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ARTICLE

Volumetric behavior of unsaturated soils

Eduardo Rojas and Omar Chávez

**Abstract: An elastoplastic framework to account for the volumetric behavior of unsaturated soils is proposed herein. The
**

proposed equation is based on the effective stress principle and results in a unifying framework for the volumetric behavior for

Can. Geotech. J. Downloaded from www.nrcresearchpress.com by CONCORDIA UNIV on 06/08/13

both saturated and unsaturated soils. The results of the proposed equation are compared with experimental results published by

different researchers. These comparisons show that the equation is adequate to account for wetting–drying and net stress

loading–unloading paths. In addition, the collapse upon wetting phenomenon can be simulated and the critical state for

unsaturated soils coincides with the proposed volumetric framework. This analysis conﬁrms that the effective stress principle

can be applied to the volumetric behavior of unsaturated soils.

Key words: volumetric behavior, unsaturated soils, effective stress.

Résumé : Cet article présente une proposition de concept élastoplastique qui tient compte du comportement volumique des sols

non saturés. L'équation proposée est basée sur le principe de la contrainte effective, et génère un concept uniﬁé du comporte-

ment volumique pour les sols saturés et non saturés. Les résultats de l'équation proposée sont comparés avec des résultats

expérimentaux publiés par différents chercheurs. Ces comparaisons démontrent que l'équation est adéquate pour considérer le

mouillage–séchage et les cheminements de contrainte nette en chargement–déchargement. De plus, le phénomène

d'effondrement suite au mouillage peut être simulé, et l'état critique des sols non saturés coïncide avec l'approche volumique

proposée. L'analyse conﬁrme que le principe de la contrainte effective peut être appliqué au comportement volumique des sols

non saturés. [Traduit par la Rédaction]

For personal use only.

Mots-clés : comportement volumique, sols non saturés, contrainte effective.

**Introduction suction, respectively, in a semi-logarithmic plane; p and dp repre-
**

Different approaches have been proposed to simulate the volu- sent the apparent pre-consolidation mean net stress at the current

metric behavior of unsaturated soils. Two of the main trends are suction and its increment, respectively; s and ds are the maximum

the independent stress–variables approach and the single stress– previous suction and its increment, respectively; and patm is the

variable approach. In the former, two different coefﬁcients are atmospheric pressure. This expression allows great ﬂexibility in

used to account for the contribution of net stress and suction on the simulation of the volumetric behavior of unsaturated soils. It

the volumetric behavior. In the latter, a single volumetric coefﬁ- is common to express vp as a function of suction while vs is

cient is related to a single stress variable (in most cases referred as considered constant. However, the experimental results indicate

the effective stress) to simulate the volumetric behavior. that vp must also depend on the mean net stress while vs must

One of the main advantages in using the single stress approach depend on both the mean net stress and suction (see, for example,

is that the hydromechanical coupling observed in unsaturated Fleureau et al. 1993; Futai and Almeida 2005). In that sense, the

soils is implicit in the formulation. The simulation of the phenom- expressions for vp and vs might become more complex than it

enon of collapse upon wetting was one of the main objections to seems. Another disadvantage of this expression is that there is not

this approach. However, it is presently acknowledged that the a smooth transition between saturated and unsaturated states

simulation of this phenomenon requires, in addition to the effec- (Sheng 2011). Examples of this approach are the models developed

tive stress equation, an appropriate elastoplastic framework. In by Alonso et al. (1990), Wheeler and Sivakumar (1995), and Thu

contrast, the independent stress–variables approach in combina- et al. (2007), among others.

tion with a suction-hardening elastoplastic framework clearly ex- The second approach can be written in the following general

plains the phenomenon of collapse upon wetting while the form:

implementation of the hydromechanical coupling has been in-

cluded in different degrees (Vaunat et al. 2000; Galipoli et al. 2003; v dp

[2] dv ⫽ ⫺

Wheeler et al. 2003; Sun et al. 2007b). v p

The ﬁrst approach has the following general form for the elas-

toplastic volumetric strain increment dv:

where v represents the slope of the compression curve in the

关 兴

1 dp ds axes of the logarithm of the effective mean stress versus speciﬁc

[1] dv ⫽ ⫺ ⫹ vs volume, and p= and dp= represent the pre-consolidation effective

v vp p (s ⫹ patm)

stress and its increment, respectively. If parameter v is expressed

as a function of suction alone, it shows decreasing values with

where v is the speciﬁc volume of the soil; vp and vs are the slopes increasing suction. This, however, contradicts the experimental

of the compression curves related to the mean net stress and results (Sheng 2011). To avoid this contradiction, v should be

**Received 14 September 2012. Accepted 24 January 2013.
**

E. Rojas and O. Chávez. Universidad Autónoma de Querétaro, Facultad de Ingeniería, Centro Universitario, Cerro de las Campanas, CP: 76010, Querétaro, Qro, Mexico.

Corresponding author: Eduardo Rojas (e-mail: erg@uaq.mx).

Can. Geotech. J. 50: 209–222 (2013) dx.doi.org/10.1139/cgj-2012-0341 Published at www.nrcresearchpress.com/cgj on 5 March 2013.

