The term microphone was coined by Sir Charles Wheatstone in 1827.

However, the
very first microphone was invented by Emile Berliner in 1876, to be used as a voice
transmitter for Alexander Graham Bell's new invention, the telephone. Two years
later in 1878, David Edward Hughes invented the carbon microphone

Omnidirectional

 When recording the sound of the room – such as with room mics for drums.
 When recording a wide sound source – such as an orchestra, choir, or grand
piano.
 When recording a moving target – such as an acoustic guitar player who
can’t sit still.
 When recording in stereo – such as with the common A/B technique.

Bidirectional(figure-8)

 For stereo recording, figure-8 mics are required to perform both the Blumlein
Pair, and Mid/Side stereo techniques.
 With ribbon mics, the physical make up of the design often requires a figure-8
polar pattern. If you like ribbon mics for their sound, the figure-8 pattern
simply comes as part of the package.
 To isolate instruments in close proximity, figure-8 mics are ideal because they
completely reject sound from the sides.

Finally. and even drum kits without worrying about unwanted distortion or damage. you can use them for miking loud sound sources like bass and guitar amplifiers. . As such. No power supply is required. But it CAN be done. with the right cardioid mics. Construction is simple and comparatively sturdy. Relatively inexpensive. when sounds are coming at you from all directions. and ignores everything else.  Live performances – On-stage. Dynamic Thanks to their moving coil magnetic diaphragm.  Untreated rooms – In rooms with poor acoustics. close-miking with cardioid mics can work wonders at minimizing reflected sound. isolation might seem impossible. positioned in the right spots. they are not just for high SPL (Sound Pressure Level) applications because they work quite well in quieter settings.  But here are some specific examples of when it’s ESPECIALLY useful:  Miking up a drum kit – With so many instruments so close together. these mics reliably capture sound and can do so even at high sound pressure levels.Unidirectional(Cardioid)  Records where you point it. cardioid mics are great maintaining isolation and preventing feedback.

Whatever instrument you are trying to record. fidelity and sound quality is improved. such as domestic tape recorders. Crystal microphones were once commonly supplied with vacuum tube (valve) equipment. An example of this is Rochelle salt (potassium sodium tartrate). so you'll need a mixer or direct box with phantom power (except in cases where batteries are used). making these mics ideal for precision recording in the studio. Hablur A crystal microphone uses the phenomenon of piezoelectricity—the ability of some materials to produce a voltage when subjected to pressure—to convert vibrations into an electrical signal. Since they use capacitance instead of actual moving coils. They were . both as a microphone and as a slimline loudspeaker component. which is a piezoelectric crystal that works as a transducer. Their high output impedance matched the high input impedance (typically about 10 megohms) of the vacuum tube input stage well. Note that this method of sound capture requires power. Just remember to handle them with care as they are not as sturdy as dynamic mics. condenser mics will get the job done so long as the sound pressure levels aren't too high. This configuration works like a capacitor wherein sound pressure vibrates the diaphragm which in turn changes the capacitance to produce the audio signal.Kapasitor(condenser) Condenser mics have a thin conductive diaphragm that sits close to a metal backplate.

electret condenser technology lends itself to mobile devices. Elektret Omnidirectional An electret microphone is a type of electrostatic capacitor-based microphone. which eliminates the need for a polarizing power supply by using a permanently charged material. mobile recorders and video cameras all work with electret condenser capsules. which use magnetic induction rather than mechanical coupling to pick up vibration. . Without the need for a high supply voltage. and to record sound in challenging environments. The high impedance of the crystal microphone made it very susceptible to handling noise. Cell phones. which must work on low battery voltages. some of the less expensive studio microphones also use electret condenser capsules. and were quickly supplanted by dynamic microphones for a time. and later small electret condenser devices. to sense drum hits. This is also due to the fact that electret condenser capsules can be manufactured inexpensively at high volume. laptop computers. This type of microphone is different from magnetic coil pickups commonly visible on typical electric guitars. such as underwater under high pressure. for triggering electronic samples. both from the microphone itself and from the connecting cable. Piezo transducers are often used as contact microphones to amplify sound from acoustic musical instruments.difficult to match to early transistor equipment. For the same reasons. Saddle-mounted pickups on acoustic guitars are generally piezos that contact the strings passing over the saddle.

. The object is typically inside a room where a conversation is taking place and can be anything that can vibrate (for example. The beam may also be bounced off the window itself. The minute differences in the distance traveled by the light as it reflects from the vibrating object are detected interferometrically. The object preferably has a smooth surface. a picture on a wall) in response to the pressure waves created by noises present in the room. and electronics are used to convert these variations to signals that can be converted back to sound.Laser A laser microphone is a surveillance device that uses a laser beam to detect sound vibrations in a distant object. It can be used to eavesdrop with minimal chance of exposure. and returns to a receiver (for example a solar panel) that converts the beam to an audio signal. reflects off the object. The laser beam is directed into the room through a window. The interferometer converts the variations to intensity variations.