Environmental Systems Technology

" Emergency Chlorine Scrubbers"

Wet Smbbing Systems

10 Gerard Avenue, Sulte 309
EDiTION : 6/93 Timonium, Maryland 21093
Phone (410) 252-0771
FAX (410) 252-8883

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P. O . Box 890 Quakertown, PA 18951
E 1'T E
Tel : 215 - 538-7000 Fax : 215 - 538-7713
"Emergency Chlorine Scrubbers" TECHNOLOG7Y

Chlorine - Is a greenish-yellow gaseous compound obtained from common salt .
Chlorine is marketed in the form of gas over liquid compressed into steel
cylinders . It is used in bleaching all kinds of fabrics ; for purifying water ;
disinfecting ; manufacturing synthetic rubber and plastics, chlorinated
hydrocarbons, and a large number of other chemicals . Under the name
"bertholite" it has been used as a military poison gas . The "Immediately
dangerous to life and health" (IDLH) level is 30 parts of chlorine per million
parts of air by volume . Chlorine is heavier than air and will stay near ground
level when released . If ingested in large enough amounts it can cause fatal
pulmonary edema . One thousand (1000 ppm) parts per million of chlorine in air
may be fatal within a few breaths . Symptoms are burning of the lung tissue
permitting plasma to leak from the bloodstream into the lungs gradually
suffocating or drowning the victim in his own fluids . The Western Fire Chiefs
Association, authors of the "Uniform Fire Code", identify chlorine as a hazardous
and toxic compressed gas, corrosive in nature, and an ever present health and
combustible physical hazard .
Leaks - can occur from the smaller most common 150 pound or One Ton
cylinders and from the larger tank or rail cars holding 55 and 90 tons . All these
containers are equipped with safety relief and dispensing devices to make chlorine
handling safer . The Chlorine Institute, Inc . in Washington, DC has analyzed and
documented many spills since 1962 with some leading to death and subsequent
law suits in the millions of dollars . Despite the adoption of good safety practices
by chlorine producers, transporters and users, tragic accidents still occur today .


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Leaks can be caused by fires, flexible connection failures, faulty fusible plugs,
operator mishandling, valve packing and threads, gasket seal failures, improper
piping materials, chlorine feed equipment failure, collision accidents, and
container failure . Since the type of leak which will occur can not be predicted,
the worst case leak scenario should be used for the treatment system design . A
fusible plug can blow out of the cylinder head and spill the entire contents of a
one ton cylinder in seconds . Article 80 of the May 1991 edition of the "Uniform
Fire Code" requires that total containment gas storage rooms be equipped with an
exhaust ventilation system adequate to handle the entire contents of the largest
single tank or cylinder of chlorine stored. Handling constitutes negative pressure
containment in relation to the surrounding area and chlorine neutralization down
to 1/2 IDLH (15 ppm) at the point of discharge to the atmosphere .

Exhaust Ventilation Systems - Four major types of exhaust ventilation
systems have been employed in the past .
The first and most outdated system is the 'Dilution' or 'Dispersion' approach .
Here the entire room volume is continually exhausted to the surrounding
atmosphere over a 1 to 6 minute period without neutralization of any kind .
Dense population in the vicinity of most plants precludes this solution .
'Dispersion' protects the local plant personnel in the storage room to some extent
but unleashes the heavy chlorine onto the unsuspecting nearby communities .
Moreover it fails to meet the responsible fire code guidelines .
The second exhaust system meeting most of the fire code guidelines is the
Packed Tower Scrubber with an exhaust fan to move the chlorine laden air
through the tower to the atmosphere . Response time is a crucial flaw of this
system . Time to wet the packing and come to full equilibrium in the first 60
seconds of a "guillotine" leak scenario will permit emissions in excess of that
allowed . Over this time 5 - 10% of all the chlorine could escape treatment .
Height requirements of the packed tower necessitates special housing in
esthetically conscious areas . Usually, two towers are used in series .


