottky and SolderPad electrodes can be attached by current source(s). the net effect is the superposition of all sources.Vapp or multi. ATTACH Electrode=str { VApp=str | IApp=str } [ { VApp=str | IApp=str } . the electrode is set to be attached to ground (0V VDC). If two or more sources are attached to the same electrode. none none IApp string ID of the current source.

png state: unknown Figure 2.png state: unknown Figure 2.5 Voltage and current boundary for PI type external circuit Example ATTACH Electrode=Anode Vapp=V5V Vapp=Vs ATTACH Electrode=Base Iapp=Ib Genius Device Simulator 77 .Boundary Conditions Genius Command Reference name: dummy file: plotCmdRef/electrode_rcl.4 Voltage and current boundary for RCL type external circuit name: dummy file: plotCmdRef/electrode_pi_s.

6 Voltage and current boundary for external transmission line 78 Genius Device Simulator .Genius Command Reference Boundary Conditions name: dummy file: plotCmdRef/electrode_tl.png state: unknown Figure 2.

Doping Analytic Genius Device Simulator 79 .Fabrication Process Genius Command Reference Fabrication Process DOPING The DOPING command selects the mode of doping profile specification. Only analytic doping profile is currently implemented.

ymin=num ] [ mask.max=num ] [ z.Junction=num } [ Y.min=num ] [ x.min=num ] [ x.zz=num] [Translate.char=num ] [ resolution=num ] Data File Parameters File=str [ SkipLine=num ] [ Axes= (x|y|xy|xz|yz|xyz) ] [ LUnit = (m|cm|um|nm) ] [Transform.Char=num | ZY.xy=num] [Transform.max=num ] [ y.polygon=anum | { mask.DOPING] [ ID=str ] Type = (Uniform|Analytic|Analytic2|File) Ion = (Donor|Acceptor|Cu Uniform Profile Parameters N.zmin=num ] [ mask.Char=num | XY.zy=num] [Transform.Peak=num } { mask.Char=num | Y.xz=num] [Transform.zx=num] [Transform.max=num ] Anaylitic Profile Parameters { N.Genius Command Reference Fabrication Process Analytic PROFILE The PROFILE command specifies the doping profile.xmin=num ] [ mask.min=num ] [ z.xx=num] [Transform.char=num ] [ lateral.z=num] 80 Genius Device Simulator .xmax=num ] [ mask.Ratio=num } [ X.Peak=num [ x.yy=num] [Transform.ymax=num ] [ mask.rmax=num ] [ implant.rmin=num ] [ implant. PROFILE[.y=num | mask.min=num ] [ y.max=num ] [ y.yz=num] [Transform.min=num ] [ y.yx=num] [Transform.ErfC=bool ] { X.ErfC=bool ] Anaylitic2 Profile Parameters { N.ErfC=bool ] { Z.zmax=num ] } [ implant.Peak=num | Dose=num } [ x.z=num } [ mask.Ratio=num } [ Z.theta=num ] [ implant. Uniform and analytic dop- ing profiles are supported.phi=num ] [ depth.min=num ] [ z.max=num ] [ z.x=num] [Translate.max=num ] { Y.x=num | mask.y=num] [Translate.

none none tom species are available.max numerical Back boundary of the profile.Char numerical Characteristic length in the z direction.Peak numerical Doping concentration. 0. Uniform none specified by Analytic expression. 0.top.0 cm−3 y.0 μm z. the doping concentration decays according to the analytic function.min.Erfc bool Selects whether to use erfc instead of Gaussian function in the z false none direction.0 μm Uniform Profile Parameters N. 0.back. Synonym: y. Analytic2 Profile Parameters Genius Device Simulator 81 . y. so that it can be referenced in other commands (e.0 μm XY.min.0 μm ZY.max. or loaded from a data File.0 μm x. ID string Identifier of a custom doping profile. donor and cus. 0. Synonym: x. Doping profile can be Uniform.max.min numerical Left boundary of the profile. x. 0.left.0 none y direction. Z.max numerical Right boundary of the profile. z.Char numerical Characteristic length in the x direction.0 μm Y. In the box defined by x. Synonym: z.max numerical Bottom boundary of the profile. 0.Peak numerical Peak doping concentration. Dose numerical The dose of the doping concentration. X.right. none none x. 0.0 μm z.Peak.front.min.0 μm y.0 cm−2 is 1D Gaussian.Ratio numerical The ratio of characteristic length in the x direction against that in the 0.min numerical Top boundary of the profile. Y. 0. Ion enum Selects the doping species of the profile. z. Synonym: x.Erfc bool Selects whether to use erfc instead of Gaussian function in the x false none direction.0 none y direction. Synonym: z. 0.0 cm−3 Analytic Profile Parameters N. in PMI trapping model and incomplete ionization model).Char numerical Characteristic length in the y direction. Outside the box.max. 0. 0.0 μm X.Ratio numerical The ratio of characteristic length in the z direction against that in the 0. Fabrication Process Genius Command Reference Parameters Parameter Type Description Default Unit General Parameters Type enum Selects the type of doping profile.g. assuming the resulting profile 0. Acceptor. the doping is uniformly N.0 μm y. Custom species must bear an ID. 0.Junction numerical Target junction depth.bottom.min numerical Front boundary of the profile. Z. Synonym: y.

0. i. Doping concentration keeps constant 0. Genius Command Reference Fabrication Process Parameter Type Description Default Unit mask.e.0 μm mask. 0. (2.0 degree implant.xmin numerical Left boundary of the rectangle mask 0.0 none divide by this factor.0 μm stant between min and max doping depth.0 μm mask.0 μm mask.z numerical Indicate that doping mask plane is the Z=num. Doping concentration keeps con.zmax numerical Back boundary of the rectangle mask 0. no self intersection. 0. for rectangle mask.phi numerical Defined as angel between +X direction and the projection of im.xmax numerical Right boundary of the rectangle mask 0.4) where N.0 μm implant. um none Analytic Profile Calculation When the Type parameter is set to Analytic. implant.char 4. 0. 82 Genius Device Simulator . 0 none LUnit enum Length unit used for node coordinates in the data file.PEAK is the peak doping concentration.poly numerical-array A numerical array specifies vertex location of the polygon mask.zmin numerical Front boundary of the rectangle mask 0.0 μm mask. respectively.and z-di- rections. Translate enum The translation vector applied to the input coordinates.0 μm between min and max doping depth. none none Transform numerical The transformation matrix applied to the coordinates imported I none from the input file.ymin numerical Top boundary of the rectangle mask 0.0 degree plantation direction onto XZ plane. implant.?) = ?. 0 none SkipLine integer Skip the first SkipLine number of lines in the data file. mask.y numerical Indicate that doping mask plane is the Y=num.char numerical Characteristic length lateral to the implantation direction. for rectangle mask. for rectangle mask. 0.rmin numerical The minimal depth of implant.0 μm mask. 0. Doping Data File Parameters File string Name of the doping concentration data file. $\uMeter$ Each vertex takes three number as its coordinates. Polygon should be simple. The vertex should be ordered along the loop of polygon.0 μm mask. ?? (?) and ?? (?) describes the variation of doping concentration in the x-. and the functions ?? (?).ymax numerical Top boundary of the rectangle mask 0.rmax numerical The maximal depth of implant. . 0. depth.0 μm mask. the doping profile is calculated with the expression ?(?.char numerical Characteristic length along the implantation direction.1 μm resolution numerical The space resolution factor. y.1 μm lateral.???? ⋅ ?? (?) ⋅ ?? (?) ⋅ ?? (?). The final coordinates are obtained from Transform*location + Translate.0 μm mask. 0.theta numerical Defined as angel between +Y direction and implantation direction. minimal space equals to lateral.x numerical Indicate that doping mask plane is the X=num.

In this case. Similar calculation applies to ZY. The Ge- nius use a ray shooting method to calculate the final doping concentration.MIN ⎪ [ ( ?.???? ) ] y>D.?) = .????? × ?.rmin and implant.Char.Peak within the range between implant.char is assumed.and z-directions independently.???? ) ?(?. and variated as Gauss profile function with parameter depth.phi and ranges given by implant. The Genius Device Simulator 83 .?) = ⎨ 1 D.????.5) 2 If the XY. Y.char along the doping line outside the range.??? 2 ⎪ exp [− ( ?. X. namely the Gauss profile function and the Erfc profile function.rmin and implant.? ??? = .rmax. (2. y. A planer rectangle mask or poly- gon mask should be defined as the window of implantation.Erfc or Z.??? 2 y < D.MAX .Fabrication Process Genius Command Reference Two options are currently available for the variation functions. the doping profile is calculated with a given mask and the implant parameters. For lateral dis- tribution.Peak parameter to specify the dose of impurities per unit area.??? ?.?.???? Analytic2 Profile Calculation When the Type parameter is set to Analytic2.Ratio parameter is specified instead of the X.Ratio and Z. The doping concentration equals to N.Char is calculated with ?. ⎪ ?−?.Erfc parameter is enabled.???? ) − erfc ( ?−?.MIN≤y ≤D. One can choose the profile func- tion for the x-.Char parameter.6) √??. (2. the Erfc function is used in that direction.rmax.Erfc. When the X. The implantation is defined by incident angle given by implant. which relative to the mask plane.theta and implant. a Gauss profile with parameter lateral. the peak concentration is calculated with ???? ?.???? ) ] ⎪ ?? (?. The Gauss profile function is defined as ⎧ exp − ?−?.???? = ??. Implant Dose The Dose parameter can be used instead of the N.?.MAX ⎩ where ? = ?. The Erfc profile function is defined as erfc ( ?−?.??? ?.

5.txt" 84 Genius Device Simulator .theta=0 Profile.2.0 Y.Max=0.Min=0. while negative doping concentration indicates Acceptor ion.Doping Type=File File="halo.1.rmax=0. For 3D doping profile.Genius Command Reference Fabrication Process accurate is depended on density of doping lines which controlled by parameter resolution. the z-coordinate is not present. and z-co- ordinate and the doping concentration).5.PEAK=1E19 \ Mask.Peak=1e18 Y.3.4] \ Implant. For 2D doping profile. y-. and the unit of the concentration is cm−3 .0.Ratio=0.5.3.1.Peak=1e16 Profile.3 Implant.0. Custom Doping Profile When a custom dopant species is desired. and supply an identifier ID.8 Profile. Example Profile. the user should set Ion to Custom. and each line contains three values. The unit of the coordinates is specified by LUnit. Field Data File The field data file must be in plain text.Doping Type=Uniform Ion=Acceptor N.0.Char=0.rmin=0. Positive doping concentration indicates Donor ion.05 XY.poly=[1. each line contains four values (x-.Doping Type=Analytic Ion=Acceptor \ N.0.Doping Type=Analytic2 Ion=Acceptor N.0 Implant.1 \ Y. with numerical values separated by white spaces.0.

