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v. 1.0, [2/7/2010]

Trigonometry – Solutions

2 sin x

1. A. tan 2x B. cot 2x C. tan x D. cot x E. secx

cos x sin x tan x

[2009F, A]

Sol: 2 sin x 2 sin x 2 sin x cos x sin 2x

tan 2x

cos x sin x tan x cos x sin x sin x / cos x cos2 x sin 2 x cos 2x

2. If sin cos 0.2 and sin 2 0.96 , find sin 3 cos3 . [2009S, 0.296]

Sol: sin 3 cos3 (sin cos )(sin 2 sin cos cos2 )

1

(sin cos )(1 sin cos ) (0.2)(1 sin 2 )

(0.2)(1 0.96 / 2) 0.296

2

tan A2 B

3. In ABC , AB 5 , BC 9 , AC 7 . Find the value of A B

. [2008F, 18 ]

tan 2

A B A B A B 1

tan 2 cos 2 sin 2 2 (sin A sin B) sin A sin B a b 9 7 1

Sol: .

tan A2 B sin A2 B cos A2B 12 (sin A sin B) sin A sin B a b 9 7 8

The second equality appeals to the product-to-sum formulas

sin u cosv 12 [sin(u v) sin(u v], and cosu sin v 12 [sin(u v) sin(u v)] . The

fourth equality is based on the Law of Sines, sina A sinb B sincC , which, simply put,

says that the proportion sin A : sin B : sin C is the same as a : b : c .

4. In ABC , AB AC and in DEF , DE DF . If AB is twice DE and D is

twice A , then the ratio of the area of ABC to the area of DEF is:

A. tan A B. 2 sec A C. csc2 A D. sec Atan A E. cot 2 A [2008F, B]

Sol: The area of DEF is 12 (DE) 2 sin D 12 ( 12 AB) 2 sin(2 A) 18 ( AB) 2 2 sin A cos A

cos A[ 12 ( AB) 2 sin A] , which is 12 cos A times the area of ABC . Thus the area of

1

2

ABC is 1/( 12 cos A) 2 sec A times the area of DEF .

5. In hexagon PQRSTU, all interior angles 120 . If PQ RS TU 50, and

QR ST UP 100, find the area of the triangle bounded by QT , RU ,

and PS to the nearest tenth. [2008F, 1082.5] C

Sol: The accompanying picture illustrates the situation at hand. All angles

are either 60 or 120 . RU CR CQ QR 50 100 150 . But Q P

X

RY RS 50 , and likewise ZU 50 , so YZ 50 . The area of the

equilateral triangle XYZ is thus R

1 2 1 2 3

U

2 (50) sin(60 ) 2 (50) 2 625 3 1082 .5 .

6. In ABC , AB AC 25 , BC 14 . The perpendicular

distances from a point P in the interior of ABC to each of A S T B

the three sides are equal. Find this distance. [2008S, 21

4 ] Y Z

Sol: P is the center of the inscribed circle of ABC and we want its radius

r . The area of ABC is the sum of the areas of ABP, BCP , CAP , i.e.

1

2 AB r

1

2 BC r

1

2 CA r

1

2 (25 25 14)r 32r . On the other hand, Heron’s

Page 1 of 4

c 8 . with s 2 (a b c) 2 (25 25 14) 32 .For AMATYC SML Math Competition Coaching Sessions v.e. 323] Sol: The pentagon is symmetric. Since YMT 90 and AMT 135 . Find s(s(1/ 6)) S (S (1/ 3)) . So 32r 168. Likewise MAY 45 . i. x 2 x 6 0. The sum of the solutions of arctan arctan arctan is x x 2 x 4 A. [2007S. With MT 10 and YT 20 . 11. To prove the claim. cos2 (arctanx) 2 2 sec (arctanx) 1 tan (arctanx) 1 x2 1 5 i. Likewise YCA has an area of 50 3 . arctan . b) . The answer follows. It follows that 1 tan tan 1 (1/ x)(1/(x 2)) x 2x 1 2x 2 4 .e. it follows that AMY 45 . this makes YTM a 30 . and an area of 1 2 (10)(10 3) 50 3 . AC MT 10 . E] 1 1 1 1 Sol: Denote arctan . The quadratic formula gives x 2 . a) . 2 8. Take the difference between the two equation and rewrite it to 2( x y) sin kx sin ky . and ( 8. [2006F. Thus the answer. let ( x. c) . ( x 2 ) 2 x 2 1 0 . y) be on both the graphs of f and f 1 . thus x 2 ( x 2 1) 1. and Y 150 . [2007S. Find the area of the pentagon to the nearest square unit.Laney College -. 8] Sol: We claim that the graph of this f and that of its inverse f 1 can only meet at points on the line y x . with MY 10 3 . 2 x 2x 1 x 4 Solve to get x 3. then tan . 1 D. 2 1 1 4 9. negative B. and so x y. thus 2 x y x y . so 2( x y) sin kx sin ky kx ky k x y x y . r 21 the area as 4 . 4] 2 Sol: x 2 1 1 1 . and x y sin ky . prime [2007S. gives 32(32 25)(32 25)(32 14) 168 . even C. 2 . Find the value of a b c . [2/7/2010] 1 1 Formula s(s a)(s b)(s c) . Thus a 4 . YT CY 20 . which implies 4( x 2 2x 1) (2x 2)(x 4) . The graph of the function f ( x) x sin kx ( k 1 ) intersects the graph of the function f 1 ( x) at (4. b 12 .90 special triangle. therefore x x 2 x x 2 tan tan 1/ x 1/(x 2) 2x 2 tan( ) 2 .0. then x can be expressed in the form a b . so Page 2 of 4 . If cos(arctan( x)) x ( x in radians). 3/2] Sol: Straightforward. [2006F. In pentagon AMTYC. 7. 1. tan . But 2 doesn’t work. Let s( x) sin( x) and S ( x) [s( x)]2 . Thus YTM and YCA both equals 1 2 (3 180 2 135 150 ) 60 . Then y x sin kx . 10.60 . A M 135 . Find a b . (12. greater than 5 E. So x 3 .