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-3- ~
The third and truly first Emergency Chlorine Scrubber System was first
installed in the early 70's . This is a total containment Recycle Scrubber System
designed to exhaust the chlorine room air through an ejector-venturi scrubber,
neutralize the chlorine with a recirculated caustic solution and return the treated
air with small amounts of chlorine back to the room . In the event of a large leak
rate, the recycle system could build pressure in the room forcing chlorine out
dampers designed to prevent over pressurization of the room . The ejector-
venturi scrubber is the big advantage due to a quick response time of a few
seconds and guaranteed caustic to chlorine contact for neutralization . The ejector
recycle system can be installed within normal room height constraints .

The fourth system is a Once Through Emergency Scrubbing System which
fulfills all the fire code guidelines . It can exhaust to atmosphere at a rate greater
than the highest chlorine gas rate . This assures a negative pressure in the room
and likewise no escape of chlorine to the atmosphere from the room . An ejector-
venturi scrubber provides for gas movement through a separator/storage tank and
out to atmosphere through a short polishing packed tower . The advantage
provided by the ejector is instantaneous response while the tower provides the
additional scrubbing required for discharge to atmosphere . The height
disadvantage associated with the tower can be addressed by the addition of a
second ejector-venturi . Putting this in series between the first ejector and the
now shorter polishing tower gains treatment efficiency no longer required of the
tower as height .

Emergency Chlorine Scrubbing Systems
Recycle System - as depicted in Figure 1 shows the major components and
their orientation to the chlorine storage room . The scrubber supplier will
furnish as a minimum the ejector-venturi, separator-storage tank, integral mist
eliminator housing and pad, and the recirculation pump(s) with caustic


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recirculation piping all mounted on a common unitary base for ease of field
A chlorine spill will activate the detector . Simultaneously an alarm will sound,
the normal room ventilation system will be shut down, motorized louvers will be
closed and the recirculation pump started . The recirculated caustic to the ejector
creates a draft in the suction ducting . The heavier than air chlorine gas is drawn
into the ejector through the floor level intake ducting . Caustic neutralizes the
chlorine in the ejector at about 85 - 90% per pass . The separator-storage tank
allows separation of the liquid/air stream . It also provides adequate inventory of
caustic to neutralize the contents of the largest chlorine cylinder. Scrubbed air
leaves the tank through a mist eliminator . The return ducting carries the air back
to the room near ceiling level . A ceiling to floor flow pattern is established in
the room . The air recycle continues until the detector senses al ppm chlorine
level in the room air. At this point the alarm and the pump are automatically
turned off by the detector.
The sizing criteria provided by the customer are : storage room volume ; pounds
of chlorine to be treated ; intake and return duct losses ; time allowed for the clean
up once all the chlorine gas is in the air . All the chlorine in the air at any
given instance does not reflect reality . It does however establish a design basis .
Advantages of this system are fast response, simplicity of operation, no fan(s)
required, low cost, and in theory no chlorine is emitted to the surrounding area .
Pressurization is a drawback of the recycle system in the event of a fast release .
For this reason a blowout panel or weighted dampers should be installed in the
ceiling to prevent overpressurization of the room . Room fogging is another
drawback when the warm moist returning air meets the colder room air .
Room pressurization should be considered in the design of any scrubber system
but it becomes much more acute in a recycle system . Most buildings can
withstand an internal pressure of 0 .15 psi pushing the walls outward. A 24"
ejector recycle system would be required for pressure suppression to satisfy an
1/8" line break leaking liquid chlorine into a 15,000 cu ft room . The worst case


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1" orifice scenario would require a unit 8 times that size . This becomes highly 41
impractical considering an 18" Once Through Emergency Scrubber System could
service the 1" leak .
Once Through System - as depicted in Figure 2 shows the major components
and their orientation to the chlorine storage room . The scrubber supplier will
furnish as a minimum the ejector-venturi, separator-storage tank, packed tower,
and the recirculation pump(s) with caustic recirculation piping all mounted on a
common unitary base for ease of installation .
A chlorine spill will activate the detector . Simultaneously an alarm will
sound, the normal room ventilation system will be shut down, and the
recirculation pump started . The recirculated caustic to the ejector creates a draft
in the suction ducting and pushes air through the tower. Outside air enters the
room through the roof louvers or any opening in the room . The heavier than air
chlorine gas is drawn into the ejector through the floor level intake ducting . The
separator-storage tank allows separation of the liquid/air stream from the ejector
and collects the tower return caustic. It also provides adequate caustic inventory
to neutralize the contents of the largest chlorine cylinder . After the tank,
partially scrubbed air is passed up through the counter current packed tower and
mist eliminator for additional treatment . Treated air is discharged to the
atmosphere through exit ducting or immediately after the tower . Chlorine is
neutralized down to 15 ppm before discharging from the tower. The once
through scrubber system runs until the chlorine level in the room air is
acceptable, usually 1 ppm . At this point the alarm and the pump are manually
turned off by the operator.
The sizing criteria provided by the customer are : storage room volume ; pounds
of chlorine to be treated ; intake and exit duct losses ; time allowed for the clean up
and the maximum chlorine liquid or gas leak rate .
A negative pressure maintained in the room at all times is the once through
advantage . This fact assures no chlorine release to the atmosphere from the
room . It also improves fire fighter room accessibility . This system does not

