Arithmetic abilities of dream characters IJoDR

Lucid dream mathematics: An explorative online
study of arithmetic abilities of dream characters
Tadas Stumbrys1, Daniel Erlacher1, & Steffen Schmidt2
1
Heidelberg University, Germany
2
Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany

Summary. In dreams we usually interact with other dream characters that seem to talk and behave logically. Lucid
dreamers, who are aware that they are dreaming during the dream, can have deliberate conversations with their dream
characters and ask them to accomplish specific tasks. Previous studies have shown that dream characters can be cre-
ative and ingenious, but they seem to struggle with more logical tasks, such as doing arithmetic. The present pilot study
explored arithmetic abilities of dream characters in greater details. Twelve proficient lucid dreamers were instructed to
ask dream characters in their lucid dreams to do addition, subtraction, multiplication and division tasks. The findings
suggest that dream characters are not outstanding mathematicians: Only about a third of their answers were correct
and their arithmetic abilities do not surpass those of primary school children. Surprisingly, dream characters were more
successful with multiplication and division tasks than with addition and subtraction. Some gender differences were also
observed: Most successful were male dream characters in male participants’ dreams. Findings are discussed and rec-
ommendations are made for future studies, preferably conducted in a sleep laboratory, are provided.

Keywords: Lucid dreaming; Dream characters, Arithmetic; Dreaming

1. Introduction fore can hold specific conversations with dream characters
and ask them to accomplish various tasks. Interestingly, lu-
A dreamer is rarely alone in the dream space. In dreams we cid dreams usually have fewer dream characters and fewer
are usually talking and interacting with other dream char- friendly verbal interactions than non-lucid dreams (Gacken-
acters. These dream characters usually speak and behave bach, 1988).
logically, and act independently from our dreaming ego as Tholey (1989) conducted a study in which he addressed
if they had their own intensions and feelings. On average, in the question of what kind of consciousness and cognitive
each dream there seem to be about two to four other dream abilities dream characters possess; whether or not they
characters, excluding the dreamer (e.g., Kahn, Pace-Schott, have their own access to memory; and whether or not they
& Hobson, 2002; Kahn, Stickgold, Pace-Schott, & Hobson, are capable of creative thought. In his study, nine experi-
2000; Resnick, Stickgold, Rittenhouse, & Hobson, 1994). enced lucid dreamers were instructed to set certain tasks
About half of dream characters represent a named person for dream characters to accomplish in lucid dreams: (1) to
known to the dreamer, some dream characters may be iden- draw or write something; (2) to name a word unknown to the
tified by their role (e.g., policeman), and about 16% of them dreamer; (3) to find rhyming words; (4) to do arithmetic. Over
seem to be unknown to the dreamer (Kahn et al., 2000). The a period of several months, a total of 92 lucid dreams were
presence of dream characters almost always evokes emo- recorded. Dream characters were able to write and draw; to
tions (Kahn et al., 2002). While the question of what these rhyme; and even to say an unknown word to the dreamer.
characters in dreams are and what do they mean is an open However, somehow the dream characters struggled with
one, psychotherapists, such as those coming from Gestalt arithmetic. It was discovered that dream characters were
(e.g., Perls, 1971) or Jungian (e.g., Johnson, 1986) schools usually unable to solve the arithmetical problem when the
of thought, suggest that they are parts or projections of the answer exceeded 20. In a few cases when they were able
dreamer’s self system. Barrett (1995) speculates that dream to do that (e.g., five times five or six times six), the dream-
characters may even serve as prototypes for multiple per- er knew the correct result before the dream character an-
sonality alter egos. swered.
