16 Advanced Research

Biochar filtration 18 Financial Issues
P3 solutions 21 Urban Drainage
SuDS progress in UK 25 Watershed Protection
GI drainage

Volume 3 / Issue 1
February / March 2015 MANAGEMENT

Rainwater
harvesting
for sustainable
water supply

16129 Genova.uk Scotland Printed by Buxton Press Ltd.org Vice President and Principal Engineer South East US and Latin America Streams Tech. and Canada Tom Brun and Janice Jenkins 33 Events Andrew Allan Arnold Palmer Regional Airport National President 148 Aviation Lane.. B-4. O’Neill.com Executive Editor Seth Brown sbrown@wef.S. Both text paper and cover stock are elementary chlorine free and sourced private partnerships and Public Policy and Public from paper suppliers with a well planned Administration environmental policy. PE Mobile: +1 703 626 7449 / Fax: +1 703 229 6499  0\ORYHDƬDLUZLWKVWRUPZDWHU Environmental Research Program cmcbride@wef. VA 22314. Piscataway NJ 08854 Technology ISSN 2053-1362 Underground storage expands drainage capacity University of Abertay Dundee.org Publisher Nic Christy 10 nchristy@wefpublishinguk. PhD jjenkins@wef.il North Eastern U. GA 30040. Italy Tel: +39 010 5704948 / Fax: +39 010 5530088 info@mediapointsrl. Alexandria VA 22314-1994. Foundation © WEF Publishing UK Limited – 2015  :HWODQGVSDUNWUDQVIRUPVIRUPHUODQGƮOOVLWH Chris French No part of this publication may be reproduced Stormwater Regulatory Manager by any means without prior written permission IURPWKHSXEOLVKHUV(YHU\HƬRUWLVPDGHWR ensure the accuracy of material published in 16 Advanced Research Contech Engineered Solutions LLC World Water: Stormwater Management.org Director Other information 10 Green Infrastructure Water Environment Research Subscription rates 1 Year: UK and Rest of the World £88 Building rainwater harvesting capacity in Mexico. Protecting watersheds through innovative drainage. Design and Repro www. Suite 6. Photo by ugurhan. municipal bond to encourage public Dr.it Israel Zvi Segal Direct Media – Marketing Services 24 Hayovel Street. +44 207 251 8778 / Fax.org Italy Fabio Potesta Mediapoint & Communications SRL Corte Lambruschini.D. Inc.org Associate Editor Kristina Twigg ktwigg@wef. The UK’s limping progress toward sustainable Chris Kloss World Water: Stormwater Management. USA www. is published quarterly by WEF Publishing drainage Green Infrastructure Coordinator and distributed in the USA by Mail Right US Environmental Protection Agency International. NJ 08854. The magazine includes editorial photographs 21 Policy George Washington University provided and paid for by suppliers. USA Toll Free: +1 866 756 7811 Regulars Editorial Advisory Tel: +1 678 947 9950 / Fax: +1 678 947 9244 dmathews@wef. 25 Stormwater Solutions Dr.org 6 Stormwater Report Western U. The views expressed by Past President contributors are not necessarily those of the editor or publisher. Buxton.org Board vbobo@wef. United Kingdom Volume 3 Issue 1 Tel. Rebecca Wade Periodicals Postage Paid at Piscataway.wef. Stormwater Industry Association PA 15650 Tel: +1 724 539 2404 / Fax: +1 724 539 2406 in Australia tbrun@wef.net. However.org Janice Jenkins direct +1 724 929 3550 Features Sayedul H Choudhury.org Executive Director WEF Eileen J.co.com Global Advertising Representatives Asia and Europe excluding Italy 14 Stephen (Sid) James Tel: +44 0207 993 4605 / Cell: +44 7956 640454 sjames@wef. Cumming. +44 207 336 0377 www. Latrobe.j-graphicdesign.com Editor-in-Chief Pamela Wolfe pwolfe@wefpublishinguk.com Subscription Enquiries Portland Services Tel: +44 (0) 1206 796351 sales@portland-services. 40 City Road London EC1Y 2AN.wefworldwater. Derbyshire UK Cover image A fresh tropical leaf with a drop of water above a glass bottle.interno 7/6. 8 5 piano . Group Publisher Jack Benson jbenson@wefpublishinguk. USA 8 Commentary Office phone: +1 703 535 5266 Theresa A. Cari McBride 601 Wythe St. Biochar for stormwater treatment Phil Handley WEF Publishing UK Ltd will not be liable for any inaccuracies.com WEF Head Office 601 Wythe Street. Alexandria.S. WEF Publishing C/o 1637  :DWHUưRZDQGVWRUDJHVROXWLRQVLQGU\FOLPDWHV School of Science. Ph. Engineering and Stelton Road. Melissa Keeley Assistant Professor of Geography friendly paper. International Erosion Control Association The title World Water: Stormwater Management The rising challenge of stormwater. 1637 Stelton Road B4. and Canada Dave Mathews and Vickie Bobo 308 Tribble Gap Road. Raanana 43103) Israel Tel: +972 9 748 1806 / Fax: +972 9 741 3284 segdir@inter.Published by WEF Publishing UK Ltd February / March 2015 Contents 46 Lexington. 18 Finance Board of Directors. Senior Lecturer POSTMASTER: Send address changes to Stormwater. Raanana 43401 27 (PO Box 306. Piscataway. Connor. New Water is registered at Stationers’ Hall. Suite 307. Corso Buenos Aires. iStock World Water: Stormwater Management February / March 2015 5 . The magazine is printed on environmentally Finance Center.