0.End=num ) [ X.Linear|Y. Synonym: x. MOLE Region=str [ x. For tertiary compound material A xB yC 1-x-y.0 μm y.left.Mole numerical Starting mole fraction x of compound material A xB 1-x.0 μm z.min numerical Left boundary of the profile.Slope numerical The slope of mole fraction x.Linear) ] Y.Mole.max numerical Back boundary of the profile.Fabrication Process Genius Command Reference MOLE The MOLE command specifies the mole fraction profile of compound materials.0 μm Binary Compound X.Mole=num ( X.back. 0.Slope=num | Y.Linear|Z.max=num ] Binary Compound Material X.Grad enum The direction of mole fraction gradient.0 none X.Mole.bottom.Linear|Z. Y.0 μm z.Mole.Mole.Mole.min=num ] [ z. Synonym: y.right. 0.0 μm−1 X.max numerical Bottom boundary of the profile.min numerical Top boundary of the profile.Slope=num | X.Mole. 0.0 none X. 0.Grad = (X.Grad = (X.max=num ] [ z.front.End numerical The mole fraction x at the end of the profile.Mole. 0. Synonym: x.Slope=num | X.min=num ] [ x.End=num ) [ X. the mole fraction profile x is needed. For binary compound material A xB 1-x.Mole.Linear|Y.Linear|Y.Linear|Z. both x and y profile are needed.End=num ) [ X.0 μm y. none none x.min numerical Front boundary of the profile. Synonym: z. 0.Mole.top.max numerical Right boundary of the profile.Mole.Grad = (X. Synonym: y.Linear) ] Parameters Parameter Type Description Default Unit General Parameters Region string Identifier of the compound material region.min=num ] [ y.max=num ] [ y.Linear) ] Tertiary Compound Material X.Mole=num ( Y. 0.Mole.0 μm x.Linear none Tertiary Compound Genius Device Simulator 85 .Mole=num ( X.Mole. Synonym: z. 0.

Y.Mole.Grad.7 \ X.3 X.Min=0 Y.Slope=0.Mole and X.Mole. There are two alternative ways to spec- ify the expression of the profile.0 μm−1 X.Slope numerical The slope of mole fraction y.Genius Command Reference Fabrication Process Parameter Type Description Default Unit X.Mole.Mole.End.End=0. Alternatively.Mole=0.Linear MOLE region=SiGe X.Mole.Mole=0.Mole.Mole.Grad enum The direction of mole fraction gradient.End numerical The mole fraction x at the end of the profile.Max=0. 0.Mole. Start- ing end is defined as the one with smaller coordinate value in the direction of X. 0.4 X.Linear none Y.Mole.0 none X.Grad=Y. 0. one can set the mole fraction at both ends of the region with X.0 none Y. 0.Mole.Slope and the mole fraction at the starting end with X. 0.Grad=Y.Linear none Description Only linear mole fraction profile with its gradient aligned with one of the three Cartesian axes is currently supported.Mole numerical Starting mole fraction y.4 X. 0.End numerical The mole fraction y at the end of the profile.Mole.Linear 86 Genius Device Simulator .Mole.0 μm−1 Y. One can either specify the slope explicitly with X. and let GENIUS calculate the gradient.Grad enum The direction of mole fraction gradient.0 none Y.Mole.Mole numerical Starting mole fraction x of compound material A xB yC 1-x-y.1 \ Y. Y.Mole.0 none X.Slope numerical The slope of mole fraction x. Example MOLE region=SiGe X.

0 cm−3 doping.Mole=num ] Tertiary Compound Material [ X.nd=num ] Binary Compound Material [ X. REGIONSET Region=str Doping profile [ doping.Mole numerical Set mole fraction x of compound material A xB yC 1-x-y.Mole=0. none none Doping Parameters doping. 0.0 none Y.na numerical Set region (uniform) acceptor density 0. 0. Only uniform value can be specified.0 none Tertiary Compound X.nd numerical Set region (uniform) donor density 0.Mole=num ] [ Y.Mole numerical Set mole fraction x of compound material A xB 1-x.0 cm−3 Binary Compound X.0 none Example REGIONSET region=SiGe X.Fabrication Process Genius Command Reference REGIONSET The REGIONSET command reset the doping and mole value of a given region.Mole=num ] Parameters Parameter Type Description Default Unit Region specify Region string Identifier of the compound material region.Mole numerical Set mole fraction y.na=num ] [ doping.4 Genius Device Simulator 87 . The given value will overwrite any previous value. 0.

The region string can be given as a regular expression to match a number of regions. 88 Genius Device Simulator .Genius Command Reference Physical Models Physical Models PMI In Genius.] ] ] [ string<str>=str [ string<str>=str [. The model parameters are also specified here. The general syntax of the PMI command is PMI REGION=str [ Type= (Basic|Band|Mobility|Impact|Thermal|Optical|Trap) ] [ Model=str ] [print=int] [ real<str>=num [ real<str>=num [.. otherwise the simulation will abort. The models can be selected through the PMI command..] ] ] Parameters Parameter Type Description Default Unit Setup Loadable Physical Models Region string The region that the loaded model would apply to.. the physical models of each material is loaded to the simulation system through the physical model interface (PMI). A valid region none none name must be supplied..

Seven types are currently supported Mobility none in Genius. none none The name of the parameter is specified by str. Print integer If greater than 0. • An Trap model calculates the rate of carriers capture and emis- sion at traps. electric field and adjacent interfaces. p. Description The core program of Genius access the numerous material-specific models via the Physical Model Interface (PMI). all physical models for Si material are stored in $(GENIUS_DIR)/lib/libSi. It also calculates rates of some fundamental processes such as carrier recombination rates. Trap models currently apply to semiconductor regions and semiconductor/insulator interfaces. etc. • A Basic model specifies the basic physical parameters such as permittivity and electron affinity. The list of available Default none models for each material and each type of models is summarized in later sections. etc. A later section will describe im- pact ionization models in detail. each supported material has a corresponding dynamic loadable library (DLL) file located in the $(GENIUS_DIR)/lib/ directory. 90. string<str> string Additional custom string parameters accepted by the loaded model. For instance. Model string Name of the physical models to be loaded. • A Mobility model calculates the mobility of carriers. effective density of states. Band models are applicable to semiconductor regions only. • An Thermal model describes the thermal conduction property of materials. A range of mobility models are provided in Genius. In Genius. Impact models apply to semi- conductor regions only. etc. print the current values of all the material parame. though some of them are not applicable to all material regions. Mobility models apply to semi- conductor regions only. • An Optical model describes the optical propagation property of materials. which include energy bandgap. Genius Device Simulator 89 . taking into consideration the effect of temperature. effective masses. 0 none ters. • An Impact model calculates the carrier generation rates due to the impact ionization process.so.Physical Models Genius Command Reference Parameter Type Description Default Unit Type enum The type of model to be loaded. The name of the parameter is specified by str. Each DLL file con- tains all models applicable to that material. which will be discussed in more detail in “Mobility Models”. doping. • A Band model specifies parameters related to the band struc- ture of semiconductors. real<str> numerical Additional custom numerical parameters accepted by the loaded none unknown model.

. ] ] ] % The variety of available mobility models and the default model for each material is summarized in Table 2. The latter PMI command are useful in adjusting the custom parameters of the PMI model. p. a default model will be loaded in the absence of a PMI command. When the user supplied one or more PMI commands. If the model specified by a PMI command has already been loaded. Each model has a set of its own parameters. Genius sequen- tially loads the specified model and assign it to the specified region. The user can optionally supply a list of custom numerical and string parameters to the PMI model. 91. Mobility Models The mobility model can be selected in the Model parameter of the PMI command: PMI REGION=str Type=Trap [ Model=str ] [ param=val [ param=val [ . the previously loaded one is not replaced. the following command loads the trap model for Silicon region. For instance. and setup the parameters of the trap model. and the user should con- sult the description of the individual PMI models for details. which can be adjusted with the PMI command. See [[TODO]] for a tutorial guide and detailed references. p. The easiest way of writing custom PMI model is to extend from the source code of existing models..1 # set all the regions which has a name as active_num to use Lucent mobility model PMI Region="active_[0-9]+" Type=mob Model=Lucent Each PMI model has its own list of accepted parameters. The description of each mobility model and the corresponding parameters are detailed in “Mobility Models”.1. Custom PMI Model Advanced users of Genius can compile and produce dynamic libraries that contain custom PMI models. 90 Genius Device Simulator .Genius Command Reference Physical Models For each type of models. 12. # set trap parameter to region Silicon PMI Region=Silicon Type=Trap string<Type>=Bulk \ string<Profile>=dopingA string<ChargeType>=Acceptor \ double<Energy>=0.

HP. ] ] ] For silicon and many other materials. Lucent. PMI Region=Silicon Type=Mobility Model=HP \ double<MUN.MAX>=1200 double<MUP. Lombardi Analytic SiGe Constant.. Lucent. Philips. Lombardi Analytic Table 2. HP.1 Summary of Available PMI Mobility Models The following example shows how one can load the HP mobility model and adjust the default parameter. Philips. Hypertang Analytic Ge Analytic Analytic HgCdTe Analytic Analytic InAs Analytic Analytic InGaAs Analytic Analytic InN Analytic Analytic InP Analytic Analytic InSb Analytic Analytic S-SiO2 Constant Constant Si Constant. Analytic.MAX>=400 Impact Ionization Models The mobility model can be selected in the Model parameter of the PMI command: PMI REGION=str Type=Impact [ Model=str ] [ param=val [ param=val [ . Analytic. the Default avalanche generation model is the Selberherr model. The models for various materials are summarized in Table 2.2. Genius Device Simulator 91 ..Physical Models Genius Command Reference Material Models Default 3C-SiC Analytic Analytic 4H-SiC Masetti Masetti AlGaAs Analytic Analytic GaAs Analytic. 92. p.

PMI REGION=str Type=Trap Model=Default [string<Type> = (Bulk|Interface)] [string<ChargeType> = (Acceptor|Donor)] [real<Energy>=num] [real<SigmaN>=num] [real<SigmaP>=num] Bulk Trap { string<Profile>=str [ real<Prefactor>=num ] | Interface Trap string<Interface>=str real<IF. the user needs to setup trap parameters with PMI command for it effect.Density>=num } Parameter Type Description Default Unit Common Trap Parameters 92 Genius Device Simulator . - InAs vanOverstraetendeMan vanOverstraetendeMan InGaAs Selberherr - InN vanOverstraetendeMan vanOverstraetendeMan InP Selberherr Selberherr InSb vanOverstraetendeMan vanOverstraetendeMan S-SiO2 . - Si Selberherr. Valdinoci Selberherr SiGe Selberherr Selberherr Table 2.Genius Command Reference Physical Models Material Models Default 3C-SiC Selberherr Selberherr 4H-SiC vanOverstraetendeMan vanOverstraetendeMan AlGaAs Selberherr Selberherr GaAs Selberherr Selberherr Ge Selberherr Selberherr HgCdTe .2 Summary of Available PMI Impact Ionization Models Trap Model Although the charge trapping model is automatically loaded. The syntax and parameters are as follows.

Interface Trap Parameters Interface string Interface traps are attached to the insulator/semiconductor inter. The syntax and parameters are as follows. Also. ChargeType enum Selects whether the traps is Acceptor or Donor. 4e16 cm−2 Bulk Trap Parameters Profile string The concentration of bulk traps is derived from a custom doping none none profile defined by a PROFILE command.Physical Models Genius Command Reference Parameter Type Description Default Unit Type enum Selects whether the current command specifies Bulk or Interface Bulk none traps. ID of the custom profile should be specified here. PMI REGION=str Type=band [string<species>=str] [int<ion>=(+1|-1)] [real<EB0>=num] [real<GB>=num] [real<alpha>=num] [real<beta>=num] [real<gamma>=num] % Genius Device Simulator 93 . Please note.Density numerical The interface density of traps. This is useful in generating a number of traps with the same spatial distribution but different trap energies. 4e16 cm−2 SigmaP numerical Capture cross-section for holes.0 cm−2 Incomplete Ionization Model User can setup incomplete ionization parameters with PMI command. for active this model. an interface is au- tomatically generated. it is recommend to use Fermi statistics with Incom- pleteIonization.0 none scaled by this Prefactor. Alternatively. one can use a Face command to define an interface with a user-specified ID. SigmaN numerical Capture cross-section for electrons. IF. Acceptor none Energy numerical Energy of the trap level relative to the intrinsic Fermi level of the 0 eV material. 0. none none face with the ID specified here. The ID of the interface is in the format of RegionName1_to_RegionName2. When an semiconductor region and an insulator region share a common face. Prefactor numerical The concentration of the doping profile specified by Profile is 1. use also have to set IncompleteIonization to true in the MODEL statement.