The presence of dream characters becomes extremely Tholey (1989) also found that “dream characters show
interesting in lucid dreams where a dreamer is aware of the themselves to be especially ingenious when it is a ques-
fact that he or she is dreaming (LaBerge, 1985), and there- tion of outwitting the dream ego” (p. 574). Dream charac-
ters seem to have an access to both waking memory and
previous dreams and, interestingly enough, when a dream
Corresponding address: character is asked whether it has its own consciousness,
Tadas Stumbrys, Heidelberg University, Institute of Sports and it could answer: “I am sure that I have a consciousness,
Sports Science, Im Neuenheimer Feld 700, 69120 Heidel- but I doubt if you have one, because you ask me such
berg, Germany. stupid questions!” (p. 574). Based on his findings, Tholey
Email: tadas.stumbrys@issw.uni-heidelberg.de concludes that, despite poor performance on arithmetic,
at least some dream characters are capable of remarkable
Submitted for publication: March 2011
cognitive achievements in other areas, and suggests that
Accepted for publication: April 2011
dream characters should be “taken as seriously as if they

International Journal of Dream Research Volume 4, No. 1 (2011) 35

1 (2011) .625. obtain units in frequency per month. 1 - reports by the participants. friendly minded dream character. Once in a lu- 2. with the mean age of 28. 1 → 0. Schredl. ing the task within a lucid dream. then from 18 to 42 years.de) about lucid dreaming provided by one character. did not know it. If the dream character agreed.3. 5 – several times hence.e.. the dreamer was to specify who it was. 5 . while “4x2” and “15/3” were character. either addition/subtraction in parallel with the dream character.042. i. 2. ficult arithmetic problems to solve.4. 6 → 6. No. 1 . Dream recall frequency was measured by a seven- Since this was an exploratory study. and then the dream report on the protocol sheet. the participant (1) addition/subtraction and (2) multiplication/division. It was not specified whether dream characters could use a pen and a piece of paper or a cal- Two sets of arithmetic tasks were used in the experiment: culator. which has on a descriptive level of the results and on the lucid dream a high retest reliability (r= . the participants had to enter this information characters to solve the two initial arithmetic operations. enquired whether or not knowledgeable-looking dream 4 → 1. 2 . “56-14” was giv. whose ages ranged with some calculations. the to create a metaphor for a specified situation. and en for the first set and “13x11” for the second. then the partici- of the authors.1. 7 . and ask if it could help There were three women and nine men. and remember the answers given by the dream (http://klartraum. 3 – twice or was used for statistical analysis. In order to obtain units of mornings per week.several times a week.0.about 2 to 3 times a month. 3 → 0. The average lucid once a year. e. The document contained characters to a more creative metaphor task seemed to sur. however. 3 . If so. Lucid dream arithmetic tasks multiplication/division).e.about 2 to 4 times a dreaming frequency was 4. etc.g. we explored arithmetic abilities should employ any mnemonic devices to aid in remember- of dream characters in greater detail. The participants reported that they recall dreams on av- an eight-point rating scale was used: 0 – never. they seem to have with M-Z were instructed to use multiplication and division some problems dealing with mathematical and logical operations.about once a week. or The study was conducted as a field experiment.. The lucid dreamers were instructed to perform the ex- 2. 4 . 6 → 4. After asking dream After that. Stumbrys and Daniels (2010) using the class means: 0 → 0. If these answers made sense.0. instructions for the experiment.6 lucid dreams per month.25.5. the participant was to give it two initial arithmetic problems The participants were recruited via a German internet page to solve. SPSS Statistics 17 software less than once a month.083. dream characters seemed to struggle and ployed in this study. Dream and lucid dream recall frequency mother. Procedure imental group of nine lucid dreamers and a control group of nine non-lucid dreamers had either to solve a logical task. The instructions for the experiment were dream character (such as a ‘guru’ or ‘guide’ figure) and sent either as an email attachment by the second author ask it to solve the task given. with 6 . the analyses focused point rating scale developed by Schredl (2002). 1 → 0. 