International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622

National Conference on Advances in Engineering and Technology
(AET- 29th March 2014)


A Review On The Soil Stabilization With Waste Materials
Mandeep Singh*, Anupam Mittal**
*(Department of Civil Engineering, NIT, Kurukshetra
** (Department of Civil Engineering, NIT, Kurukshetra

Soil stabilization means alteration of the soils properties to meet the specified engineering requirements.
Methods for the stabilization are compaction and use of admixtures. Lime and Cement was commonly used as
stabilizer for altering the properties of soils. Earth reinforcement techniques with commonly used with mild
steel rods, geo synthetics etc. From the recent studies it is observed that, solid waste materials such as rice husk
ash and waste tyres are used for this intended purpose with or without lime or cement. Disposal of these waste
materials is essential as these are causing hazardous effects on the environment. With the same intention
literature review is undertaken on utilization of solid waste materials for the stabilization of soils and their
performance is discussed.
Keywords – Rice husk ash, RHA, Waste tyre rubber, Shreds and Soil stabilization
soils are soil stabilization, soil reinforcement, etc.
I. Introduction Admixtures like lime, cement were used traditionally
Solid waste term includes all those solid and for stabilization purposes. Recent studies shows RHA
semi-solid materials that are discarded by the alone or in combination with lime or cement can be
community. Improper management of solid wastes used for effective stabilization of weak soils to a
causes adverse effects on the ecology which may lead great extent. Disposal of recycling tyre poses a major
to cause possible outbreak of diseases and epidemics. problem worldwide. A lot of research work is going
Solid wastes are broadly classified in to three group’s on worldwide to cope up with this problem. Waste
namely Industrial waste, Agricultural waste, and tyres have characteristics that make them not easy to
Municipal waste apart from other categories of dispose, and potentially combustible. Huge stockpiles
wastes. In this paper previous researches are and uncontrolled dumping of tyres, throughout the
discussed on rice husk ash waste from paddy grain countries, is a threat to public health and
and waste tyre use in geotechnical works. Rice is the environment. One of the alternative ways of
primary source of food for billion peoples across the disposing of waste tyre is to use them for
world. In 2013 around 107 million tons of paddy geotechnical applications, due to following
produced in India [32]. India is second largest advantages: (1) It will help in not only saving huge
producer of rice next to china. One ton of rice paddy spaces occupied by waste tyre and tubes, but the
produces 220 kg rice husk [33]. Rice husk is the shell environmental health hazards will also be reduced.
produced during de-husking of paddy. Rice husk (2) The consumption of natural soil will be reduced,
being agricultural waste dumped near the mills or there by rendering cost saving benefits. (3) The
burnt in open fields. Numerous problems arises from various soil properties such as bearing capacity, shear
rice husk disposal such as, methane generation due to strength, drainage etc. can be improved by
fermentation of RHA with microorganisms, being reinforcing it with waste tyre rubber. (4) With the
light and fine particles causing breathing problems, introduction of waste tyre rubber in soil its capacity
bad effect on the health are reported such as acute to absorb and dissipate energy will be enhanced
and chronic effect affecting eyes, skin and upper drastically. (5) Non-biodegradable and thus more
respiratory tract and allegoric response such as nasal durable. (6) Inexpensive compared to other
catarrh, asthma and limitation of RHA because of lightweight reinforcing materials for granular soils.
low nutritious value, long periods required for Reinforced earth technique has been gaining
decompose are not appropriate for composting of popularity in the field of geotechnical engineering
manure. Thus, proper and safe disposal of rice husk due to its highly versatile and flexible nature. The
is again a big problem. Different ways are available application of waste tyres in various forms has been
in for enhancing the engineering performances of recently developed in reinforcing soil for a variety of
Maharishi Markandeshwar University 11 | P a g e