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require the use of fan(s) . The once through system has a higher cost than the
recycle. It also may require special emissions paper work (SARA) since some
traces of chlorine are emitted to the surroundings by design .
Once Through Cleanup Scenario - is depicted in Figure 3 showing
chlorine concentration vs . scrubber cleanup time for a 1" diameter chlorine leak
Stage I, The Instantaneous Leak - A 1" liquid chlorine leak hole will pass
about 250 gpm (chlorine is 11 .3#/gal) from a 1 ton cylinder at 800 F . . A fully
charged cylinder will empty in less than 1 minute . About 18 to 20% (400
pounds) will flash off at a rate of 2800 cfm . The remaining 1600 pounds will
collect on the floor or in the sump . An 18" Once Through Emergency Chlorine
Scrubber System can handle a rate of 3000 cfm at the normal required drafts .
The ability to evacuate at a rate higher than the combined flashing and boil-off
gas rates assures a negative pressure in the room . The room air intake louvers
will open and allow clean air to enter . No chlorine will be emitted from a room
under negative pressure.
Stage II, The Boil Off - Evaporation of the 1600 pounds of liquid chlorine
off the floor or out of the sump can take over 4 hours based on a worst case high
rate of 20#/hr/sq ft . A chlorine eductor can be supplied to reduce this time to 20
minutes . The eductor can draw down the liquid chlorine from the sump using
motive recirculation caustic from the pump . The eductor will send the reactants
of sodium hypochlorite (bleach) + salt + water + heat back to the storage tank .
Eductors are difficult to install and a big maintenance concern . Termination of
intake duct over the sump will prevent boil-off into the room so the time to boil-
off becomes a small consideration .
Stage III, Draw Down - Room air final clean up takes place at this point
without additional chlorine entering the gas phase . An 18" once through
scrubber system draws down a 15,000 cu ft room in less than 50 minutes upon
cessation of evaporation .

zo3oss33 s7
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Operation & Maintenance - Figure d shows the
yp T e~
910 E'ector-Vent
uri ~
Scrubber with a radial gas inlet, bottom gas discharge and top caustic motive
inlet . The major components are the motive spray nozzle, body and venturi tail
section . The nozzle contains a captured spiral which imparts a hollow spray
motion to the motive caustic . The high velocity liquid spray creates a draft by
transferring momentum to the suction gas stream . Contact between the chlorine
and caustic occurs in the body and carries through the highly turbulent throat
section of the venturi tail . Intimate contact at this point creates a very effective
scrubbing action . The diverging tail section converts the remaining velocity
energy to pressure energy necessary to overcome separator, tower and down
stream ducting losses . The ejector-venturi has no moving parts, is quick to
respond and has large internals for easy passage of gases and contaminants . This
makes it an ideal selection for an emergency device .
Figure 5 shows the performance curve of a typical 18" Type 910 Ejector-
Venturi Scrubber with a 4" Type H-20 Spray Nozzle . The scrubber draft
producing capability is plotted against capacity in cfm of air for different
parameters of motive caustic pressures and associated flow rates . The suction gas
capacity drops when motive pressure drops for a given draft . The nozzle acts
like an orifice . The liquid flow rate is strictly dependent on differential pressure
across the nozzle and no flow control or balancing valves are required .
Ejector failure to follow the performance curve indicates that a problem has
arisen . Some causes for the system not to achieve the design capacity are : low
caustic motive pressure ; clogged spray nozzle ; gas flow restrictions at the mist
eliminator, unusual intake or discharge ducting pressure losses . The only
maintenance necessary to keep the ejector-venturi system operating properly is
the removal of possible accumulated scale or dirt from the nozzle orifice and in
some cases from the main body, mist eliminator and ducting .
Periodically, about every 2 months, a simulated test should be run . The test is
initiated by exposing the chlorine gas sensors to an artificially generated spill .
This is important due to the limited life expectancy of the sensor probes . The ~


