# Part

1部分 Revision notes
Revision Helper 溫習錦囊 (Bilingual version) 雙語版本

Chapter
Chapter

Air and and space travel
burning

26.2 Concepts about force 26.2 力的概念
Q1 What is force? 力是甚麼？

A1

 We use a force to push, pull or turn something.  我們要用力

 The following figures show some examples of  下圖是日常生活中運用力的一些例子。
forces.

We use a force to push the We need to apply a force to We use a force to hit the ball
trolley. stop the ball. back.

We use a pulling force to We use forces to pull the We use a force to pull the
open the drawer. switch. paper towel.

Understanding Integrated Science for the 21st Century (3rd Edition) 最新綜合科學 — 邁進 21 世紀 (第三版) 1

Revision Helper 溫習錦囊 (Bilingual version) 雙語版本

A1

We use a force to turn the We need to apply a force to We use a force to turn the
doorknob. twist the towel. bottle cap.

Understanding Integrated Science for the 21st Century (3rd Edition) 最新綜合科學 — 邁進 21 世紀 (第三版) 2

 The following are some tips for drawing  下列是以箭號來表示力時要注意的一些 arrows to represent forces. The arrow should lie on the object on which the force is acting. 箭號應繪畫在力作用於的物體上。 Understanding Integrated Science for the 21st Century (3rd Edition) 最新綜合科學 — 邁進 21 世紀 (第三版) 3 © Aristo Educational Press Ltd 2012 © 雅集出版社有限公司 2012 . what can we use to 在科學表達上，我們常以甚麼來 represent forces? 表示力？ A2  In science. if the forces used to push the box below are equal. 要點。 1. For example. we can use arrows to represent  在科學繪圖中，我們常以箭號來表示力。 forces.Revision Helper 溫習錦囊 (Bilingual version) 雙語版本 Q2 In science. the arrows drawn should have equal length. 箭號的長度表示力的大小。例如，若下圖中推動紙盒的兩個力大小相同，我們應以相 同長度的箭號來表示兩個力。 3. The length of the arrow represents the size of force. 箭號的方向必須和力的方向相同。 2. The arrows points in the direction of the force.

Examples include 對物體產生作用的力稱為非接觸力 非接觸力， 非接觸力 the force of gravity and magnetic force. 量度拉開抽屜所需的力。 spring balance 彈簧秤 Understanding Integrated Science for the 21st Century (3rd Edition) 最新綜合科學 — 邁進 21 世紀 (第三版) 4 © Aristo Educational Press Ltd 2012 © 雅集出版社有限公司 2012 .Revision Helper 溫習錦囊 (Bilingual version) 雙語版本 Q3 What are contact and non-contact forces? 甚麼是接觸力和非接觸力？ A3  Forces that exist only between objects in  只有在物體互相接觸的情況下，才能 contact are called contact forces. 磁力和重力 磁力 重力是其中兩個例子。 重力 Q4 What can we use to measure forces? 如何量度力的大小？ A4  We can use a spring balance to measure forces.  我們可以利用彈簧秤 彈簧秤來量度力 彈簧秤 的大小。  The unit of force is netwon (N). 對物體產生作用的力稱為接觸力 接觸力。 接觸力  Forces that can act on objects without contact  在物體沒有互相接觸的情況下，仍能 are non-contact forces.  下圖顯示彈簧秤。 zero adjuster 零標度校正  use to adjust the position of the scale so that the pointer 指針 reading is zero when no force is applied  indicates the  用來校正彈簧秤，以確保沒有力作用時，彈簧秤的 force measured 讀數為零。  顯示所量度的力 的大小 hook 掛鈎 scale 刻度  for attaching to an object  用來鈎着物件  The figure below shows how to use a spring balance  下圖顯示如何利用彈簧秤來 to measure the force needed to open a drawer.  力的單位是牛頓 牛頓 (N)。  The following diagram shows a spring balance.

