Incorporation of Environmental Effects

in Pavement Design

C.E. Zapata* — D. Andrei** — M.W. Witczak*
W.N. Houston*

* Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Arizona State University
Tempe, AZ 85287-5306, USA
** Fugro Consultants LP
8613 Cross Park
Austin, TX 78754, USA

ABSTRACT. Environmental conditions have a significant effect on the performance of both
flexible and rigid pavements. External factors such as precipitation, temperature, freeze-thaw
cycles, and depth to water table play a key role in defining the bounds of the impact the
environment can have on the pavement performance. As part of the new US Mechanistic-
Empirical Pavement Design Guide (MEPDG) being developed under the overall project
sponsored by the National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP project 1-37A),
a climatic modelling tool called the Enhanced Integrated Climatic Model (EICM) was
implemented to incorporate the changes in temperature and moisture of unbound materials
into the design process. Currently a new independent review project (NCHRP 1-40) is
reviewing this model to correct errors and to develop further enhancements to produce a final
methodology ready for approval/disapproval vote by AASHTO in 2006. This paper reflects
the methodology used for the MEPDG and present the models incorporated by Arizona State
University into the EICM, the input needed and the outputs generated by the program. A
discussion on how EICM determines the temperature and moisture distribution within the
pavement system is also presented.
KEYWORDS: Pavement Design, Environmental Effects, Climatic Model, Design Guide.

DOI:10.3166/RMPD.8.667-693 © 2007 Lavoisier, Paris

RMPD – 8/2007. Water in Pavements, pages 667 to 693

668 RMPD – 8/2007. Water in Pavements

1. Introduction

1.1. Importance of climate in mechanistic-empirical design

Environmental conditions have a significant effect on the performance of both
flexible and rigid pavements. External factors such as precipitation, temperature,
freeze-thaw cycles, and depth to water table play a key role in defining the bounds
of the impact the environment can have on the pavement performance. Internal
factors such as the susceptibility of the pavement materials to moisture and freeze-
thaw damage; drainage of paving layers, and infiltration potential of the pavement,
define the extent to which the pavement will react to the applied external
environmental conditions.
In a pavement structure, moisture and temperature are the two environmentally
driven variables that can significantly affect the pavement layer and subgrade
properties and, hence, its load carrying capacity. Some of the effects of environment
on pavement materials include:
– Modulus values can vary from 13,800 to 20,700 MPa (2 to 3 million psi) or
more during cold winter months to about 690 MPa (100,000 psi) or less during hot
summer months.
– Temperature and moisture gradients particularly in the top Portland cement
concrete (PCC) layer can significantly affect stresses and deflections and
consequently pavement damage and distresses.
– At freezing temperatures, water in soil freezes and its resilient modulus can
rise to values 20 to 120 times higher than the value of the modulus before freezing.
– All other conditions being equal, the higher the moisture content the lower the
modulus of unbound materials; however, moisture has two separate effects: First, it
can affect the state of stress, through suction or pore water pressure. Second, it can
affect the structure of the soil through destruction of the cementation between soil
particles (Lekarp et al., 2000).
– Excessive moisture can lead to stripping in asphalt mixtures or can have long-
term effects on the structural integrity of cement bound materials.
– Freeze-thaw effects are experienced in the underlying layers but eventually
lead to distresses in the pavement surface.
A new US Mechanistic-Empirical Design Guide for Pavements (MEPDG) was
developed under the sponsorship of the National Cooperative Highway Research
Program (NCHRP). All the distresses considered in the MEPDG are affected by the
environmental factors to some degree. Therefore, diurnal and seasonal fluctuations
in the moisture and temperature profiles in the pavement structure brought about by
changes in ground water table, precipitation/infiltration, freeze-thaw cycles, and
other external factors are modelled in a very comprehensive manner by a climatic
model called the Enhanced Integrated Climatic Model (EICM).

structural responses. data from the Long Term Pavement Performance (LTPP) Seasonal Monitoring Program (SMP) test sections were used (Witczak et al. to develop an integrated environmental predictive methodology. Additional modifications in the moisture prediction model were performed in 1999 by Arizona State University. Further improvements were made at Arizona State University as part of the MEPDG development to further improve the moisture prediction capability of ICM version 2. It should be recognized that further independent review is currently being undertaken and it is anticipated that several further changes in the methodology herein described are expected.. and performance prediction.1. The EICM model can be applied to either asphalt concrete (AC) or Portland cement concrete (PCC) pavements. Generally. The user inputs to the EICM are entered through interfaces provided as part of the MEPDG software and EICM processes these inputs and feeds the processed outputs to the three major components of the Guide – materials. 2000a. Considerations of climatic effects in design The EICM is a one-dimensional coupled heat and moisture flow program that simulates changes in the behavior and characteristics of pavement and subgrade materials in conjunction with climatic conditions over several years of operation. 1990).. 2. the EICM computes and predicts the following information throughout the entire pavement profile: .0 (Larson and Dempsey. the input needed and the outputs generated by the program. This version coupled an infiltration and drainage model (ID model) to a climatic-materials- structural model (CMS model) (Dempsey et al. 1997). this will be at or near the optimum water content and maximum dry density. of all unbound layer materials at an initial or reference condition. MR. referred to as the Integrated Climatic Model. The EICM records the user supplied resilient modulus.1. 2000c. Environmental Effects in Pavement Design 669 1. Subsequently.2. The original version of the EICM. 2000b. The original version was then modified and released in 1997 by Larson and Dempsey as ICM version 2. Scope of the paper The scope of this paper is to present the models implemented into the EICM. leading to the version referred to as EICM... Texas Transportation Institute in 1989 (Lytton et al. A discussion on how EICM determines the temperature and moisture distribution within the pavement system is also presented. was developed for the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) at Texas A&M University. 2000d). 1985) and a frost-heave and thaw settlement model (CRREL model) (Guymon et al. In developing the EICM. 1986). leading to ICM version 2. This paper reflects the methodology at the time NCHRP 1-37A was completed and provided to the sponsors. The EICM software has been made an integral part of the MEPDG procedure.