The to combined sewer overflows hydrologic cycle. Therefore. such as three countries with a growing deep-rooted plants are excellent given the profession’s commitment draining athletic fields and golf body of research documenting for promoting infiltration and to protecting public health and courses. several airports in the United States to minimize soil compaction to an increasingly dire situation. which may 2014 assessment by the UK-based place. Kingdom have shown notable In the near-term. Far left: A view of the partially ưRRGHG(GJEDVWRQ&ULFNHW*URXQG SUDFWLFHƮHOGLQ%LUPLQJKDP England on March 13. hazardous situations. 14 2014 – after EGRP installation. Dense soils will not design of stormwater systems can technology. and porous surface cover greatly alters the site Improved drainage tration after the EGRP system was pavement. Increasingly common than 50 percent of stormwater alleviate some flooding but do Sports Turf Research Institute examples of green infrastructure would infiltrate deep and shallow not always address water quality on a cricket pitch with significant practices that rely on infiltration aquifers. additional applications. time-consuming business. bioswales. up in runoff. for vegetative establishment In the urban environment. Right: The Edgbaston Cricket *URXQGSUDFWLFHƮHOGLQ%LUPLQJKDP England on March. the adoption of Proper drainage and supple. causing very limited applications installed. partner with Parjana Distribution. Further. The same part of WKHƮHOGZDVSDUWLDOO\ưRRGHGIURP rains the day before installation. Stormwater Solutions Protecting watersheds through innovative drainage The Energy-Passive Groundwater Recharge Product® is a new technology that FDQLPSURYHVWRUPZDWHULQƮOWUDWLRQ2ULJLQDOO\GHVLJQHGWRSURPRWHGUDLQDJHRQ VSRUWVƮHOGVDQGDWSULYDWHUHVLGHQFHVLWDOVRFDQHQKDQFHWKHSHUIRUPDQFHRIJUHHQ LQIUDVWUXFWXUHDQGKHOSUHGXFHFRPELQHGVHZHURYHUưRZVDonald Carpenter of Lawrence Technological University and Todd Houser of DiGeronimo Aggregates LLC report on the technology’s applications and how it works. When installed on a youth are increasingly retrofitting loadings and reduced groundwater the imbalanced urban water cycle league baseball field in the US communities with infiltration- recharge. the began as a homeowner drainage The EGRP has now been and growth. not the case before installation. drainage issues showed that the for performance include rain soil compaction and impervious pitch exhibited increased infil. such as geese. the built environment. Minimizing soil calling for increasing sustainable and yards and eliminating those very hazardous on and near active compaction also is important watershed management practices. In response invented by Andrew Niemczyk. which has managing stormwater. 2014 – before EGRP installation. While it runways. O ne of the root causes of safety. The industry practically unusable to playable – untreated runoff from entering watershed would generate about 10 has an over-reliance on pipes and even after heavy rainfall events. A the sewer system in the first percent surface runoff. the EGRP has found installed at over 135 locations in promote optimum root growth and be very conservative – rightfully so. urban areas simultaneously increased pollutant many ordinances do not address results. to eliminate standing water near water that attracted nuisance for soils underlying infiltration- national organizations are homes by drying out basements birds. national. the technology of sustainable landscaping dangerously low levels from Recharge Product® (EGRP) was has been successfully installed at practices. As such. the field went from based techniques for keeping A typical natural forested reduction technique. which was type of soil and the soil condition. The head groundskeeper Infiltration is a critical design infiltration and as much as 90 In many areas. Before After Photo Credit: Groundwater Dynamics World Water: Stormwater Management February / March 2015 25 . Urbanization has Slow adoption is exacerbated by several installations of the EGRP (CSOs) is to separate sanitary increased the size and frequency of drainage ordinances that dictate on golf courses and sports fields and storm sewers by installing floods due to runoff generated by the use of proven methods for in the United States and United new separate piping systems. extensive issues or groundwater recharge. However. risks from water borne diseases. while more stormwater ponds. and even inter. which can be based practices. Green infrastructure the world’s water woes innovative methods for capture mental watering of athletic applications is that development has and treatment of stormwater can facilities is an expensive and The expensive long-term solution dramatically altered the natural be slow. state of Ohio. and Europe to eliminate standing during development. performance. evapotranspiration. it is important excessive pumping. standing water can indicated the pitch is now useable feature dependent both on the percent of rainfall volume ending cause significant human health fter wet weather events. Soil compaction is the enemy Aquifers also are reaching The Energy-Passive Groundwater Additionally. especially local. or promote infiltration as a volume. gardens. hydrograph.