2. 17. 0.10 3. Soil stabilization process by (RHA) chemical composition of RHA from the various RHA content used from 0 to 12% for UCS location given in following Table 1 shows that the and CBR tests [1].80 3. using recycled materials.50 0. This may found to be from various locations [12] economical treatment methods for soils and solution Constituent Weight (%) will definitely found beneficial for the developing India Iraq USA Canada countries like India where economy is the prime Silica as SiO2 90. RHA Soil Stabilization Iron as Fe2O3 0.50 87.40 1. RHA content for CBR tests used variation in chemical composition especially silica as 0% to 12. Research studies have shown that physical and Summary of the literature review carried out for the chemical properties of ash are dependent on the soil application of RHA as stabilization for soil and are chemistry. The normal method of conversion of husk to ash is Additive material used in soil Reference incineration.20 3. Therefore.23 0.29th March 2014) geotechnical applications ranging from retaining constituents are available in small range. 18 temperature range and burning duration crystalline or amorphous form of silica are obtained from husk ash.24 studies carried out on physical and chemical SO3 properties of rice husk ash suggested that RHA Loss on 4.40 0. Ash of white particularly wastes tyres when mixed/combined with color is an indication of complete oxidation of the soil is becoming more popular due to the shortage of carbon.70 86.10 1. paddy variety and climatic conditions. bearing capacity improvement Table 1: Comparison of chemical properties of RHA and for reduction of settlement.40 .80 94. a need for and silica ion cause the formation of potassium further understanding of the behavior of rubber–soil polysilicate combined with carbon resulting in grey mixture/combination is required. Potassium as 2. RHA + Lime + Gypsum 5 RHA has been classified into high carbon char. presented here. 13 & 14 carbon ash and carbon free ash. 4.12 pollution. International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 National Conference on Advances in Engineering and Technology (AET.30 . Many researchers color ash. The 2. All other 0 to 12% [3].15 0. The review of literature [1]-[18] shows that Different factors influencing ash properties are one of the prominent uses of RHA is in improvement incineration condition (temperature and duration). Alumina as 0.78 1. geographic location. At high disposal costs. with increasing the use of temperature strong interaction between potassium waste tyres in geotechnical applications. For every 4 CaO tons of rice around 1 ton is of rice husk is produced.84 1.19 .13 0.68 Burning of rice husk generates about 15-20% of its K2O weight as ash. which is also an indication of availability of natural mineral resources and increasing waste large portion of amorphous silica in the ash. RHA is difficult to as MgO coagulate and thus contributes to air and water Sodium as 0.20 concern for adopting any new method or technique.35 by wind and water in its dry state. 10 whether the husk have undergone complete RHA Lime sludge 11 destructive combustion or have been partially burnt. investigators to evaluate their suitability as stabilizer.25 0. The soil was stabilized with different Maharishi Markandeshwar University 12 | P a g e . 16.15 Al2O3 II. foundation beds and other combustion process as well as structural applications. 8.10 1. On the basis of Soil + RHA + Cement 15. 3.54 1.55 cannot be used alone for stabilization of soil because Ignition of the lack of cementing properties and some additive used by some researcher are given in table 2. The geotechnical characteristics rate of heating. 0.5% [2]. RHA content was increased from content is high (range 85%-95%) [12].1. Additionally cumulative generation of ash Na2O requires large space for its disposal. asphalt pavement changes are associated with the completeness of and paving system. Properties of RHA depend upon. RHA 1. RHA being very light is easily carried Magnesium 0. Color structures and earth embankments.55 obtained from the food crop of paddy. fineness.40 0. However. transformations of silica in the ash. color of RHA-soil mixtures were studied by different and crop variety and year of crop production. Studies have also shown that difference may be due to fertilizers applied during the cultivation. low RHA + Lime 7. 9. of soil performance.37 0. The Table 2: RHA used for soil with some additives for high percentage of siliceous materials in rice husk soil stabilization reported by some researchers ash indicates it has potential pozzolonic properties.16 Rice husk is a major agriculture byproduct Calcium as 0.40 0. have investigated the use of recycled tyre products for soil stabilization. On the basis of Sulphur as 0.

