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8 26 February, 2017

**Surface Waves under Vertical Forcing
**

Purpose This experiment will introduce you to the basic applications of imaging

techniques. You will use these techniques to study the standing wave

patterns on the surface of a fluid layer under vertical forcing.

**Equipment Loudspeaker (a car subwoofer), Petri dish holder with a reflection mirror,
**

Overhead projector lamp with a cooling fan, HP 200DC frequency generator,

Dynaco stereo amplifier (400W), USB video conference camera, Vicam

Vidcap (video capture program), SigmaScan Pro 5.0 (image processing

software), Glycerin aqueous solutions.

**Background When a thin fluid layer is rigidly oscillated in the vertical direction, the
**

acceleration periodically modulates the effective gravity. As a result, the

flat fluid surface becomes unstable at sufficiently large driving and surface

waves form with a frequency one half the driving frequency. The spatial

pattern, which is usually seen initially, corresponds to the linear modes of

most closely resonant with this sub-harmonic frequency. The linearly

unstable modes are similar to the modes of a drum. This phenomenon was

first observed and studied by Faraday (1831) and is associated with his

name. By varying the amplitude and frequency of the driving force and by

using fluids of different viscosities, a number of interesting effects have

been observed. These include the emergence of standing wave patterns of

different symmetries (parallel strip patterns, square patterns, and

hexagonal patterns) near the onset, secondary instabilities of these

patterns when the amplitude of the periodic driving is increased, and

spatial temporal chaotic states at even larger amplitudes of the driving

force. Figures 1 and 2 show two wave patterns observed in the 20%

glycerin solution.

1

1 A surface wave pattern observed at the driving frequency 144. Fig. References: 2 . 1 A surface wave observed at the driving frequency 130.7 Hz. 2017 Fig.PHYSC 3622 Experiment 2.8 26 February.9 Hz.

which increases the contrast of the surface waves.8 26 February. Lett. Under a low-amplitude oscillation of frequency f 0. 3 . Procedure The system is a cylindrical fluid layer about 1 cm deep in a plastic petri dish of inner diameter 8. Rev. Soc." Phys. The use of an overhead projector lamp provides strong illumination and better contrast. Ramshankar. the projector lamp should be placed ~60 cm away from the fluid sample. Lett. R.5 cm. A videoconference camera. To avoid the heating effect from the light source. Benjamin and F. After setting up the apparatus. one can directly view the surface wave images on the computer monitor. Precautions should be taken to ensure that the oscillation direction and the cell axis are vertical. 422 (1989). 2017 (1) S. "Pattern Selection in Faraday Waves. The surface deformation of the fluid layer is studied by allowing an expanded light cone to pass through the fluid layer vertically. 1 for more details). which is mounted 25-30 cm above the screen. Tufillaro. you need to attach a mirror to the oscillating frame and get a laser beam reflected from the mirror. The driving frequency can be easily measured by using an oscilloscope. . t)=Jl (klm r) sin (l+0) sin (2f0 t/2). 381 (1985). you may study how the surface wave patterns change with the amplitude and the frequency of the vertical driving. The control parameters of the experiment are the amplitude (0-200 m) and frequency (0-1000 Hz) of the oscillation. Ursell. 62. (3) P. P. R.PHYSC 3622 Experiment 2. "Order-Disorder Transition in Capillary Ripples.1 m is added into the solution. Ciliberto and J." Phys. To a good accuracy the motion of the fluid cell is sinusoidal. The camera is connected to a computer through the USB cable. The concentration of the glycerin solutions varies from 20 to 80 wt. 505 (1954). The petri dish holder with a reflection mirror is mounted on the cone of a loudspeaker in a way that allows vertical forcing while still permitting light to be transmitted vertically through the petri dish. “The stability of the plane free surface of a liquid in vertical periodic motion. (4) T. 2670 (1997). (2) N. The fluid samples are mixtures of distilled and de-ionized water and glycerin." J. The oscillation amplitude can be determined directly from the change of the position of the reflected laser beam using a position-sensitive photodiode (see Ref. With some minor adjustments. "Chaotic mode competition in parametrically forced surface waves. Fluid Mech. A power amplifier and a frequency generator are used to drive the loudspeaker. A small amount (a few drops) of polystyrene latex spheres of diameter ~0. B. To measure the oscillation amplitude. Gollub. London A. Gollub. and J. Using the video capture program Vicam Vidcap.-L. 79. These small particles give the solution a milky look. is used to record the image of the surface waves.%. the surface displacement has the following form: Slm (r. The shadow image of the surface waves is formed on a translucent screen (a tracing paper) located ~7 cm above the fluid sample. 158. P. Rev. Chen and J. B.” Proc. In this case. 225. the standing wave patterns are well described by the simple linearly unstable modes. Vinals. you should be able to get clear pictures of the surface waves.

To change the cell size.0 program. 4 for more details). 4 . The wave number klm is determined by the boundary condition that the derivative J’l (klm R)=0. you may want to vary only a few parameters and keep the other parameters fixed. and Jl is the Bessel function of order l. This intensity profile should be compared with the equation discussed above. For other standing wave patterns.8 26 February. The fluid viscosity can be changed using the glycerin solutions with different concentrations. you need to discuss how these parameters are chosen and compare your results with the previous results in the literature. you can get an intensity profile of the circular standing wave along the cell diameter. 0 is an initial phase angle. The modes are labeled by the indices (l. Using the SigmaScan Pro 5. Before going to more complicated non-linear wave patterns. you need to make a new petri dish adapter so that a smaller petri dish can be mounted on the oscillation frame. you may plot their phase diagram as a function of the driving amplitude A and frequency f 0 (see Refs. In you project report. An azimuthal average of the intensity profile improves the statistics of the final intensity profile over varying positions. t is the time. These wave patterns remain certain symmetry in a given range of A and f0. 1 and 3 for more details).PHYSC 3622 Experiment 2. 2017 where r and are the polar coordinates. you may first try to find a linear mode. where l is the number of angular maxima and m-1 (or m if l=0) is the number of nodal circles (see Ref. Questions Because the parameter space of this experiment is very large. m). Another interesting effect you may study is to see how the fluid viscosity and cell size affect the wave pattern.

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