g. 高爾夫球開始移動  例如：力能夠令移動中 的足球停下來 Effects of force on objects 力對物體 的影響  Change the direction of  Change the shape of an motion of an object object  改變物體的運動方向  改變物體的形狀  e. The force makes  例如：力能夠令靜止的 the football stop.  例如：力能夠改變女孩  Cause an object at 和單車的運動速率  Stop the motion of a rest to start moving moving object  令靜止的物體移動  令移動中的物體停止  e. The force changes the direction of motion the shape of the lemon.g.  例如：力能夠改變檸檬的  例如：力能夠改變乒乓球 形狀 的運動方向 Understanding Integrated Science for the 21st Century (3rd Edition) 最新綜合科學 — 邁進 21 世紀 (第三版) 6 © Aristo Educational Press Ltd 2012 © 雅集出版社有限公司 2012 . The force makes the girl and the bicycle move faster.  e. of the ping-pong ball.Revision Helper 溫習錦囊 (Bilingual version) 雙語版本 Q5 How do forces affect an object? 力對物體有甚麼影響？ A5  Change the speed of an object  改變物體的運動速率  e. The force changes  e.g.g. The force makes 運動 the ball start to move.g.

the book stays still. air).Revision Helper 溫習錦囊 (Bilingual version) 雙語版本 26. is large air resistance there is air resistance acting on it. Therefore.3 Friction 26. when the pushing force cannot  例如：當施加在書本上的推力未能克 overcome the friction between the book and 服摩擦力時，書本會保持靜止不動。 the bench. opposing our motion. pushing force 推力 The book does not move 書本保持靜止不動 friction 摩擦力  When the book is moving.3 摩擦力 Q6 What is friction? 甚麼是摩擦力？ A6  Friction is a contact force. when we stop pushing. For example.g. 火箭在空氣中以高速 我們踏單車時，會感受到 移動時，會遇到很大的 空氣阻力。 空氣阻力。 Understanding Integrated Science for the 21st Century (3rd Edition) 最新綜合科學 — 邁進 21 世紀 (第三版) 7 © Aristo Educational Press Ltd 2012 © 雅集出版社有限公司 2012 . there is also a force 氣) 中移動時，亦會出現一股力阻礙 opposing its motion. 動，使書本移動的速率減慢，並最終 停下來。 The book slows down The book stops 書本的速率減慢 書本停下來 friction 摩擦力  When an object moves through a liquid (e. or oppose the motion of a 持靜止不動，或阻礙物體的運動。 moving object.  當物體在液體 (如水) 或氣體 (如空 water) or gas (e. 驗枱之間的摩擦力會阻礙書本的運 the book slows down and finally stops. there When we ride a bicycle. 例如： When a rocket moves at a high speed. This is called fluid 其運動，這股力稱為流體阻力 流體阻力。 流體阻力 resistance.g. It can make an  摩擦力是一種接觸力 摩擦力 ，它會令物體保 object stay still.  For example. the friction opposes  當書本在實驗枱上滑動時，書本和實 its motion.

pull 拉 Slowly increase the pulling force until it is just large enough to make the block move.  我們可利用彈簧秤來量度摩擦力。  The following figure shows how to use a spring  下圖顯示如何利用彈簧秤量度木 balance to measure the friction between the 塊和實驗枱之間的摩擦力。 wooden block and the bench.Revision Helper 溫習錦囊 (Bilingual version) 雙語版本 Q7 What can we use to measure friction? 如何量度摩擦力？ A7  We can use a spring balance to measure friction. The reading of the spring balance shows the friction between the wooden block and the bench. 慢慢增加拉力直至木塊開始移動。彈簧秤的讀數便是木塊和實驗枱之間的 摩擦力。 Understanding Integrated Science for the 21st Century (3rd Edition) 最新綜合科學 — 邁進 21 世紀 (第三版) 8 © Aristo Educational Press Ltd 2012 © 雅集出版社有限公司 2012 .