Addition of rice husk ash along compressibility characteristics of untreated clay and with 3% lime shows steep increment in unconfined clay stabilized with rice husk ash to evaluate its effect compressive strength for 20% ash for curing period in reducing compressibility of the soil. Lime is added in the range of 3 to 5% with the addition of 20% RHA+5% lime + 3% and curing period 7. consolidated undrained triaxial compression tests and There is enormous increase in the UCS with increase consolidation tests were conducted at 0. It has reclaimed asphalt pavements (RAP) subjected to been observed that rice husk ash is helpful in British Standard light. 7 190%. RHA content was increased Scrap tyres can be managed as a whole tyre. Lime sludge was added to soil 567 KPa for 20% addition of ash and 3% of lime [7]. For stabilization the laboratory tests like soaked and un-soaked CBR have optimum proportion of Soil: Rice husk ash: Marble been performed to evaluate the effects of the foreign dust was found to be 70: 10: 20. For studying.0. International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 National Conference on Advances in Engineering and Technology (AET. The RHA 2. when partially replaced by the maximum ash 80. Series of Gypsum after 14 days curing[5]. the was found to be 9% [4]. It was observed that the UCS of the expansive soil stabilized with optimum percentage of expansive soil has been increased by 548% with RHA. RHA content for the soil RHA and CBR stabilized expansive soil increased up to its maximum at RHA between (6 – 8) percent was to 20% addition of Marble dust.05% to soil. RHA addition is considered up 28 days curing and CBR was increased by 1350% to about 40%. 13. Waste tyre soil stabilization present in the soil [2].5% at 6% RHA content) compared with the CBR (soaked for 24 hours) can be used as sub-base or sub- of the natural soil (8. 6. increased by 97%. respectively. CBR improved by 47%. 12. 16 and 20% much marginal improvement in strength. BSL (standard Proctor). proved 10% respectively and subsequently reduced with to be promising alternative material [16]. Unconfined Compressive Stress a slit tyre. CBR. and 15%).5%) and soaked CBR also grade materials in road construction [15]. RHA was added to soil from 5 to 20% at increment and strength increased from 310 KPa to an increment of 5%.e. RHA was varied from 10 optimum amount of FA as 12%. RHA content was increased from 100 . the Marble dust was added from 0 to 30% at an addition of 20% RHA+5% lime + 3% Gypsum after increment of 5% [6]. stabilized with optimum percentage of RHA was Addition of RHA with soil. 3. Laboratory evaluation of the between (6 – 8) percent [9]. Further curing of samples has not shown parent clay and clay treated with 4. the optimum amount of RHA CBR tests [3]. increases at the optimum percentages of the stabilizers [11].75 mm . It was noticed dry weight of soil in steps of 5 percent. RHA was varied from 5 percent to 20 percent by 200% higher compared to raw soil [4]. were been reduced by 88% with the addition of 20% conducted.29th March 2014) percentages RHA (i. There is 228 % used for CBR test [9].The optimum amount percent to 40 percent by dry weight of soil in steps of of FA increased the soaked CBR by approximately 10 percent with 5 % of lime for curing period of 4.14% with increase in RHA content from 0% to content 7. The use of rice husk ash characteristics of rice hush ash (RHA) stabilized lowers the slope of virgin compression curves. The optimum rubber particle size (4. The UCS of the materials on virgin soil [8]. The reason for increment in results for the soil improvement with RHA in past CBR may be because of the gradual formation of few years. (100-150 mm in length) and crumb 0 to 12%. Specimens of of 14 days.075 mm) used as Maharishi Markandeshwar University 13 | P a g e . a very little amount of from 0 to 15% at an increment of 5%. Compressive strength optimum percentages of RHA and lime sludge for investigation carried out to propose use of RHA in to stabilization of expansive soil are 10% and 15% the cement stabilized rammed earth system [16]. The UCS of the soil stabilized with optimum and 14 for CBR and 4. 9 11. a shredded or chipped tyre (300 . 7 and 28 in RHA content for the soil to its maximum at RHA days of curing [11].25% (RHA) RAP/1.5% and stabilized with 10% cement. RHA content was found at 12% for both UCS and Based on UCS tests. cement compounds in the soil by the reaction between the RHA and some amounts of CaOH III.5% cement content. UCS. the effect of Marble dust on RHA+5%Lime. Samples by weight of rice husk ash passing 425 micron IS cured up to 14 days have shown continuous sieve [10]. For sandy improved [1]. reducing compression index and hence decreasing the determine the compaction characteristics and CBR consolidation settlement of the parent soil [10].2. The values was carried out [15]. Strength of soil after stabilization using stabilized RAP mix proportions with 89. Based on CBR and UCS tests.. Standard that the Free Swell Index of the expansive soil has Proctor Compaction tests. 8. CBR increased from 22. lime improves the soil property to a great extent [8].230 mm. from 0 to 12%. 14 and 28 days [7]. and 89% RAP/2% The improvement in the un-soaked CBR cement content with CBR values of 73 and 79% (18. One-dimensional increase in UCS and 293% increase in soaked CBR consolidation tests were conducted to determine the of virgin soil [6]. UCS tests. 7 and 28 days for UCS tests amount of FA has been found to be approximately [5]. These are further addition of RHA. CBR.460 mm.