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A( previously described sequence of operational events will ensue . The scrubber
pump will be started and the scrubber system will be determined functional or the
necessary corrections performed.
EST recommends monthly jogging of the pump for short 5 minute durations to
assure proper pump operation since it is the only moving part in the system . Two
major pump concerns are the mechanical seal and oil level . The pump manual,
furnished with each system, should be followed for normal maintenance and care
procedures .
Design Considerations -
1. Space limitations should be specified in the inquiry stage as this may
influence the obtainable efficiency and selection of ejector stages .
2. Caustic strength can be chosen to allow freeze protection down to -20°F .
3. Freeze protection can be provided in the form of heat tracing, heating panels
and/or an electric thermostatically controlled in-tank heater .
~(\ 4. Two pumps could be considered on emergency systems . These are the only
moving parts in the system .
5. Normal Materials of Construction : (Any materials specified can be provided)
• FRP (Fiberglass Reinforced Plastic) polyester resin Atlac 382 with Nexus
1012 veil, Cobalt/MEKP cure for ejector, tank, tower and packing support
• FRP, CPVC, or Teflon/Halar lined for recycle piping depending on
temperature rise .
• Vinyl ester resin FRP pump .
• Teflon or FRP ejector spray nozzle and Teflon, CPVC or polypropylene
spiral, polypropylene or FRP tower spray nozzle distributor .
• Polypropylene mist eliminator pad and packing .
6 . Specify the chlorine leak rate as liquid or gas .
7 . Removal efficiency required ; UFC @ 1/2 IDLH. t
8 . Allowable caustic solution heat rise vs . material selection.
9 . Controls ; level, temperature, caustic concentration .


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10 . Ducting losses (use 2000 ft/min for estimating)
11 . Double duty to also scrub SO2 .
12 . Eductor/Sump option to reduce evaporation step from 4 hours to 20 minutes .
13 . Spent liquid (sodium hypochlorite or bleach) can be disposed of at any
wastewater treatment plant if metered over a period of time or trucked off .
14 . Caustic strength and inventory must be adequate to chemically satisfy the
chlorine leak as well as take up the heat evolved in the reaction of caustic and
chlorine/or sulfur dioxide and not taken out by evaporation .
15 . Provisions for adding additional caustic in the event a larger than design spill
occurs or stand-by caustic storage is provided for multi-ton applications .
16 . Invoke the required codes : OSHA, UBC, NBS, UFC, etc .
1 . White, G . C., "Handbook of Chlorination", 2nd ed, New York 1986 .
2 . Windholz, M ., "The Merck Index", 9th ed, Merck & Co ., Inc ., Rahway, NJ
1976 .
3 . The Chlorine Institute, Inc ., "Chlorine Manual", 4th ed, New York 1972
4 . Howerton, A . E., "Estimating Area Affected by a Chlorine Release", paper
presented at The Chlorine Institute, Inc . meeting, NY 1976
5 . Western Fire Chiefs Association, "Uniform Fire Code 1991 Edition"

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5 . System operates under positive pressure and 1 . A highly reliable ejector-venturi scrubber entrains the 5. A chlorine leak detector automatically starts the
1 . A highly reliable eJeclor-venturl scrubber
Is suitable for leaks up to 3000 •/hr of liquid gas with a neutralizing solution . A fan is not required . system .
entrains the gas with a neutraltzing solution .
chlorine . Refer to 'OnceThrou9h Emergency 2 . A slight negative pressure is maintained in the room at 6. Practical size systems can handle liquid chlorine
2 . Chlorine Is totally contained within tlhe room .
all times preventing chlorine escape . leaks as high as 170,000 #/hr or more .
3 . Chlorine Is scrubbed to below I ppm . Chlorine Scrubbing System'for larqerleaks .
4 . A chlorine leak detector automatically starts 6 .Corroston reslstantflberqlass reinforced 3 . Chlorine room is scrubbed to below 1 ppm . 7. Corrosion tesistantfiberglass reinforced plastic
4 . Chlorine emissions are reduced to less than 15 ppm materials are used throughout .
the system . plastic materials are used throughout .
conforming to latest Fire Codes .