 The following are some examples of reducing  以下是一些利用氣墊或潤滑劑來減少摩 friction by separating surfaces. This hovercraft. 擦力的例子。 fan 風扇 air cushion 氣墊 In a hovercraft. a large fan is used to blow air Lubricant can be used to reduce friction downwards to form an air cushion beneath the between moving machine parts. 潤滑劑能減少單車活動部分之間的摩擦 氣墊船裝有強大風扇，能把空氣從船底吹出，形 力，這可使活動部分運轉得更暢順，並能 成一層氣墊，大大減少摩擦力，令船可在水面快 減少磨損。 速航行，甚至在陸地上行駛。 Understanding Integrated Science for the 21st Century (3rd Edition) 最新綜合科學 — 邁進 21 世紀 (第三版) 9 © Aristo Educational Press Ltd 2012 © 雅集出版社有限公司 2012 . friction or fluid 摩擦力或流體阻力有時會在生 resistance may cause problems.Revision Helper 溫習錦囊 (Bilingual version) 雙語版本 Q8 In some situations. How can 活中造成不便。有甚麼方法可 we reduce friction or fluid resistance? 減少摩擦力和流體阻力？ A8  Scientists have found several ways to reduce  科學家發展出不少減少摩擦力和流體阻 friction or fluid resistance. over the water. Separating surfaces with a lubricant or air 1. Friction is greatly reduced and helps them run more smoothly and can therefore the hovercraft can move smoothly also reduce wear. 力的方法。 1. 利用潤滑劑或空氣把接觸面分隔  The friction between two surfaces can be  潤滑劑或氣墊均能把兩個接觸面分隔， reduced by separating them with lubricant or a 使接觸面之間的摩擦力大大減少。 layer of air.

 我們在日常生活中經常會應用到摩擦力， The following are some examples. 衣夾和襪子之間的摩擦力能固定襪子的 鐵釘和木板之間的摩擦力能固定鐵釘 位置。 的位置。 Slow down a moving object 減慢物體的運動速率 The friction between the brake The air resistance acting on the and the wheel rim slows down the parachute slows the skydiver down wheel of the bicycle. 制動器與單車車輛之間的摩擦力 作用在降落傘的空氣阻力有助減慢跳 有助減慢車輛的速率。 傘員下墜的速率，使他能安全着陸。 Understanding Integrated Science for the 21st Century (3rd Edition) 最新綜合科學 — 邁進 21 世紀 (第三版) 11 © Aristo Educational Press Ltd 2012 © 雅集出版社有限公司 2012 . 摩擦力對我們十分重要， What are the common uses of friction? 我們在日常生活中如何應 A9 用摩擦力？  We often make use of friction in daily life. wood holds the nail in position. 在浴缸鋪上防滑膠墊，可增加摩擦 有些階梯鋪有一條粗糙的防滑物 力，防止我們在浴缸內滑倒。 料，以防止行人滑倒。 Hold an object in position 固定物體的位置 The friction between the clothes clip and The friction between the nail and the the socks holds the socks in position.Revision Helper 溫習錦囊 (Bilingual version) 雙語版本 Q9 Friction is important to our daily lives. slipping. and helps him land safely. 以下是一些例子。 Prevent slipping or skidding 防止滑倒 The friction between the rubber Some staircases are covered sheet and our feet prevents us with a rough material to prevent from slipping in a bathtub.

Revision Helper 溫習錦囊 (Bilingual version) 雙語版本 A9 Move objects 移動物體 The friction between our shoes The friction between the and the ground enables us to chopsticks and the food allows us walk. to pick up the food. that makes the match ignite. 鞋底與路面之間的摩擦力令我們 筷子與食物之間的摩擦力令我們 能夠步行。 能把食物夾起。 Produce heat 產生熱 The friction between the box We can produce heat by and the match produces heat rubbing our hands. 摩擦雙手時會產生熱，令我們雙 火柴盒與火柴之間的摩擦力可產 手感到溫暖。 生熱，令火柴燃點起來。 Understanding Integrated Science for the 21st Century (3rd Edition) 最新綜合科學 — 邁進 21 世紀 (第三版) 12 © Aristo Educational Press Ltd 2012 © 雅集出版社有限公司 2012 .