range from 2. 10%) [22]. 1. 0.5 suitable fill material compared to other mixing ratios. The Rectangular 10×30 plate load test was conducted on the sandy soil [26]. polymers.4 Soil stabilization process using waste tyre works tyre applications of waste tyre are as (1) rubber Embankment construction with shredded or chipped Numerous experiments including index tyres. (CBR) was performed [24]. International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 National Conference on Advances in Engineering and Technology (AET.2MPa Limited data are available on the shear and 0.15 .14 27 higher than those of geogrid A.75% materials [31]. and bead or belt different fiber contents of 0%. Retaining walls construction with whole and slit A program of standard Proctor tests. The plate load tests and triaxial natural and synthetic rubber. .0. densities of 50%.2.5 kPa [31]. sulfur. the direct shear interaction coefficients. and 12%) [21]. internal friction angles were type is SP according to Unified Soil Classification found to range from 19o to 26o. Irregular 4 and 750µm 1.25%. density of tyre chips probably ranges from 570 kg/m3 The bauxite residue sand is mixed with three to 730 kg/m3. (4) and 50:50 by weight were used as fill materials [19]. 5-9. (5) Reinforcement in earth works. the rubber is blended with asphalt binder. 1. Plate load test performed for Table 3: Waste tyre rubber properties used by load settlement behaviour for different samples of different researchers sand with varied rubber content. Some compression tests and California bearing ratio tests properties of waste tyre are given in table 3 by some was carried out on specimens of the cohesive soil- of the researchers. thickness of rubber Shape Size (mm) Gs Reference soil layer and soil cap [25]. 5%. although the shear strength randomly with various percentages by weight up to characteristics of tyre chips vary according to the size 30% of sand and two different sizes of tyre chip. 50%) under normal environmental conditions.5B.6 mm). Fly ash and waste tyre rubber fibers 3. Vibratory compaction Shredded/Tyres are basically flat.12 19 reinforced with the rubber shreds at various relative Square 10×10. Chemical Properties were used to modify the clayey soil at four different Tyre chips and tyre shreds are nonreactive percentages of fly ash content (0%. tyre mixtures. fabrics. compaction tests. 1. Laboratory California Bearing Ratio ranged from 4.3 kPa to 11. The relative density of sand in tank was 66%.e. 40:60. 30% and 40%) and tyre powder (i. 60%.75-2. Mechanical Properties conditions with cell pressures of 0.03 23 weight or 50:50 by volume was found to be the most Ar=12.0B. Physical Properties to 20% by weight of the soil. Soil and shape of the chips. unconfined tyres. pigments.1MPa. 30:70. L=20 1. .5B and 2. In civil engineering 3. Strength of Soil after Stabilization by using . and 1. The soil has been Irregular 12-50 1.5. sand at relative densities of 70%. but additional tests were performed on waste tyre-fiber reinforced components include carbon black. Tyre chips are more finely and varying from 10% to 50% by weight [20]. Tyre chips have absorption values that different amounts (by weight) of tyre grains (i. pullout tests. and large-scale asphalt pavements. The and at three different percentages of fiber content principal chemical component of tyres is a blend of (0%. Since geogrid B has Square 50×50 . 80% and 90% with oil.16 24 The pullout resistance and the pullout interaction Rectangular B=10 25 coefficients of geogrid A were slightly higher than L=30-50 those of geogrid B. 9% crumb rubber is approximately 1. In contrast. The samples were tested under drained 3. 6%. in the direct shear Rectangular 65×300 1.1.0 to 3.0B.e. 28 the needed uniaxial reinforcement properties and its sufficient interaction characteristics with tyre chip– Maharishi Markandeshwar University 14 | P a g e . 26 resistance.1 21 tyre powder 3.27 and the efficiency values of geogrid B were slightly Angular 3. 4. Tyre chip–sand for the asphalt cement binder in a process in which mixtures with mixing ratios of 0:100. paraffin. while cohesion values System (USCS). (3) Crumb rubber as a modifier direct shear tests were conducted. 0. 70% and 80% provided at and 10×20. tyre chip mixed strength of tyre chips.3. In this research.50%.8 percent. The compacted loading consolidated drained triaxial were performed. irregularly shaped. tests and direct shear tests were conducted on the The average compacted density ranges from 650 cohesionless soil-tyre mixtures by adding tyre chips kg/m3 to 840 kg/m3. Repeated uniformly sized than tyre shreds. (2) Rubber as a fine aggregate substitute in tests. 0.05 22 waste tyre rubber The mixture at the mixing ratio of 30:70 by Strips L=25.0%.29th March 2014) asphalt modifier (0. 10-20 1. 0. 1. 20%.4MPa [23].15 [31].5 1. by varying tyre chips content from 5% 3. The specific gravity of 10%. 35%.02. 20 different depths of 0.

Robert M. of highly plastic clay stabilised with rice Rice husk ash is source of silica has numerous husk ash”. embankment and retaining wall. 2009. The applications may be feasible to consume the scrap interaction coefficients between the tyre chip–sand tyres. Using waste tyres in geotechnical engineering 2014.M.92 in direct waste can effectively use as soil reinforcement shear mode for geogrid B [19]. [9] Mohammed Y. 4(6). were optimum for composite strength of the two reinforced soil mixtures [20]. 12-18. A minimum SRF [8] Sabyasachi Biswas. ash an agricultural waste can be effectively used for [10] Ashwani Jain. Adding 30% REFERENCES tyre-grains to bauxite residue sand seems to lead to [1] Musa Alhassan. Conclusion clayey soil characteristics using rice husk On the basis of literature survey carried out ash”. 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