0 eV GB numerical The band degeneracy factor none none alpha numerical The prefactor for the doping dependent term used in the calculation none eVcm−1 of the band ionization energy. 0 none EB0 numerical The constant activation energy.Genius Command Reference Physical Models Parameter Type Description Default Unit Common Trap Parameters species string Specify profile species. gamma numerical The exponent of temperature used in the calculation of the band ion. ion integer Selects whether the species is Acceptor(-1) or Donor(+1). 94 Genius Device Simulator . beta numerical The prefactor the temperature dependent term used in the calculation none none of the band ionization energy. none none ization energy. The string parameter is the id of profile with none none Custom ion type.

so that high-field ef- fects on carrier mobility are taken into account. Regular expression can be none none used to match a number of regions. MODEL Region=str [ Fermi=bool ] [IncompleteIonization=bool] { H. Mob. Only the local model is currently implemented. ESurface boolean Use effective surface electric field for carrier mobility calculation at true none insulator-semiconductor interface.Force enum Synonym to Mobility. parallel and transverse fields are calculated and passed to the mobility model.⃗ as in EJ method.Gen = (true|false) ] [ Particle. the gradient of the quasi-fermi level (??? and ??? ) as the parallel field. • When EJ is selected. • When EQF is selected. Genius Device Simulator 95 . and selects whether No none the II generation should be calculated with the local model or the non-local model.Force = (EJ|ESimple|EQF) ] } { ImpactIonization = (Local|No) [ II. Fermi boolean Turns on Fermi-Dirac carrier statistics.Gen = (true|false) ] [ EB. false none IncompleteIonization H. ESimple none rameter selects the driving field used in high-field mobility calcula- tion. When H.Force. The cross product (? ⃗ × ? /|⃗ ? |)⃗ is used as the transverse field.Mob boolean Synonym to HighFieldMobility.Mob is true.Mob=bool [ Mob.Physical Models Genius Command Reference MODEL The MODEL command sets the switches that controls the behavior of the physical equations. the dot product between electric field and current density (? ⃗ ⋅ ? /|⃗ ? |)⃗ is used as the parallel field. the electric field ? ⃗ as the parallel field. When H. • When ESimple is selected. this pa. The transverse field is calculated with ? ⃗ × ? /|⃗ ? |.Force = (EdotJ|ESide|EVector|GradQF) ] } [ BBT = (Local|No) ] [ Optical. Activate high-field mobility true none calculation. ImpactIonization enum Activates the impact ionization (II) generation.Level= (None|Tl|Te|Th|TeTh|TeTl|ThTl|ALL) ] Parameters Parameter Type Description Default Unit Region string Select models in the specified region.Mob is enabled.

the gradient of the quasi-fermi level (??? and ??? ) as the driving field. and se. the dot product between electric field and current density (? ⃗ ⋅ ? /|⃗ ? |)⃗ is used as the driving field.Force enum When ImpactIonization is enabled. BBT enum Activates the Band-to-Band Tunneling (BBT) generation. Example MODEL Region=emitter Fermi=true MODEL Region=silicon H. EB. Only the local model is currently implemented. • When GradQf is selected.Mob=true Mob. electron temperature and hole temperature. the magnitude of the electric field ? ⃗ is used as the driving field.Genius Command Reference Physical Models Parameter Type Description Default Unit II. • When EVector is selected. • When EdotJ is selected.Force=EQF MODEL Region=silicon EB. this parameter selects the No none driving field used in impact ionization coefficient calculation. the E-field component along the edge of the mesh element is used as the driving field. No none lects whether the BBT generation should be calculated with the lo- cal model or the non-local model.Level enum When the Energy-Balance equation solver is selected in the METHOD None none command.Level=TeTl 96 Genius Device Simulator . • When ESide is selected. this parameter selectively enables the equations for lattice temperature.

Tol=num ] [ Latt.Tol=num ] [Electrode.Numerical Solution Genius Command Reference Numerical Solution METHOD The METHOD command specifies the parameters of the numerical solvers.Continuity.Tol=num] [ Toler.Continuity.Relax=num ] [ QNFactor=num ] [ QPFactor=num ] Parameters Parameter Type Description Default Unit Equation Selection Genius Device Simulator 97 .Temp. METHOD Equation Selection [ Type = (Poisson|DDML1|DDML1Mix|DDML2|DDML2Mix| EBML3|EBML3Mix|HalfImplicit|Stress) ] Numeric Solver Selection [ NS = (Newton|LineSearch|TrustRegion) ] [ LS = (CGS|BICG|BCGS|GMRES|TFQMR|LU|UMFPACK|SuperLU| MUMPS|SuperLU_Dist) ] [ PC = (Identity|Jacobian|BJacobian|ASM|ILU) ] [ Damping = (No|Potential|BankRose) ] [ Truncation = (Always|Boundary|No) ] [ Halfimplicit.let = num ] Convergence Criteria [ MaxIteration=int ] [ Relative.Tol=num ] [ Elec.Tol=num ] [ Poisson.Energy.Tol=num ] [ Hole.Energy.Tol=num ] [ Hole.Tol=num ] [ Elec.

• DDML2Mix selects the device-circuit mixed-mode solver with the level-two drift-diffusion equation solver. DDML1 none • Poisson selects the Poisson's equation solver.Continuity. Potential none Truncation enum Selects the element truncation strategy used in simulation.0 Vt will speedup the simulation. • DDML1 selects the basic level-one drift-diffusion equation solver. ILU none Damping enum Selects the nonlinear update damping scheme.Level parameter in the MODEL command.Tol numerical Sets the absolute tolerance for the residue norm of Poisson's equa. 98 Genius Device Simulator . • EBML3Mix selects the device-circuit mixed-mode solver with the energy-balance equation solver. which includes the lattice temperature variation in device. BCGS none PC enum Selects the linear preconditioner algorithm.C.Tol numerical Sets the absolute tolerance for the residue norm of the electron con. • EBML3 selects the energy-balance equation solver which in- cludes carrier temperature variation in device.Genius Command Reference Numerical Solution Parameter Type Description Default Unit Type enum Selects the set of partial differential equations to be solved. A larger threshold 1. • DDML1Mix selects the device-circuit mixed-mode solver with the level-one drift-diffusion equation solver. This solver only support transient and OP simulation. 5e-18 none tinuity equation. 1e-5 none Poisson. LineSearch none • Newton (synonym: Basic) selects the basic nonlinear update algorithm with full Newton steps. Numerical Solver Selection NS enum Selects the Newton nonlinear solver algorithm. Synonym: Elec. LS enum Selects the linear solver algorithm. Elec. • HalfImplicit selects the fast half implicit solver.Tol numerical Sets the relative update tolerance. • LineSearch selects the cubic line-search update algorithm.Tol. Convergence Criteria of Nonlinear Solver MaxIteration integer Sets the number of maximum nonlinear iterations before the solver 30 none reports failure. Always none Halfimplicit. • DDML2 selects the level-two drift-diffusion equation solver. but introduce more error. And it runs typically 5x faster than DDM solver.let numerical Linearize error threshold of half implicit method. hole tem- perature and lattice temperature with the EB. Users can selec- tively activate the equations for electron temperature. Relative. • Stress selects the mechanical stress solver. • TrustRegion selects the trust-region update algorithm. 1e-26 none tion.

? ????* ‖?(?)‖.Energy.ATol.Temp. The system of nonlinear equations is written as ?(?) = 0. In the basic Newton algorithm.Energy. Only applicable when the EBM solver is used and the hole energy-balance equation is activated.RTol numerical Relative tolerance of convergence criterion when ksp methods are 1e-8 none use drelative tolerance of convergence criterion when ksp methods are used. 1e-18 none ergy balance equation.Tol numerical Sets the absolute tolerance for the residue norm of at the electrode 1e-9 none boundaries. KSP.Tol. or when the EBM solver is used and the lattice heat equation is activated. Latt. The update to the solution in every iteration is computed from the following linear system of equations. and ? is the Jacobian of ?.E. Nonlinear Solver Algorithms GENIUS solves the coupled Poisson-Drift-Diffusion equations in semiconductor devices with Newton's method. Starting from an initial guess to the solution.ATol numerical Absolute tolerance of convergence criterion when ksp methods are 1e-20 none used.Tol numerical Sets the absolute tolerance for the residue norm of the hole en. one can solve the nonlinear equation iteratively.FNorm numerical Absolute tolerance convergence criterion.E. 1e-18 none ergy balance equation. when the residue norm of 1e-7 none ksp iteration less than ???.Relax numerical Sets the tolerance relaxation factor for convergence on relative tol. Electrode.Tol.Tol numerical Sets the absolute tolerance for the residue norm of the electron-en. the solver checks the absolute residue norms of all equations before it reports relative convergence. KSP.Relax*aTol. Syn- onym: Elec.C. Hole. Only applicable when the EBM solver is used and the electron energy-balance equation is activated. Toler. the new solution ?′ is Genius Device Simulator 99 .Continuity.Numerical Solution Genius Command Reference Parameter Type Description Default Unit Hole.Tol.Tol. Applicable when the DDML2 solver is selected. Synonym: Hole.Tol numerical Sets the absolute tolerance for the residue norm of the hole continu. The absolute residue norms must be below Toler. ? (?) ⋅ ? = −? (?) (2.????. Convergence Criteria of Linear Solver KSP. where ? is the nonlinear function and ? is the solution. where aTol is the various absolute tolerance described above. When the relative error is below Relative. Elec. 5e-18 none ity equation.Tol numerical Sets the absolute tolerance for the residue norm of the lattice heat 1e-11 none equation.7) where ? is the computed update. 1e4 none erance criteria. Synonym: Hole.

When the Basic Newton algorithm is selected.8) This iterative process continues until the convergence criteria is met. iterative methods can only give approximate re- sults. Relative Update The norm of the update in the Newton iteration is evaluated. BCGS.Relax. Absolute Residue The residue of each device equation is evaluated.Relax. Convergence is reached if both tests passes. Alternatively. Among the choices of linear system solvers. the CG. two variants of Newton solution update algo- rithms are provided. convergence is reached. The UMFPACK solver is a fast serial direct solver.7). However. GMRES methods 100 Genius Device Simulator . All updates are damped so that the carrier densities are positive.7). The serial and parallel version of SuperLU are also available. Relative Residue The residue of all device equations is evaluated. and its norm compared against the Norm Convergence residue norm before the nonlinear iterations.Genius Command Reference Numerical Solution ?′ = ? + ?. A few direct linear solvers based on LU decomposition are also provided. if any one set of criteria is met. which sometimes improve conver- gence. The following sets of criteria are checked in sequence. If the ratio between the two norm is less than the relative tolerance. (2. The cubic linesearch algorithm and the Trust-Region update algorithms can be selected with the NS parameter. one can turn on the Potential damping or the Bank-Rose damping. the solution is determined to have reached convergence. if this norm is less Norm Convergence than the relative tolerance. 99 can be solved by direct method based on LU factorization. the absolute residue norm criteria is further checked with the absolute tolerance relaxed by the factor Toler. Nonlinear Convergence Criteria The nonlinear solver checks for convergence after Newton iteration. Apart from the basic algorithm described above. while MUMPS supports parallel computation. Con- vergence is reached if both tests passes. p. If the norm of each residue is Norm Convergence less than the respective absolute tolerance. The default LU solver only supports serial execution. the more efficient iterative methods based on Krylov subspace (KSP) theory can be used. Update damping algorithms can be used with Newton methods to improve stabil- ity of the iterative process. Linear Solver Algorithms Equation (2. the absolute residue norm criteria is further checked with the absolute tolerance relaxed by the factor Toler. Direct linear solvers usually gives the exact solution of (2.