freezing. from the initial or reference condition. The inputs required by the climatic model fall under the following broad categories: General initialisation information. normally involving comprehensive laboratory or field tests. – Evaluates changes in temperature as a function of time for all asphalt bound layers. size. the following additional information is generated: – Temperature profiles in the PCC and underlying layers used for thermal gradients in PCC. In contrast. and joint and crack openings and closings. Inputs required to model thermal and moisture conditions The approach for selecting or determining material inputs in the MEPDG is a hierarchical (level) system. thawing. and pavement structure and materials. Level 1 is the most current implementable procedure available. – Mean monthly relative humidity values used in the estimation of moisture warping of the PCC slabs.670 RMPD – 8/2007. and cost of the design project. The Fenv factor is a coefficient that is multiplied by the MRopt to obtain MR as a function of position and time. – Probability distribution of effective linear temperature gradients. Also evaluates the seasonal changes in moisture contents. This factor. Water in Pavements – Evaluates the expected changes in moisture content. varies with position within the pavement structure and with time throughout the analysis period. – Evaluates the effect of changes in soil moisture content with respect to the reference condition on the user entered resilient modulus. For rigid pavements. weather-related information. – Makes use of time-varying MR values in the computation of critical pavement response parameters and damage at various points within the pavement system. denoted Fenv. as the subgrade and unbound materials reach equilibrium moisture condition. 3. and recovery from thawing. – Estimates a set of adjustment factors for unbound material layers that account for the effects of moisture content changes. This approach is based on the philosophy that the level of engineering effort exerted in the pavement design process should be consistent with the relative importance. MR. ground water related information. – Effective linear temperature gradient used to model slab curvature and thermal stresses. – Freezing index and the number of freeze-thaw cycles for the selected location. drainage and surface properties. . Inputs at Level 2 are estimated through correlations with other material properties that are measured in the laboratory or field. Level 3 requires the designer to estimate the most appropriate design input value of the material property based on experience with little or no testing.

pavement construction date. The air temperature is required by the heat balance equation in the EICM to define the frozen/thawing periods within the analysis time frame. existing pavement construction date for rehabilitation design. After the appropriate number of representative weather stations is chosen.1. The percentage sunshine is needed for the calculations of heat balance at the surface of the pavement and particularly the net long-wave radiation. wind speed. The climatic database can be tapped into by simply specifying the latitude. General information In order to initialise the climatic model. 3.2. Wind speed is required in the computations of the convention heat transfer coefficient at the pavement surface. and to determine the number of freeze-thaw cycles. . percentage sunshine. the Design Guide software will highlight the six closest weather stations to the site from which the user may select any number of stations deemed to be most representative of the local climatic conditions. The data presented covers both new and rehabilitation design. traffic opening date. interpolation of climatic data from these stations is done and the interpolated data is made available for storage as a virtual weather station. and relative humidity. precipitation. Weather information The MEPDG damage accumulation approach requires five weather-related parameters on an hourly basis over the entire design life for the project being designed: Air temperature. 3. Last. Once the co-ordinates and elevation are specified. the relative humidity is used in computing the drying shrinkage of JPCP and CRCP and also in determining the crack spacing and initial crack width in CRCP. Precipitation is needed to compute infiltration for rehabilitated pavements and aging processes. The software accompanying the Design Guide has an available database from nearly 800 weather stations throughout the United States. longitude. The weather-related information is primarily obtained from weather stations located near the project site. and the type of design (new or rehab and AC or PCC). the following information is required: base/subgrade construction completion date for new pavement design. Environmental Effects in Pavement Design 671 The specific inputs required under each of the mentioned categories and the recommended procedures to obtain them at the various hierarchical input levels are summarized below. and elevation of the project site.

drainage path length.3. This input is used in computing the time required to drain a pavement base or subbase layer from an initially wet condition.4. Those that control the heat flow through the pavement system and thereby influence the temperature and moisture regimes within . This parameter is computed by DRIP. This input is used in the EICM’s infiltration and drainage model to compute the time required to drain an unbound base or subbase layer from an initially wet condition. The net infiltration potential of the pavement over its design life is a qualitative parameter.5.. a microcomputer program apart from the EICM. Water in Pavements 3. EICM internally subdivides these layers for more accurate calculations of moisture and temperature profiles.1. Groundwater table depth The groundwater table depth is intended to be either the best estimate of the annual average depth or the seasonal average depth.5. 3. it could be determined from profile characterization borings prior to design. 1998). the cross slope is the slope of the pavement surface perpendicular to the direction of traffic. an estimate of the annual average value or the seasonal averages can be provided. Finally.5. minor (10 percent of the precipitation enters the pavement). AC and PCC material properties Several bound material properties are required for the design of flexible and rigid pavements. At input Level 3. moderate (50 percent of the precipitation enters the pavement). Based on this input.672 RMPD – 8/2007. the EICM determines the amount of water available on top of the first unbound layer. and pavement cross slope. The infiltration can assume four values – none. It is measured from highest point in the pavement cross-section to the point where drainage occurs.2. 3. Pavement structure materials inputs 3. Drainage properties Drainage properties include the following parameters: Infiltration potential. and AC or PCC overlays. and extreme (100 percent of the precipitation enters the pavement). At input Level 1. A potential source to obtain Level 3 estimates is the county soil reports produced by the National Resources Conservation Service (Schoeneberger et al. The drainage path length is the distance measured along the resultant of the cross and longitudinal slopes of the pavement. Layer thickness The layer thickness of each material in the pavement structure should correspond to layers that are more or less homogeneous. 3.