6 – almost every morning.IJoDR Arithmetic abilities of dream characters had consciousness of their own” (p. participants could give the dream characters one or two ad.9 years.2. the participant For the addition/subtraction tasks. Participation in the study was voluntary and pant could ask the dream character one or two more dif- unpaid. (2) how long it took for or multiplication/division). three times a month. quency. All participants but one were frequent lucid dreamers. participants conducted the experiment by themselves in ers were further instructed to find a knowledgeable-looking a home setting. (3) whether or not the dream character was familiar to them.5. Quasi-randomisation was em- in both groups.85. Once the task had been completed.125. The participants whose last names underperform with the puzzles that required logical thinking. Par. Lucid dream. either addition/subtraction or 2. Method periment on a night during which they were confident they could successfully induce a lucid dream.05. No predictions were made.less than erage on 4.about once a month. the scale was recoded using the class means: 0 → 0. 2004): 0 – never. while the ones with the last name starting be creative and ingenious. wake himself or herself up. 3 → 0.6 ± 7..5. year. Participants could perform the experiment on several nights with several lucid On the protocol. was asked to thank the dream character for its help and ticipants were instructed to use only one set of operations. the participants were asked to indicate: (1) whether they ditional increasingly difficult arithmetic tasks to solve within knew the answer by heart. 7 → 18. and pass the answers provided by the participants themselves a protocol to record results. the participants were asked to report their dreams and different dream characters. a general introduction. In the present study.0. neighbour. Along with the answers.about once a week. For ten consecutive nights. started with the letters A-L had to use addition and subtrac- Both of these studies suggest that dream characters can tion operations. In order to the frequency equal to or higher than once per month.3 ± 2. Participants cid dream. or calculated it the same set of operations (i. famous actor. 575). Dreamers were to regular dream recall frequency and lucid dream recall fre- fill out a separate protocol sheet for each trial. used for the multiplication/division tasks.about once a month. Results 5 → 3. It was not specified whether the participants tasks. a dream character to provide the answer (in seconds). 3. two-tailed statistical tests were applied with α =. While the answers of dream or downloaded from the internet. the into an online form on the website. the scale was recoded In another exploratory study. but only within the set of two operations given (i. brother.0.6 mornings per week. The experiment ran and data was gathered from 13 March 2008 to 15 May 2008. 4 → 1. an exper. two initial operations of had to write down: first the answers given by the dream “3+4” and “18-6” were given.about once a year. 2 → 0. 2 . For measuring lucid dreaming frequency. in the 36 International Journal of Dream Research Volume 4.e.25. 2 → 0. 4 . characters in lucid dreams can help the dreamer with cre- ative problem solving. Upon awakening. the participants were advised to speak to any Twelve proficient lucid dreamers took part in the study. a week.0 ± 4. 5 → 2. As an example. 2.

6%) were they successful at asking dream characters the two initial arithmetic tasks provided by the researchers. “2x3”. only Thirteen answers (27. and 12 were incorrect calculation results! I [the dreamer] remember a fascinat. but then corrected itself was also present in another lucid dreamer’s dream report to “5”. There were three men and two women in the ‘addi- solve an arithmetic task. ters did not provide a valid answer. Five incorrect. and that the experiment is ones in the ‘addition/subtraction’ subgroup. then. “18-6”: In one case. in which a female dream character was asked to calculate while two times no plausible answer was given. three cases were not included in the analysis: two and “14+15+16”. Seven times they did 6 then 8 to “2x4”. while the other three participants provided some are not.1. Someone from the other end of the table correct answers compared to the addition and subtraction joins us and says that one could certainly talk about the tasks where 2 answers were correct. 32. and then does not answer a done. complete. personal property?’ They are silent. I am blown away by this idea and when the dreamer knew the correct answer by heart (8 cor- in this moment I am deeply connected with my whole rect answers. a dream character was asked to do a square [The dream character] shakes her head. culation results are therefore not objective logic. a similar “secret knowledge” theme character at first answered “8”. but. that any result is something very private? p=. 235. twice “15/5”. and one to “9x9”. Three other tasks given to dream dream characters. tasks? This would mean that there are no generally valid 10 incorrect answers) and those that looked unfamiliar (5 statements. female dream character asked “8+2”: Twelve times dream characters were requested to do divi- makes a slightly irritated face (as if I [the dreamer] want to sion operations. In one task “15/3” a dream Interestingly enough. Fifty times in total. as if I [the dream.1%). 