Numerical Solution Genius Command Reference are KSP iterative solvers.rtol. On the other hand. it may be caused by inexact linear solution. if the error norm of the nonlinear solver stagnates when a KSP linear solver is in use. Genius Device Simulator 101 . All the iterative solver and preconditioners listed here support parallel computation. In this case one may try relaxing the three linear solver tolerance parameters.????).????. ???. which cause the nonlinear solver fail with the error DIVERGED_LINEAR_SOLVER. • residue NORM less than max (???.?????*(‖?(?)‖). The ILU algorithm usually provides good performance. Tightening the KSP convergence criteria may help. A preconditioner is necessary for effective operation of iterative solvers. The iterative linear solver may fail to reach convergence in some cases. The KSP iteration stops when any of the two criteria is met: • the NORM change between two iteration less than ksp.

aTol=num ] [ VStepMax=num ] [ IStepMax=num ] [ Optical. SOLVE [Type=(Equilibrium|SteadyState|DCSweep|Op|ACSweep|Transient)] [Predict=bool] DCSweep Simulation Parameters { VScan=str VStart=num VStep=num VStop=num [ VStepMax=num ] } | { IScan=str IStart=num IStep=num IStop=num [ IStepMax=num ] } [ Optical.coupled=bool] [ tran.op=bool ] } ACSweep Simulation Parameters { VScan=str f.Gen=bool ] [ Optical.multiple=num ] [ vac=num ] } 102 Genius Device Simulator .iteration=int ] [ VStepMax=num ] [ IStepMax=num ] } Transient Simulation Parameters { TS=(ImplicitEuler|BDF1|BDF2) TStart=num TStep=num TStop=num [ AutoStep=bool ] [ TStepMax=num ] [ TS.start=num f.rTol=num ] [ TS.modulate=str ] [ Particle.stop=num [ f.init=num ] } Operator Point Parameters for Device Simulation { [ pseudotime=bool ] [ pseudotime.Gen=bool ] [ Optical.modulate=str ] [ Particle.Gen=bool ] [Source.step=num ] [ pseudotime.Gen=bool ] Operator Point Parameters for Mixed-type Simulation { [ rampup.vstep=num ] [ rampup.Genius Command Reference Numerical Solution SOLVE The SOLVE command instructs Genius to solve the semiconductor device equa- tions.steps=int ] [ rampup.istep=num ] [ gmin=num ] [ gmin.

Gen boolean Consider optical carrier generation in the simulation. When Predict is disabled. quadratic projection is used. constant envelop with amplitude 1. value at transient time 0 will be used. and timestep to infinity. Source.0 will be used. some convergence acceleration techniques such as gmin step in circuit simulation and pseudo time method for device can be used. Particle. Predict is applicable to DC-sweep and transient modes only. Numerical Solution Genius Command Reference Input/Output Parameters [ Hook=str ] [ Out. • ACSweep applies an small-signal stimulus at one of the contacts. and timestep to infinity. true none vious solutions as the initial guess to the new solution. Predict bool When Predict is enabled. and scans the frequency of the signal.modulate string Optical wave can be modulated by an envelope. When there are two previous solutions. Optical. Applicable in DC. the device equations are solved in steadystate. linear projection is used.and transient-mode simulations only. which is specified none none by ENVELOP statement. • SteadyState sets all external sources to their respective value at time zero. Thus. Equilibrium none • Equilibrium sets all external sources to zero. DC Sweep Simulation Parameters Genius Device Simulator 103 . At each voltage (or current) step. When three previous solutions are available. • DCSweep scans the external voltage (or current) source at one of the contacts. • OP solves the operator point of device or circuit at time zero. • Transient solves the device equation with physical quantities in the device and external sources vary as time progresses.Gen boolean Consider carriers generated by high-energy particles in the simula. Optical. When this parameter is omitted. the solver uses the previous solution as the initial guess. Genius will re-calculate carrier generation on each device state.coupled boolean Indicate that the light absorption or particle generation is coupled false none with semiconductor device. the solver use predictions based on pre. so that the device equations yield equlibrium-state solution.and transient-mode simulations only. Applicable in false none DC. For DC simulation. false none tion.Prefix=str ] Parameters Parameter Type Description Default Unit General Parameters Type enum Selects the mode of the simulation.

0 s 104 Genius Device Simulator . VStep V IScan string The electrode on which current sweep is applied. A large value may help 1e-12 Ω−1 convergence for difficult circuits.istep numerical The maximum changes of current in any ramp up step.step numerical Time step for the pseudo-time method. 0. none A IStepMax numerical Maximum current step. BDF2 and TRBDF2. Pseudo-Time DC Simulation Parameters pseudotime bool When pseudotime is set to true. VStop numerical Stop voltage. gmin numerical The target value of gmin step-down. pseudotime. IStep A Circuit Operation-Point Simulation Parameters for Mixed Simulation rampup. with type=OP. Genius Command Reference Numerical Solution Parameter Type Description Default Unit VScan string The electrode on which voltage sweep is applied. VStepMax numerical Maximum voltage update in any pseudo-time step. Implicit Euler).init numerical The initial value of gmin in gmin step-down. 0. none none VStart numerical Start voltage. 0. 0. rampup. TStart numerical Initial time. This value should be suffi. 20 none tem to steady state. The actual current steps may change when there none A is convergence problem.1 V IStepMax numerical Maximum current update in any pseudo-time step.1 A gmin.vstep numerical The maximum changes of voltage in any ramp up step. none A IStep numerical Initial current step. Available choices are BDF1 BDF2 none (aka. The actual voltage steps may change when there none V is convergence problem.1 A Transient Simulation Parameters TS Enum Sets the time-discretization scheme. pseudotime. IStop numerical Stop current. 0.25 V rampup. none none IStart numerical Start current. Genius will use pseudo-time false none method to calculate the steady-state solution of the device. Small time step will make 1e-6 s the system more stable but require more time steps to drive the sys- tem to steady state.steps integer The number of ramp-up steps for the voltage and current sources in 1 none the circuit to their DC value. none V VStepMax numerical Maximum voltage step. none V VStep numerical Initial voltage step.iter numerical Maximum number of pseudo-time iteration steps for driving the sys. 1e-12 Ω−1 ciently small to avoid error in circuit simulation. Cur- rently available in pure device simulation.

stop numerical Stop frequency for AC sweep. the current time step is re- jected. Device DC Sweep Mode The DC Sweep Mode is selected by setting type=DCSweep. This option should be set to false when OP already calculated.0 A than this value tran. 0. true none tion start. TS. 1e-4 none When the tolerance criteria is not met. 1. AC Sweep Simulation VScan string The electrode on which small AC signal is applied. and time step is reduced.Prefix string Sets the prefix to the filename used for output. TStop numerical Stop time. Only valid in Mixed-type Simulation.start numerical Start frequency for AC sweep 1e6 Hz f. 0.1 none vac numerical The magnitude of AC signal. and time step is reduced. Failure Recovery When the numerical solver fails to converge at a particular step. At each voltage (or current) step. reduces the step. In DCSweep mode. When the solver converges at some reduced Genius Device Simulator 105 . 10e9 Hz f. Genius scans the external voltage (or current) source at the contact selected in the VScan parameter.0 V than this value IStepMax numerical Limit the time step so the maxim change of electrode current is less 1. the current time step is re- jected.op bool Sets if operator point should be computed before transient simula. the device equations are solved in steadystate. If TStepMax is zero. there is no upper bound for time steps. The actual time steps is adaptively determined by none s the solver if AutoStep is enabled. none none f. In this mode. 1e-3 none When the tolerance criteria is not met.rTol numerical Sets the relative truncation error tolerance in time-discretization. Genius recovers to the state of the previous converged step. The internal output none none routine and the loadable hook functions will append their respective postfix and extensions to form the complete output filename.multiple numerical Specifies multiplicative factor for incrementing frequency.aTol numerical Sets the absolute truncation error tolerance in time-discretization.0 s termines time steps. Numerical Solution Genius Command Reference Parameter Type Description Default Unit TStep numerical Initial time step. none s TStepMax numerical The maximum allowed time step when the solver automatically de.0026 V Input/Output Output. AutoStep bool Sets if the solver can adaptively change the time steps. true none TS. VStepMax numerical Limit the time step so the maxim change of electrode voltage is less 1. the voltage or current step is recursively halved when the solver diverges. and attempts to solve the equations again.

the initial timestep TStart is used throughout the simulation. and continue solving. drastically reducing mem- ory consumption of large-scale problems. For better convergence. With AutoStep turned on. Either a DC Sweep. the pseudo-time 106 Genius Device Simulator .rTol and TS. e. one can set the VStepMax and IStepMax parameters. otherwise the device state at time zero is undetermined. When adaptive step is turned off.aTol. pseudo-time method can be Method used to better handle ill-conditioned problems. Adaptive Time Step In the Transient mode. Device Transient Mode The Transient Mode is selected by setting type=Transient. In this mode. one can specify whether adaptive time step is used with the option AutoStep.9 of the previous value. Genius will ramp up the voltage and current sources from equilibrium (zero) to the specified source values. an Operation Point or a Transient simulation can fulfill this requirement. devices with floating regions. Initial State An initial device state must be prepared prior to the transient simulation. Device Operation Point Mode The Operation Point (OP) mode is selected by setting type=OP. Pseudo-Time New in 1. In benchmark tests. when the truncation error meets the tolerance criteria. One can use the VStepMax and IStepMax parameters to limit the maximum change in voltage (current) of any voltage (current) source during any time step.Genius Command Reference Numerical Solution step. In OP mode for device simulation. and is commonly used to bring the device to a steady-state condition.1. and Genius solves the device equation with the time partial-derivative included.g. ex- ternal sources (electrical or optical sources) vary as time progresses. it tries to progressively double the step it recovers to the initial step (VStep or IStep). such difficult problems can converge with iterative linear solvers such as BCGS. If the truncation error exceeds that specified in TS. cut the time step to half. When any driving source has a sudden change. As in the DC Sweep mode.7. On the other hand. With the more numerically stable pseudo-time method. and the time-domain truncation error is evaluated. the ini- tial time step TStep is used in the first few steps.2. the timestep is reduced to 0. the time step will be reduced ac- cordingly. until the maximum timestep TStepMax is reached. which are traditionally difficult to converge and requires a direct linear solver. as the starting state for a DC Sweep or Transient simulation. To limit the maximum change in source values in each ramp-up step. time step is increased by the factor of 1. Genius will recover from convergence failure in the Transient mode.