F18 . I Typical 'Recycle Emergency Chlorine Scrubbing System"

FIG . 2 Typical "Once Through" Emergency Chlorine Scrubbing System
APPLICATION The chlorine gas which is heavier than air is
The system is used wherever chlorine liquid drawn into the floor level inlet ducts by the
in cylinders or bult storage tanks is used. draftproducing action of the scrubber. APPLICATION
The sytem vill neutralize any accidental The sytem will neutralize any accidental chlorine The chlorine concentration is reduced to less than 15
chlorine spills . Approximately 85-90% of the chlorine gas is spills wherever chlorine liquid in cylinders or bulk ppm before discharge to the atmosphere . The system
storage tanks is used . continues to operate until the chlorine gas concentration
neutralized with each pass through the
OPERATION scrubber. The scrubber continues to operate in the room is reduced to I ppm . At this time, usually
OPERATION one to two hours after the leak has stopped, the
A chlorine leak detector senses the chlorine until the chlorine gas concentration in the
gas in the event of a spill, activates a remote room is reduced to I ppm At this time, A chlorine leak detector senses the chlorine gas in the operator manually shuts down the system and the
alarm, and starts the scrubber recirculation event of a spill, activates a remote alarm, and starts alarm is turned off. The separator tank is sized to
usually one to two hours after the leat has the scrubber recirculation pump which recirculates have sufficient capacity to neutralize the maximum
pump which recirculates caustic soda solution stopped, the detector shuts down the system caustic soda solution from a separator vessel to the possible chlorine release .
from a separator vessel to the ejector venturi and the alarm is turned off . The separator ejector venturi scrubber and packed tower . The
scrubber . tank is sized to have sufficient capacity to chlorine gas which is heavier than air is drawn into
neutralize the maximum possible chlorine the floor level inlet ducts by the draft producing
release . action of the scrubber.

W ###BOT_TEXT###quot;`°b~`MWIL-alla


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i Stage I, The Instantaneous Leak


Stage II, The Boi1 Off 1

I ~
1 Stage III, Draw Down



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TYPE 910

TYPE 910
The TYPE 910 Standard Ejector-Venturi Scrubber has
a radial side gas inlet, bottom gas discharge and top
motive liquid inlet.

Water or other liquid under pressure.

Contaminated gases are drawn into the
ejector by the action of the spray liquid.

Breaks the scrubbing liquid into a high
velocity spray for maximum entrainment
of gases and impaction of particulates .

Expanded chamber for the uniform
distribution of gases .

Designed to reduce internal pressure
losses and assure uniform distribution
of gases.

Designed for maximum gas-liquid contact .

Designed for the maximum regain of unit
pressure and for the agglomeration of
the scrubbing liquid spray .

Cleaned gases and scrubbing liquid
discharge to a gas-liquid separator

FIG . 4 Ejector-Yenwri Scrubber .'Ippe 910

How the Ejector-Venturi Scrubber Works
Principles of Operation Contaminated gas is drawn into the Ejector-Venturi
Ejector-Venturi Scrubbers utilize the energy of the Scrubber utilizing the ejector principle of a high veloc ty
scrubbing liquid to effectively remove noxious gases, liquid spray directed into a venturi throat . This high
particulates, odors, fumes and dusts from gas streams . velocity spray is generated by the motive liquid pressure .
The particulates are removed through impaction of the The spray impinges on the venturi throat to induce the
solids by the high velocity spray liquid . Gaseous scrubbing and draft producing action . The venturi
pollutants & odors are removed through absorption throat is a high turbulence zone where maximum gas-
and/or chemical reaction between the gases and liquid contact and mixing occur. It is th s intimate
scrubbing liquid . The ejector principle, in addition to contact which produces the scrubbing action The
provid ng an effective scrubbing action, also produces scrubbed gases then leave the throat area with the
an air moving andlor static pressure boosting contaminants impacted 'or absorbed into the scrubbing
capability for the system . liquid . The diverging section is designed to regain as
much as possible of the system energy and to
reagglomerate the scrubbing liquid droplets for ease of
entrainment separation . The cleaned gases with
entrained contaminated droplets discharge from the
scrubber to a gas-liquid separator .