all other mass- volume parameters can be computed. the thermal conductivity. default values can be assumed for various pavement materials: – Weathered asphalt (gray) 0. If the user chooses not to measure γd max. . For Level 3. and AASHTO T100. No. the user enters the effective grain size corresponding to 60 percent passing by weight.44 .5 Btu/(ft)(hr)(oF) Heat Capacity. respectively). and Gs.0 to 1. K 0. Compacted unbound material properties 3. the percent passing the U. and the heat or thermal capacity.2 to 0.98 – Aged PCC layer 0. while the heat or thermal capacity is the actual amount of heat energy Q necessary to change the temperature of a unit mass by one degree. it is recommended that this parameter be estimated through laboratory testing.5. 200 sieve.70 – 0.90 – Fresh asphalt (black) 0. AC and PCC materials inputs required for EICM calculations Material property AC materials PCC materials Thermal conductivity. then it is suggested that Level 2 inputs be adopted. it is required that the γd max. At input Level 2.40 Btu/(lb)(oF) 0. specific gravity (Gs). From these three inputs.1. Q.80 – 0. PI. K. D60. K. Lighter and more reflective surfaces tend to have lower short wave absorptivity and vice versa. it is recommended to use design values based upon agency historical data or from typical values shown in Table 1.28 Btu/(lb)(oF) 3. The surface short wave absorptivity directly correlates with the amount of available solar energy that is absorbed by the pavement surface. and the optimum gravimetric moisture content (wopt) of the compacted unbound material in question. and Gs be carefully measured in the laboratory in accordance with standard protocols for each unbound layer: AASHTO T180 for base layers and AASHTO T99 for other layers.81 Btu/(ft)(hr)(oF) 1. At Level 3. which is tightly related to the albedo. and the plasticity index. At Level 1. Mass-volume relationships The parameters needed in this category are the maximum dry density (γd max). Table 1.0. The surface long-wave absorptivity is not required. P200.5.90 Thermal conductivity. Q 0. wopt. is the quantity of heat that flows normally across a surface of unit area per unit of time and per unit of temperature gradient.22 to 0.90 – 0. wopt. Environmental Effects in Pavement Design 673 it are the surface shortwave absorptivity. At Level 1. as the model makes use of the percent sunshine to calculate cloud cover. Direct measurements of both parameters are recommended under input Level 1 (ASTM E1952 and ASTM D2766.S.3.3.

2000d): P200 * PI WPI = [1] 100 To compute Gs: Gs = 0.65 [2] where Gs = Specific gravity of the solids (dimensionless).0156[wopt(T99)]2 – 0. G s γ water γ d max comp = [9] wopt G s 1+ S opt where γwater = Unit weight of water (in consistent units). Water in Pavements From these parameters. If WPI = 0 wopt (T99) = 8.752 (WPI)0. the EICM will compute γdmax wopt.29 + 2. .674 RMPD – 8/2007.∆wopt [7] To compute γd max: Sopt = 6.9 [6] wopt = wopt (T99) . To compute wopt: If WPI > 0: wopt = 1.147 + 78 [8] where Sopt = Degree of saturation at optimum condition (%).73 + 11 [3] where wopt = Gravimetric water content at optimum (%). and Gs using the following correlations (Witczak et al.1038 [4] If layer is not a base course: wopt = wopt (T99) [5] If layer is a base course: ∆wopt = 0.3 (WPI)0.6425 (D60)-0..041(WPI)0.1465wopt(T99) + 0.

At Level 3.3. it is not required for new pavement design. Environmental Effects in Pavement Design 675 If layer is a compacted material: γ d max = γ d max comp [10] If layer is a natural in-situ material: γ d = 0.3.2891 60 60 k sat = 10  (cm/s) [12] Equation [12] is valid for D60 < 0.3.5. At Level 2. a direct measurement is recommended at Level 1 (ASTM D2766). If D60 > 0. set D60 = 0.1275(log D + 2 )2 + 7. ksat. Saturated hydraulic conductivity Saturated hydraulic conductivity.0929 ( P PI )− 6. At Level 1.3.2816 (log D + 2 )−11.2. At Level 3. the user selects design values based upon .4. recommended values for each soil type are available. They are presented in Table 2. Equilibrium gravimetric moisture content Equilibrium gravimetric moisture content is a required input for rehabilitation design. It is recommended that this parameter be estimated from direct testing of bulk samples retrieved from the site or through other appropriate means.0004 ( P PI )2 − 0.75 mm. If WPI ≥ 1:  0. Dry thermal conductivity and dry heat capacity To determine the dry thermal conductivity (K). is required to determine the transient moisture profiles in compacted unbound materials and to compute their drainage characteristics.5.5. To obtain the dry heat capacity (Q).75 mm. 3. 3.90γ d max comp [11] EICM uses γd for γd max. Level 3 inputs are not applicable for this category.75 mm. However. the following correlations are available: If 0 ≤ WPI < 1:  −1.56  200 200 k sat = 10   (cm/s) [13] 3. a direct measurement is recommended at Level 1 (ASTM E1952). a direct measurement using a permeability test (AASHTO T215) is recommended.