Inputs: previous state S0 . p.7 Floatchart of the Device Operation Point Genius Device Simulator 107 . Solve PDE for (S. End t < tramp ? N Solve PDE Y t = t + Δt.Numerical Solution Genius Command Reference method (with BCGS) is modestly faster than traditional steady-state method with the MUMPS direct linear solver. The flowchart of the pseudo-time method is shown in Figure 2. Δt) n < NSteps? N Y t = t + Δt. with comparison to the normal steady-state method. target state S1 Compute NSteps according to VStepMax/IStepMax Y N Is pseudo-time mode? α = n/NSteps tramp = Δt · NSteps S = (1 − α) S0 + αS1 α = t/tramp Solve PDE for state S S = (1 − α) S0 + αS1 Y n = n + 1. 107. x < ? N End Figure 2.7.

Device/Circuit Mixed Operation Point Mode When a circuit netlist is present. and continue solving. ?. Genius solves the equations for a few further steps in the second stage. In this mode. After this change drops below the error threshold. the device/circuit mixed Transient Mode is se- 108 Genius Device Simulator . as shown in Figure 2. the device settles down to its steady state. the device is deemed to have reached steady-state. voltage and current sources are ramped up. Genius will recover from convergence failure. p. in the OP mode. The system of equations is thus solved in transient mode with the nominal time step specified by the pseudotime. Before the AC simu- lation. 107.7. In the first stage. an artificial capacitance (?? /??) is added between any resistive metal region and the ground.step parameter. After the target voltage/current are set. the device/circuit mixed DC Sweep Mode is se- lected by setting type=DCSweep. As time progresses. an artificial time-derivative term is added to the electron and hole continuity equations in semiconductor regions (??/?? and ??/??) . a small-signal sinusoidal sources is applied on the contact specified by the VScan parameter. The transient simulation consists of two stages.g. Device Small-Signal AC Sweep Mode The AC Sweep Mode is selected by setting type=ACSweep. As in the transient and DC sweep modes. Device/Circuit Mixed DC Sweep Mode When a circuit netlist is present. cut back ramp step or time step. Device/Circuit Mixed Transient Mode When a circuit netlist is present. At the same time. and ?) between subsequent steps di- minishes. ? .Genius Command Reference Numerical Solution Under the pseudo-time scheme. and the AC response of the device is simulated. A steady-state device state must be prepared by means of OP or DC Sweep simulation. and the change of internal variables (e. the device/circuit mixed OP Mode is selected by setting type=OP. and the pseudo-time algorithm completes.

05 \ Vstop=0.0 Vstep=0. Example SOLVE Type=Equilibrium SOLVE Type=DCSWEEP Vscan=Anode Vstart=0.Numerical Solution Genius Command Reference lected by setting type=Transient.prefix=diode_iv SOLVE Type=Transient TStart=0 TStep=1e-12 TStepMax=1e-6 \ TStop=100e-6 Genius Device Simulator 109 .8 out.

0 degree Angle numeric The direction of incident plane wave. When the shape Uknow none is known to be Circle or Ellipse. 1.Genius Command Reference Numerical Solution EMFEM2D The EMFEM2D command instructs the 2D finite-element EM wave solver to solve the Maxwell equations. 0.0 degree Phase. ILU none Description The spectrum file is a plain text file with each line for one frequency point in the spectrum. 0.Type enum The type of absorbing boundary condition used at the outer bound.Shape= ( Circle | Ellipse | Unknow ) ] [ LS = (CGS|BICG|BCGS|GMRES|TFQMR|LU|UMFPACK|SuperLU| MUMPS|SuperLU_Dist) ] [ PC = (Identity|Jacobian|BJacobian|ASM|ILU) ] Parameters Parameter Type Description Default Unit WaveLength numeric The Wave length of the simulation.5 none Phase. 0.Eff numeric Quantum efficiency for photo-generation.532 μm Intensity numeric Name of the TIF file to import from. measured in degrees from the 90 degree +x axis to the wave vector. ABC. Synonym: Lambda. intensity and quantum efficiency from a text file.TM=num ] [ Angle=num ] [ ABC. 0.0 W/cm2 Quan.Shape enum Inform Genius the shape of absorbing boundary. BCGS none PC enum Selects the linear preconditioner algorithm.TM numeric The initial phase of the TM mode. none none wTE numeric The weight of TE mode in the total intensity. SecondOrder none ary of the simulation.TE numeric The initial phase of the TE mode. 0. 0.5 none wTM numeric The weight of TM mode in the total intensity. ABC. EMFEM2D [ WaveLength=num ] [ Intensity=num ] [ Quan. LS enum Selects the linear solver algorithm. the calculation of boundary curvature can be accelerated.0 none SpectrumFile string Read wavelength.Eff=num ] [ SpectrumFile=str ] [ wTE=num ] [ wTM=num ] [ phase.TE=num ] [ phase.Type= ( FirstOrder | SecondOrder | PML ) ] [ ABC. Each line contains 2 or 3 numerical values separated by whitespaces: <wavelength> <intensity> [quantum efficiency] 110 Genius Device Simulator .

the mesh in dielectric materials (such as Si) should be finer. and can be Boundary selected by the ABC. the mesh size should be 1/16 to 1/20 of the optical wave- length in the material. Genius will use the following quantum efficiency ? ????(ħ?/?? ) ⋅ ?? ?= (2. Absorbing The absorbing boundary condition can be first-order or second-order.Type parameter. When quantum efficiency is given. When either wTE or wTM is given. In general. and sum up the total carrier generation. Mesh Size In FEM EM simulation. Genius Device Simulator 111 . Note that wavelength decreases for materials with relative permittivity greater than 1.9) ħ? The sum of weights wTE and wTM must be 1. As a result. a circular shape absorbing boundary is highly recom- mended. When possible. Genius will use this value to calculate the op- tical carrier generation rate. If both values are given. The ABC should be at least one wave-length away from the scatterer. the second-order boundary is preferred. calculate the optical generation at each frequency. Genius will check if they add up to unity. Otherwise. Genius will calculate the other automatically.Numerical Solution Genius Command Reference Genius will perform FEM EM simulation at each frequency point.

none none length and intensity at each frequency in the spectrum. and the direction unit vector can be expressed as ⎛ sin ? cos ? ⎞ ⎜ cos ? ⎟ ?⃗ = ⎜ .Density number of rays. This file should describe the wave. measured from 90 degree the y-axis.Eff numerical Quantum efficiency of carrier generation for the monochromatic auto none light. each mesh element has at least Ray. 0 degree Phi numerical Inclination angle of the wave vector of the incident light. (2. Description The direction of the incident wave is specified by the azimuth and inclination angle ? and ?. 0. 10 none pected to have at least Ray. Theta numerical Azimuth angle of the wave vector of the incident light. RAYTRACE { SpectrumFile=str | ( Lambda=num Intensity=num [Quan.Density numerical Density of light rays. 0 degree E. In 3D struc- tures.Density number of rays. Ray.Eff=num] ) } [ Theta=num ] [ Phi=num ] [ Ray.Density=num ] Parameters Parameter Type Description Default Unit SpectrumFile string Filename of the spectrum file. E.0 W/cm2 Quan.Theta numerical Azimuth angle of the E-vector of the incident light. measured 0 degree from the y-axis. Lambda numerical Wavelength of the monochromatic light.10) sin ? sin ? ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ The default values of Theta and Phi corresponds to incidence along the positive y-axis direction. Synonym: Wavelength 0. each mesh element is ex.Density*Ray. In 2D structures. 112 Genius Device Simulator . Genius will automatically calcu- late the quantum efficiency using the bandgap of the material. If not explicitly specified.Genius Command Reference Numerical Solution RAYTRACE The RAYTRACE command instructs the ray-tracing solver to calculate the light propagation.Phi numerical Inclination angle of the E-vector of the incident light.532 μm Intensity numerical Intensity of the monochromatic light.

density rays in 2D structures. In general. The unit is W/cm2/μm. Each line in the spectrum file should have the following columns • The wavelength in the unit of micro-meter.11 0. On the other hand. the above rule also ap- plies.17 0.density.2 0. Spectrum file With the spectrum file we can specify multi.00 0. The density of rays is deter- mined by the smallest element in device mesh and the parameter ray. Genius will automatically calculate the quantum efficiency using the bandgap of the material.density. Absorption When the ray passes though a mesh element. and refraction/reflection rays are generated. The ray to ray distance is set to D=?min /ray.954 0. A sample spectrum file is listed below. Spectrum file should contain at lease two spectrums. Note that this differs from the intensity parameter for monochromatic light.2 1. the optical power associated to the ray deposits in this element according to the absorption coefficient.spectrums of light with different intensity.4 1. If a Neumann boundary has the Reflection parameter set to true (default is false).Numerical Solution Genius Command Reference Ray Seeding Genius seeds the incident light rays automatically. • (Optional) quantum efficiency for carrier generation.1 Genius Device Simulator 113 . Genius guar- antees that each mesh element has at least ray.24 0.2 1. • Intensity density (per unit wavelength) at this wavelength. and ray. Boundaries When a ray incidents on Ohmic boundaries and Schottky boundaries.5 1. Genius will sum the power deposited by all the rays and calculate the optical carrier generation rate at each node. the trac- ing terminates and the incident ray is removed.density rays in 3D structures.05 0.3 1.density*ray. # lambda intensity 0. If not explicitly spec- ified. the interfaces with metallic (electrode) regions are not affected by the above rule.912 0. respectively.

Genius Command Reference Numerical Solution Example RayTrace wavelength=0.density=10.0 114 Genius Device Simulator .0 RayTrace SpectrumFile=am15a.phi=0 ray.density=10.1 k.phi=0 ray.txt k.4 intensity=0.

structure format used by Silvaco.cgns" IMPORT TIFFile = "foo. Genius can also load device structure from Technology Interchange Format (TIF) format which is commonly used by Synopsys medici and tsuprem. and builds the simulation system based on it. none none SilvacoFile string Name of the Silvaco str file to import from. none none description Genius can load device definition and data from many different files. none none ISEFile string Name of the DF-ISE file to import from. Example IMPORT CGNSFile = "foo. none none TIF3DFile string Name of the TIF3D file to import from. and a extended TIF3D file generated by Gds2mesh tool. The CFD General Notation System (CGNS) is the native file supported by Genius. none none TIFFile string Name of the TIF file to import from. IMPORT { CGNSFile=str | TIFFile=str | TIF3DFile=str | SilvacoFile=str | ISEFile=str } Parameters Parameter Type Description Default Unit CGNSFile string Name of the CGNS file to import from.Input and Output Genius Command Reference Input and Output IMPORT The IMPORT command loads mesh structures and solutions from a file.tif" Genius Device Simulator 115 . User can save the current state of device under simulation by EXPORT command and then load it again by IMPORT command. Besides the native CGNS format. DF-ISE format used by Synopsys Sentaurus.

none none which can be loaded in another Genius input file with an INCLUDE command. LUnit enum Length unit used for node coordinates.grd and . Genius also saves mesh and solu- tion data with the Visualization ToolKit (VTK) formats which is supported by VisualTCAD and many other post-process tool such as Paraview and Visit. BCFile string Export the boundary condition definition of the structure to the file. true none description Genius can save device definition and data to files in the CFD General Notation System (CGNS) which is natively supported.Genius Command Reference Input and Output EXPORT The EXPORT command saves mesh structures and solutions to a file.dat file extension. EXPORT [ CGNSFile=str ] [ VTKFile=str ] [ ISEFile=str ] [ BCInfo=str ] { [ NodeInfo=str ] [ LUnit = (m|cm|um|nm) ] [ Numbering=bool ] } Parameters Parameter Type Description Default Unit CGNSFile string Export the mesh and data in the CGNS file with the supplied file none none name. Since version 1. when exporting to NodeFile. respectively. Example EXPORT CGNSFile = "foo.vtk" EXPORT ISEFile = "foo" 116 Genius Device Simulator . um none Numbering bool Whether to print node number in NodeFile. VTKFile string Export the mesh and data in the VTK file with the supplied file name. none none ISEFILE string Export device mesh and doping information in the DF-ISE format none none into two files with supplied file name and . NodeFile string Export the coordinates of the mesh points to a plain text file with the none none supplied file name.7. Genius can export device mesh and doping information in the DF-ISE format.cgns" EXPORT CGNSFile = "foo.cgns" VTKFile="bar.