to shrink following the same law as for the saturated material. This framework deals only with air-entry value. soils based on the single stress–variable approach. 2007b. values of the parameter v ranging between −0. therefore. Geotech. in troduction to some extent of the hydromechanical coupling which case the volumetric behavior for stresses in the range of through the parameter sa. civil engineering interest (between 0. ent values of the compression index v and for an initial void ratio ported in the international literature. if the mean (2012). 2013 共兲 v written as a function of the mean net stress. A more likely relationship would involve the void ratio in- two trends using two different volumetric parameters in conjunc- stead of the speciﬁc volume. In other words. and Zhou et al. Under isotropic stress states and the term suction refers only to matric these conditions. of water appears among the solid particles. This means that the material experi- eq.05 and −0. Proposed equation According to these descriptions. Therefore. a signiﬁcant number of pores become dry. the stability of the large pores as if the pre-consolidation stress of the soil had been increased. In that sense. The greater the applied suction. the shrinkage of these pores ment in the stress integration of the constitutive model. tropic stress applied to the material. Koliji et al. When suction surpasses the cluded into the formulation. Finally. Integration of the above equation results in [4] vs ⫽ sa ⫹ 1 vp s ≥ sa 共兲 s⫹1 e p e [8] ⫽ e0 p 0 where sa represents the saturation suction (i. Borja 2002. Kohler and Hofstetter (2008). To that purpose. However. the soil behaves as an overconsolidated material. 2008a): negative values. Sun et al. when suction increases.1 and 10 MPa) can be approx- sion indexes vs and vp can be related using eq. (2004). it exhibits the following relationship (Sheng et al. (1993). this approach results in a unifying framework for saturated and For the second type of test. This solid–porous v p model can be built with the information provided by the grain- size distribution (GSD) and the pore-size distribution (PSD) of the Integration of the above equation results in material. Loret and Khalili (2002). different imated by straight lines.com by CONCORDIA UNIV on 06/08/13 [3] dv ⫽ ⫺ vp vs where e represents the slope of the compression line in a loga- Parameter vs can be written as a function of vp according to rithmic plane of effective stresses versus void ratio and. suction has the same effect as an iso- tribution of water into the pores of the material needs to be in. [3] shows a concavity (see Fig. because the void ratio reduces with increasing effective stress. eq. Casini volume v0 in the virgin consolidation line. In these conditions. In this case. 1). (2008a) proposed a combination of these where e is the void ratio) tends to zero.02 MPa. approaches can be used for more general cases. comes larger than the air-entry value. a solid–porous model capable for the ﬁrst case as long as suction remains below the air-entry of simulating the soil-water retention curve (SWRC) and the dis.e. Another possibility is to write v as a function [6] ⫽ v0 p of the degree of saturation (Sheng 2011). Vol. the yield surface be analyzed mainly through the results of two types of tests: iso- generated with eq. although the two compres. When suction be- Zhang and Zhou 2008). the volumetric strain by net stress or suction increase depends on both the current net where e0 is the initial void ratio. the soil behaves as saturated.. [3] cannot be integrated and therefore requires special treat- ences suction-hardening. a great quantity of menisci culties in obtaining a unique response. it is dv dp desirable to generate a solid–porous model capable of evaluating [5] dv ⫽ ⫽ ⫺ v these parameters during wetting–drying cycles. 50. the model duce additional contact stresses between the solids.nrcresearchpress. 210 Can. Hoyos and Arduino 2008. In addition. Geotech. effective stress p= becomes very large. (2010). in the form of tion with a stress parameter that accounts for the effects of both net stress and suction in the form de dp [7] ⫽ e 共p dp⫹ s兲 ⫺ (p ds⫹ s) e p Can. ric response of unsaturated materials requires the quantiﬁcation ing equation for the volumetric behavior of saturated soils: of the area of solids affected by the menisci of water and the pores that remain saturated at a certain suction. can only be produced by applying further increments of the mean The aim of this paper is to present an elastoplastic framework net stress. air-entry value. Furthermore. Sheng et al. Although. this concavity poses some difﬁ.14 at a mean effective stress of 0. for ex. The results of the ﬁrst type of transition between saturated and unsaturated states (see. their volumetric behavior can the mean net stress axis versus suction plane. all saturated pores tend suction. and suction. the evaluation of the volumet- Juárez-Badillo (1975) and Butterﬁeld (1979) proposed the follow. A similar expression was proposed by Sheng et al. stress and the current suction. Most soils show One of the most important features of this equation is the in. J. J. the speciﬁc volume (v = 1 + e. The effective stress ap- proach has been used in the models proposed by Khogo et al. Downloaded from www. Recently. In fact most tropic loading by net stress increase at constant suction and suc- constitutive models for unsaturated soils show a concavity at the tion increase at constant net stress. (2012). the pre-consolidation v p 0 stress. [3] can more accu. Sun et al. When plotted in For the case of unsaturated soils.3. the larger the mean net that can be used to model the volumetric behavior of unsaturated stress required for the shrinkage of these pores. test can be summarized as follows: when suction is below the ample. all dry pores tend not to react to suction changes. Sheng et al. increasing can simulate the phenomenon of collapse upon wetting. value. the value of suc- tion at the air-entry value). this can be solved numer. 1. These menisci pro- ically. Figure 2 shows the plot of this equation in the axes of the logarithm of the mean effective stress versus void ratio for differ- rately reproduce the volumetric response of unsaturated soils re- For personal use only. the soil behaves exactly the same as unsaturated soils. among others. where p 0 represents the initial effective stress corresponding to a (2007b). Published by NRC Research Press . equal to 1. which is clearly undesir- able. [4]. 兵 (2008b) for the volumetric behavior of sands upon isotropic load- vp s ⬍ sa ing. By following stress path ABCD shown in Fig. as is commonly done. On the contrary.

At this point. 3. mesopores. as Futai and Almeida (2005) and Simms Now. (2008a) for the volumetric behavior of soils. adsorbed water layer. Mono. These pores are arches. the porous model can simulate both bimodal materials usually show a bimodal distribution. which depend greatly on volume of solids (Vsi ) to the volume of pores (Viv) of that speciﬁc Published by NRC Research Press . They found that most of the macropores re. In this case. With further suction incre- duce in size and transform into smaller pores at the end of these ments. a dry fraction emerges in the soil sample. consider a saturated soil made of a mixture of sand and and Yanful (2001) have done. The macropores are cavities that show another type called bonds. These researchers used the mercury clay subjected to successive increments of suction. Rojas and Chávez 211 Fig. as is observed in the experimental results shown later. 3. Each one of these fractions (f i) is obtained by adding the well-deﬁned structures with diverse PSDs. When suction intrusion porosimetry (MIP) test to compare the PSD before and becomes large enough. Geotech. therefore. their equilibrium tween solid particles. Bimodal GSDs usually generate bimodal PSDs. meaning that they remain saturated even at Sometimes soils show a monomodal size distribution similar to. Both macropores and mesopores constitute Both macropores and mesopores are interconnected by pores of the cavities of the material. it is sufﬁcient to show two crests (Simms and Yanful 2002): one corresponding to consider that macropores do not exist in the porous structure of the the macropores or large pores and the other to the mesopores or material. they adopt saturated. meaning that they and monomodal structured soils. the ﬁrst pores to dry are the largest ones after testing a soil. ever the solid grains do not show any relevant porosity. particles are saturated. Downloaded from www. where only some of the pores surrounding the solids are soils showing uniform GSD. Micropore the GSD of the material. for very large suctions. throats or micropores. Mesopore Macropore Solid For personal use only. This can be con. All these ﬁrmed by analyzing the PSD of different soils before and after elements are shown schematically in Fig. and compression index. the mesopores have the characteristic of being smaller On the contrary. Soil structure: macropores. 1. macropores are absent exhibit three different fractions: one is the dry fraction (f d). When slurries start to dry. which are al- special arrangements of solid particles in the form of vaults or ways smaller than the cavities they connect. Therefore. Volumetric behavior of saturated soils for different values of Fig. micropores. These bimodal or monomodal structures are also reﬂected in the shape of The studies on the PSD of compacted soils indicate that these the SWRCs. medium-size pores. 2. dry pores. unsaturated soils can example. performing triaxial tests.com by CONCORDIA UNIV on 06/08/13 1350 A Mean net stress Fig.nrcresearchpress. uniform dense sands. the smallest bonds and mesopores located inside than their surrounding solids. J. located at the boundaries of the soil. These pores have the characteristic of being larger than formed by the throats or necks that appear at the contacts be- the solid particles forming the pore. therefore. the ﬁnal one is the unsaturated fraction modal size distributions can also be obtained from slurries made of (f u). In contrast. and are the smallest pores of the soils when- is precarious upon isotropic loading or shearing. Sucon B C Evoluon of the yield surface Zero shear D strength line Can. which in any case is small compared saturated fraction (f s). in general. In the last case. more bonds and cavities connected to the dry pores start to tests. Model proposed by Sheng et al. where from the soil and as such all volumetric deformation is generated by solids are surrounded exclusively by dry pores. In any case. where all the pores surrounding the solid with the volumetric response of a bimodal structured soil. another is the the shrinkage of mesopores. they are very stable and in the packets of clay can be smaller or equal to the thickness of the general maintain their size upon isotropic loading or shearing. solids. They concluded that macropores are responsible for most of dry and eventually some solids appear completely surrounded by the volumetric response of soils.