42 In eight cases dream characters were requested to carry times a task was presented to an individual dream character out subtraction. everyone and someone alone can determine that? Cal- dition/subtraction) and eleven reports from seven partici. but says “Gray zone” answers were correct: three times to “15/3”. 10 incorrect answers) or was unaware of it (2 International Journal of Dream Research Volume 4. while in other case the tasks and an. operations. dream characters were asked to solve an arithmetic task. from dream characters.58. act instructions: Only in 10 out of 18 reports (55. a all from dream characters. However. In three oc. the initial task “2x4” was cases dream characters (three dream characters in reports used. root operation of 301. Notably. and one report each. Twice dream characters did not answer at all. but reported that she knew that The participants seemed to struggle to adhere to the ex- these answers were incorrect. I feel that I’m right.6%) were partially correct: In one case. Other addition tasks included “5+4”. “6x5”.7 vs. In nine cases (19. tion/subtraction’ subgroup and six men and one woman in One participant was not able to recall two exact answers the ‘multiplication/division’ subgroup. the original “3+4” task was used. Seven times the original “15/3” task was know something forbidden).012). two times to “15/5”. Three answers to the division tasks were incorrect. Eighteen dream family. Then she says. Again.722). “26-4”. In one case. and then an incorrect answer. “131/11” and “66/6”. This information pervades the whole scene. subsequently providing characters) an incorrect answer was given at first.6. three and two reports each. In eight cases. I want to deepen the conversation. 1 (2011) 37 . Five correct answer.7%) provided by dream characters one answer was correct (“30-5”). “6x6”. No. “8+2”. 3. er] had asked something very private. Twice dream characters ran away after being asked to p=. dream characters performed better with multi- ‘No. Arithmetical operations casions. was incorrect. Arithmetic abilities of dream characters IJoDR terminology of Snyder and Gackenbach (1988).145). they gave dream characters an operation from the Ten times dream characters were asked to perform addition different set that they were supposed to. but age differ. Seven an- on the protocol sheet. the second correct answer was provided (6 then 9 to “3x3”. t(10)=1. 7 then 6 to “2x3”). providing answers were given by dream characters: four of them to a second correct answer. from three different participants) initially said an incorrect “8x2”. in the dream report were different. I feel that they are all in agreement . “2+2”. There were no differences in ing thought: What if the people in a dream land assume arithmetic performance between those dream characters that everyone has his own personal results on computing that were familiar to the lucid dreamers (8 correct answers. a dream Dream characters were asked to perform multiplication character answered “8 or 9” to the “5+4” task. a dream character answered incorrect. “11x11” (twice). I am thrilled. Four answers were not answer at all. The lucid dreamers in the ‘multiplication/ Out of this silence. answers (10. I know that I have just learned some- division’ subgroup tended to be slightly younger than the thing important about myself. The answer. ‘So. There were no cases when dream “2x4”. “41+2”. and also “5/3”. I ask the dream character ‘You correct answers. but all pants were received for the second set of operations (multi. Other multiplication tasks used included “3x3”. In five cases. In one case a dream character did not swers indicated by a participant on the protocol sheet and provide a plausible answer. while five responses were were correct and 20 answers (42. 10 incorrect answers) (Fisher’s Exact Test: mean. it four. plication/division).only reports were received in total: nine lucid dreamers provided some are willing to share their findings with others. She is fully certain plication and division tasks producing 11 correct and 7 in- about this. and “30-5”. characters were “30-20”. Five times the original task “18-6” was giv- (19 dream characters in total) and five times to a group of en to dream characters.6%) were incorrect. (Fisher’s Exact Test: p=. while in four 16 times in total. I would never give the answer’. Three times (two different dream characters “corrected” themselves. dream charac. and “9x9”. and on four occasions no answer was received at “one cannot expect it” to a task “5/3”. Only one correct answer was given (“3+4”) times the task was present only in a dream report but not and one was partially correct (“8 or 9” to “5+4”). In another dream. and one time to “66/6”. Six number. The performance of dream characters was similar She nods in agreement. one of them also started to cry. Out of these 47 cases. Seven reports from five means each result to an arithmetic problem belongs to participants were received for the first set of operations (ad. subsequently corrected themselves. ences were not significant (means 25. swers were incorrect.