18 A-7-5 0.22 – 0.16 – 0.40 0.31 0. and hr using the Equations [14] and [15].47 0. Typical values range from 0.13 A-7-6 0.29 0.76 0.09 – 0. direct measurement of suction (h) in kPa.42 0. Water in Pavements agency historical data.30 A-1-b 0.44 0. bf.17 0.28 – 0.17 – 0.42 0.30 A-4 0.676 RMPD – 8/2007. This relationship is generally plotted as the variation of the water content (gravimetric.40 0.16 – 0.5.40 0.and micro-pores of a soil.22 – 0.23 0.43 – 0. Several studies have been conducted on comparing the different equations available to represent the SWCC (Leong and Rahardjo 1996.76 0.71 to 0.52 0.16 – 0. and volumetric water content (θw) pairs of values are required.38 – 0.17 to 0.23 0.40 0.23 0.29 – 0. Those studies have generally shown that the equations proposed by Fredlund and Xing (1994) showed good agreement with an extended database.21 0.20 A-3 0.44 0.09 – 0.29 – 0.24 0.38 – 0.23 0. θw) pairs of values: . Table 2. Dry thermal conductivity.29 0.40 0.19 A-6 0.12 3. volumetric. Zapata 1999). the user needs to compute the SWCC model parameters af.. Soil water characteristic curve parameters The soil water characteristic curve (SWCC) is defined as the variation of water storage capacity within the macro.3. with respect to suction (Fredlund et al.84 kJ/(kg K) (0.52 0.22 – 0.17 – 0.35 – 0.16 – 0. for unbound compacted material Range Range Recommended Recommended Soil type W/(m K) Btu/(ft hroF) W/(m K) Btu/(ft hroF) A-1-a 0.22 A-5 0. K.27 A-2-4 0.69 0. Based on a non-linear regression analysis.20 Btu/lbmoF).28 – 0.35 0.38 – 0.22 – 0. and the (h. cf.20 – 0.22 0. At Level 1.38 0.17 0.23 A-2-5 0.25 – 0.38 0.24 0. proposed by Fredlund and Xing (1994). 1995).40 0.33 0.38 0.22 A-2-7 0.23 A-2-6 0.5.38 – 0. or degree of saturation) with soil suction.40 0.23 0.

which is computed by: wopt γ d max θ opt = [16] γ water θ opt S opt = [17] γ d max 1− γ water G s θ opt θ sat = [18] S opt For Level 2.5 [21] hr = 32.465 + 0.14 + 5 [20] cf c f = 0. 1999. Zapata et al.44e0.. WPI and D60 parameters have been previously defined: If WPI > 0 a f = 0. 1999).00364(WPI ) 3.35 + 4(WPI ) + 11 (kPa) [19] bf = −2. bf.313(WPI ) 0. the EICM will compute the SWCC model parameters af. cf.0186(WPI ) [22] af . Environmental Effects in Pavement Design 677        θ sat  [14] θ w = C( h ) ×  cf     bf  h    ln  EXP( 1 ) +         af            h   ln1 +    C (h) = 1 −  hr   [15]  1 × 106    ln1 +    h    r  where θsat = Saturated volumetric water content or porosity.0514(WPI ) 0. and hr by using the following correlations with WPI and D60 (Zapata.

Water in Pavements If WPI = 0 a f = 0.8 WPI = 0. bf.751 (kPa) [23] b f = 7. [17] and [18] are used to compute θsat based on direct measurements of γdmax. and Gs are not required and such parameters are estimated by EICM based on Equations [1] to [11].1 mm 0. as shown for Level 2.1 0. However.4 D60=0. wopt.5 [24] c f = 0.7734 [25] hr 1 = [26] af D60 + 9. Predicted SWCC based on D60 and WPI 3.6.8627( D60 ) −0. Figure 1 summarizes the results obtained for both groups of soils.2 WPI = % Passing #200 * PI/100 1. and Gs.678 RMPD – 8/2007. Equations [16]. wopt. For Level 3. cf. direct measurements of γdmax.0 1E-1 1E+0 1E+1 1E+2 1E+3 1E+4 1E+5 1E+6 Matric Suction (kPa) Figure 1. 1. and hr by using correlations with WPI and D60.1772 ln( D60 ) + 0. Uncompacted/natural unbound material properties A lower level of effort is generally sufficient to characterize the uncompacted/natural unbound materials when compared to the properties of the .2 D60=1 mm 0.7e − 4 The SWCC will then be established internally using Equation [14] and [15] as shown for Level 1. the EICM will compute the SWCC model parameters af.0 Degree of Saturation 0.6 3 5 10 15 20 30 40 WPI = 50 0.

Rada and Witczak. Drumm et al. Santha. The resilient modulus MR at any time or position is then expressed as follows: MR = Fenv · MRopt [27] The factor Fenv is an adjustment factor and MRopt is the resilient modulus at optimum conditions and at any state of stress. being solely a function of the environmental factors. and temperature as a function of time. density.. 4. It is recommended that only PI. several factors influencing the modulus need to be considered: Stress state. Although this is not necessarily the case.S. Although the stress sensitivity is only considered if Level 1 inputs are used in the MEPDG. the impact of temporal variations in moisture and temperature on MR are fully considered at all levels through the composite environmental adjustment factor. This model is presented in Equation [28]. The development of predictive equations and techniques that address the influence of changes in moisture and freeze/thaw cycles on the resilient modulus of unbound materials is described in the following two subsections. Using these published models from the literature (Li and Selig. Environmental Effects in Pavement Design 679 overlying compacted materials. It is obvious in Equation [27] that the variation of the modulus with stress and the variation of the modulus with environmental factors (moisture. moisture/density variations. 4 sieve. Fenv.. P4. at any location in the unbound layers from which Fenv can be determined. Resilient modulus as function of soil moisture An intensive literature review study was completed with the objective of summarizing existing models that incorporated the variation of resilient modulus with moisture (Witczak et al. 1980). can then be computed by the EICM. suction. and freeze/thaw effects. and freeze/thaw conditions) are assumed independent. Level 1 inputs are generally not required for in-situ materials. and D60 be measured for the in-situ layers (where P4 is the percent passing the U.1. Therefore. recent studies support the use of this assumption in predicting resilient modulus without significant loss in accuracy of prediction. without actually knowing MRopt. 1997. it was possible to select a model that would analytically predict changes in modulus due to changes in moisture. The adjustment factor Fenv. MR. P200. No. 4. of unbound materials used in the MEPDG. Environmental effects on resilient modulus of unbound pavement materials To evaluate the resilient modulus. . all other parameters have been defined previously). 1981. 2000a). 1994. The EICM deals with all environmental factors and provides soil moisture.