In that sense. at this point. Geotech. Romero et al. Downloaded from www. the mean effective stress p= shape as the drying path. but this could not be the case. It can be argued (as Sheng (2011) does) that the term in parentheses can be written as experimental procedure used to obtain the LCYS considers that the soil initially behaves elastically during the loading stage after [13] f s ⫹ Sw u u i i f ⫽ ⌺iSw f drying (suction-hardening). param. rated (s) or unsaturated (u). each sample undergoes a f d shows a nil degree of saturation and therefore does not appear different hardening given by the quantity s and therefore the in eq. the effect of an increment of suction is the same as an soil becomes unsaturated. 212 Can. In loading paths are represented by a family of curves in the axes of other words. duces the hardening of the LCYS. In the same way. 4b). In addition to eq. The volume of saturated (Vss) or dried (Vsd) solids is obtained by the index is affected by parameter . The for saturated soils (f s = 1. Following the descriptions of the volumetric behavior of unsat. When this sample is subjected to a suction s. Geotech. This applied on a representative section of an unsaturated soil. The development of these fractions which is equal to one. the LCYS adopts this same increment of the mean net stress (term sf s in eq. [12]) because in shape and displaces the quantity s on the mean effective stress s this case Sw ⫽ 1. it certainly plays a role during V mean net stress increase as in this case all fractions contribute equally to the volumetric deformation of the soil. The evolution of the LCYS with suction can be written as is shown in Fig. 4a) crosses the initial yield surface with Bishop's parameter deﬁned by the following relationship generating a plastic deformation. The frame- their volumetric behavior can be represented by the same rela. [12]. for mean net stress or suction increase although. whether it be It is noteworthy that eq. it is hypothesized that unsaturated soils requires an elastoplastic framework. [8]) while their net stress (Fig. [8] uses the same compressive index e wetting or drying. unsaturated soils reported by different researchers (Wheeler and eter depends on the particular structure of the soil. These curves are similar to the volumetric response of degree of saturation for all three fractions. The and Vanapalli 2010).com by CONCORDIA UNIV on 06/08/13 adding the volume of all solids that are completely surrounded by tion of pores affected by suction changes. respectively. respectively. respec. whereas for the unsaturated fraction. work considered herein is sketched in Fig. the modeling of the volumetric behavior of urated soils and their porous structure. satu. the soil is water and the volume of voids of the unsaturated fraction. rated and unsaturated states. for The above equation represents the mean effective stress im. it [12] p ⫽ p ⫹ s(f s ⫹ Sw u u f ) adopts the same shape of the LCYS experimentally determined by different researchers when suction-hardening is accepted (see. material. eq. the drying path initially tion by its degree of saturation. [12] is multiplied by the sum of all three fractions. Vol. When these results are plotted on the axes of main retention curves. included in the solid–porous model through the GSD and the Sheng et al. If. Infante Sedano posed on the solid skeleton by both net stress and suction. Only the analysis of more experimental results would give light to this issue. wetted up to saturation. This displacement depends on the increment of the [11] ⫽ f s ⫹ Sw u u f effective stress applied to the soil and is represented by the matric stress s. line in the mean net stress plane and therefore it shows the same According to the previous equation. Thus. According to this framework. eq. According to eq. 4a. when eq. This agrees with the description of the depends on the GSD. a set Published by NRC Research Press . A normally effective stress is given by Bishop's equation consolidated soil sample exhibits a loading collapse yield surface (LCYS) represented by a line forming an angle of 135° with the [10] p ⫽ p ⫹ s mean net stress axis as established by Sheng (2011) (Fig. The inﬂuence of the structure of the soil the logarithm of the mean effective stress versus void ratio. 4b. Futai and Almeida 2005. it can be inferred that distribution of stresses among the different phases when a load is the pre-consolidation stress has increased in the quantity s. net stress that produces the same volumetric plastic deformation saturated fraction of the soil while Vwu and Vvu are the volume of generated during the drying of the soil. Equation [11] has been obtained from the analysis of the not affect the position of the LCYS. 2013 fraction divided by the total volume of the material (V). Futai and Almeida 2005. Even if the dry fraction does not play any role in the volumetric Vsi ⫹ Vvi behavior of the soil during suction increase nor appears in the [9] fi ⫽ determination of parameter . example. 4a). the dry fraction tests performed at constant suction.nrcresearchpress. Similarly. the effect of axis as shown in Fig. [13] represents a weighted degree of saturation of the logarithm of the mean net stress versus void ratio as shown in the soil obtained by adding the product of the fraction by its Fig. for this last case. In other words. This means that where superscript i represents the type of fraction: dry (d). 2007. 4a) and mean effective stress (Fig. the drying path (repre- sented by a vertical line in Fig. [8] is plotted for a set of u u tion of this fraction (term sSw f in eq. the mean effective stress of all pores surrounding saturated or dry solids. This plastic deformation pro- (Rojas 2008a): For personal use only. meaning that suction has no effect on this fraction. the term p in eq. J. meaning that there is a smooth transition between satu- unsaturated fraction. the value of suction applied to the experimental behavior of unsaturated soils provided before. s represents the increment of the mean where Sw u ⫽ Vwu/Vvu represents the degree of saturation of the un. f u = 0) becomes Terzaghi's mean effective remaining solids (Vsu) and their surrounding pores (Vuv ) form the stress. 2008b). 5a. 50. it follows an elastic unloading that does tively. [8] saturated or dry pores. [8]. which represents the propor- Can. Thu et al. This term represents the addition of the product of every frac. 2003. The means that the hardened LCYS can be represented by a vertical detailed procedure can be consulted in Rojas (2008a). In other words. In the axis of the mean effective stress. an increment of suction is proportional to the degree of satura. [12]. which displaces to the right- hand side. in the and the hysteresis of the SWRC on parameter was recognized by form Bishop in 1960 (Bishop 1960). [12]). and the direction of the suction path. Finally. If the intersecting points of this surface with the loadings paths followed during net stress increase at different suctions are linked together by a line (ﬁne dotted line in Fig. which is Sivakumar 1995. 4a). This means that for the saturated shows a slope of 45° and then deviates from this direction as the fraction. J. 4 in the axes of mean tionship established for saturated materials (eq. the volume represents a single compression curve for both net stress and of saturated (Vsv) or dry (Vdv ) pores is obtained by adding the volume suction increase. the PSD.