119). Dream characters in male participants’ dreams tion is that more complicated multiplication and division tended to give significantly more correct answers than in operations might be overlearned (e. Fisher’s exact test p = . Fennema. The present study also demonstrated that It is important to note that cognitive abilities of the par- 38 International Journal of Dream Research Volume 4. solving “5x5” or “6x6”).024). reported: three answers.54. There were no significant differences in estimated acters and the answers to the arithmetic tasks. “30. Considering the tasks such as “2+2” or “3+4”. “66/6”. metic performance: male dream characters in male partici- ties are no better than the ones of primary school pupils. just happened by chance. Notably. Genders of the participants and their dream char- p = . 1985.406). female dreams: 1 correct and 11 incor. re. and they even struggled with very simple arithmetic than dream characters of female dreamers. “9x9”. there were significant differ. while the other subgroup did characters in male dreams seemed to provide more correct multiplication and division. 1989) also belonged to the addition and subtraction group. 1989).1. However. whereas addition and subtraction operations are rect answers.” Female Female 0 5 Another dreamer. it complicated arithmetic problems. it is also likely that this answers than either male or female dream characters in fe. 1986. e. One obvi- presented in Table 1. Waggoner.g. in his initial experiments. characters: 2 correct and 11 incorrect). Another possible explana- spectively).g. task when the answer exceeded 20.5 and 5. No. In some cas- Since there were slight gender differences between the es. Only about a third of the dream characters’ answers were Dream characters of male dreamers also performed better correct. Gender effects ters were correct (tasks “66/6” and “15/3”).g. 7 incorrect answers) (Fisher’s Exact Test: Table 1.. etc. males perform better on mathematics tests than females do Tholey (1985). the total Female Male 1 6 seems to be “12” as long as I dream. however. tivated to hear a correct answer from a dream character. differences in arithmetical performance.019). in his later 1999). as one subgroup of participants carried Character’s Gender. t(20adjusted) = 1.2. It is funny as I [the dreamer] was thinking that dream characters are able to carry out more complicated the correct answer is “3”. found that not (Hyde. In some cases. but tic performance of dream characters are only indicative and in each case the dreamer knew the answer beforehand should be explored in future studies in greater detail. It is well known that dence of the potential of their calculating abilities. response times when the answers of dream characters were correct or incorrect (means 2. & Lamon. 1971).IJoDR Arithmetic abilities of dream characters correct answers. but not significant 2009) and one can speculate that with more complicated (Fisher’s exact test p = . ers’ data came from only two participants and both of them Other studies (Stumbrys & Daniels.g. However. For example. The trend was simple enough to be actively calculated. although this seems to be one of 60 dream characters was able to solve an arithmetic rather influenced by stereotypes (Spencer.. pants’ dreams were most successful with mental arithmetic. Due to a very small number of female participants in experiments it appeared that some dream characters can this study. the whole time the number “8” is as much as “10”. [the dream character] gets back quite quickly with the an- swer “5”. The results are tasks than with addition and subtraction tasks. needed to replicate the finding. should tasks lucid dreamers can be more curious and more mo- be interpreted very cautiously. and therefore further studies are male dreams (Fisher’s exact test: p = .43. A couple of participants reported that they were unaware of the right answers themselves. drawing some- thing. from multiplication female participants’ dreams (male dreams: 9 correct and 9 tables) and therefore just retrieved as arithmetic facts from incorrect answers. who asked his dream character (brother) Note. is plausible that dream characters would also reflect gender 5”.139). 1990). but in fact my own mental arith- Male Female 2 6 metic follows a dream logic: For me. Discussion creating a metaphor. From another point similar for the genders of dream characters as well (male of view. we carried out an additional analysis to see whether but calculated it in parallel with their dream character (e. or not there was some relation between the genders of the “9x9”). 