90 ] 1 1 Sol: Denote the three angles being summed by . If is the acute angle formed by the lines with equations y 2x 5 and y 1 3x . 5487] Sol: Draw a line segment from C perpendicular to MT . 75] Sol: SQP is a 30 . Find the area of the pentagon. . CY YT . Likewise compute cos M and cos L before summing the three. The trapezoid CYTM has an area of 12 (63 79)(63) 4473. reaching MT at D . 14. So they make acute angles and .45 . DCEF . Q . CD 63 . 12. If T is the point of intersection of the diagonals. respectively.0. 13. 45 . 1] Sol: The two lines have slopes 2 and 3 . S fall on a circle. and SQR is a 45 . FEGH are squares with A . MT 79 . If f ( x) cos x and g ( x) 2x . DM 79 63 16 . CY YT 63. B . G and H all disjoint points. [2006S. We get 1014 4473 5487 . 15. i. 2 7 8 18.e. 1 1 tan tan 3 2 and tan 1 . 7. Thus tan tan 2 3 tan( ) 1. Thus tan( ) 1 1 1. with the area of MAC ( AM )( AC) / 2 (39)(52)(2) 1014. 1. 3] Sol: Straightforward. As MY 10 3 . tan 3 . find m GAH m GDH m GFH to the nearest tenth of a degree.For AMATYC SML Math Competition Coaching Sessions v. find the measure in degrees of angle RTS . with QS being a diameter. It follows that P . [2005F.60 . 47 [2005F. [2006S. In the quadrilateral PQRS . therefore 1 tan tan 1 3 2 45 . 17. tan 2 . thus 45 . Find the exact value of (cos S cos M cos L) . The inscribed angle PRQ equals in measure the inscribed angle PSQ 30 . QR RS 2 . find f ( g (1)) g( f (1)) . . MT YT . D . If ABCD. such that tan 2 . PS 3 . [2006S. 32 ] m2 2 s 2 Sol: Use Cosine Law. and QS 2 . 1 tan tan 1 2 3 16. F . then CDM is a right triangle. Use the Pythagorean Theorem to get CM 65 . C . So 135 .5 ] Page 3 of 4 . with the positive x -axis. find tan . [2006S. Then AM : AC : CM 39 : 52 : 65 3 : 4 : 5 . s 2 m2 2 2m cos S to get cos S 2m 7 2 82 6 2 . 8. and so 90 . [2/7/2010] AMY is a 45 . E . thus MAC 90 . Find the sum of all solutions of cos x cot x cos x for which 0 x 2 . respectively. SML has sides of length 6. and AC 52 . [2006S. PQ 1 . R .45 . then tan 3 .90 special right triangle. 3. the area of AMY is 1 2 (10 3)(10 3) 150. AM 39 . In convex pentagon AMTYC.90 right triangle.Laney College -.90 special right triangle. The area of the pentagon is thus 50 3 50 3 150 323 . Thus RTS RQT TRQ 45 30 75 .

Page 4 of 4 . which should equal the sum of the area of ABC plus that of A B C minus the overlap area. Thus x 12 . and thus carries an area of 12 (3)(4) 12 (5)(158) 171 16 . A A and C is at (0. z tan [2005F. 1. One way to manage the situation is to draw a right triangle with one angle being t . In particular. how many of the following are true? 1 z2 1 cost 2z 2z t z . sin t 2 . 1 z2 20. and C(3. then the second and the third formula follow. AC is on the line y 43 x .0) . [2005F. B . Thus the overlap area is 1 1 171 21 2 (3)(4) 2 (3)(4) 16 16 . 54 .0) . B .4) . 19. 32 .Laney College -. If 0 t / 2 . 0 z 1.0. 14 . and cost . while C B is on the line 4 y 3x 5 .e. [2/7/2010] Sol: cosx 0 or cot x 1. attributed to Karl Weierstrass. If the triangle is rotated counterclockwise around the origin until C lies on the positive y -axis. C be the points that A . B(3. 4] 1 cost 1 z 1 z 2 Sol: This has to do with a well-known change of variable in calculus. Thus AC and C B meets at a point D whose x -coordinate satisfies 4 4 15 3x 3 x 5 . tan t 2 .For AMATYC SML Math Competition Coaching Sessions v. The 1 z fourth comes from the first by a half-angle formula for tan. the opposite side being 1 z 2 . 1 z2 The first comes from solving cost 2 for z 2 and then taking square root. i. and the hypotenuse being 1 z 2 . The union of right triangular regions ABC and A B C is the same as the union of abutting regions ABC and ADC . The adjacent side can be computed using the Pythagorean Theorem: (1 z 2 ) 2 (1 z 2 ) 2 4z 2 2z . 16 ] Sol: Let A . find the area of the intersection of the region bounded by the original triangle and the 21 region bounded by the rotated triangle. The answer follows. 5) . A triangle has vertices A(0. 8 . C go after the rotation.

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