 重量是力的一種，單位是牛頓。 The weight of this pencil box is 3 N. but its weight  物體的質量在不同地方都是相同的， may change from one place to another.Revision Helper 溫習錦囊 (Bilingual version) 雙語版本 Q11 What is weight? 甚麼是物體的重量？ A11  The force of gravity exerted by the Earth on an  地球施加在物體的重力稱為重量 重量。 重量 object is known as weight. It is measured in newtons.  The mass of an object is constant. 但它的重量卻可能有所不同。 Understanding Integrated Science for the 21st Century (3rd Edition) 最新綜合科學 — 邁進 21 世紀 (第三版) 14 © Aristo Educational Press Ltd 2012 © 雅集出版社有限公司 2012 . the larger the  物體的質量愈大，地球施加在該物體 force of gravity is and hence the greater its 的重力亦愈大，因此該物體便愈重。 weight is. 這個筆袋的重量是 3 N，這表示地球施加在這個筆袋 的重力為 3 N 。 Q12 What are the differences between mass 質量和重量之間有甚麼不同？ and weight? A12 Mass 質量 Weight 重量 The amount of matter in an The force of gravity acting on What is it? object an object 它是甚麼？ 它是甚麼？ 物體所含物質的多少 施加在物體的重力 What is its unit? kilogram (kg) / gram (g) newton (N) 它的單位是甚麼？ 它的單位是甚麼？ 千克 (kg) / 克 (g) 牛頓 (N) Is it always the same in different places? yes no 它在不同的地方是否 是 不是 保持不變？ 保持不變 ？  The greater the mass of an object. That means the Earth exerts a force of gravity of 3 N on it.  Weight is a force.

the force exerted by car A causes car B to collapse. the fuel burns and  火箭內載有大量燃料，燃料燃燒時 produces a large amount of hot gases. When 會產生大量熾熱的氣體，當火箭把 these gases are ejected downward. Car B also exerts an opposite force which makes car A collapse. 火箭向上升。 force exerted by the gases on the rocket 氣體施加在火箭上的力 force exerted by the rocket on the gases 火箭施加在氣體上的力 Action and reaction involved in rocket launch 發射火箭時所涉及的作用力 和反作用力 Understanding Integrated Science for the 21st Century (3rd Edition) 最新綜合科學 — 邁進 21 世紀 (第三版) 16 © Aristo Educational Press Ltd 2012 © 雅集出版社有限公司 2012 . 當汽車 A 撞向汽車 B 時， 汽車 A 向汽車 B 施力，令 force exerted by car B on car A force exerted by car A on car B 汽車 B 損毀。同時汽車 B 汽車 B 向汽車 A 施加的力 汽車 A 向汽車 B 施加的力 也向汽車 A 施加方向相反 的力，令汽車 A 損毀。 Q15 How do scientists make use of the 究竟科學家怎樣把作用力和 principle of action and reaction to 反作用力的原理應用到火箭 launch a rocket? 發射之上？ A15  Scientists apply the principle of action and  科學家利用作用力和反作用力的原 reaction to produce the force that pushes the 理來產生力，以推動火箭前進。 rocket into space.Revision Helper 溫習錦囊 (Bilingual version) 雙語版本 A14 car A car B 汽車 A 汽車 B When car A hits car B. the gases 這些熾熱氣體向下噴出時，氣體亦 exert an opposite force to push the rocket 同時向火箭施以方向相反的力，令 upwards.  Inside a space rocket.