. none none Description The HOOK command should be invoked before the SOLVE command to be effective.. which is compatible with the gnuplot ploting program. • gnuplot. Some hooks are only compatible with some of the analysis modes (e. This hook is Genius Device Simulator 117 .Input and Output Genius Command Reference HOOK The HOOK command loads or unloads hook functions. Default Hook Functions The following hook functions are loaded by default.] ] [ str<str>=str [. Some hooks accepts custom parameters when the user loads them. Various hook functions are available that serve as pre-/post-processors. none none string<str> string Custom string parameters for the loaded hook function. with DC Sweep mode only). until it is unloaded. which are called before and after solving the device equations.. real<str> numerical Custom numerical parameters for the loaded hook function.] ] [ Unload=str ] Parameters Parameter Type Description Default Unit Load string Name of the hook function to be loaded. it is effective in subsequent SOLVE commands as well if the hook function is compatible with the analysis mode. the parameters specified during previous loading are all erased. If one tries to load a previously loaded hook function again. none none id string Give an identical id to hook. input/output formatters and interface with other softwares. Save the terminal voltages and currents from the simulation result in plain text format. User can load several hooks with the none none same type by given each hook a different id. After a hook is loaded. none none Unload enum Name of the hook function to be unloaded. HOOK [ Load=str [ id=\GSyntax{{\ttsl str }}] [ real<str>=num [..g.

raw. 0 μm z numerical The z-coordinate of the probe. The serial of VTK files which contains field evolving infor- 118 Genius Device Simulator . one should use the AC analysis mode.0 HOOK Load=probe id=probe2 real<x>=1. 0 μm Visualization and Animation Postprocessor The vtk hook function allows the user to save VTK file at each step in DC and transient simulation. and the user can load some of them with the HOOK command. Additionally. Parameter Type Description Default Unit x numerical The x-coordinate of the probe. we briefly describe each of them. 0 μm y numerical The y-coordinate of the probe. For capacitance analysis at high frequency. One can load this postprocessor with the command HOOK Load=cv and the extracted capacitance-voltage data will be saved in output file with the extension . Save the terminal voltages and currents from the simulation result in the SPICE raw format. and capacitance is then extracted by differentiating with respect to the scanning volt- age. In the following sections. The electric charge in the gate electrodes are first integrated. CV Postprocessor The cv hook function extracts the capacitance of gate electrodes.2 real<z>=0. a few optional hook functions are available.0 where the following custom parameters are recognized.Genius Command Reference Input and Output • raw. It can be loaded with the following command HOOK Load=probe id=probe1 real<x>=1.5 real<y>=1.0 real<y>=1. Probe Postprocessor The probe hook function allows the user to monitor the potential and carrier concentration at a particular point in the device. The output file has the extension .cv.2 real<z>=0. It works in the DC voltage sweep mode only and the extracted capacitance is quasi-static.

Paraview or Visit. Furthermore. user can make animation with the serial of VTK files with Paraview or Visit. Genius Device Simulator 119 . Interface to Visit visualizer Genius can feed solution to the visualizer program Visit through the visit hook function.Input and Output Genius Command Reference mation can be viewed by VisualTCAD.

Genius Command Reference Input and Output 120 Genius Device Simulator .

This chapter is intended for advanced readers who intend to write programs to customize or extend the Genius simulator.def. without the need of re-building the entire simulator. The filename for material foo is libfoo.so. new materials can be added and existing materials can be modified. new materials can be added. • The simulator is programmable through its Python interface. With this design. An intermediate level of knowl- edge about the C++ programming language and the development tools in Linux or Windows. Custom Material Models Overview of PMI Each material in Genius is packaged as a dynamically linked library (DLL). Genius Device Simulator 121 . This chapter outlines the procedure of extending Genius with the various inter- faces. • Pre-processing and post-processing steps can be added through the hook in- terface.d Catalog File is needed for the material model to function properly in Genius. Below is a few entries in material. CHAPTER 3 Extending Genius Simulator The Genius device simulator can be extended by users in several ways. an entry in the catalog file $GENIUS_DIR/lib/material. Files The material library files are located in the directory $GENIUS_DIR/lib. and existing materials modified. • Through the physical model interface (PMI). Material In addition to the material's DLL.

• ComplexCompoundSemiconductor: Complex compound semiconductors. In the Material parameter of the REGION command. An entry starts with material's ID and the content of the entry is contained in the pair of curly braces. one can use either the aliases or the ID of a 122 Genius Device Simulator . the possible values are • Semiconductor: Elemental and simple compound semiconductors with fixed compositions. • SingleCompoundSemiconductor: Compound semiconductors with a sin- gle mole fraction number. with more than one mole fraction number. each in its own line. The parameter property specifies the type of the material. • Conductor: metals and metallic poly-silicon • Vacuum: only used in optical simulation • PML: only used in optical simulations Each material can have several aliases in addition to its ID. The content is a list of parameter=value pairs.Extending Genius Simulator Custom Material Models Si { property = Semiconductor alias = Silicon color = 0xffb6c1ff } GaAs { property = Semiconductor color = 0xeaeaeaff } AlGaAs { # mole dependence: Ga(1-x)Al(x)As property = SingleCompoundSemiconductor color = 0xa6d6d6ff } SiO2 { property = Insulator alias = Ox alias = Oxide color = 0x7d0505ff } Each entry corresponds to a material.

123. p. For each category of materials. conductor or insulator.Custom Material Models Extending Genius Simulator material. there Genius Device Simulator 123 . The abstract base class PMI provides the basic facilities for all physical models. there is a class derived from PMI (in the second column). For a semiconductor material.1. Classes PMIS_Mobility GSS_SiC4H_Mob_Analytic PMIS_Avalanche GSS_SiC4H_Avalanche_Default PMIS_Server (Semiconductor) PMIS_Trap GSS_SiC4H_Trap_Default PMIS_Thermal GSS_SiC4H_Thermal PMIS_Optical GSS_SiC4H_Optical PMII_BasicParameter PMII_Thermal PMII_Server (Insulator) PMII_Optical PMIC_BasicParameter PMIC_Server PMI_Server PMIC_Thermal (Conductor) PMIC_Optical PMIV_Server PMIV_BasicParameter (Vacuum) PMIP_Server PMIV_Thermal (PML) PMIV_Optical Figure 3. semiconductor.1 Class hierarchy of the PMI The class hierarchy of the PMI interface is shown in Figure 3.

and provide a concrete implementation. magnetic permeability and electron affinity. effective density of states.. • Avalanche: impact ionization generation. Every aspect is described in a class. • Mobility: carrier mobility. • Thermal: thermal conductivity and thermal capacity. For example. one must derive from each of the above classes. For insulators and conductors. a creator function with C-style name and calling convention. How a PMI Library is Loaded We shall describe the loading sequence of physical models. • BandStructure: bandgap.. For example. generation/recombination. as shown in the third column.so. the classes in the last column of Figure 3. 123 are implemented and packed in the dynamic library libSiC4H. # MESH commands # . assuming the follow- ing two commands appear in the input file to Genius. include its degradation at surfaces and carrier ve- locity saturation.1.Extending Genius Simulator Custom Material Models are several 7 aspects of its physics. dielectric permittivity. REGION Label=Substrate Material=Silicon REGION Label=GOX Material=SiO2 #---------------- # . • Optical: refraction index (real and imaginary parts) at different wavelengths.. • Trap: carrier capture and emission at trap states. p.. must accomany each concrete class in the dynamic library. All the above classes are abstract and can not be instantiated. Since dynamic libraries has a C interface (instead of a C++ one). The physics covered by each class is summarized below. When one imple- ments a material. for the 4H-SiC material.so is responsible for creating an instance of the class GSS_SiC4H_BandStructure. carrier effective mass. PMI Region=Substrate Type=Mobility Model=HP PMI Region=Substrate Type=Avalanche Model=HP 124 Genius Device Simulator . thermoionic emission and (temporarily) band-to-band tunneling. the physics are simpler. the C function PMIS_SiC4H_BandStructure_Default in the library libSiC4H. • BasicParameter: mass density.

After the simulation system is built. 1. contains routines for calculating carrier mobility and velocity saturation. also shown is the method nie that calculates the effective intrinsic carrier concentra- tion. This is best illustrated with an example. and from Figure 3. Genius Device Simulator 125 . we assemble the creator function's name PMIS_Si_Mob_HP. This creator function is called. From the material name. 123. For the region GOX. In fact. p. the initial simulation sys- tem is built. as a sub-class of PMIS_BandStructure. Suppose when we assemble the carrier continuity equation. Many derived physical quantities. This GSS_Si_Mob_HP class. are evaluated at each mesh node as well. The dynamic library libSi. For the region Substrate. the default material models for silicon are loaded. the model name HP. the PMI class that handles the bandgap narrowing physics is GSS_SiC4H_BandStructure. including those PMI commands are executed sequentially. the default models for SiO 2 are loaded. it has a method EgNarrow that calculates bandgap narrowing. the region Substrate is looked up and found to be of material sili- con. the model type Mobility. When the first PMI command is ex- ecuted. together with the meshing commands.1. The definition of the method is shown below. as a derived class of PMIS_Mobility.Custom Material Models Extending Genius Simulator The REGION commands are read in first. We know the material of the current mesh node is 4H-SiC. we need to calculate the bandgap narrowing due to heavy doping at a grid node. the rest of the commands. After all the structure specification commands are read. p. such as doping concentration and mole fraction are available only at each of the grid nodes. which returns an object instance of the class GSS_Si_Mob_HP. such as carrier mobility and SRH recombination rate. material properties.so is loaded. How a PMI Library is Used When the Genius simulator assemble the Poisson and continuity equations set out in “Level 1 Drift-Diffusion Equation”.