Bishop's parameter . (a) Sucon Elasc reloading during mean net Inial LCYS stress increase aer drying Drying path Yield surface reported from experimental results s4 LC yield surface at the s3 end of the drying stage Can. f u. [8] trans. suction-hardening is difﬁ- mum at certain suction and then decreases as will be shown cult to observe in soils showing small ranges of suction. be built. In general. J. Downloaded from www. the amount of suction-hardening also depends on these happen eventually when the soil attains large suctions during a curves. For such a case. This behavior happens when the mean net stress applied to tive stress. Because parameter depends on the SWRCs of the the soil reduces while suction remains constant. Elastic behavior of the material occurs when the current mean u effective stress is smaller than the maximum mean effective To determine the values of f s. 5b. and Sw required to obtain stress experienced by the soil. Evolution of LCYS during drying in the (a) mean net stress axis and (b) mean effective stress axis. Inial LC Elasc reloading during yield surface mean net stress increase aer drying s4 s4 LC yield surface at s3 the end of the drying stage Evoluon of the LC s2 yield surface with s1 sucon 450 s1 Mean eﬀecve stress s2 s3 s4 p*0i 共兲 e of curves. loading collapse.com by CONCORDIA UNIV on 06/08/13 s2 Evoluon of the LC yield 135 0 surface with sucon s1 s1 Mean net stress s2 s3 s4 (b) Drying path Sucon For personal use only. the e p data reported by Futai and Almeida 2005 for a particular soil were [14] ⫽ e0 p 0 used to establish the values of Bishop's parameter at different suctions as is shown below. as those shown in Fig. Published by NRC Research Press . these curves can be assim- ilated to parallel straight lines for small ranges of the mean effec.nrcresearchpress. Rojas and Chávez 213 ∗ Fig. In this case. initial pre- consolidation stress. 4. is obtained. and the relationship in eq. p0i . a solid–porous model able to simulate the comes the slope of the unloading–re-loading stress path e (which SWRCs and the distribution of water in the pores of soil needs to also shows negative values). parameter e be. soils showing large ranges of suction exhibit drying path because the mean effective stress reaches a maxi- large suction-hardening. In contrast. later. but this may material. Geotech. In general. LC. A succinct description of the solid–porous model adopted forms into herein is provided in the next section.

The pores are interconnected. Then. respectively. Thus the volume of saturated pores can be determined mined from the GSD of the material using the same procedure. With fur- Published by NRC Research Press . f u. it is possible to Solid–porous model simulate the retention curves of the soil and ﬁnd the values of u A complete description of the solid–porous model employed in parameters f s. can saturate. Similarly. However. is the contact lines linking these nodes represent the throats. The solids are angle between the ﬂuid and the solid particles. be used to obtain the PSD. because cavities are always larger than throats. it is considered that all a number of constant size–range columns. Geotech. identiﬁed. a construction principle has to be es.or three-dimensional [16] ua ⫺ uw ⫽ 2Ts(cos) /rc network made of the four distinct elements already mentioned: macropores. bonds. Solid–porous model. Numerical volumetric behavior of soils related to (a) mean Fig. 6. In a imum radius for a pore to remain saturated at the current suction.nrcresearchpress. The cavities are placed where ua and uw are the air and water pressures. bonds. and rc is the max- placed in the spaces left by cavities and throats (see Fig. that suction is very large. MIP or scanning electron micrograph (SEM) techniques can linked to the bulk of water to saturate. Once the solid–porous model has been built. The ﬁrst pore that saturates is the smallest throat located at column represents the volume of the pores of a certain range. J. The solids are also placed at random. The ﬁrst pore to dry are concurrent to a cavity. exchanges of bonds and cavities with other nodes are performed until this principle is fulﬁlled everywhere in the network. three-dimensional network. This strategy ensures that large solids are placed around large pores and small solids around small pores. because all network the cavities are circles and the throats. and solids. For that purpose it is considered that the this paper can be found elsewhere (Rojas 2008b). all pores connected mined by its size. mesopores. comply with eq. Can. and rs represent the radius of the two contiguous bonds and that of the cavity. All for each value of suction and the wetting retention curve can be cavities and bonds are distributed at random in the network. 50. Because the volume of a single pore is deter. at the same bidimensional network. during a drying process all pores are ini- cavities and they should not superpose one to the other when they tially saturated and suction increases by steps. Ts at the nodes of the network whereas the horizontal and vertical represents the tension of the gas–ﬂuid interface. The the boundaries of the model. In the nodes where the construction principle is not respected. the number of solids of each size is deter. 5. 6. With further reduction in suction. This procedure is intended to approximately simulate the structure of real soils. How- tablished to ensure that the network is physically possible. larger bonds and the smallest cavities connected to these throats sponding range. 6). [16] can be obtained. while for a two-dimensional could saturate during a wetting process. rectangles.com by CONCORDIA UNIV on 06/08/13 bonds connected to a cavity at an angle of 90° (b1 and b2 in Fig. net stress and (b) mean effective stress. The mined by the Laplace equation. and Sw . the solids are placed at the voids between cavities and For personal use only. J. is the largest throat located at the boundaries of the model. ﬁlling and drying of pores subjected to a certain suction is deter- scription of the main aspects of the model is provided here. the cavities are represented by This means that all pores with a radius equal to or smaller than rc spheres and the throats by cylinders. respectively. However. [16]. besides complying with eq. the number of pores of each size can be to saturated pores that. Geotech. 2013 Fig. the PSD curve is subdivided into At the beginning of a wetting process. Once the porous network has been built. only a brief de. For each decrement in suction. In a ever. rb2. pore size assigned to each column is the mean size of the corre. only the most external throats and solids of the model are communi- cated to the boundaries as shown in Fig. The total area below pores are dry. It can be built as a regular two. In addition. Downloaded from www. which is written as solid–porous model is intended to roughly simulate the structure of real soils. but following a size strategy. 214 Can. as throats should always be smaller than their linked In the same manner. built. in addition. Vol. and that it reduces by the curve represents the total volume of voids and the area of each steps. this principle states that two contiguous time as this bond dries its connected cavity also dries. 6) should comply with the following condition to avoid overlapping: 2 2 [15] rb1 ⫹ rb2 ≤ rs2 where rb1. pores number of pores of each size can be deﬁned from the PSD of the must be connected to an element that is already saturated and soil.