% . .r.~''^.~ COPlPORATIONePO BOX 890 e QUAKERTOWN, PA1695't e 215-538-7000

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NeOH Solutlon Inlet


FIG_ 5 Scrubber Performance Curve
ScrubbeA Alr Outlet
1 E` Type 910 Scrubber
vith 4' Type H-20 Spray Nozzle


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Company: Name & Title: _

Address :

Phone : Fax: _
Proposed Location of Equipment _

0 20001b. El 2350 lb . 01501b. 0175 lb . O Multi-Ton; tons
El Other lb .
1A. System is also used for SO2 spills ; lb.
El 1600 F one ton fusible plug design relief rate @ 437 lb/min .
0 Liquid leak orifice size : El 5/16" plug core El 0 .34" valve orifice F1 1" hole
0 3000 cfm, standard
El Entire contents of largest container over 30 minutes
Largest container is lb ., or lb . overfilled
El Actual leak rate is lb/min LIQUID or lb/min GAS
O Excess flow valve rate : 0 7000 lb/hr O 15000 lb/hr 0 Other 1b .
2A . Temperature of chlorine in container: o F
Initial temperature of caustic in tank : o F
El 15 ppm El 12 .5 ppm El 3 ppm El Other ppm
4A. C12 storage room dimensions : ft L x ft W x ft H
4B . Scrubber housing height/floor space limitations :
Maximum allowable height : ft ; Floor space : ft x ft
5 . El Outdoor Installation O Indoor Installation
5A . If outdoor, lowest expected ambient temperature is : o F
5B . If ambient temperature is below 100 F, heating should be considered
O Heat tracing of tank and pipe 11 Tank immersion heater
(Insulation should be installed by contractor in field)

COFaPORATION • PO BOX e90 • WUAKEATOWN, PA'1995'1 • 215-539-7000

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6 . Spill collection sump area : sq . ft.
Floor area in spill room if spill collection sump is not provided sq . ft.
Note : Recommended sump for one ton cylinder is 5 ft . x 5 ft. x 1 ft . deep.
7 . Estimated ducting losses : inches W .C.
(use 2000 ft/min duct velocity for estimating purposes)
8 . Allowed time for cleanup after the end of evaporation : minutes
9. Scope of Supply
D Ejector-Venturi, Packed Tower, Separator Tank, Pump(s), Recirc . piping
(Minimum EST scope of supply required to accept system responsibility)
El Standby pump (installed or shelf spare)
El Skid under pump(s)
El Control panel : El wall mounted El skid mounted 11 motor starter(s)
(Panel should be mounted outside caustic containment area in case a caustic leak occurs)
0 Other
(example : level switch(es), temperature switch, pressure switch, flow switch, level gauge)

10 . Materials of Construction
Standard Option
Ejector-Venturi : El FRP El Halar lined steel El Other
Separator Tank: 0 FRP El Rubber lined steel El Other
Packed Tower : 0 FRP El Other
Tower internals : 11 Polypro El Other
Pump(s) : O FRP El Titanium
Recirc . Piping : 0 FRP El Halar lined steel El Other
Control Panel : El Nema 4X, SST O Nema
11 . Special Requirements
• Teflon relief sparger in caustic storage tank
O Spent caustic pump off valve with quick disconnect coupling
O Sample valve in pump suction piping
El Standby caustic storage inventory tank
El Other
12 . By Others :
Caustic & its dilution with quality softened water, installation, re-assembly of piping, re-mounting
of ejector & tower, pump alignment, pump lubrication oil, potable seal flush water, internal
installation in tower, caustic containment, self supporting ducting, room inlet dampers, anchor
bolts, gas detectors in room and stack discharge if needed, tower rain cap if needed, electrical
power, mounting of control panel & its wiring to EST supplied pump, emergency power source if
required, ladders & platforms if required .

COFiPORATIONOPO BOX 890 -QUAKERTOWN, PA'1695'1 - 215-539-7000

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