790 MPa (≅ 2*106 psi) for fine- grained silt and silty sands.3 0. to the MR of natural. and km for coarse-grained and fine-grained materials are given in Table 3. respectively km 6. termed MRmin. and the ratio of MR just after thawing. .895 MPa (≅ 1*106 psi) for clays. km = regression parameter. No.680 RMPD – 8/2007.5 for fine- grained materials and 2 for coarse-grained materials were adopted.1324 Regression parameter Resilient moduli for frozen/thawed unbound materials To study the behavior of unbound materials under freezing/thawing conditions. termed MRfrz.S. The ratio is used as a reduction factor. 2000). a significant number of sources were consulted and salient values of moduli. Fine- grained soils label refer to those with passing U. termed RF.685 MPa (≅ 3*106 psi) for coarse-grained materials. termed MRunfrz. and 6.3123 -0..5. The values of a. maximum modulus ratios of 2. 13. and km for coarse-grained and fine-grained materials Coarse-grained Fine-grained Parameter Comments materials materials a -0. 200 sieve greater than 50% Table 3.4 of 2 and 2. MRopt) [29] The average values reported in the literature for MRfrz were found to be 20. and ratios of moduli were extracted (Witczak et al. MR. RF = MRmin/smaller of (MRunfrz. it was decided to adopt the conservative interpretation of using the smaller of MRunfrz and MRopt as a reference as shown in Equation [29]. b.5934 Regression parameter Corresponding to modulus ratios b 0. and (S – Sopt) = variation in degree of saturation expressed in decimal. Values of a. Water in Pavements MR b−a log =a+ [28] M Ropt  −b 1 + EXP ln ( ) + k m ⋅ S − S opt   a  where MR/MRopt = resilient modulus ratio. The objective of the search was to obtain absolute values of moduli for frozen material. Based on the available literature data.8157 6. b = maximum of log(MR/MRopt). b. a = minimum of log(MR/MRopt). unfrozen material. Because some of the data from the literature produced RF values based on MRunfrz as a reference and some were based on MRopt as a reference.

and the Plasticity Index.85 . 200 sieve. 120 days for silts/clays with 0. PI. or the ability of the soil to sustain ice lens formation under favourable conditions. the RF values recommended in the MEPDG are given for coarse- grained and fine-grained materials as a function of P200 and PI.1 < WPI < 10.65 0. ∆ t = number of hours elapsed since thawing started.35% PI > 35% of Coarse Fraction* <6 0. - Mostly Sand (P4 > 50%) 6 – 12 0. P200. Table 4. from MRmin to MRunfrz. No.75 > 12 0. is noted as a function of the material type/properties. TR. equilibrium is achieved.S.55 0. MRrecov = MRunfrz. the degree of MR degradation upon thawing was found to correlate with frost-susceptibility. when excess water makes the suction go to zero.50 0. .70 0. – RR = 1 when the suction is equal to the suction dictated by the depth to the ground water table – i. - Mostly Gravel (P4 < 50%) 6 – 12 0. and TR = recovery period (number of hours required for the material to recover from the thawed condition to the normal.75 . assume sand. Recommended values of RF for coarse-grained materials (P200 < 50%) Distribution P200 (%) PI < 12% PI =12% . that can be tracked using a recovery ratio (RR) that ranges from 0 to 1: – RR = 0 for the “immediately after thawing” condition. Frost-susceptibility in turn can be estimated from the percent passing the U. Environmental Effects in Pavement Design 681 For thawed materials.e. In Tables 4 and 5.60 0. ∆t RR = [30] TR where RR = recovery ratio. Recovering materials experience a rise in modulus with time.60 0.65 0.70 > 12 0. as follows: TR = 90 days for sands/gravels with WPI < 0. MRrecov = MRmin. The recovery period.1.65 0.70 <6 0. and 150 days for clays with WPI > 10. unfrozen condition).60 * If it is unknown whether a coarse-grained material is mostly gravel or mostly sand.

at two levels—at each nodal point and for each layer. Adjustment factors at node level In the EICM the pavement structure is characterized by an array of nodes at which the values of moisture. The environmental adjustment factor. is computed at each node at which a freezing temperature occurs using the following procedure: – MRopt is either a direct user input or can be estimated from other engineering properties such as CBR. structural layer coefficients (ai). R-value. which could in general represent a weighted average of the factors appropriate for various possible conditions: – Frozen: frozen material – FF (factor for frozen materials) – Recovering: thawed material that is recovering to its state before freezing occurred – FR (factor for recovering materials) – Unfrozen/fully recovered/normal: for materials that were never frozen or are fully recovered – FU (factor for unfrozen material) The Fenv factors are calculated for all three cases.2. the environmental adjustment factor. 4. use MR frz = 6.55 4. Fenv is a composite factor. Fenv. MR frz : If WPI = 0. FF (Witczak et al. Computation of environmental adjustment factor. and the resilient modulus at optimum conditions MRopt.895 (1 x 106 psi). Fenv To obtain the composite moduli for layers in which two or more states of the material coexist and/or the resilient modulus varies with depth and time.682 RMPD – 8/2007. or from gradation parameters. use MR frz = 17. The estimation of MRopt is out of the scope of this paper. Water in Pavements Table 5.50 0. Penetration Index.85 0.40 0. The resilient modulus MR at any time or position is determined as a product of the composite environmental adjustment factor. the adjustment factor for frozen materials. and temperature are calculated at any time t.2. – Assign values for the Frozen Resilient Modulus.238 MPa (2. suction.55 0. if WPI > 0.45 0. Fenv is calculated. Recommended values of RF for fine-grained materials (P200 > 50%) P200 (%) PI < 12% PI = 12% .60 > 85 0.35% PI > 35% 50 .5 x 106 psi). – Compute the frozen adjustment factor. 2000c): . The value of FF.1.