it is taken into account that values of parameters f s. Results for Montmorillonite clay: (a) ﬁtting of SWRCs. and dry fractions and thus obtain the u obtained. and (d) volumetric behavior by suction increase (experimental data from Fleureau et al. fu. but not for the reten- size distribution of cavities (Haines 1929).com by CONCORDIA UNIV on 06/08/13 For personal use only. process. than their concurrent bonds. pores to dry are the largest (cavities) while the smallest (bonds) An important drawback to the solid–porous model is that u require larger values of suction to dry. (2006) can that of cavities that it is extremely difﬁcult to differentiate one be used. In general. a similar approach to that used by Koliji et al. Can. when a bond dries. the ﬁrst tion. and Sw have not been experimentally veriﬁed. the ways possible to introduce the changes in the PSD while the PSD of a porous material obtained from an MIP test or the image volumetric response of the soil sample progresses because macro- analysis of SEM solely reports the size distribution of cavities. Therefore. This is because the ﬁrst tion curves. to intrude a cavity. This pores and cavities are considered as different entities. tion of X-ray and neutron tomography techniques that may be ties) require further reduction in the value of suction to saturate. the cavity to However. the size distribution of macroscopic results can be used to validate the model. Additionally. the evolution of the PSD during the progress of from the other. 1993). smaller bonds and their connected to. comparisons between experimental and numerical which it is connected also dries. Rojas and Chávez 215 Fig. mercury pressure than the cavity. However. f u. In that the drying curve depends primarily on the size distribution of sense. pores larger than rc will dry only if they are rate. During this ting process. it is possible to quantify the volume of voids being dried For the ﬁtting process it is desirable to obtain the SWRCs from for each increment of suction and build the drying retention samples that have been subjected to the same equalization stress curve of the material. For this happens because the volume of bonds is so small compared with purpose. and Sw as required in eq. it is numerical SWRCs to the experimental curves. there is a lack of experimental needs to ﬁrst intrude a linking bond. In addition. f u. path prior to the volumetric test itself to include the initial struc- These curves can be compared with the experimental results to ture of the soil in the solid–porous model. in the test is required to validate the procedure adopted for the general. and . Rojas 2008b). Therefore. important improvements have been made on the combina- pores to saturate are the smallest (bonds) while the larger (cavi. when a cavity saturates. 7. unsaturated. During this ﬁtting process. which requires a larger data on this issue. ther increments of suction. Unfortunately. Geotech. helpful in providing results with respect to this issue in the near Because all bonds are smaller than the cavity they are connected future. Suw. mercury pore-size reduction. report smaller pore sizes as. (c) parameters fs. For that reason. PSDs obtained from MIP tests. In contrast. Therefore. In addi- bonds regulates the drying retention curve. the size distribution of cavities regulates the wet- connected to an element that has already been dried. Downloaded from www. all of its concurrent bonds also satu- cavities dry. This process can be possible to determine the volume of solids and pores pertaining to accomplished by successively modifying an initially proposed PSD for both cavities and bonds until the best ﬁt for both curves is the saturated. J. a more practi- As the solid–porous model simulates the distribution of water cal procedure to obtain the PSD of a material is by ﬁtting the in the pores of the material at each increment of suction. it is al- validate the model (see. (b) numerical PSD and experimental GSD. [12]. for example. the role of the GSD in the solid–porous model is essential bonds while the wetting curve depends for the most part on the for the determination of these parameters.nrcresearchpress. Because cavities are larger parameters f s. Published by NRC Research Press .

and obtained from the solid–porous model during a dry- ing path. These results umetric behavior during isotropic loading tests on samples were obtained with e = −0. a small change in the number of saturated elements produces important changes in the value of this param- eter. it reduces to become nil at large suctions. Vol. and bonds). The relative volume is the volume of pores (or solids) of a certain size divided For personal use only. Figure 9c shows the values of response of the loam in the form of slurry following a drying path parameter obtained from eq. data included the GSD. The PSD of the soil was inferred by ﬁtting the numerical SWRCs with the experimental results according to the aforemen- tioned procedure. paper technique. Sw . [8] adequately simulates the volumetric behavior of the Finally. Downloaded from www. [11]. Figure 8a shows the ﬁtting of the wetting suctions. (W) and drying (D) SWRCs. Figure 7c shows the values of parameters f s.36. u f u . It can be observed that the saturated fraction starts reducing at very low suctions while the dry fraction only appears at very large suctions. whereas the unsaturated fraction increases up to a certain point and then decreases to become nil at very large suctions. the results of various tests performed on different net stresses (experimental data from Fleureau et al. f u. and the water content with the value of suction were determined.12. f d. With the numerical PSD. the degree u of saturation of the unsaturated fraction Sw shows important ﬂuc- tuations at low values of suction. Figure 9 shows the results of isotropic compres- Following the same procedure the results of the Sterrebeek sion tests done on gneiss samples subjected to three different loam were simulated. a variety of materials and for different loading conditions were employed. Finally. f u. the value of parameters f s. in which the ison between numerical and experimental results for the experimental results of an MIP test are also included and compare volumetric behavior of this material. Also Can. the value of is com.nrcresearchpress.06 and 0. at a certain point. Futai and Almeida (2005) reported the results of different tests For each increment of suction.com by CONCORDIA UNIV on 06/08/13 the GSD and both SWRCs for some of these materials were re- ported. To evaluate the proposed framework for the volumetric behav. 9b. In contrast. the effective stress was computed using eq. 8c presents the compar. With these parameters.2 MPa. 8. 50. (2008). For both cases. Notice the similarity in shape of these two curves as has already been pointed out by Alonso et al. showing a continuous increase and. and (c) volumetric behavior by suction increase at two ior of unsaturated soils. cavities.2 MPa. Finally.5 times its liquid limit. J. Additional Swu were obtained. the volumetric well with the numerical results. Results for Sterrebeek loam: (a) ﬁtting of the SWRCs. the PSD obtained from MIP tests. 2013 Numerical and experimental results comparison Fig. the values of u parameters f s. Fig. and Sw were determined as a function of suction for both the wetting and drying paths. Geotech. by the total volume of pores (or solids). (b) parameter . experimental GSD. and performed on undisturbed samples of a residual soil. it can be said that subjected to different suctions. With the results of these tests. resulted in the numerical PSD shown in Fig. [8]. the degree of saturation. Fig. 7d. eq. The ﬁtting of the SWRCs is shown in Fig. and void ratio. This slurry was con- solidated in an oedometric cell with vertical stresses ranging between 0. (1993) prepared different clayey soils at a water content of 1. and both puted and the new void ratio is calculated. the numerical prediction and the experimental results material. Therefore. [12] and the numerical volumetric response of the material was derived from eq. It can also be observed that parameter is closely related to the saturated fraction of the soil. of the volumetric behavior upon drying are compared in Fig. Only when the number of elements of this fraction is large enough does the curve become smooth. This happens because most of the soil is still saturated at these values of suction and the unsat- urated fraction (represented by those solids and their surround- ing pores showing a combination of saturated and dry pores) is composed of a small number of elements (solids. It can be noted that although Published by NRC Research Press . These results were SWRCs obtained by combining the suction plate and the ﬁlter obtained with e = −0. Fleureau et al. with these parameters. Then the samples followed a drying– wetting path where suction was controlled using the axis transla- tion technique for low suctions and the vapor circulation technique for large suctions. Figure 8b shows the values for param. J. Figure 7b represents the numerical PSD obtained at the end of the ﬁtting process along with the experimental GSD of the material in the axes of size versus relative volume. 9d shows the com- was determined for two different initial conditions: at zero net parison between numerical and experimental results for the vol- stress and a pre-consolidated net stress of 0. 1993). 216 Can. the variations of the void ratio. This ﬁtting process eter at wetting and drying. Geotech. Using this model. the solid–porous model was built. Figure 7a shows the ﬁtting of the SWRCs for a Montmorillonite clay. 9a. In this case.

