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equation between two points, connected by a streamline, where the

conditions are known. For example, between the surface of a reservoir

and a pipe outlet.

The total head at point 0 must match with the total head at point 1,

adjusted for any increase in head due to pumps, losses due to pipe

friction and so-called "minor losses" due to entries, exits, fittings, etc.

Pump head developed is generally a function of the flow through the

system

Compressible Flow

Friction losses are a complex function of the system geometry, the fluid

properties and the flow rate in the system. By observation, the head

loss is roughly proportional to the square of the flow rate in most

engineering flows (fully developed, turbulent pipe flow). This

observation leads to the Darcy-Weisbach equation for head loss due to

friction

in the flow and is constant for fully turbulent flow. Thus, it is often

useful to estimate the relationship as the head being directly

proportional to the square of the flow rate to simplify calculations.

Reynolds Number is the fundamental dimensionless group in viscous flow.

Velocity times Length Scale divided by Kinematic Viscosity.

the scale of the flow,

represented by the pipe

diameter, D.

cause secondary flows that increase the pressure drop. Non-circular pipes

and ducts are generally treated by using the hydraulic diameter, in place of

the diameter and treating the pipe as if it were round

For laminar flow, the head loss is proportional to velocity rather than

velocity squared, thus the friction factor is inversely proportional to

velocity

Turbulent flow

the friction factor in round pipes. This correlation converges well in few

iterations. Convergence can be optimized by slight under-relaxation.

axes of friction factor and Reynolds number, combined with the f=64/Re

result from laminar flow. The plot below was produced in an Excel

spreadsheet

An explicit approximation

Obtain the allowable head loss from the Bernoulli equation, then start

by guessing a friction factor. (0.02 is a good guess if you have nothing

better.) Calculate the velocity from the Darcy-Weisbach equation. From this

velocity and the piping characteristics, calculate Reynolds Number, relative

roughness and thus friction factor.

Repeat the calculation with the new friction factor until sufficient

convergence is obtained.

Q = VA

"Minor Losses"

Although they often account for a major portion of the head loss,

especially in process piping, the additional losses due to entries and exits,

fittings and valves are traditionally referred to as minor losses. These losses

represent additional energy dissipation in the flow, usually caused by

secondary flows induced by curvature or recirculation. The minor losses are

any head loss present in addition to the head loss for the same length of

straight pipe.

Like pipe friction, these losses are roughly proportional to the square of

the flow rate. Defining K, the loss coefficient, by

. K is the sum of all of the loss coefficients in the length of pipe, each

contributing to the overall head loss

flow conditions

2

hE K E

V22 A2

1 hE K E

V1 V2 2

2 g A1 2g

o Head Loss due to Gradual

Expansion (Diffuser)

o Sudden Contraction

2

A 1 V22

Cc c hc 1

A2 Cc 2 g

V2

he K e

2g

o Entrance Losses

Head loss is a function of the ratio of the bend radius to the pipe

diameter (R/D)

V2

hb K b

2g

Velocity distribution returns to normal several pipe

diameters downstream

V2

hv K v

2g

The complex flow path through valves can result in high

head loss (of course, one of the purposes of a valve is to create

head loss when it is not fully open)

minor losses use

8Q 2 V2

hminor K hminor K

g 2 D 4 2g

Can be solved directly

0.25

f 2

5.74 4Q

log 3.7 D Re 0.9 Re

D

8 LQ 2

hf f

g 2 D 5

hl h f hminor

Iterative technique

0.25

f 2

8 LQ 2 5.74 4Q

hf f log 3.7 D Re 0.9 Re

g 2 D 5 D

8Q 2

hminor K

g 2 D 4

hl h f hminor

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