1994): 1 [32] S equil = C( h ) × cf     bf  ln  EXP( 1 ) +  h     af         h ln1 +  C ( h) = 1 −  hr  [33]  1 × 106  ln1 +   hr   where: h = yGWT * γwater . The procedure to estimate FR is as follows: – Compute Recovery Ratio.. bf.. FR (Witczak et al. yGWT = groundwater table depth. – Compute the RF value from Tables 4 and 5. 2000c): If (Sequil – Sopt) < 0: FR = RF + Requi l * RR – RR * RF If (Sequil – Sopt) > 0: FR = Requil (RF + RR – RR * RF) To estimate the adjustment factor for unfrozen or fully recovered materials. – Compute Requil as (Witczak et al. the following equation is used (Witczak et al.. – Compute the factor for recovering material. – Compute Sequil from the SWCC equation in terms of degree of saturation (Fredlund and Xing. is computed at each node at which freezing temperatures do not occur and the recovery ratio RR is < 1. 2000a): . in kPa. Environmental Effects in Pavement Design 683 M R frz FF = [31] M R opt_est The adjustment factor for recovering materials. RR as per Equation [30]. 2000a): M Re quil b−a log Requil = log =a+ [34]   b  M Ropt ( ) 1 + EXP ln −  + k m S equil − S opt    a  where: a. cf. FR. FU. b. and km are constants defined in Table 3. af (kPa). and hr (kPa) are fitting parameters defined earlier. – Compute Sopt as per Equation [17] for Level 1 or Equation [8] for Level 2.

Equating δaverage for the composite model to δaverage from Equation [36] and cancelling σ which appears on both sides: htotal 1 t total  n  hnode  = M Rcomp t total ∑  ∑     [37] t =1 node =1  M Rnode . and hence a composite adjustment factor that can handle all possible cases is needed. and never frozen materials can coexist within a single layer. MRcomp. for structural layers For a given layer (base. Then the composite (equivalent) modulus can be obtained by finding a composite modulus. δaverage. Equation [36] is used: 1 t total  n  hnode  δ average = σ t total ∑ ∑ t =1   node =1  M Rnode . Water in Pavements MR b−a log FU = log =a+ [35]   b  M Ropt ( 1 + EXP ln −  + k m S − S opt  a )     where: a. 4. then the displacement in one spring at a given node and time increment can be computed. and ttotal = total number of t time increments (EICM uses 1 hour) over which the composite modulus is calculated (number of columns in the matrix). To obtain an equivalent modulus. If the stress applied to this model is σ. and km are constants from Table 3. the elements of a column (corresponding to Hour 1. frozen.t    [36] where: t = time (corresponding to the column in the matrix being considered). thawed. Using the analogy. for example) of a node/time matrix. hnode = length of the spring assigned to the node being considered.t = modulus for the node. This is because the adjustment factors vary from node to node (with moisture or suction) and an equivalent factor for the whole layer is needed.684 RMPD – 8/2007. over the whole analysis period (2 weeks or 1 month).t  where: htotal = total height of the considered layer/sublayer. b.2. and S is the estimated degree of saturation at any node. Fenv. MRnode. The calculation of a composite adjustment factor is useful even when the material in a layer is all at the same state (unfrozen or recovering). are considered as elastic moduli of a series of springs (one spring per node). Composite adjustment factors. . To get the average displacement.2. subbase. an elastic spring series analogy was considered. subgrade). which produces the same δaverage over the total layer thickness for the same applied σ.

At very cold temperatures. and Fnode. the resilient modulus of unbound materials may go well below the optimum value (0. unfrozen. It is a one-dimensional. cooler temperatures result in frost formation and a subsequent increase in modulus. 1985). the asphalt stiffness is close to that of PCC. even within a layer (or sublayer) in which all material is at the same state (frozen. or recovering). During the thawing process. On the other hand. Fenv.g.5 to 0. The procedure should be applied for the entire design period (e. The CMS and CRREL models in the EICM are primarily responsible for most the temperature calculations.85 times MRopt). Equation [37] can be replaced with Equation [38]. Temperature and moisture also play a role in the opening and closing of joints in JPCP and cracks in CRCP. Determination of the temperature throughout pavement systems The effect of moisture is more significant on unbound materials than on bound materials. warmer temperatures cause thawing. The CMS model was originally developed at the University of Illinois (Dempsey et al. FR. Temperature and moisture related curling and warping phenomena play a significant role in defining the PCC pavement fatigue behaviour. or FU. Environmental Effects in Pavement Design 685 Because the resilient modulus at any node/time can be expressed as the product of an adjustment factor times the resilient modulus at optimum. which affect performance. depending on the state of the material).t  where: Fenv = composite adjustment factor for the considered sublayer. its stiffness is closer to an unbound material. forward finite .t = adjustment factor at a given node and time increment (which could be FF. resulting in increased moisture contents and a subsequent decrease in modulus values. In unbound materials. On the other hand. for the considered sub-layer (sub-matrix) can be obtained from: htotal 1 t total  n  hnode  = Fenv M Ropt t total ∑ ∑ t =1   node =1  Fnode . whereas at very warm temperatures. 20 years divided into months or 2-week periods) since the adjustment factors vary from node to node..t M Ropt    htotal t total Fenv = [38] ttotal  n  hnode  ∑ ∑      t =1  node =1  Fnode . temperature affects both the bound (asphalt and cement) and unbound layers significantly. 5. The durability of PCC materials is affected greatly by the freeze-thaw environment it operates under. A composite adjustment factor.