Results for residual gneiss: (a) ﬁtting of the SWRCs. 2006.1 MPa and p0 = 0. With these values it is possible to obtain the numerical vol- eq. 9d it can be noticed that the theoretical pre-consolidation ﬁnally reduces again while suction keeps reducing. 10% London clay. Vanapalli et al. Rojas and Chávez 217 Fig. and 70% silica were reported and simulated by Vlahinic´ et al. the model adequately simulates the volumetric behavior experimental results are shown in Fig.5 times its liquid limit.3 MPa. 10a. The numerical results were obtained with Similar tests were performed by Cunningham et al. This same behavior is observed in the tensional controlled using the air circulation technique and was measured strength of soils (Fredlund et al. From that point. 2009. Can. the matric stress (represented in this ﬁgure by the product s) The pre-consolidation stress of the material in saturated condi. Vlahinic´ et al. This happens because as suction increases. The observed if suction is increased sufﬁciently (see. 9c resulting in = 0. Similar results mixture of 20% speswhite kaolin. The soil samples were then trimmed maximum value and then a reduction of the strength can be from this pre-consolidated soil mass to the appropriate size. the matric stress reaches its maxi- Fig. (c) values of parameter .3 MPa. The values this ﬁgure. when the matric stress reduces after reaching its maximum value. From the results shown then increases (but never reaches the drying maximum value) and in Fig. 10d. 10. 10c. When the which produced the following pre-consolidation stresses: p0 = 0. Downloaded from www. This reduction of the effec- of 1. (2009) and Blight silt.31 for s = 0. tive stress during drying can also be observed in the experimental consolidated in a 20. 1996). 9d. per technique. the value of drying stage. as shown in Fig.04. [14] up to the yield Fig. for example. reaches a maximum and then decreases.com by CONCORDIA UNIV on 06/08/13 For personal use only.25 and e = −0. Pereira et al.14 MPa. Figure 10b shows the variation of parameter with suc- stress generated at the end of the drying stage. The SWRCs and the numerical ﬁtting for these curves are shown in volumetric strains were determined using eq.13 and e = −0. (b) numerical and experimental PSD. Because the increase in umetric response of the material during suction increase as the yield stress of a saturated sample generated during a drying shown in Fig. The considered values for the compression the numerical response switches from elastoplastic (eq. In this case. isotropic loading. The experimental of an isotropically loaded soil subjected to different suctions. Vesga 2008. [14]). purely elastic (eq. Zhang tion in the triaxial apparatus.2 drying path inverses to wetting. Also. mum and then reduces while suction keeps increasing.4 cm diameter oedometric cell to a maximum results reporting the strength of the material with suction. tion.2 MPa. Then it was one-dimensionally pre. it can be noted that when suction reaches a value of parameter for the different suctions were obtained from slightly greater than 1 MPa.6 for s = 0. For these last tests. Some of the 0.58 for s = 0. suction was and Zhou 2008). stress for the unsaturated samples corresponds well with the ex. and shear tests at constant suc. A vertical stress of 0. With this mixture. the ﬁnal yield stress is obtained clear elastic rebound (even if there is some scattering) indicating by adding the initial pre-consolidation stress of the soil in satu. 9. the matric stress reduces further for s = 0. Therefore.1 MPa and = 0. 1996. In tions is around 0. J. some constitutive Published by NRC Research Press . [8]) to index in loading and re-loading were e = −0.nrcresearchpress. that the effective stress reduces at some stage during the drying rated conditions to the increment of the yield stress during the process. (2003) in a the following parameters: e = −0.3 MPa. a slurry was prepared with a water content (2010) on different porous materials. both SWRCs obtained from the ﬁlter pa.04. there is some scattering for the sample tested at a suction of directly in the soil samples using two suction probes. and (d) volumetric behavior at different suctions (experimental data from Futai and Almeida 2005). tests included the GSD. [8] was used for the rest of the curve. the experimental behavior shows a stage is given by the quantity s. Escario and Jucá 1989. Geotech. Gan and Fredlund 1996. perimental results. as can be observed in Fig.

(c) volumetric response with suction. and 0. The ﬁtting of the SWRC not all soils show this behavior. However.nrcresearchpress. J. 11b. Results for soil mixture: (a) ﬁtting of SWRCs.1.025 MPa). where were obtained from Fig. Finally. Benatti et al.2 MPa. Vol. The values of parameter contents may show a continuous increase in strength with suction in wetting and drying are shown in Fig. Fig. 11b. contrary. and (e) volumetric response with mean net stress (experimental data from Cunningham et al. ranged between 0 and 300 kPa. Figure 10e shows the numer. 218 Can. The pre-consolidation stress for each test was obtained by add- appears completely at large suctions. 2013 Fig. compacted industrial coarse kaolin. resulting in the following pre-consolidation stresses: suctions on the axis of the mean net stress versus void ratio. for both the pre-consolidation stress and the overall volumetric Similar tests were conducted by Thu et al.1 MPa for suctions of 0. Vesga 2008. 2010). These results show good agreement parameter was obtained from Fig. the effect of suction on the strength of sandy soils dis. 0. Finally. pically loaded up to a net stress of 700 kPa. all samples were consolidated at an isotro.09. 10b. ing the matric stress s to the saturated pre-consolidation stress ical and experimental results for isotropic loading at different (0. 50. respectively.com by CONCORDIA UNIV on 06/08/13 For personal use only. J. and this case the materials were dried from slurry and because of that. 10. 2003). The phenomenon of collapse upon wetting has been one of the pic net stress of 10 kPa following a drying stage where suction major reasons to refute the suitability of Bishop's equation to Published by NRC Research Press . 0. In 0. Downloaded from www. 11c shows due to the presence of a great number of menisci of adsorbed the comparison between experimental and numerical results for water that do not disappear even at very large suctions. Geotech. All samples were compacted at the optimum water content and then saturated using back Discussion pressure. Can.15. Geotech.05. The values of parameter for each suction the pre-consolidation stress equals the matric stress s. soils with large clay in wetting and drying is shown in Fig. (d) matric stress s. (b) parameter . On the the isotropic loading tests performed at different suctions. Afterwards. models consider this reduction in the strength of soils with suc. 11a. the samples were isotro- tion (Toll and Ong 2005. 0.07. for example. 0. 0.1. (2007) on statically behavior of the material.