No air in space for the rocket fuel to burn Carry its own oxygen supply to burn the fuel 1. Each stage is dropped off once the fuel is used up so as to reduce the weight of the rocket  採用多節式 多節式設計，當一節火箭的燃料耗 多節式 2. 火箭高速移動時，會遇到很大的空氣阻 設計成流線型，以減少火箭高速移動時所 力，會減慢火箭的速率 遇到的空氣阻力 Q17 Which gas is commonly used as 火箭常以甚麼氣體為燃料？ rocket fuel? How can we test for it in 在實驗室內，我們如何測試這氣 the laboratory? 體？ A17  Hydrogen is commonly used as a rocket fuel. we can test for hydrogen  在實驗室內，我們可利用燃燒中的 using the burning splint test. a ‘pop’ sound is heard.  氫常被用作火箭的燃料，它燃燒時 When it burns in air. 木條來測試氫。  When a burning splint is put into a test tube  當我們把燃燒中的木條放入盛有氫 containing hydrogen. There is large air resistance which may Have a streamlined shape to reduce air slow down the rocket resistance 3. 火箭需要達至極高速  Use rocket boosters to provide extra pushing force to the rockets  使用助推火箭 助推火箭，在升空初期為火箭提供 助推火箭 額外的推進力 3.  In the laboratory.Revision Helper 溫習錦囊 (Bilingual version) 雙語版本 Q16 What are the difficulties in launching 火箭發射升空時會遇到甚麼 rockets into space? How are the 困難？火箭的哪些設計有助 rockets designed to overcome these 解決這些困難？ difficulties? A16 Difficulties in launching rockets How are the rockets designed to into space overcome these difficulties? 火箭發射升空時會遇到的困難 火箭的哪些設計有助解決這些困難？ 火箭的哪些設計有助解決這些困難？ 1. 的試管時，會聽到「卜」一聲。 Understanding Integrated Science for the 21st Century (3rd Edition) 最新綜合科學 — 邁進 21 世紀 (第三版) 17 © Aristo Educational Press Ltd 2012 © 雅集出版社有限公司 2012 . only water vapour is 只會產生水蒸氣。 formed. The rocket needs to reach a very high 盡後，該節火箭便會脫離，以減輕火箭 speed 的重量 2. 太空中沒有燃燒燃料所需的空氣 載有液體氧  Use a multi-stage design.

parachutes are open.  太空船降落時會張開降落傘，降落傘遇 There is large air resistance acting on the 到的空氣阻力很大，故此能減慢下跌的 parachutes and this helps to slow down the 速率，令它可以安全着陸。 spacecraft. Large parachutes are used to slow down a spacecraft.  To ensure a safe landing.Revision Helper 溫習錦囊 (Bilingual version) 雙語版本 Q22 What are used to slow down a 科學家利用甚麼來減慢太空船下跌 spacecraft so that it can land safely? 的速率，令它可以安全着陸？ A22  Parachutes are used to slow down the  太空船降落時會利用降落傘來減速。 spacecraft for safe landing. 太空船利用大型降落傘來減速。 Understanding Integrated Science for the 21st Century (3rd Edition) 最新綜合科學 — 邁進 21 世紀 (第三版) 20 © Aristo Educational Press Ltd 2012 © 雅集出版社有限公司 2012 .

(I) and (II) only B. Which of the following are non-contact forces? (I) Force of gravity (II) Friction (III) Magnetic force A. It speeds up a moving object. B. Action and reaction always have different size. (I). (I) and (III) only C. (I). Bearings are used in machines to reduce friction. A. (I) and (II) only B. □ 4. It produces heat. Weight can be measured by using a spring balance. □ 7. □ 2. Multiple-choice questions 多項選擇題 Choose the correct answer for each of the following questions. Contact forces can act on an object at a distance. (II) Forces can change the directions of motion of objects. Which of the following is NOT the effect of friction? A. 細閱以下句子，正確的在方格內填上「T」，不正確的則填上「F」。 1. (II) and (III) □ 2. 部分 Revision exercise 單元練習 True or false questions 是非題 Write ‘T’ for a true statement or ‘F’ for a false statement in each box provided. □ 3. arrows are used to represent forces.Part Revision Helper 溫習錦囊 (Bilingual version) 雙語版本 第 2 A. (I) and (III) only C. Which of the following are the effects of forces on objects? (I) Forces can cause objects to move. D. C. (II) and (III) only D. 選出正確的答案，然後在空格內填上代表該答案的英文字母。 1. It prevents slipping. (III) Forces can change the shapes of objects. □ 6. The unit of friction is newton (N). Oxygen is commonly used as a fuel for rockets. Mass is a force. □ Understanding Integrated Science for the 21st Century (3rd Edition) 最新綜合科學 — 邁進 21 世紀 (第三版) 21 © Aristo Educational Press Ltd 2012 © 雅集出版社有限公司 2012 . In science. (II) and (III) only D. (II) and (III) □ 3. □ 8. □ 5. □ B. It holds an object in position.