For pavement layers (AC or PCC). the EICM assumes that the user input heat capacity and thermal conductivity do not vary over time. The second model used in the MEPDG is the CRREL model (Guymon et al. it is necessary to determine the amount of heat inflow/outflow at the pavement surface.1. 5.. condensation. Heat fluxes caused by precipitation and moisture infiltration are also neglected. It also estimates the vertical heave due to frost formation and vertical settlement when the soil thaws. 1968): Qi − Qr + Qa − Qe ± Qc ± Qh ± Q g = 0 [39] .686 RMPD – 8/2007. and the effect of latent heat. The user input dry heat capacity and dry thermal conductivity. Water in Pavements difference heat transfer model to determine frost penetration and temperature distribution in the pavement system. below and at the freezing temperature of water. are used to calculate the wet heat capacity and wet thermal conductivity. for unbound layers (base courses and soils). The two processes by which heat is added or subtracted from the pavement surface are convection and radiation. which along with the water and ice content predicted by the EICM. evaporation. In this manner the heat/temperature calculations of the EICM are coupled with the EICM’s moisture predictions. as the moisture and frost contents change with time. conduction. The CRREL model uses the temperature profiles through the asphalt layers established by the CMS model to compute changes in the soil temperature profile. To estimate the pavement temperature. so do the heat capacity and thermal conductivity. Berg. It does not consider transpiration. While it is easy to measure the air temperatures. 1964. The model predicts the depth of frost and thaw penetration. and thus frost penetration and thaw settlement. convection. 1986). the energy balance at the surface used in the CMS model is described by Equation [39] (Scott. It is a one-dimensional coupled heat and moisture flow in the subgrade soil at temperatures that are above. there is not a direct correspondence between the air temperatures and pavement surface temperatures. The model considers radiation. Once the thermal properties that define the heat flow through the pavement and unbound layers have been established and the boundary conditions have been identified. These latter effects are neglected because of the uncertainty in their calculations and because their omission does not create significant errors in the heat balance at the surface of the pavement. Heat flux boundary conditions for CMS model Temperatures throughout the pavement structure are dominated by atmospheric conditions at the surface. or sublimation. However.

9 to 0.830 m (1000 ft to 6000 ft) (Geiger. Tair = air temperature in oR. the long wave incoming radiation. Sc = percentage of sunshine which accounts for the influence of cloud cover. Environmental Effects in Pavement Design 687 where: Qi = incoming short wave radiation. R* = extraterrestrial radiation incident on a horizontal surface at the outer atmosphere. evaporation. Qc = convective heat transfer. The net all-wave length radiation at the surface is Qn. W = 100-Sc (average cloud cover during day or night). which is a function of the latitude of the site. and ( 1 − NW 100 ) represents the cloud cover correction: Q z = σ sb Tair  G − J ρp  [47]  10  where: N = cloud base factor (0. Qa. 5. A. Qe = outgoing long wave radiation. Qh = effects of transpiration. In Equation [42]. 1959). and Ql = net long wave radiation. Qa = incoming long wave radiation. condensation. are given by Equations [44] and [45]: ( Qa = Q z 1 − NW 100 ) [44] Qe = Q (1 − NW x ) [45] 100 Thus Ql in Equation [46] is: ( Ql = (Q z − Q x ) 1 − NW 100 ) [46] where: Qz is the incoming long wave radiation given by Equation [47]. B = constants that account for diffuse scattering and adsorption by the atmosphere. Qn = Qs − Ql [40] where: Qs = net short wave radiation. and sublimation.67 x 10-8 . Qr = reflected short wave radiation. and Qe. and Qg = energy absorbed by the ground. σsb = Stefan-Boltzmann constant.80 for cloud heights of 305 m to 1. the outgoing long wave radiation. Qs = Qi − Qr [41] Ql = Qa − Qe [42] Qs has been given by Baker and Haines (1969):  S  Qs = a s R *  A + B c  [43]  100  where: as = surface short wave absorptivity of pavement surface.

172 x 10-8 Btu/(hr ft2 oR4)). The EICM iterates a single time step. The rate of heat transfer by convection.77. can be expressed as follows (Dempsey et al.7 + 0. Q x = σ sb ε Ts4 [48] where: ε = emissivity of the pavement (1 – albedo) which depends on pavement color. The suggested maximum value is 17 W/(m2K) (3.93 [ 0. ρ = 0. The convection heat transfer coefficient. calculating a new temperature profile for the pavement system.0 Btu/(hr ft2 oF)). is given by: Qc = H ( Tair − Ts ) [49] with Tair and Ts expressed in oF. G = 0. After the amount of heat inflow/outflow due to convection and radiation at the pavement surface is determined. Qc.688 RMPD – 8/2007. this amount of heat is added/subtracted from the quantity of heat at the upper boundary.93). and H = convection heat transfer coefficient. and U = average daily wind speed in m/s. The effects of transportation. This updated temperature profile is used for convection and radiation calculations at the next time step. in oC. . evaporation and sublimation (Qh) have been neglected in the formation because they are either too small to be significant or the effects cancel each other out in the energy balance. in oK. 1985. J = 0. p = vapor pressure of the air (1 to 10mm Hg). The above calculations determine the surface temperature and thus control the temperature throughout the underlying materials. in oC. The maximum value of the heat transfer coefficient is partly controlled by the stability criteria established for the finite difference approach in computations within the EICM.. and Ts = surface temperature in oR. Tm = average of surface and air temperature. Vehrencamp. The depth of frost penetration has been identified as the position of the 30oF isotherm. H. and Qx = outgoing long wave radiation without a correction for cloud cover. 1953): H = 122.28.3 ] [50] where: Ts = surface temperature.3U 0.00097( Ts − Tair )0. texture and temperature (A typical value is 0. condensation. Tair = air temperature. The depth of frost is established by comparing the computed temperatures with the freezing temperatures of the soil.074. Water in Pavements W/(m2 K4) (0.00144Tm0.