12 in the plane of effective stress versus suction. J. Results for coarse kaolin: (a) ﬁtting of SWRCs. the following relationship between eC and eS can be written according to eq. and ﬁnally the sample is loaded until yield is observed. The shape of the hardened LCYS can be determined in a way similar to the usual experimental procedure: departing from the previous yield surface a load is applied to produce a plastic defor- mation that hardens the yield surface. the initial yield surface is the one obtained after the ﬁrst drying of the sample (dotted line CSD in Fig. respectively. In this case. an initial elastic behavior is observed before the soil shows irreversible de- formations. the increment in the net stress needs to cross the LCYS to activate the elastoplastic behavior of the material. s0. 2007). At the beginning of the drying path. This increment in the effective in wetting and drying. the plastic void ratio change produced by a net ﬁnally a new drying cycle is applied. it follows a wetting path and In the same way. meaning that any increase in the effective stress produces a plastic volumetric strain. the soil is saturated and the value of equals 1 (refer to eq. Thus. (b) parameter the saturated condition is 0s0. The void ratio eS is obtained by following an unload- ing path from point C (where the effective stress is p0i ⫹ 20s0) to point S (where the effective stress is p0i ⫹ s ⫹ 0s0). the hardening of the LCYS (⌬p 0) at the effective stress axis (s = 0) is. In addition. 12. then. respectively. Can. Rojas and Chávez 219 Fig. path a new state of stresses is reached inside the elastic zone. [14] 共p0i ⫹ 20s0 兲 eC [18] ⫽ eS p0i ⫹ s ⫹ 0s0 The increment of plastic void ratio produced by loading from model the volumetric behavior of unsaturated soils. [7] and [14]. Subsequently. 2007). according to eqs. This result is conﬁrmed by the experimental results reported by different authors (see. Then it undergoes a drying path followed by a net stress increase (⌬p). LCYS in the same quantity: 0s0.nrcresearchpress. Based on the point C to point E (which represents an increment on the effective volumetric framework proposed in this paper. deﬁning a new point on the hardened yield surface. At this stage. the LCYS shows the same shape as the drying path.com by CONCORDIA UNIV on 06/08/13 p (1 ⫹ e)p [17] ⌬p 0 ⫽ ⌬ep ⫽ ⌬pv e(e ⫺ e) e(e ⫺ e) where ⌬ep and ⌬pv represent the plastic void ratio change and the plastic volumetric strain increment. it is possible to stress of ⌬p¯ ⫺ 0s0) is review the phenomenon of collapse upon wetting from the point of view of effective stresses. The yield surface for a nor. Therefore. Consider a soil that undergoes the stress path ABCEH shown in Fig. the LCYS tilts towards the right-hand side as it goes from the stress reached at the end of loading to the stress representing the hardening at the effective stress axis as shown in Fig. stress increase ⌬ps (which is equal to the effective stress increase) mally consolidated (NC) material is represented by a vertical line departing from point S is as shown in Fig. and (c) volumetric behavior (experimental stress produces plastic volumetric deformations that harden the data from Thu et al. Along the drying path. 12). At the end of the loading stage. Thu et al. [10]). Downloaded from www. Jotisankasa et al. for example. meaning that the initial slope of the drying path is 45° [20] ⌬ep ⫽ eS( ⫺ ) 共 ⌬ps p0i ⫹ s ⫹ 0s0 兲 as previously established. 11. a similar procedure is applied except that the same increment of the plastic deformation obtained during yielding should be ob- tained with a different combination of stresses. following an unload- For personal use only. If a ﬁnal suction. Geotech. the effective stress increases by the quantity ⌬(s). a wetting path can now cut the LCYS and the soil is in the condition to collapse. It is initially saturated and subjected to an isotro- [19] ⌬ep ⫽ eC( ⫺ ) 共 ⌬p ⫺ 0s0 p0i ⫹ 20s0 兲 pic stress p0i. At this stage. Let eC and eS be the void ratios at points C and S. then the increment of the effective stress starting from obtained: Published by NRC Research Press . Therefore. For the numerical case. Futai and Almeida 2005. 2007. ing. When the soil is loaded (path BE). 12. these different combinations of the state of stresses need to depart from the previous yield surface. is By equalizing the last two equations the following result is reached.

(2003)). the smaller the vertical net stress. see Benatti et al. 12. 2010). the corresponding value of ⌬ps can be obtained and the effective stresses deﬁning the LCYS for different values of suction can be plotted. slightly pre-consolidated material and thus the yield model represented in the mean net stress–suction plane as the surface is represented by a curved line departing from the pre. soil initially shows an elastic volumetric reduction and then This same result has been found by other researchers for different yields. 2003 and shown in Fig. If. Wheeler and Sivakumar (1995) performed a hardening produced by the wetting–drying cycle. Geotech. 12). a new drying cycle is applied (stress path in double-walled triaxial cells designed to accurately measure the HK). Following the elas. the yield surface tilts further to the right and reported by Rojas (2008b). This pre-consolidation stress is Another aspect that requires reviewing is the critical state lines given by the addition of the net stress increment (⌬p) plus the at different suctions. For personal use only. consolidation stress (dotted line IJ). 13. Volumetric behavior of Boom clay during wetting–drying [21] ⌬ps ⫽ p0 ⫹ 20s0 (⌬p ⫺ 0s0) cycles (modiﬁed after Romero et al. the soil behaves soils (for example. LC YS aer drying Sucon Inial LCYS B C E I LC YS aer collapse s0 K New drying-weng Drying path cycle S G s Can. The shape of the LCYS is sketched in Fig. Sun et al. This equiva- Boom clay compacted at different densities and for different ver. It was noted that the soil initially behaves elastically shows the void ratio at the critical state for samples tested at during the ﬁrst wetting. was predicted using the concept of equivalent stress (Rojas 2008a). although it intersects the effective stress axis with the same slope of 45° when the soil fully saturates. the series of triaxial tests on samples of unsaturated compacted net stress applied to the material only increases by the quantity ⌬p speswhite kaolin. This behavior corresponds to the experimental results reported These simulations showed that a unique failure surface can be by Romero et al. 50. then ⌬ps represents the hardening of the yield surface at the effective stress axis (⌬p0 in Fig. 12. hysteresis of the SWRC cannot be included. If s = 0 for the new state of stresses. the different suctions in the axis of the logarithm of the effective larger the elastic response. 2013 Fig. for example. Wang et al. but then yields volume change of the samples during the test. These results show that the critical void the wetting path crosses it earlier (see Fig. Notice that in such a case. The tests were conducted Fig. 12). When the soil wets after being loaded to point E. lent stress represents the effective stress in this paper. It is noteworthy that some of these details of the volu- saturation process. for the next wetting–drying cycles. Downloaded from www. By adopting different values of s. During the new drying cycle. the structure of the soil becomes that of a metric behavior of unsaturated soils cannot be captured by a saturated. J. 2007a). the ing the same slope as that of the virgin consolidation line (VCL). This occurs because when the mean stress. as observed search. In a previous re- again because the stress path crosses the yield surface. Note that this shape depends on the SWRC of the material through parameter . In contrast. 2002. Geotech. Figure 14 tical stresses. 220 Can. it follows a different path than that followed during the drying stage due to the hysteresis of the SWRC. at this point. Vol. Collapse upon wetting phenomenon. 13. the soil initially shows an elastic recovery.nrcresearchpress. the strength of unsaturated samples at different suctions in the same ﬁgure. The samples were prepared by static compac- and represents the ﬁnal position of the wetting cycle as shown in tion in a mold at a water content of 25%. This is in agreement with the experimental results reported during the collapse of soils (see. At the end of the elastically. J. These researchers obtained when results are plotted on the axes of the equivalent performed suction-controlled oedometric tests on samples of stress versus the deviator stress at the critical state.com by CONCORDIA UNIV on 06/08/13 Weng paths Collapse 0 A 450 D F H 45 J Eﬀecve stress Hardening by net stress p LC YS before collapse increase dependent on de Addional hardening due to drying-weng cycle 共 兲 p0i ⫹ s ⫹ 0s0 (1 ⫺ ) Fig. ratio for different suctions aligns in parallel straight lines show- tic behavior. The effective stress was obtained from the data previously net stress is large. Finally. Published by NRC Research Press . the soil collapses. the soil shows an initial elastic recovery before it collapses (wetting path EG). 12.