const double &Tl) { double bandgap = Eg(Tl). double Nd = ReadDopingNd().0*std::pow(cm.NC_F).1) 2?? ? ⎢ ?ref √( ?ref ) ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ In this simple model. Therefore the arguments are ignored. (3. neither the electron. const double &n. The ReadDopingNa and ReadDopingNd methods. respectively. double x = log(N/N0_BGN).. double Nc = NC300*std::pow(Tl/T300.. double Nv = NV300*std::pow(Tl/T300. }.Extending Genius Simulator Custom Material Models class GSS_SiC4H_BandStructure : public PMIS_BandStructure { //. hole concentration nor the lattice tem- perature affects the bandgap narrowing.. The model chiefly relies on the doping concentration. but 126 Genius Device Simulator . const double &Tl) { double Na = ReadDopingNa(). It is also named EgNarrow. double N = Na+Nd+1. return V0_BGN*(x+sqrt(x*x+CON_BGN)). const double &n. n. with respective to all unknowns in the system of equations. } double nie (const double &p.. Genius uses the automatic differentiation technology which hides most of the complications from the user. Tl)). However. The following snippet shows the method that calculates the partial derivatives. return sqrt(Nc*Nv)*exp(-bandgap/(2*kb*Tl)) *exp(EgNarrow(p.NV_F). } // . It is obvious that this few lines implements the Slotboom model of bandgap nar- rowing ?bgn ⎡ ?total ? 2 ⎤ Δ?? = ⎢ln + ln total + ?bgn ⎥ . public: double EgNarrow(const double &p. inherited from the PMIS_Server class. returns the ac- ceptor and donor concentrations at the present mesh node. It is also necessary to evaluate the partial derivatives of the bandgap narrowing.-3). This may sound an in- volved task.

const AutoDScalar &Tl) { double Na = ReadDopingNa(). } // . double N = Na+Nd+1. It is clear that the "derivative" version of EgNarrow and nie are almost identical to the "normal" version. Genius Device Simulator 127 .NC_F).-3). AutoDScalar Nv = NV300*adtl::pow(Tl/T300..0*std::pow(cm. In almost all situations. return ret. const AutoDScalar &n. AutoDScalar Nc = NC300*adtl::pow(Tl/T300.Custom Material Models Extending Genius Simulator note the difference in the type of arguments. it is sufficient to replace the scalar type double with the class type AutoDScalar.NV_F). Tl)). } AutoDScalar nie (const AutoDScalar &p. }. return V0_BGN*(x+sqrt(x*x+CON_BGN)). public: AutoDScalar EgNarrow(const AutoDScalar &p.. class GSS_SiC4H_BandStructure : public PMIS_BandStructure { //.. const AutoDScalar &n.. const AutoDScalar &Tl) { AutoDScalar bandgap = Eg(Tl). double Nd = ReadDopingNd(). double x = log(N/N0_BGN). AutoDScalar ret=sqrt(Nc*Nv)*exp(-bandgap/(2*kb*Tl)) *exp(EgNarrow(p. n.

Building the Example Step 1 Run the configure script. and rename the files. Create a New Material Library Step 1 Make a copy of some existing model. cd 6H-SiC make Step 4 Copy the library file libSiC4H.so to $GENIUS_DIR/lib/. cd 4H-SiC Step 3 Build the material library.sh Step 2 Enter the material directory and modify the source files as needed.def 128 Genius Device Simulator . and build the material library.cc Step 3 Edit the source. sed -i -e "s/SiC4H/SiC6H/g" makefile sed -i -e "s/SiC4H/SiC6H/g" *. make Step 4 Copy the library file libSiC4H. cd examples/Material ./configure. backing up the old file is strongly recommended. and edit the catalog file $GENIUS_DIR/lib/material. cp -R 4H-SiC 6H-SiC Step 2 Replace the material name string in the all source files. The new material library is ready for use now. with the new material name.Extending Genius Simulator Custom Material Models Procedure of Building a Custom Material Library The procedure of building a custom material library is outlined in this section.cc rename "s/4H-SiC/6H-SiC/" *.so to $GENIUS_DIR/lib/.

Genius Device Simulator 129 .Custom Material Models Extending Genius Simulator SiC6H { property = Semiconductor alias = 6HSiC color = 0xffb6c1ff } The new material library is ready for use now.

Extending Genius Simulator Custom Material Models Class References The class reference presented here is a selected and adapted version of the classes declared in the PMI development kit. 130 Genius Device Simulator . with upper and lower limits. Only used in compound semicon- ductor with variable compositions. double ReadxMoleFraction (const double mole_xmin. double& y. const double mole_xmax) const Return the mole fraction x at the current node. double& z) const Return the spatial coordinates of the mesh node. PMIS_Server Class double ReadxMoleFraction () const Return the mole fraction x at the current node. void ReadCoordinate (double& x. PMI_Server Class PMI_Server(const PMI_Environment &env). Some macros are expanded and some inter- nal details are omitted. double ReadTime() const Return the current time in simulation. Constructor. double ReadUserScalarValue (std::string &name) const Return the scalar value with the given name at the current node. An examples of the scalar values at a node is the density of trap state. This is only meaningful in transient-mode simulations. so that this guide is easier to follow.

double ReadDopingNd () const Return the donor dopant concentration. virtual double Permeability () const = 0 Return the relative permeability of the material. virtual double Affinity (const double &Tl) const = 0 Return the affinity energy [eV] of the material. the arguments of the following methods are Genius Device Simulator 131 .Custom Material Models Extending Genius Simulator double ReadyMoleFraction () const Return the mole fraction y at the current node. Only used in compound semicon- ductor with variable compositions. PMIS_BandStructure Class Unless otherwise stated. const double mole_ymax) const Return the mole fraction y at the current node. PMIS_BasicParameter Class virtual double Density (const PetscScalar &Tl) const = 0 Return the mass density g/cm3 of the material. double ReadyMoleFraction (const double mole_ymin. virtual double Permittivity () const = 0 Return the relative permittivity of the material. with upper and lower limits. double ReadDopingNa () const Return the acceptor dopant concentration.

const AutoDScalar &Tl) = 0 Return the valence band shift due to band gap narrowing. const double &n. virtual double EffecElecMass (const double &Tl) = 0 virtual AutoDScalar EffecElecMass (const AutoDScalar &Tl) = 0 132 Genius Device Simulator . const double &Tl) = 0 virtual AutoDScalar EgNarrowToEv (const AutoDScalar &p. const double &n. virtual double EgNarrowToEc (const double &p. const double &n. const double &Tl) = 0 virtual AutoDScalar EgNarrow (const AutoDScalar &p. const AutoDScalar &Tl) = 0 Return the conduction band shift due to band gap narrowing.Extending Genius Simulator Custom Material Models • p hole concentration • n electron concentration • Tl lattice temperature • Tp hole temperature • Tn electron temperature virtual double Eg (const PetscScalar &Tl) = 0 virtual AutoDScalar Eg (const AutoDScalar &Tl) = 0 Return the band gap of semiconductor. const AutoDScalar &n. const AutoDScalar &Tl) = 0 Return the band gap narrowing due to heavy doping. const AutoDScalar &n. virtual double EgNarrow (const double &p. const double &Tl) = 0 virtual AutoDScalar EgNarrowToEc (const AutoDScalar &p. virtual double EgNarrowToEv (const double &p. const AutoDScalar &n.

const AutoDScalar &n.Custom Material Models Extending Genius Simulator Return the effective mass of electrons (DOS mass). virtual double nie (const double &p. const double &Tl) = 0 virtual AutoDScalar nie (const AutoDScalar &p. const AutoDScalar &Tl) = 0 Return the effective intrinsic carrier concentration. virtual double ni ( const PetscScalar &Tl) = 0 Return the intrinsic carrier concentration. virtual double Nc (const double &Tl) = 0 virtual AutoDScalar Nc (const AutoDScalar &Tl) = 0 Return the effective density of states in the conduction band. virtual double Nv (const double &Tl) = 0 virtual AutoDScalar Nv (const AutoDScalar &Tl) = 0 Return the effective density of states in the valence band. virtual double EffecHoleMass (const double &Tl) = 0 virtual AutoDScalar EffecHoleMass (const AutoDScalar &Tl) = 0 Return the effective mass of holes (DOS mass). const double &n. virtual PetscScalar TAUN (const double &Tl) = 0 virtual PetscScalar TAUP (const double &Tl) = 0 Return the minority carrier life time due to SHR recombination. Genius Device Simulator 133 .

const double &Tl) = 0 virtual AutoDScalar R_Direct (const AutoDScalar &p. 134 Genius Device Simulator . const AutoDScalar &Tl) = 0 virtual double R_Auger_P (const double &p. const double &n. const AutoDScalar &n. virtual double R_SHR (const double &p. const AutoDScalar &Tl) = 0 Return the rates of electron and hole initiated Auger recombination. const AutoDScalar &n. const double &Tl) = 0 virtual AutoDScalar R_Auger (const AutoDScalar &p. const double &n. virtual double R_Auger_N (const double &p. virtual double R_Auger (const double &p. const AutoDScalar &Tl) = 0 Return the Auger recombination rate. const AutoDScalar &Tl) = 0 Return the rate of SRH recombination. const AutoDScalar &n. const double &n. const double &Tl) = 0 virtual AutoDScalar R_Auger_P (const AutoDScalar &p. const AutoDScalar &n. const double &n. const double &Tl) = 0 virtual AutoDScalar R_SHR (const AutoDScalar &p. const double &Tl) = 0 virtual AutoDScalar R_Auger_N (const AutoDScalar &p.Extending Genius Simulator Custom Material Models virtual double R_Direct (const double &p. const AutoDScalar &n. const AutoDScalar &Tl) = 0 Return the direct (interband) recombination rate. const double &n.

const double &Tl) = 0 virtual AutoDScalar Recomb (const AutoDScalar &p. const AutoDScalar &n. const AutoDScalar &n. const double &n. const AutoDScalar &n. const double &n. virtual double ElecEnergyRelaxTime(const double &Tn. const AutoDScalar &Tl) = 0 Return the total recombination rate of all recombination mechanisms. const AutoDScalar &Tl) = 0 Return the electron energy relaxation time.Custom Material Models Extending Genius Simulator virtual PetscScalar R_Surf (const double &p. const AutoDScalar &Tl. Genius Device Simulator 135 . const double &Tl) = 0 virtual AutoDScalar R_SHR (const AutoDScalar &p. const AutoDScalar &Tl) = 0 Return the rate of SRH and surface recombination at semiconductor-insulator in- terface. const PetscScalar &len) =0. const double &len) =0. const double &n. Return the rate of SRH recombination. virtual double Recomb (const double &p. virtual AutoDScalar R_Surf (const AutoDScalar &p. virtual double R_SHR (const double &p. Used in EBM simulations. const double &Tl. const double &Tl) = 0 virtual AutoDScalar ElecEnergyRelaxTime(const AutoDScalar &Tn.

The argument Vb is the electron barrier height. double E) = 0 Return the total recombination rate of all recombination mechanisms.Extending Genius Simulator Custom Material Models virtual double HoleEnergyRelaxTime(const double &Tn. const AutoDScalar &Tl) = 0 Return the hole energy relaxation time. virtual double ThermalVn (double Tl) = 0 virtual AutoDScalar ThermalVn (AutoDScalar Tl) = 0 136 Genius Device Simulator . virtual double SchottyJsn (double n. Used in EBM simulations. respectively. double Tl. virtual double SchottyBarrierLowerring (double eps. AutoDScalar Tl. double Vb) = 0 virtual AutoDScalar SchottyJsp (AutoDScalar n. double Vb) = 0 virtual AutoDScalar SchottyJsn (AutoDScalar n. virtual double SchottyJsp (double n. AutoDScalar Vb) = 0 Return the electron current density at Schottky contacts. const double &Tl) = 0 virtual AutoDScalar HoleEnergyRelaxTime(const AutoDScalar &Tn. AutoDScalar Vb) = 0 Return the hole current density at Schottky contacts. virtual double ARichN() = 0 virtual double ARichP() = 0 Return the Richardson constant for electrons and holes. AutoDScalar Tl. double Tl. The argument Vb is the electron barrier height.