In the JPCP design module of the MEPDG software. as it is not required for the analysis. The data are used in the prediction of faulting and fatigue cracking in JPCP and punchouts in CRCP. the main temperature data of interest is the temperature profile through the PCC layer. Environmental Effects in Pavement Design 689 5. The surface temperature and the temperature at 0. In addition to developing a temperature-depth profile for thermal fracture module to predict cracking.5 in). For most sites. temperature values are required at the surface of the pavement structure and at mid-depth of all asphalt bound sub- layers). The EICM provides 0.2. This temperature for a given month (or 15-days) can be represented by a normal distribution with a certain mean value (µ) and the standard deviation (σ). temperatures at the surface and at 1. No temperature information is generated for any other type of layer. Since the first sub-layer for the asphalt is always 1.27 cm (0. This defines the temperature-depth relationship within the asphalt layer. One of them is used for rutting and fatigue analysis while the other is used for thermal fracture.5 in) are used for estimating tensile strains. 5. In this process the nonlinear temperature distribution is first converted to equivalent linear temperature gradient based on stress equivalence. The equivalent linear temperature gradient is the linear temperature gradient that would .25 in) from the surface. Thermal fracture analysis requires hourly temperature data. Temperature data for rigid pavement analysis For rigid pavement design. EICM climatic database provides 5 years of hourly data.54 cm (1 in) within the asphalt layer. temperatures are output to the MEPDG summary files in two formats for flexible pavement analysis. Temperature values are required at the surface. EICM is configured to produce hourly temperature profiles for a minimum of one full year.σ). the temperatures are provided at 0. While the EICM calculates temperature on a relatively small time step of 0. a base unit of one month is used for incremental damage computations.64 cm (0. The EICM generates five quintile temperature values for each interval and at each selected depths (i.3. and at every 2.27 cm (0. at 1. In situations where the pavement is exposed to freezing and thawing cycles. the base unit of 1 month is changed to 15 days duration to account for rapid changes in the pavement material properties during frost/thaw period. the output from EICM is further processed to obtain monthly distributions of hourly temperature gradients through PCC.1 hours.27 cm (0. for rutting and fatigue.25 in) are used to estimate the fatigue at the surface (top down cracking).1 hours (6 minutes) temperature over the analysis period. N(µ.5 in). Temperature data for flexible pavement analysis For the purpose of the MEPDG.64 cm (0.e.

acquiring of needed computer hardware. – Temperatures at the surface and at the midpoint of each asphalt bound sublayer are subjected to statistical characterization for every analysis period. – An average value of moisture content for each sublayer is reported for use in the permanent deformation model for the unbound materials. Other uses of temperature data include the JPCP joint opening/closing model and the CRCP crack width model. Use of output generated by the EICM Once the EICM generates the aforementioned information. – Number of freeze thaw cycles and freezing index are computed for use in JPCP performance prediction. parameters such as number of freeze-thaw cycles. Fenv. the following outputs are generated for use by other components of the MEPDG software. Water in Pavements produce the same curling stress as that produced by the actual nonlinear temperature profile. acquiring of needed equipment. The plan should include training of staff. 7. as explained in this paper: – Composite environmental adjustment factors. and mean annual freezing index are also computed from the temperature information for use in the various JPCP and CRCP structural distress models. are computed for every sublayer at each node. standard deviation.690 RMPD – 8/2007. and calibration/validation to local conditions. These Fenv factors are sent forward to the structural analysis modules where they are multiplied by MRopt to obtain MR as function of position and time. 6. – Temperature profile in the PCC – hourly values are generated for use in the cracking and faulting models for jointed plain concrete pavement (JPCP) and the punchout model for continuously reinforced concrete pavement (CRCP). and quintile points are sent forward for use in the fatigue and permanent deformation prediction models. mean annual precipitation. The mean. – Values of hourly temperature at the surface and at a set depth increment within the bound layers for use in the thermal cracking model. . In addition. – Relative humidity values for each month are generated for use in the JPCP and CRCP modeling of moisture gradients through the slab. Concluding remarks and calibration to local conditions Any agency interested in adopting the design procedure described in this paper should prepare a practical implementation plan.

the national calibration may not be entirely adequate for specific regions of the country or for other country. improved material characterization. AASHTO 1993). Bibliography Baker D. – Conduct comparative studies. The findings. Technical Bulletin 262. or by the Association for State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO). Haines D. both in design approach and in complexity. a significant effort will be required to evaluate and tailor the procedure to the highway agency. and hourly climatic data. Experiment Station.G. – Modify input defaults and calibration coefficients as needed. 1969. Whatever bias included in this calibration data is naturally incorporated into the distress prediction models and.. Disclaimer and acknowledgment This study was funded by the National Cooperation Highway Research Program (NCHRP) under the Project 1-37A: Development of the 2002 Guide for the Design of New and Rehabilitated Pavement Structures. It is important to notice that the flexible pavement design procedures have been calibrated using design inputs and performance data largely from the national LTPP database. much heavier traffic). – Conduct validation/calibration studies. The use of mechanistic principles to both structurally and climatically (temperature and moisture) model the pavement/subgrade structure requires much more comprehensive input data to run such a model (including axle load distributions. and a more local or regional calibration may be needed. therefore. Solar Radiation and Sunshine Duration Relationship in the North- Central Region and Alaska.g.. . 8. conclusions or recommendations either inferred or specifically expressed in this document do not necessarily indicate acceptance by the National Academy of Sciences. the Federal Highway Administration. which includes sections located throughout significant parts of North America. Thus. construction factors. This will make the new design procedure far more capable of producing more reliable and cost- effective designs.g. – Conduct sensitivity analysis. MN. Environmental Effects in Pavement Design 691 The mechanistic-empirical design procedure represents a major improvement and paradigm shift from existing empirical design procedures (e. The following is the recommended calibration/validation effort required to implement the MEPDG: – Review all input data. even for design conditions that deviate significantly from previously experienced (e. University of Minnesota.A.

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