1 (2011) . groups.g. Dream characters’ gender information was missing on to calculate “15/3”. Gender Answers Some participants also reported flaws in their own arith- metic abilities during lucid dreams. as the bulk of female dream. but this might be more of an exception rather than evi. Dreamer Dream character Correct Incorrect ticipant noted: Male Male 7 3 [“8+2”] should be “10”. Johnson. such gender differences in the observed arithme- overcome this “barrier” (e. calculations and perhaps even independently of a dreamer. dream char. female dream on the dreamer’s expectations (LaBerge. participants did not know the correct answer by heart. p = .The study yielded a surprising result: dream charac- participants and their dream characters and the correct and ters were more successful with multiplication and division incorrect answers to arithmetic problems. memory. & Quinn. Tholey. Perls. p = .050 and p = .. 2010. ous explanation might be the individual differences between ences among the four groups (Dreamer’s Gender x Dream the two subgroups.026. the content of lucid dreams seems to depend highly dream characters: 8 correct and 9 incorrect. These results. Male dream out addition and subtraction. one par. yet their dream charac- 3. view that dream characters are parts or projections of the acters were able to provide the correct answers to more dreamer’s self system (e. finding rhyming words... Steele. The findings of this study suggest that dream characters Study results also revealed gender differences in arith- are not outstanding mathematicians: Their arithmetic abili. χ2(3) = 9. such as 4. So in my head. showed that dream characters can demonstrate outstand- ing creative/cognitive abilities to complicated tasks. (Tholey.

e. “9x9”) might have been very familiar to the character. bilateral pa. preferably conducted in a sleep Secondly. such reliable techniques cal difficulties need to be addressed. addition and subtraction operations were given laboratory. lucid dreaming determined by more precise brain imaging 1985-86. cognitive abilities of the dreamer are retrieving the result from memory. lucid REM sleep is marked a month (Schredl & Erlacher. division were given to the others... which might also be required for arithmetical opera. 2009) difference that appeared between the two sets of tasks was and in this study nearly half of the participants (44. lateral limitation that always faces lucid dream research. Vazire. to control this ing REM sleep. Another dreamer. Thus. Although lucid dreamers do have an access to their appropriate randomisation. but rather are subjective ly calculated the answers. Ungerleider. mental network (see Ashcraft. Field re. a proper randomi- called that they were incorrect. Holzmann. Within a frontal areas also seem to be important for working memory small sample. lucid dreams. in which lucid dreams typically occur (La. and do not despite their remarkable creative abilities. Therefore. Berge.g. this ability seems to vary (Erlacher. and did not require specific arithmetic skills. 1988). However. tory Serial Additions Test (Gronwall. while computational tasks used in the study were simple enough the left frontal lobe is involved in exact calculations (De. comparative analyses extent replicates the findings of Tholey (1989) and is consis- show that data gathered via Internet methods is at least as tent with the findings of Stumbrys and Daniels (2010) that.. Small sample size. 2009). Keil. 2004).. is needed. only there is a greater capacity for mental arithmetic within lucid about one out of twenty people have lucid dreams at least than within nonlucid REM dreams. Snyder & Gackenbach. In or- plored in future studies (cf. Srivas. lucid dreamers and therefore stored as arithmetic facts in came to a bizarre conclusion that results to calculation tasks memory. The hori. “2x4”. it is not clear whether the waking memory. only about tions.5%) did a result of the personal differences between the two sub- not ask dream characters the exact arithmetic tasks given groups of lucid dreamers. 2004). there was no pect. Courtney. had repeated the experiment in several lucid dreams. Although most of the rietal lobes are involved in approximate calculations. their arithmetical abilities do not surpass those 2008). the findings of this exploratory study in- in a sleep laboratory where lucid dreams can also be veri. once a week (Schredl & Erlacher. & John. arithmetic and cognitive abilities of the partici- Brain imagining data suggest that in waking. ongoing lucid dreams. To ensure that dream Barrett (1992) also demonstrated that many lucid dreams characters are performing the calculation task and not just are not fully lucid. 