C. 2010. J.2003. and Vilar. and complex net Géotechnique. 2010.1. including those in saturated conditions. 38–46. A natural compression law for soils (an advance on e–log p=). 4. and Pinyol. and Taibi. Gens.-M. R.S. A. M. pp. Finally. study for tropical soil proﬁle using oedometric tests with controlled suction. [12]. Therefore. pp. D. Miguel. Canadian Geotechnical Journal.1680/geot..W. framework should be coupled with a reliable solid–porous model Cunningham. Canadian Geotechnical Journal.1139/t2012-054.1990. 33(3): 440–448.1680/geot.469.E... Vol. In Proceedings of the 12th International Conference of Soil Mechanics the PSD due to the volume change of the soil during shearing or and Foundation Engineering.. The measurement of pore pressure in the triaxial test. Journal of Agricultural Sciences.I. E.1061/(ASCE)1532-3641(2008)8:4(266). The authors would like to thank Silvia C. Rojas. for example. Unsaturated soil mechanics.123..3. of collapse for different loading conditions. 55: 1.1680/geot.G. Downloaded from www. Geotech.G.. 2002. The hysteresis effect in capillary properties and the mode of umetric behavior of saturated and unsaturated soils. More numerical and experimental com- parisons are required to fully prove this proposal. J. 3. chanics. P. Géotechnique. saprolitic soils. moisture distribution associated therewith. Géotechnique. G. during isotropic loading.R. pp. Stroet of the Engineer- and that this behavior is controlled by the effective stress as de. 29: 469–480.. D.29. 8: 266–273.B.2005. Shear strength characteristics of two creasing suction.1680/geot.R. and Josa. It has also been shown that the plots of the void English content in this document. Blight.. In contrast. International Journal of Geome- per is adequate to determine the value of parameters f s. Shrinkage during wetting of ﬁned-pored materials. F. J. The following conclusions can be drawn from this research: Futai.53. E. 2008. A.2. J. Sharma. An elasto-plastic model for the volumetric behavior of unsaturated soils. The relationship Conclusions of the unsaturated soil shear strength to the soil-water characteristic curve. V. 14. cycles. a phenomenon that has not been included Escario. single failure surface for soils tested at different suctions in wet.com by CONCORDIA UNIV on 06/08/13 needs some improvements to (i) include the progressive change of the PSD during loading that in turn affects the SWRCs and (ii) review the inﬂuence of the adsorbed water layer for the case of clays. [11]. K. For personal use only. Be. L.. N. ing Faculty at Universidad Autónoma de Queretaro for editing the ﬁned by eq. it represents a unifying framework for the vol. doi:10. 33(4): 595–609. R. Canadian A drawback to this approach is that the proposed elastoplastic Geotechnical Journal. Critical state for speswhite samples tested at different and Sw needed to quantify the volumetric response of unsatu- suctions (experimental data from Wheeler and Sivakumar 1995). covering aspects such as wetting–drying cycles. these results show that the proposed volumetric framework can explain the main aspects of the volumetric behav. Collapsibility ting or drying paths. A.2003. stress–suction paths. 193: 5301–5338. Casini. and Fredlund. Rojas and Chávez 221 u Fig. 20: 7. 1.40.1979. 40: 405–430. Fredlund. and Almeida.E. Elastoplastic constitutive models based on the effective stress principle intending to simulate the hydromechanical cou- pling phenomenon need to be coupled with a reliable solid– porous model capable of simulating the hydraulic behavior of the material... 1979. Canadian Geotechnical Journal.. 1989.T. 2. it Hoyos. show a References family of parallel lines with a slope equal to the compression Alonso.K. London. These comparisons require rous media. rated soils. doi:10. R. 2012. f u. index when represented in a semi-logarithmic plane. 1960. S.G. R.B. The use of the proposed volumetric equation along with the elastoplastic framework to simulate the volumetric behavior during isotropic loading of soils at different suctions results in a family of parallel lines showing a slope equal to the saturated compression index.. Gens. 205–209..55. 2008. Xing. and Jucá. 117–206. doi:10. 1996. Another aspect Mechanics and Foundation Engineering. 193–198.nrcresearchpress.. doi:10.M. 2003.. and Barbour. International Society of Soil suction increase and its inﬂuence on the SWRCs. unsaturated soil incorporating the effects of suction and degree of saturation creasing stiffness of the material with increasing suction on mechanical behaviour. eq. 1996. and Vaunat.. doi:10. and Arduino. A constitutive model for partially satu- rated soils.183. and Burland. 2003. Alonso. as well as those corresponding to the critical state of samples tested at different suctions. J. J. Dineen. An experimental investigation of the me- chanical behaviour of an unsaturated gneiss residual soil. 1990.1680/geot.D. such as the in.M.1139/t93-024. Ridley. Rojas 2008b) it has been Proceedings of the National Meeting of Soil Mechanics.. E.1139/ tic to elastoplastic volumetric behavior during wetting–drying t96-085-307. W. Acknowledgment ior of unsaturated soils both by net stress and suction increase. the strength and the volumetric behavior of materials.201. still Borja. doi:10. and switch from elas. 1. 287–296. A. In mean that Bishop's equation indeed represents the effective stress Proceedings of the Conference on Pore Pressure. A.A. According to the numerical and experimental comparisons. equation for unsaturated soils when parameter is deﬁned as in pp.E. S.. Fleureau. doi:10. The proposed framework for the volumetric deformation of 201–213.1139/t96-065. Géotechnique. 49(8): 954–960.F. the phenomenon Butterﬁeld. Haines. unsaturated soils can be greatly simpliﬁed. Vol.405. Strength and deformation of partly saturated in the above simulations is the effect of the progressive change of soils. Nevertheless. 1993. Implicit algorithm for modeling unsaturated can be said that the solid–porous model described in this pa. 53. M. Does this accord with the principle of effective stress? In Proceedings of the Fifth non is implicitly included and the constitutive relationships for International Conference on Unsaturated Soils. S. Cam clay plasticity. doi:10. Deformation induced by wetting: a simple model. doi:10. Rio de Janeiro. Géotechnique. unsaturated soils is capable of reproducing the main aspects of Galipoli. Special Volume.. soil response in three-invariant stress space.4.. In Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Unsaturated Soils. Gan. O. S. Butterworks. 2005. Kheirbek-Saoud. In addition. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanical Engineering.L. Benatti. 30(2): adsorbed water layer for the case of clays. Behavior of that needs to be reviewed in the model is the inﬂuence of the clayey soils on drying–wetting paths. J. Sociedad Mexicana shown that the effective stress as deﬁned in this paper produces a de Ingeniería Geotécnica.B. collapse upon wetting. Part V: A mathematical framework for three more experimental and numerical comparisons are required to phase deformation and strain localization analysis of partially saturated po- fully prove the proposed framework. this would Bishop. cause the effective stress is deﬁned as the stress controlling both Barcelona. Soemitro. 53: 123–135. doi:10. 1929.. M. R. Rodriguez. In in previous papers (see. The mechan- ical behaviour of a reconstituted unsaturated silty clay. A.-M. ratio during isotropic loading. M.M. Spain. 43–49. 53: able to simulate the distribution of water in the pores of the 183–194. material.3. the hydromechanical coupling phenome..M. rapid volumetric stability with in. pp. D. In such a case. The solid–porous model proposed in this paper Can. Published by NRC Research Press . Fredlund.

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