The argument Ep and Et are the parallel and trans- verse components of the electric field. const AutoDScalar &Tl. Genius Device Simulator 137 . const AutoDScalar &n. The argument E is the magni- tude of electric field. virtual double BB_Tunneling(const double &Tl. const double &Tn) const=0 virtual AutoDScalar ElecMob (const AutoDScalar &p. PMIS_Mobility Unless otherwise stated. const double &n. const AutoDScalar &Et. const AutoDScalar &Ep.Custom Material Models Extending Genius Simulator Return the electron thermal emission velocity at hetero-junctions virtual double ThermalVp (double Tl) = 0 virtual AutoDScalar ThermalVp (AutoDScalar Tl) = 0 Return the Richardson constant for electrons and holes. the arguments of the following methods are • p hole concentration • n electron concentration • Tl lattice temperature • Tp hole temperature • Tn electron temperature virtual double ElecMob (const double &p. const double &Ep. const AutoDScalar &E) = 0 Return the band-to-band tunneling generation rate. respectively. const AutoDScalar &Tn) const=0 Return the electron mobility. respectively. const double &E) = 0 virtual AutoDScalar BB_Tunneling(const AutoDScalar &Tl. const double &Et. const double &Tl.

const AutoDScalar &Et. const AutoDScalar &Tp) const=0 Return the hole mobility. • Eg bandgap virtual double ElecGenRate (const double &Tl. const AutoDScalar &Ep. respectively. const AutoDScalar &Tl. const double &Et. const AutoDScalar &n. const double &Ep. const double &Tl.Extending Genius Simulator Custom Material Models virtual double HoleMob (const double &p. const double &Ep. The argument Ep and Et are the parallel and transverse components of the electric field. const AutoDScalar &Eg) const = 0 Return the generation rate of electron-initiated impact ionization. const double &Tp) const=0 virtual AutoDScalar HoleMob (const AutoDScalar &p. 138 Genius Device Simulator . const AutoDScalar &Ep. const double &Eg) const = 0 virtual AutoDScalar ElecGenRate (const AutoDScalar &Tl. PMIS_Avalanche Unless otherwise stated. the arguments of the following methods are • Tl lattice temperature • Tp hole temperature • Tn electron temperature • Ep driving force of impact ionization (parallel electric field). const double &n.

const AutoDScalar &Eg) const = 0 Return the generation rate of hole-initiated impact ionization. Used in EBM simulation only. const AutoDScalar &Eg) const = 0 Return the generation rate of hole-initiated impact ionization. const double &Tl. const double &Ep.Custom Material Models Extending Genius Simulator virtual double HoleGenRate (const double &Tl. const double &Eg) const = 0 virtual AutoDScalar HoleGenRate (const AutoDScalar &Tl. PMIS_Trap [[TODO]] PMIS_Thermal The argument Tl is the lattice temperature. const double &Eg) const = 0 virtual AutoDScalar ElecGenRateEBM (const AutoDScalar &Tn. const double &Tl. calculate from the electron temperature. virtual double ElecGenRateEBM (const double &Tn. const AutoDScalar &Tl. virtual double HoleGenRateEBM (const double &Tp. const AutoDScalar &Eg) const = 0 Return the generation rate of electron-initiated impact ionization. const double &Eg) const = 0 virtual AutoDScalar HoleGenRateEBM (const AutoDScalar &Tp. const AutoDScalar &Ep. calculate from the electron temperature. Used in EBM simulation only. Genius Device Simulator 139 . const AutoDScalar &Tl.

PMIS_Optical The argument lambda is the wavelength. double Eg. virtual double HeatConduction(const double &Tl) const = 0 virtual AutoDScalar HeatConduction(const AutoDScalar &Tl) const = 0 Return the heat conduction W/cm/K of the material. double Tl) const = 0 140 Genius Device Simulator . Eg the bandgap. virtual std::complex<double> RefractionIndex(double lamda. and Tl the lattice tem- perature.Extending Genius Simulator Custom Material Models virtual double HeatCapacity (const double &Tl) const = 0 virtual AutoDScalar HeatCapacity (const AutoDScalar &Tl) const = 0 Return the heat capacity JK−1 cm−3 of the material.

p. 140. virtual double Permittivity () const = 0 Return the relative permittivity of the material. 131. p. PMIC empty PMIC_BasicParameter virtual double Density (const PetscScalar &Tl) const = 0 Return the mass density g/cm3 of the material. p. PMII empty PMII_BasicParameter See “PMIS_BasicParameter Class”. virtual double Permeability () const = 0 Return the relative permeability of the material. PMII_Optical See “PMIS_Optical”. PMII_Thermal See “PMIS_Thermal”. Genius Device Simulator 141 .Custom Material Models Extending Genius Simulator Return the heat capacity JK−1 cm−3 of the material. 139.

PMIC_Thermal See “PMIS_Thermal”. p.Extending Genius Simulator Custom Material Models virtual double Affinity (const double &Tl) const = 0 Return the affinity energy [eV] of the material. p. 140. 142 Genius Device Simulator . PMIC_Optical See “PMIS_Optical”. virtual double Conductance () const = 0 Return the electrical conductance of the material. 139.

Hooks Extending Genius Simulator Hooks [[TODO]] Genius Device Simulator 143 .

Extending Genius Simulator Python Interface Python Interface [[TODO]] HTTP Frontend [[TODO]] 144 Genius Device Simulator .

W. IEEE. 1982. So and R. Selberherr. Solid-State Electronics. J. Solid-State Electronics. H. [7] D. 24(2):225–257. D. An Improved Electron and Hole Mobility Model for General Purpose Device Simulation. Roulston. D. 1992. Severi and S. 1997. phosphorus-. [5] S. Solid-State Electronics. 20:279–283. Process and Device Modeling for VLSI. 1981. Lomax and G. PISCES-2ET and Its Applica- tion Subsystems. Modeling and Mea- surement of Minority-Carrier Lifetime Versus Doping in Diffused Layers of ?+ − ? Silicon Diodes. Finite-Element Simulation of GaAs MESFET's with Lateral Doping Profiles and Sub-Micron Gates. 1994. 33:682–692. Stanford University. Genius Device Simulator 145 . Cham. R. Haddad. Slotboom. S. Int. IEEE Trans.R. Darwish. A Unified Mobility Model for Device Simulation . J.II. Thomas. 1986. Vuong. 30(7):764-769. 1976. Electron Devices. Jan. L. Zeitzoff. Chin and J. Saporito and M. Dutton. 1977. Modeling of carrier mobility against car- rier concentration in arsenic-. [16] M. M. J. Dutton. [9] G. 44(9):1529–1538. A References [1] U. Selberherr.I. E. 2nd edition. 1967. Klaassen. [15] C. L. M. Appl. [17] K. and boron-doped silicon. S-Y Oh. [10] D. IEEE Trans. [6] J.M.. Lombardi. ED-23:1042–1048. Solmi. [11] D. 55:2192–2193. 1994. Chen. IEEE Trans. Analysis and Simulation of Semiconductor Devices. Computer-Aided Design. Masetti. 16:161–174. Vanzi. J. The pn Product in Silicon. 2003. [3] Yu Zhiping. J. Arora and S. [13] J. Klaassen. M. 7(11):1164–1170. T. Current-Density Relations for Nonisothermal Modeling of De- generate Heterostructure Devices. Microelectron.. 1984. Lentz. A. Integrated Circuits Laboratory. Vahldieck. A Unified Mobility Model for Device Simulation . ED-29:284–291. M. IEEE Trans. [2] S. N. M. Model. M. D. Electron Devices. [12] D. Pinto. Kluwer Academic Publishers. J. [14] H. W. Moll. B.L. N. 1986. Barnes. J. 1983. Electron Devices. Circuit-simulation models for the high elec- tron-mobility transistor. M. Carrier Mobilities in Silicon Empirically Related to Doping and Field. Electron Devices. [8] S. Yeager and R. 35:953–959. Sze. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Time-domain simulation of the full hydro- dynamic model. Proc. Springer-Ver- lag. 1988. 75(2):958–966. Numer.. [4] Andreas Aste and R. Manzini. Re- liab. 1984.. 1992. Lindefelt. Physics of Semiconductor Devices. R. Phys. Krut- sick and H. B. I. G. P. Electron Devices. 35:961–967. W. A Physically Based Mobility Model for Numerical Simulation of Nonplanar Devices. Technical Report. IEEE Trans. Chamberlain. Computer-Aided Design and VLSI Device Development. Caughey and R. IEEE Trans.

Liou. 31:354–356. Ionization rates for electron and holes in silicon. 1999. Appl. Phys. B. Ventura. F. Illien. Stricker and L. M. W. Dutton. Analytic Approximation for the Fermi Energy of an Ideal Fermi Gas. J.. 1959. 1958. 146 Genius Device Simulator .O. 12:181–188. Chem. Modeling the Tunneling Current in Reverse-Biased p/n Junctions. 109(5):1537-1540. [22] W. J. 33:971–972. Physical Review. Chynoweth. Technical Report. [21] J. Stanford Electronics Lab- oratory Technical Report. Vecchi.C. Solids. Zullino. Lett. Zener tunneling in semiconductors. SEDAN III . Solid-State Electronics. July 1985. [20] E. Impact-ionization in silicon at large operating temperature.References Python Interface [18] A. In International Conference on Simulation of Semiconductor Processes and Devices.A Generalized Electronic Mate- rial Device Analysis Program. Kane. G. [19] M. D. M.G. W. Joyce and R. 1990. Baccarani. Dixon. Valdinoci. A. Phys. 1977. [23] Yu Zhiping and R. Rudan.

de Man model CONTACT command 71 27 Continuity equation IMPORT command 115 DDML1 2 ISOURCE command 60 ENVELOP command 67 D SOURCEAPPLY command 69 DDML1 CIRCUIT command 70 Equation 1 DDML2 4 L Density of states Light command 64 effective 7 Direct recombination 10 M DOPING command 79 MESH command 41 Drift-diffusion current METHOD command 97 DDML1 2 mobility DDML2 4 Analytic model 13 EBML3 5 HP model 22 Lombardi model 19 E Lucent model 20 EBML3 Masetii model 13 Equation 5 Philips model 14 ELIMINATE command 45 MODEL command 95 EMFEM2D command 110 MOLE command 85 Energy-balance equation REGIONSET command 87 EBML3 5 EXPORT command 116 P PARTICLE command 62 F PMI command 88 FACE command 52 Poisson's Equation 1 Fermi-Dirac distribution 32 PROFILE command 80 Genius Device Simulator 147 . B Index G A GLOBAL command 38 ATTACH command 76 Auger recombination 10 H Heat flow equation B DDML2 4 Bandgap narrowing EBML3 6 Slotboom model 7 Hook command 117 Band-to-band tunneling Kane's model 30 I BOUNDARY command 71 Impact ionization 26 Selberherr model 26 C Valdinoci model 28 Carrier life-time 10 van Overstraeten .

MESH command 43 V velocity saturation 16 148 Genius Device Simulator .MESH command 43 SPREAD command 47 SPREAD3D command 48 Z SRH recombination 10 Z.Mesh command 43 Shockley-Read-Hall recombination see SRH recombination Y SOLVE command 102 Y.Index Python Interface R Caughey-Thomas model 16 RAYTRACE command 112 GaAs-like 17 REFINE command 54 hyper-tangent model 17 REGION command 50 VSOURCE command 57 Material Parameter 122 X S X.