Inc. however. the EGRP can be lying soils for performance. Michigan. allowing both mass reduced flow volume represented OF SOIL AND THE SOIL in soil. or it could have Photo Credit: Andrew Niemczyk. pattern designed for the particular States showed that the technology INFILTRATION IS A application. the systems and limit the amount classified as a vertical capillary- use of EGRP systems to improve of supplemental watering and driven drainage device. An investigation conducted by Michigan State University researchers at the Coleman Young Airport in Detroit showed the EGRP improved the movement of water in the downward For further information please see the Advertiser Contact List on page 34 direction. on an urban just beginning to investigate this in groups across an area in a park in Detroit. phosphorus-sorption. Ultimately. reality. That stormwater would addressing the nuanced nature of volume of stormwater that can be have been either treated at the water’s movement through soil. but that appears to be a longer-term process.5 to 6 meters. significant cost. replace traditional drainage tile Generically. promoting healthy root growth while World Water: Stormwater Management February / March 2015 27 . reduced volume of flow into the CRITICAL DESIGN How it works The pattern allows the EGRP combined system by 63 percent To understand how the EGRP to join separate soil layers and over a three-month period when FEATURE DEPENDENT works. top of the EGRP is positioned 60 To document how the EGRP and plant growth benefits – holds centimeters below the soil surface system could assist in limiting promise for soil and water quality and continues down for depths CSOs. increased surface infiltration will promote ground- water recharge. potential across the vertical triggered a CSO event and caused EGRP inventor and partner with lene plastic tube. This suggests storm- water that previously flowed into the combined system is now being stored in the near-surface soil pore space. infiltrated and stored in the soil Above: The top view of the Energy wastewater treatment plant for a The EGRP is a five-chamber. high-flow. a 2014 investigation by improvements. the exploration. research data also indicated that there was no measurable effect on groundwater levels in the zone with EGRPs installed. Another area for further research is the use of EGRP in agricultural areas. more than 380 cubic meters of technology that manages surface The EGRP promotes surface stormwater across a 10-hectare CONDITION. Compared to the adjacent control site. water and groundwater by infiltration. The vertical movement of con- taminants into the groundwater is a concern of regulatory agencies that fear this technology acts like a vertical drain or conduit. practices are dependent on under. Results from the investigation. The BOTH ON THE TYPE understand water movement soil matrix. There are significant issues – among them serious algal blooms – with agricultural runoff and its high nutrient loads. and it increases the site. application that needs further expanded shale – which has In a typical installation. it is important to promotes connectivity across the compared to a control site. Multiple Environmental Consulting and and agricultural engineers are EGRP devices are installed Technology. suggest contaminants are not directly moving from surface water to the groundwater. This nearby Detroit River. but in soil conditions and promote fertilization required by crops. United application. Soil scientists between 1. It did not. If the EGRP could balance soil moisture. Stormwater Solutions Because green infrastructure limiting surface runoff. The EGRP is a patented flow and diffuse water movement. however. overly accelerate the flow of contaminants vertically. it is more complex than infiltration is an interesting Combining the EGRP with most vertical drainage systems. matrix by balancing soil-water Groundwater Recharge Product. with open and horizontal soil strata in the untreated sewage to flow into the Parjana Distribution channels along the edges to vadose (unsaturated) zone. it could facilitate movement of water. extruded hydrophobic polyethy. This is an area that needs further exploration.

