Art. 1391. The action for annulment shall be brought within four years.

This period shall begin:

In cases of intimidation, violence or undue influence from the time the
defect of the consent ceases.

In case of mistake or fraud, from the time of the discovery of the same.

And when the action refers to contracts entered into by minors or other
incapacitated persons, from the time the guardianship ceases. (1301a)



- As it says, annulment should be done within only 4 years. This will take
legal actions incase there are violence involve in the relationship. 4 years
is enough to file this kind of case, incase it is needed. Minors can be
affected by it but in that long, it is enough to settle the arrangements.

Art. 1392. Ratification extinguishes the action to annul a voidable
contract. (1309a)



- Ratification according to the dictionary is by signing a agreement.
Extinguished is to stop. Therefore those who have annulment issues with
in 4 years shall be acknowledged and confirms that their decision is final.
So that no one can be affected in the situation and for it to be a valid

1395. (1312) Explanation: ARTICLE 1395: .There are different kinds of ratification.There should be a legal guardian in the complainant side that still incapacitated that can support the case. So complainants should do either of the two. Art. It is understood that there is a tacit ratification if. Court may not accept the case specially if it is not voidable.The complainant or the one who filed the case has only the right to take actions. It may be written or you can conduct a survey. Ratification can be made the injured party himself. Written or conduct a survey. (1311a) Explanation: ARTICLE 1393: .the person who has a right to invoke it should execute an act which necessarily implies an intention to waive his right. The one who will file the annulment should have good and enough reasons in filing the case so it will be valid. Ratification may be effected by the guardian of the incapacitated person. 1393. Submitted by: Judith P.Art. with knowledge of the reason which renders the contract voidable and such reason having ceased. Castro . (n) Explanation: ARTICLE 1394: . Ratification may be effected expressly or tacitly. Ratification does not require the conformity of the contracting party who has no right to bring the action for annulment. The other party will just have to wait for the papers so that they can study until the day of judgment which they will defend themselves. 1394. Art.

BSA 3-4 .