B. The mass of a plastic box is 2 kg. Which of the following statements is correct? A. It tends to pull objects towards the centre of the Earth. (II) The elephant has a greater weight. (II) and (III) □ 8. Which of the following statements concerning the force of gravity is INCORRECT? A. (III) They always act in opposite directions. (I). (I) and (II) only B. (II) It only occurs when there is no force of gravity acting on objects. (I) and (II) only B. A. (II) and (III) only D. (III) The masses of the elephant and the rabbit on the moon are 150 kg and 5 kg respectively. they still have weight. The weight of the plastic box on the Moon is equal to its weight on the Earth. (I) and (III) only C.Revision Helper 溫習錦囊 (Bilingual version) 雙語版本 4. (I). It is measured in newtons. (II) and (III) □ 7. It causes objects to fall. Which of the following statements about weightlessness is INCORRECT? (I) It only occurs in space. It decreases when distance decreases. A. □ 6. (I) and (III) only C. Which of the following statements concerning action and reaction are correct? (I) They always occur in pairs. Which of the following statements are correct? (I) The Earth exerts a larger force of gravity on the elephant. (I) and (II) only B. □ 5. (II) and (III) only D. (I) and (III) only C. (II) and (III) only D. A. B. The mass of the plastic box on the Moon is smaller than its mass on the Earth. (III) When astronauts are in a state of weightlessness. C. (II) and (III) □ Understanding Integrated Science for the 21st Century (3rd Edition) 最新綜合科學 — 邁進 21 世紀 (第三版) 22 © Aristo Educational Press Ltd 2012 © 雅集出版社有限公司 2012 . The mass of the plastic box on the Moon is equal to its mass on the Earth. D. (II) They always act on the same objects. C. (I). An elephant has a mass of 150 kg and a rabbit has a mass of 5 kg. D. The weight of the plastic box on the Moon is larger than its weight on the Earth.

Draw the reaction in each of the following diagrams. Also. Short questions 短問題 1.Revision Helper 溫習錦囊 (Bilingual version) 雙語版本 C. (a) Draw arrows to represent the pushing force and the friction acting on the cupboard. A man is moving a cupboard on the floor. (a) ______________________________________________________________________ (b) _____________________________________________________________________ Understanding Integrated Science for the 21st Century (3rd Edition) 最新綜合科學 — 邁進 21 世紀 (第三版) 23 © Aristo Educational Press Ltd 2012 © 雅集出版社有限公司 2012 . (b) Suggest a way to reduce the friction between the cupboard and the floor? ______________________________________________________________________ 2. write down the object on which the reaction acts.

T 6. F 2. F 8. Multiple-choice questions 多項選擇題 1. F 7. (a) pushing force friction acting on the cupboard (b) Some rollers are put between the cupboard and the floor. F B. T 3. Revision Helper 溫習錦囊 (Bilingual version) 雙語版本 Part Answers 答案 A. True or false questions 是非題 1. B 6. A C. B 4. (or any other reasonable answers) Understanding Integrated Science for the 21st Century (3rd Edition) 最新綜合科學 — 邁進 21 世紀 (第三版) 24 © Aristo Educational Press Ltd 2012 © 雅集出版社有限公司 2012 . D 3. D 7. B 8. Short questions 短問題 1. C 5. B 2. T 4. T 5.

Understanding Integrated Science for the 21st Century (3rd Edition) 最新綜合科學 — 邁進 21 世紀 (第三版) 25 © Aristo Educational Press Ltd 2012 © 雅集出版社有限公司 2012 . (b) The reaction acts on the racquet.Revision Helper 溫習錦囊 (Bilingual version) 雙語版本 2. (a) The reaction acts on the hand.