2000). 2008). even one fraudulent participant can consider- (Cohen et al. while multiplication and characters’ performance and whether or not they are re- International Journal of Dream Research Volume 4. somehow struggle with the tasks that require more logical tava. Furthermore. some participants might not exactly adhere to them. Tuin. participant. it might be useful to employ some cognitive tasks and therefore seems to play a central role in number assessment tools in future studies. Cohen. & Levitan. it would be desirable to conduct further studies In conclusion.. one participant was not able to recall two a pitfall. improve their mental skills by practicing arithmetic tasks in cording to the instructions received via Internet. Notably. a the frontal and frontolateral regions (Voss. liably and consistently verified to induce lucid dreams. dream characters appear tainted by false responses (Gosling. is another son. One dreamer was even corrected by a dream “3+4”. but rather retrieved them from a personal ones belonging to individual dream characters.g. the dream characters might have not active- in dreams are not objective values. & Tsivkin. 1986). der to make lucid dreaming available to greater populations Since this was an exploratory study. & Haxby. 2011. and facilitate lucid dream research. several methodologi. Pace-Schott. However. and increased gamma in ones to be successfully carried out in a sleep laboratory. variable. 1999). that the abilities of dream characters might resemble the zontal segment of the bilateral intraparietal sulcus (HIPS) dreamers’ abilities and therefore vary across the partici- is the region that is systematically activated in all number pants. a learnable skill and although a number of various induction Further evidence about specific brain areas associated with techniques have been suggested (overviews: Gackenbach. to have experienced a lucid dream at least once. Price & Cohen. the study was must be established. if a sample is big enough. Although there are some preconceptions that online of primary school children. as in the present study. Dresler et al. metic operations should be used. 1988). characters tended to provide more correct answers after he sible. more uncommon arith- somehow impaired and differ from one dream to another. 1 (2011) 39 . it is possible to speculate that cent survey in a representative German sample shows. good as data gathered via traditional methods. Future studies. Spelke. suggesting a continuum of dream lucidity (Moss. should address gender influence on the dream to one subgroup of the participants. 1990). However. pants were not evaluated in this study. Although half of the population seems 1997). such as fMRI. some arithmetic tasks used in this study (e. Fourthly. Stanescu. following lucid dream logic. 1982). therefore. i. such as the Paced Audi- processing (Dehaene. No. One participant reported that he kept search lacks experimental control and while every effort was on doing the experiment and had an impression that dream made to keep the instructions as simple and clear as pos. Further. Dur. Pinel. thinking. & Wilson. it is possible haene. Firstly. Therefore. observed flaws in their own arithmetic abilities during their Thirdly. higher frequency of lucid dreaming is necessary. 2000). LaBerge. Future studies should avoid such to them. EEG data indicate that in comparison to one in five people regularly have lucid dreams at least once ordinary (nonlucid) REM sleep. conducted as an online field experiment in a home setting: It might also be possible that dream characters could The participants carried out the experiment themselves ac. none of them have been re- techniques. 2011). This study. Arithmetic abilities of dream characters IJoDR ticipants sometimes were not functioning as one would ex. and should be ex. metic tasks. ably distort the data. Instead. by increased beta-1 activity in both parietal regions (Holz. dicate that while dream characters are able to solve arith- fied by a series of eye movements (e. 1977). especially the inger. Erlacher & Schredl. Lucid dreaming is curs very infrequently in ordinary dreams (Hartmann. Thus. to some experiments might be less reliable. & Stickgold. 2006). these regions are relatively deactivated (Hob. for lucid dreaming studies. Or. But as a re- & Hobson. Thus. arithmetic oc. 1997. Molko. all four operations should be given to every exact answers provided by dream characters and just re. Two other lucid dreamers sation for each arithmetic operation should be employed.

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