Cars were livelihoods. deep percolation. stations blends modern and a Master of Science in Soil Physics stormwater network in Saudi low impact development (LID). are linked with major new world. in ugly piles as the water receded. and a helipad. At least 120 people died when with the best in civil engineering grits and sand.0 kilopascal of tension). The shocked the world. storage. high-speed Al Technological University in of climate change. 90 millimeters of rain fell in less and planning expertise from Authors’ Note than 24 hours – twice the region’s across the globe. Todd Houser is a technical sales There were repeated floods in class road and rail projects. needs to be documented coastal city caused chaos and improve the stormwater and foul specifically large quantities and disseminated to advance destruction at the height of Hajj. the EGRP has been eddah’s devastating flash continues rapidly across the for more temperate regions.0 to greater than 0. Michigan. Jeddah. traditional Islamic designs. the upward movement of soil-water under tension is necessary to the supply of plant. 6WRUPZDWHUGUDLQDJHV\VWHPVXVLQJYRUWH[ưRZFRQWURODQG available water and evapo- transpiration losses during geocellular storage technology were installed to help manage summer months and periods of large volumes of stormwater with high concentrations of grit drier water-state conditions. production of a lightweight expanded and huge population expansion disciplines such as sustainable Each of the railway’s four main shale aggregate. way. many believe. which links Southfield. it’s documented to perform remarkably floods in November 2009 region. While research has not positively concluded the performance of the system in all soil conditions or J settings. drainage measures are planned project of Civil Engineering and director The sheer intensity of the rainfall to prevent repeated disasters. Development is now being important to track down the best well in many situations. To address storm drainage Airport. free-water solutions in dry climates flow due to the force of gravity is critical for improved volume reduction and groundwater recharge. Improved connectivity between smaller pores is also essential to diffuse water move- ment under tension. Water state condition in the vadose zone can change significantly. turn to developing international infrastructure projects. from dry (greater than 1500 kilopascal of tension). at least seasonally. to wet (less than 1. of fast-flowing water and high innovation in stormwater annual Islamic pilgrimage season. car in soil management for Ohio State’s many Middle East countries today. Infrastructure investment technologies originally designed The water and drainage systems World Water: Stormwater Management February / March 2015 29 . Houser has are overwhelming the existing urban drainage systems (SuDS). improved connectivity between macropores and smaller pores is beneficial to overall water :DWHUưRZDQGVWRUDJH regulation – including infiltration. governments can most prestigious and far-reaching a national industry leader in the tious infrastructure investment. But with so many parking. and to wet-satiated (less than 0. not just to protect lives and 449. in a variety of settings. Stormwater Solutions functionality corresponds to improved connectivity between macropores. the water networks. restaurants.0 kilopascal). but also the valuable Haramain railway. Carpenter also swept up in almost one meter of new developments themselves as the Muslim holy cities of Medina is a professional engineering and fast-moving water and deposited many flagship and iconic buildings and Mecca via King Abdullah practicing green design professional. and sand for high-speed rail stations in both Jeddah and King The EGRP represents an Abdullah Economic City in the Middle East. Haydite. One example can be found of the Great Lakes Stormwater in an otherwise arid climate was Such measures are essential – in the construction of the Management Institute at Lawrence a clear outcome. which is negative pressure or suction. While improved downward. (WSUD). and deluges in the Saudi Arabian funding to build storm drains and challenges of an arid climate. Rapid economic growth. mosques. Rabigh. So. evapo- transpiration. Agricultural Technical Institute. Clive Evans innovative approach to managing stormwater runoff in a practical of Hydro International explains. This connectivity between macropores is necessary for mass flow of free water that is unaffected by soil-water tension. It is one of Saudi Arabia’s for DiGeronimo Aggregates LLC. infrastructure. others. ambi. far-reaching Water storage for railway Donald Carpenter is a professor average for an entire year. Combining local knowledge concentrations of suspended management. and more. and King Abdulaziz International representative and soil physicist following years. with and has served as auxiliary faculty Arabia – a common situation in and water sensitive urban design shops.2-kilometers. Economic City. The matched by multi-million dollar solutions to deal with the unique performance of this system.